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Sample records for niels ole bernsen

  1. Niels Hemmingsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    Præsentation af Niels Hemmingsen (1513-1600), hans biografi, forfatterskabet på ca. 100 skrifter og virke som professor i teologi ved Københavns universitet. Hans suspension i 1579 og forflyttelse til Roskilde skete efter pres fra kurfyrste August og hans hustru Anna,søster til Frederik d.2. Niel...

  2. A tribute to Niels Bohr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is organized around the contribution of A. Pais, 'Niels Bohr and the development of physics', presented at CERN on the occasion of a special colloquium in the honour of Niels Bohr. It gives a broad survey of Bohr's life, the revolution in physics created by his quantum theory and his attempts to influence the peaceful development of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  3. Niels Bohr and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The way of thinking and scientific style of Niels Bohr are discussed in connection with developments of his emotional and spiritual life. As shows the analysis of the works by N. Bohr, by his predecessors in contemporaries, he has produced an incomparable influence upon the development of quantum mechanics as a philosopher of physics. His struggle against nuclear weapons is dwelt upon

  4. weblog: http://www.kommunikationsforum.dk/Niels-Ole-Finnemann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2007-01-01

    ...men det er også et område, som mange mennesker ikke rigtig tør forholde sig til og nærmest fortrænger, både fordi de ligger under for IT profeternes demagogi, og fordi de selv føler sig fremmedgjorte overfor ny teknologi og nye medier. ...og IT-fremmedgørelsen Fremmedgørelsen over teknologi og...

  5. Oles Have

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2015-01-01

    Landskabsarkitekts Ole Mouritsens Have Tjørnegaard er fotograferet gennem et år af Stefan Darlan Boris. Fotografierne er ledsaget af teksten Vejrhaven.......Landskabsarkitekts Ole Mouritsens Have Tjørnegaard er fotograferet gennem et år af Stefan Darlan Boris. Fotografierne er ledsaget af teksten Vejrhaven....

  6. Niels Bohr and the Atomic Structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 10. Niels Bohr and the Atomic Structure. M Durga Prasad. General Article Volume 18 Issue 10 October 2013 pp 897-904. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/10/0897-0904 ...

  7. Address at the opening session of the Niels Bohr Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, F.

    1998-01-01

    In his address at the opening session of the Niels Bohr Symposium organized jointly by UNESCO and the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen in May 1998 in order to examine the latest developments in key fields of physics, the Director General of UNESCO presented the scientific work and the spirit of Niels Bohr, emphasizing the impact of his discoveries for new openings in science and in society in general

  8. Niels Bukh's gymnastics school in Denmark, 1912–1933

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Around 1916–1917 the Danish gymnastics pedagogue Niels Bukh (1880–1950) created, in an international sense, a revolutionary men's gymnastics, and in 1920 he established Denmark's and the world's first folk high school of physical education and sport. During the 1930s, Niels Bukh and his team...... emotion, which was a trademark of Bukh's achievements, too....

  9. Complementarity beyond physics Niels Bohr's parallels

    CERN Document Server

    Bala, Arun

    2017-01-01

    In this study Arun Bala examines the implications that Niels Bohr’s principle of complementarity holds for fields beyond physics. Bohr, one of the founding figures of modern quantum physics, argued that the principle of complementarity he proposed for understanding atomic processes has parallels in psychology, biology, and social science, as well as in Buddhist and Taoist thought. But Bohr failed to offer any explanation for why complementarity might extend beyond physics, and his claims have been widely rejected by scientists as empty speculation. Scientific scepticism has only been reinforced by the naïve enthusiasm of postmodern relativists and New Age intuitionists, who seize upon Bohr’s ideas to justify anti-realist and mystical positions. Arun Bala offers a detailed defence of Bohr’s claim that complementarity has far-reaching implications for the biological and social sciences, as well as for comparative philosophies of science, by explaining Bohr’s parallels as responses to the omnipresence...

  10. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  11. Niels Bohr. Physicist and philospher of the atomic era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Ernst Peter

    2012-01-01

    The physicist and Nobel-prize carrier Niels Bohr (1885-1962) changed by his research our view to the world. By his atomic model for the first time the stability of matter could be explained, but simultaneously the atomic physics and nuclear technique based on this made our world so dangerous as never before. In an impressive portrait Ernst Peter Fischer describes the life and action of this fascinating man, his great physical finding, as well as his political engagement.

  12. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  13. OLED panel with fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Levermore; Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala

    2014-09-16

    Embodiments may provide a first device that may comprise a substrate, a plurality of conductive bus lines disposed over the substrate, and a plurality of OLED circuit elements disposed on the substrate, where each of the OLED circuit elements comprises one and only one pixel electrically connected in series with a fuse. Each pixel may further comprise a first electrode, a second electrode, and an organic electroluminescent (EL) material disposed between the first and the second electrodes. The fuse of each of the plurality of OLED circuit elements may electrically connect each of the OLED circuit elements to at least one of the plurality of bus lines. Each of the plurality of bus lines may be electrically connected to a plurality of OLED circuit elements that are commonly addressable and at least two of the bus lines may be separately addressable.

  14. Review: Niels C. Taubert (2006). Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Groß, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Unter freier Software werden Programme verstanden, deren Lizenz, Nutzung, Vervielfältigung, Verbreitung und Veränderung frei zugänglich ist. Sie wird allseits gelobt und gilt gewöhnlich als Alternative zur käuflichen Software. Wie kann es zu einem solchen Phänomen in einer Zeit kommen, in der fast alles nur noch käuflich erwerbbar erscheint? Das Buch Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung von Niels C. TAUBERT setzt sich zum Ziel, Voraussetzungen und Bedingungen der freien S...

  15. 877 The Life and Work of Niels Bohr–A Brief Sketch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Sketch made by Niels Bohr in 1944 to illustrate the content of his debate with Einstein on the uncertainty principle at the 6th Solvay Conference in 1930. Niels Bohr (1885–1962). Sketch by Homi Bhabha. (Courtesy: TIFR, Bombay). Front Cover. 871. Science Smiles. Ayan Guha. 876. Back Cover. 948. Classics. Biology and ...

  16. The Niels Bohr Archive is Placing Collections on its Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaserud, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Papers, which is of a manageable size, which had just been released by the family for research use, and which we deemed of special interest. In addition, we applied to make a good part of our film and sound collections similarly available, both because some of this material was in a deteriorating...... physical state and because we wanted to try out several kinds of collections. The scanning of the documents could begin at once as an in-house project, which at the same time made it possible to continue paying salaries to our permanent staff. The scanning had two purposes. First, we made high...... our small staff was also occupied with other matters, such as completing the Niels Bohr Collected Works. In early 2007 my old friend Joe Anderson at the AIP Center for History of Physics alerted us to the existence of the archives software Archon, freely available from the University of Illinois...

  17. Light Management in Flexible OLEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Geurts, C.G.C.; Helgers, P.L.J.; Levell, J.W.; Wilson, J.S.; MacKerron, D.

    2014-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising lighting technology. In particular OLEDs fabricated on plastic foils are believed to hold the future. These planar devices are subject to various optical losses, which requires sophisticated light management solutions. Flexible OLEDs on plastic

  18. OLED Lighting Products: Capabilities, Challenges, Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, F. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    A report that focuses on the potential for architectural OLED lighting – describing currently available OLED products as well as promised improvements, and addressing the technology and market hurdles that have thus far prevented wider use of OLEDs.

  19. Ole Bornedals Danmarksfilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2016-01-01

    Dette kapitel sætter fokus på den politiske reception af 1864. Først viser jeg, hvordan der er en række interessante ligheder mellem Poul Henningensens Danmark (1935) og 1864; ligheder, der ikke som sådan er indholdsmæssige ud over, at både Danmark og 1864 tematiserer nogle nationale synspunkter;...... diskuterer jeg, hvorvidt Ole Bornedal selv kan siges at være kulturradikal, og i så fald på hvilken måde....

  20. Paul Ehrenfest, Niels Bohr, and Albert Einstein: Colleagues and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Martin J.

    2010-09-01

    In May 1918 Paul Ehrenfest received a monograph from Niels Bohr in which Bohr had used Ehrenfest's adiabatic principle as an essential assumption for understanding atomic structure. Ehrenfest responded by inviting Bohr, whom he had never met, to give a talk at a meeting in Leiden in late April 1919, which Bohr accepted; he lived with Ehrenfest, his mathematician wife Tatyana, and their young family for two weeks. Albert Einstein was unable to attend this meeting, but in October 1919 he visited his old friend Ehrenfest and his family in Leiden, where Ehrenfest told him how much he had enjoyed and profited from Bohr's visit. Einstein first met Bohr when Bohr gave a lecture in Berlin at the end of April 1920, and the two immediately proclaimed unbounded admiration for each other as physicists and as human beings. Ehrenfest hoped that he and they would meet at the Third Solvay Conference in Brussels in early April 1921, but his hope was unfulfilled. Einstein, the only physicist from Germany who was invited to it in this bitter postwar atmosphere, decided instead to accompany Chaim Weizmann on a trip to the United States to help raise money for the new Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Bohr became so overworked with the planning and construction of his new Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen that he could only draft the first part of his Solvay report and ask Ehrenfest to present it, which Ehrenfest agreed to do following the presentation of his own report. After recovering his strength, Bohr invited Ehrenfest to give a lecture in Copenhagen that fall, and Ehrenfest, battling his deep-seated self-doubts, spent three weeks in Copenhagen in December 1921 accompanied by his daughter Tanya and her future husband, the two Ehrenfests staying with the Bohrs in their apartment in Bohr's new Institute for Theoretical Physics. Immediately after leaving Copenhagen, Ehrenfest wrote to Einstein, telling him once again that Bohr was a prodigious physicist, and again

  1. Maailmaparandajad / Ole Ry, Susanne Andres

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ry, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Terapeudid Ole Ry ja Susanne Andres räägivad Dr David Berceli loodud TRE (Tension & Trauma Releasing Exercises) harjutuste kasutamise kogemusest erinevate psüühiliste traumade ja pingetega klientide tervise parandamisel

  2. OLED with improved light outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Sun, Yiru

    2016-11-29

    An OLED may include regions of a material having a refractive index less than that of the substrate, or of the organic region, allowing for emitted light in a waveguide mode to be extracted into air. These regions can be placed adjacent to the emissive regions of an OLED in a direction parallel to the electrodes. The substrate may also be given a nonstandard shape to further improve the conversion of waveguide mode and/or glass mode light to air mode. The outcoupling efficiency of such a device may be up to two to three times the efficiency of a standard OLED. Methods for fabricating such a transparent or top-emitting OLED is also provided.

  3. The language of Orthodox theology & quantum mechanics: St Gregory Palamas and Niels Bohr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide an analytical framework that would enable the comparison of the ways of using words and language in the cases of St. Gregory Palamas and Niels Bohr. The main motivation will be to explore Christos Yannaras’ point about the opportunity of using quantum m...

  4. Niels Hemmingsen and the Construction of a Seventeenth-Century Protestant Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Mattias Skat

    2017-01-01

    Danish reformer Niels Hemmingsen was a Lutheran, but owing to Pan-Protestant sentiments that became apparent in his later writings, he found an appreciative audience in non-Lutheran Western Europe during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. This article argues that the early modern...... (Saxony), and exporting it to the West (The Low Countries, England)....

  5. Adjusted NIEL calculations for estimating proton-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ming; Wang Rong; Liu Yunhong; Hu Wentao; Feng Zhao; Han Zhaolei

    2011-01-01

    The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) values for protons in solar cells should be modified by taking into account the distribution of the Bragg damage peak in the active region to calculate the corresponding displacement damage dose. In this paper, based upon a thin target approximation, a new approach is presented to modify NIEL values for protons on a GaAs sub-cell. Adjusted NIEL values can be used to estimate the degradation induced by protons on GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells.

  6. OLED microdisplays technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Templier, François

    2014-01-01

    Microdisplays are displays requiring optical magnification and OLEDs (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) are self-emitting displays where each pixel includes a LED made of organic material, in general composed of small-molecule organic material. This title reviews in detail how OLED microdisplays are made as well as how they are used. All aspects from theory to application will be addressed: basic principles, display design, display fabrication, operation and performances, present and future applications. The book will be useful to anyone interested in this rapidly developing field, such as studen

  7. Ole Rømer-Observatoriet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Hans; Knudsen, Ole J.; Nielsen, Axel V.

    Siden 1911 har der ligget et astronomisk observatorium i Århus. Ole Rømer-Observatoriet blev efter en turbulent start drevet af kommunen, indtil Aarhus Universitet i 1956 overtog det. Der har fra tid til anden været både kontroverser og trusler om lukning, men arbejdet på observatoriet har også...... fortæller museumsinspektør Hans Buhl og planetarieleder Ole J. Knudsen, begge Steno Museet, de næste 95 år af observatoriets brogede historie....

  8. Atoms, metaphors and paradoxes Niels Bohr and the construction of a new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Petruccioli, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    This book gives a detailed study of the development and the interpretation given to Niels Bohr's Principle of Correspondence. It also describes the role that this principle played in guiding Bohr's research over the critical period from 1920 to 1927. Quantum mechanics, developed in the 1920s and 1930s by Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Schrödinger and Dirac, represents one of the most profound turning points in science. This theory required a wholly new kind of physics in which many of the principles, concepts and models representing reality, that had formed the basis of classical physics since Galileo and Newton, had to be abandoned. This book re-examines the birth of quantum mechanics, in particular examining the development of crucial and original insights of Niels Bohr.

  9. Niels Bohr and the philosophy of physics twenty-first century perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Folse, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Niels Bohr and Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives examines the philosophical views, influences and legacy of the Nobel Prize physicist and philosophical spokesman of the quantum revolution, Niels Bohr. The sixteen contributions in this collection by some of the best contemporary philosophers and physicists writing on Bohr's philosophy today all carefully distinguish his subtle and unique interpretation of quantum mechanics from views often imputed to him under the banner of the “Copenhagen Interpretation.” With respect to philosophical influences on Bohr's outlook, the contributors analyse prominent similarities between his viewpoint and Kantian ways of thinking, the views of the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding, and themes characteristic of American pragmatism. In recognizing the importance of Bohr's epistemological naturalism they examine his defence of the indispensability of classical concepts from a variety of different perspectives. This collection shows us that Bohr's int...

  10. Ole Søndergaards skriftdesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen Erik

    2005-01-01

    tegnestue, egen tegnestue i Helsingør. Tegnestuen har i årenes løb stået for mangfoldige grafiske arbejder, hvor Ole Søndergaard ofte selv har tegnet de anvendte logo- og skilteskrifter. Skriftfamilien FF Signa, der fra 2000 er blevet udgivet på FontShop International, er Søndergaards første komplette...

  11. Audiovisual work- Interview with Niels Thygesen, Copenhagen 9 April 2016 (Lenght 02:35:03)

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu, Elena; Klein, Francois; Thygesen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the research project "Pierre Werner and Europe, Interview with Niels Thygesen, Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen from 1964 to 1969 and from 1971 to 2004, Adviser to the Governor of the Danmarks Nationalbank from 1973 to 1983 and a member of the Delors Committee set up to study and propose practical steps that would lead to the gradual establishment of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) from 1988 to 1989, carried out by the Centre Virtuel de la Connaissa...

  12. Il danese tranquillo Niels Bohr, un fisico e il suo tempo, 1885-1962

    CERN Document Server

    Pais, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    Niels Bohr è una figura centrale nella fisica del Novecento, padre fondatore della teoria atomica e della meccanica quantistica. La storia della sua vita, ricca e piena anche sul piano affettivo e personale, non può dunque ridursi a un resoconto dei suoi successi scientifici e Pais, allievo e poi amico di Bohr, ne è perfettamente consapevole. Il libro si sviluppa su vari piani: capitoli strettamente biografici o storico-scientifici si alternano a discussioni sulle idee di Bohr in campo politico e filosofico, sui suoi rapporti con Einstein, sul suo ruolo nei drammatici anni della guerra e su molti altri aspetti della vicenda umana.

  13. Solid State Lighting OLED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of OLED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  14. Niels W. Gade, Violin Concerto op. 56: Supplementary comments to the critical edition, NWGW I:12 (2003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    2012-01-01

    NIELS W. GADE VIOLIN CONCERTO OP. 56: SUPPLEMENTARY COMMENTS TO THE CRITICAL EDITION In 2003 the critical edition of Niels W. Gade’s Violin Concerto in D minor Op. 56 was published in the edition Niels W. Gade Works, Series I: Orchestral Works / Volume 12, edited by Peder Kaj Pedersen. The scores...... from Gade to the German violinist Carl Louis Bahrgeer (1831-1902), kept in the Lippische Landesbibliotek, Detmold, and not included in the edition of letters to and from Gade (edited by Inger Sørensen 2008). The Åstrand-recording of the concerto was published together with two other Danish violin...... century. The paper concludes in suggesting that scholarly editions can contribute to musical life, both as a practical means of making the music available in up to date, practical musical text and as a means of adding perspective to the music, showing in this case, that Gade’s violin concerto ‘might...

  15. Ole Rømers mange talenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt Møller

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen giver en oversigt over Ole Rømers videnskabelige liv som astronom, fysiker og matematiker samt hans betydning som kongelig embedsmand.......Artiklen giver en oversigt over Ole Rømers videnskabelige liv som astronom, fysiker og matematiker samt hans betydning som kongelig embedsmand....

  16. Dialoogi ei ole : aga ikkagi / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    lmunud ka kogumikus: Kaks Eestit : artiklite, ettekannete ja analüüside kogumik / toim. Raivo Vetik. Tln. : TPÜ Kirjastus, 2002, lk. 66. Vastukaja: Vahtre, Lauri. Dialoogi ei ole jah. Aga võiks olla // Eesti Ekspress (2002) 16. mai, lk. B14. Eesti tulevik ei saa välja kasvada intellektuaalide ja poliitikute dialoogist, sest poliitikud ei ole sellest huvitatud

  17. Methodological comparison on OLED and OLET fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Sarveshvaran; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Wahid, Mohamad Halim Abd; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Shahimin, Mukhzeer Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    The potential of organic semiconductor devices for light generation is demonstrated by the commercialization of display technologies based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). In OLED, organic materials play the role of light emission once the current is passed through. However, OLED do have major drawbacks whereby it suffers from photon loss and exciton quenching. Organic light emitting transistor (OLET) emerged as the new technology to compensate the efficiency and brightness loss encountered in OLED. The structure has combinational capability to switch the electronic signal such as the field effect transistor (FET) as well as light generation. The aim of this study is to methodologically compare and contrast fabrication process and evaluate feasibility of both organic light emitting diode (OLED) and organic light emitting transistor (OLET). The proposed light emitting layer in this study is poly [2-methoxy-5- (2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV).

  18. Gravity and absolute space. The works of Niels Bjern (1865-1909)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlankov, Dmitrii E

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 20 years before Einstein, Niels Bjern developed a theory of gravity based on what is today known as the equivalence principle - but naturally without invoking the ideas of the special relativity theory. Bjern predicted almost all the effects considered to be tests for general relativity, his calculation formulas for the effects being identical to those of general relativity. An advocate of the absolute space concept, Bjern described the gravitational field in terms of the field of absolute velocities of an inertial space. He only used the ideas of general relativity to describe the precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The reason why Bjern's predictions and those of general relativity are identical is discussed. (from the history of physics)

  19. Niels Stensen: a 17th century scientist with a modern view of brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2013-07-01

    In 1665 the Danish scholar Niels Stensen (1638-1686) reached Paris, where he pronounced a discourse on brain anatomy that was to orient neuroscientists for years to come. In his lecture, Stensen rejected ancient speculations about animal spirits and criticized René Descartes and his followers who, despite a poor knowledge of brain anatomy, elaborated complex models to explain the multifaceted function of what he considered the principal organ of the human mind. He advocated the need for studying the brain through a comparative, developmental and pathological convergent approach and called for appropriate dissection methods and accurate illustrations. His own careful anatomical studies permitted him to precisely depict many brain structures. After pioneering works in paleontology and geology, he devoted himself to theology. In 1677 Stensen converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and, while working relentlessly as a bishop and apostolic vicar in Northern Europe, he died in self-imposed poverty at age 48.

  20. Love, literature and the quantum atom Niels Bohr's 1913 trilogy revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aaserud, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Niels Bohr ranks with Einstein among the physicists of the 20th century. He rose to this status through his invention of the quantum theory of the atom and his leadership in its defense and development. He also ranks with Einstein in his humanism and his sense of responsibility to his science and the society that enabled him to create it. Our book presents unpublished excerpts from extensive correspondence between Bohr and his immediate family, and uses it to describe and analyze the psychological and cultural background to his invention. The book also contains a reprinting of the three papers of 1913 - the "Trilogy" - in which Bohr worked out the provisional basis of a quantum theory of the atom.

  1. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  2. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  3. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  4. Integrated Plastic Substrates for OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2015-08-01

    OLED lighting has immense potential as aesthetically pleasing, energy-efficient general illumination. Unlike other light sources, such as incandescents, fluorescents, and inorganic LEDs, OLEDs naturally emit over a large-area surface. They are glare free, do not need to be shaded, and are cool to the touch, requiring no heatsink. The best efficiencies and lifetimes reported are on par with or better than current forms of illumination. However, the cost for OLED lighting remains high – so much so that these products are not market competitive and there is very low consumer demand. We believe that flexible, plastic-based devices will highlight the advantages of aesthetically-pleasing OLED lighting systems while paving the way for lowering both materials and manufacturing costs. These flexible devices require new development in substrate and support technology, which was the focus of the work reported here. The project team, led by Sinovia Technologies, has developed integrated plastic substrates to serve as supports for flexible OLED lighting. The substrates created in this project would enable large-area, flexible devices and are specified to perform three functions. They include a barrier to protect the OLED from moisture and oxygen-related degradation, a smooth, highly conductive transparent electrode to enable large-area device operation, and a light scattering layer to improve emission efficiency. Through the course of this project, integrated substrates were fabricated, characterized, evaluated for manufacturing feasibility and cost, and used in white OLED demonstrations to test their impact on flexible OLED lighting. Our integrated substrates meet or exceed the DOE specifications for barrier performance in water vapor and oxygen transport rates, as well as the transparency and conductivity of the anode film. We find that these integrated substrates can be manufactured in a completely roll-to-roll, high throughput process and have developed and demonstrated

  5. CALiPER Report 24: OLED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, F. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J. L. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report documents an initial investigation of OLED luminaires and summarizes the key features of those products. In addition to photometric testing of four commercial products in independent laboratories, PNNL examined many of the products through teardown testing (disassemblies to identify parts and functionality) in PNNL laboratories. Results of these tests as well as results of stress testing of several OLED luminaires at RTI International have been included.

  6. Niels Bohr as philosopher of experiment: Does decoherence theory challenge Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Kristian; Schlosshauer, Maximilian

    2015-02-01

    Niels Bohr's doctrine of the primacy of "classical concepts" is arguably his most criticized and misunderstood view. We present a new, careful historical analysis that makes clear that Bohr's doctrine was primarily an epistemological thesis, derived from his understanding of the functional role of experiment. A hitherto largely overlooked disagreement between Bohr and Heisenberg about the movability of the "cut" between measuring apparatus and observed quantum system supports the view that, for Bohr, such a cut did not originate in dynamical (ontological) considerations, but rather in functional (epistemological) considerations. As such, both the motivation and the target of Bohr's doctrine of classical concepts are of a fundamentally different nature than what is understood as the dynamical problem of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our analysis suggests that, contrary to claims often found in the literature, Bohr's doctrine is not, and cannot be, at odds with proposed solutions to the dynamical problem of the quantum-classical transition that were pursued by several of Bohr's followers and culminated in the development of decoherence theory.

  7. Des images et des paraboles : Niels Bohr et le discours descriptif en physique quantique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Yocaris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude porte sur l’importance accordée aux images verbales dans le discours descriptif utilisé en mécanique quantique, et plus précisément sur la conception de la langue scientifique qui est celle de Niels Bohr (1885-1962 : en raison d’une série de considérations techniques, méthodologiques et épistémologiques que nous nous proposons d’analyser in extenso, Bohr considère effectivement que les phénomènes subatomiques ne peuvent être évoqués directement (sans référence au contexte observationnel, par le biais d’un langage dénotatif non figural, mais uniquement de manière métaphorique, détournée, ce qui réduit à ses yeux le discours descriptif des physiciens à « des images et des paraboles ». En examinant les textes de Bohr à la lumière d’un certain nombre de travaux épistémologiques, de commentaires et d’expérimentations auxquels ils ont donné lieu ultérieurement, nous nous proposons de décrire les implications conceptuelles d’une telle prise de position, qui constitue une vraie révolution sur le plan philosophique.

  8. Niels Bohr on the wave function and the classical/quantum divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that Niels Bohr insisted on the necessity of classical concepts in the account of quantum phenomena. But there is little consensus concerning his reasons, and what he exactly meant by this. In this paper, I re-examine Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, and argue that the necessity of the classical can be seen as part of his response to the measurement problem. More generally, I attempt to clarify Bohr's view on the classical/quantum divide, arguing that the relation between the two theories is that of mutual dependence. An important element in this clarification consists in distinguishing Bohr's idea of the wave function as symbolic from both a purely epistemic and an ontological interpretation. Together with new evidence concerning Bohr's conception of the wave function collapse, this sets his interpretation apart from both standard versions of the Copenhagen interpretation, and from some of the reconstructions of his view found in the literature. I conclude with a few remarks on how Bohr's ideas make much sense also when modern developments in quantum gravity and early universe cosmology are taken into account.

  9. Contribution of NIEL for Gain Degradation (β in Si8+ Ion Irradiated Silicon Power Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Dinesh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL has been found useful for characterizing displacement damage defects in materials and devices. When NPN power transistors (2N6688 manufactured by BEL, India are exposed for 110 MeV Si8+ ion irradiation in the fluence range 5 x 109 to 1 x 1013 ions cm-2 at room temperature (300 K and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K cause functional failure due to surface and bulk defects. The output collector characteristics are studied as a function of total ionizing dose (TID and total displacement damage dose (Dd obtained using TRIM Monte Carlo code. It is observed that the shift in the output saturation voltage is considerably less for heavy ion irradiation compared to lighter ions like lithium ion irradiation. The gain of the transistor degrades with ion irradiation. Base reverse biased leakage current (BRBLC increases with increase in ion fluence. The observed results are almost independent of the irradiation temperature. These studies help to improve the device fabrication technology to make Radiation Hard Devices for advanced applications.

  10. Types of organic light-emitting diode (OLED)

    OpenAIRE

    Askari Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) consists of several semiconducting organic layers sandwiched between two electrodes, at least one of them being transparent. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. OLEDs are made by placing thin films of organic materials between two conductors. When electrical current is applied, a bright light is emitted. The OLED ...

  11. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  12. El pabellón Niels Bohr. Tradición Danesa y Modernidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen García Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La casa de invitados de Niels Bohr fue el primer edificio del arquitecto danés Vilhelm Wohlert (1920-2007. Arraigado a la tradición danesa, representa una renovación basada en la absorción de influencias extranjeras: la arquitectura americana y la tradición japonesa. La caja de madera tiene el carácter sensible de un organismo vivo, siempre cambiante según las variaciones de luz del día o temperatura. Puertas plegables y contraventanas generan extensiones de las habitaciones. Cuando se abren, crean una prolongación del espacio interior, que se extiende a la naturaleza circundante, y se expande hacia el espacio exterior, permitiendo su movilización. Se establece una arquitectura de flujos. Protagoniza un ejemplo de la modernidad como refinamiento en la técnica de los límites y la idea de que la arquitectura no es un objeto material, sino el espacio generado en su interior. Podría ser visto como un ikebana; “el arte del espacio”, donde se produce una circulación de aire entre sus componentes; algo vivo que expresa la tercera dimensión, el equilibrio asimétrico, un interés por la materia, su textura y efecto emocional que emana. Hay armonía y equilibrio, que transmiten serenidad y belleza; un encuentro con la naturaleza; un mundo de relaciones amable al ser humano.

  13. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  14. Los manicomios españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Rodríguez Lafora

    2011-01-01

    El atraso que el aislamiento europeo y el misoneísmo de las pasadas generaciones de españoles imprimieron en muchas de nuestras instituciones (universidades, escuelas, instituciones penitenciarias, centros de beneficencia, etcétera), se manifiesta como en ninguna otra en los manicomios, refugios de desgraciados a quienes la sociedad quiere olvidar o ignorar

  15. Maal ei ole surnud / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2001-01-01

    Põhjamaade ja Baltikumi I maalibiennaal Rootsis Väsbys. Biennaali Rootsi-poolne kuraator ja kujundaja Ricardo Donoso, Eesti komplekti koostas Mare Pedanik. Eksponeeritud on Tiit Pääsukese, Ado Lille, Andres Toltsi, Kaido Ole, Jaan Elkeni tööd. Näituse ülevaade, eraldi peatutud Leedu ja Läti kunstnikel

  16. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  17. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A.; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function (“gamma correction”). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications. PMID:24155345

  18. The bishop and anatomist Niels Stensen (1638-1686) and his contributions to our early understanding of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Mortazavi, Martin M; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-01-01

    Many physicians are familiar with the parotid duct and the Danish physician/anatomist's name associated with it. However, most are unaware of Niels Stensen's life and his significant contributions to the early study of the brain. This physician of the Medici court was clearly ahead of his time and found errors in the publications of such giants as Varolius and Willis. The present review discusses the life of this seventeenth century anatomist, physician, and priest/bishop and highlights his contributions to neuroanatomy.

  19. OLED lightings with optical feedback for luminance difference compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D K; Park, J W

    2013-01-01

    We have employed an optical feedback circuit in an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) lighting system to ensure uniform light output across large-area OLED lighting tiles. In a lighting system with several large-area OLED lighting tiles involved, the panel aging (luminance decrease) may appear differently in each, resulting in a falling-off in lighting quality. To tackle this, light output from each OLED tile is monitored by the optical feedback circuit that consists of a photodetector, I–V converter, 10-bit analogue–digital converter (ADC), and comparator. A photodetector mounted on a glass side generates a feedback signal (current) by detecting side-emitting OLED light. To monitor bottom-emitting output light by detecting side-emitting OLED light, a mapping table between the ADC value and the luminance of bottom emission has been established. If the ADC value is lower or higher than the reference one corresponding to the target luminance of OLED tiles, a micro controller unit adjusts the pulse width modulation used for the control of the power supplied to OLED tiles in such a way that the ADC value obtained from optical feedback is the same as the reference one. As a result, the target luminance of each individual OLED tile is kept unchanged. With the optical feedback circuit included in the lighting system, we have observed less than 2% difference in relative intensity of neighboring OLED tiles. (paper)

  20. OLES : Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquetin, Sandrine; Beaufil, Xavier; Chaffard, Véronique; Juen, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    One of the major scientific challenges in the 21st century is to improve our understanding on the evolution of the water cycle associated with the climate variability. Main issues concern the prediction of i) the water resource and the access to drinkable water and ii) the extreme events, both droughts and floods. Observation strategies covering a wide range of space and time scales must therefore be set up, while continuing advanced research on the involved mechanisms and developing integrated modeling approaches. Within this general context, the present work relies on three natural observatories, located in West Africa, Worldwide Glaciers, and in Mediterranean region, managed at LTHE (Laboratoire d'étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement; Grenoble, France) and gathered at OSUG (Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers; Grenoble, France). Their scientific objectives aim at improving the understanding of the water cycle functioning, providing water and mass balances for multi-scale basin sizes, and evaluating the hydrological impacts of the evolving climate. Water cycle variables (precipitation; soil moisture; snow cover; discharge; air and river temperatures; suspended material; etc …) are observed and recorded in 3 different databases built under specific technical constraints linked to the respective partnerships of the natural observatories. Each of the observatories has its own database, and modeling tools were developed separately leading to important efforts often duplicated. Therefore, there was a need to build an integrated cyber-infrastructure to provide access to data, and to shared tools and models that enable the understanding of the water cycle. This is the project called OLES, for Online Laboratory for Environmental Sciences. Focused on the understanding of the water cycle under contrasted climates, OLES facilitates the work of the scientific community and then, help interactions between the research community and water agencies or

  1. Multifunction Habitat Workstation/OLED Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Shawn; Salazar, George; Schmidt, Oron

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a general outline of both a multifunction habitat workstation and the research put into an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) device. It first covers the tests that the OLED device will go through to become flight ready along with reasoning. Guidelines for building an apparatus to house the display and its components are given next, with the build of such following. The three tests the OLED goes through are presented (EMI, Thermal/Vac, Radiation) along with the data recovered. The second project of a multifunction workstation is then discussed in the same pattern. Reasoning for building such a workstation with telepresence in mind is offered. Build guidelines are presented first, with the build timeline following. Building the workstation will then be shown in great detail along with accompanying photos. Once the workstation has been discussed, the versatility of its functions are given. The paper concludes with future views and concepts that can added when the time or technology presents itself.

  2. Triarylborane-Based Materials for OLED Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Turkoglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary research on organic fluorescent molecules has been attracting great interest owing to their potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. In recent years, electron deficient systems have been increasingly incorporated into fluorescent materials. Triarylboranes with the empty p orbital of their boron centres are electron deficient and can be used as strong electron acceptors in conjugated organic fluorescent materials. Moreover, their applications in optoelectronic devices, energy harvesting materials and anion sensing, due to their natural Lewis acidity and remarkable solid-state fluorescence properties, have also been investigated. Furthermore, fluorescent triarylborane-based materials have been commonly utilized as emitters and electron transporters in organic light emitting diode (OLED applications. In this review, triarylborane-based small molecules and polymers will be surveyed, covering their structure-property relationships, intramolecular charge transfer properties and solid-state fluorescence quantum yields as functional emissive materials in OLEDs. Also, the importance of the boron atom in triarylborane compounds is emphasized to address the key issues of both fluorescent emitters and their host materials for the construction of high-performance OLEDs.

  3. A Novel Lighting OLED Panel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel OLED (organic light emitting diode lighting panel, which uses a special layout design, can reduce the photolithography cycles and process costs and is more reliable. It only needs two steps of photolithography cycles, which include an ITO (InSnO compound transparent oxide pattern and insulator pattern. There is no need for the metal bus pattern of the ordinary design. The OLED device structure is a type of red–green–blue (RGB-stacked emitting layer that has a good color index and greater adjustability, which improves the performance of the device. This novel design has the same equipment and material requirement compared to the ordinary design, and it is very beneficial in terms of high volume and low-cost production. It uses a hyper driving method because the entire OLED lighting panel is divided into many sub-emitting units; if one of the sub-emitting units is burned out, it has no effect on the adjacent sub-emitting unit, so the reliability is markedly better than the ordinary design.

  4. Manufacturing Process for OLED Integrated Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Cheng-Hung [Vitro Flat Glass LLC, Cheswick, PA (United States). Glass Technology Center

    2017-03-31

    The main objective of this project was to develop a low-cost integrated substrate for rigid OLED solid-state lighting produced at a manufacturing scale. The integrated substrates could include combinations of soda lime glass substrate, light extraction layer, and an anode layer (i.e., Transparent Conductive Oxide, TCO). Over the 3+ year course of the project, the scope of work was revised to focus on the development of a glass substrates with an internal light extraction (IEL) layer. A manufacturing-scale float glass on-line particle embedding process capable of producing an IEL glass substrate having a thickness of less than 1.7mm and an area larger than 500mm x 400mm was demonstrated. Substrates measuring 470mm x 370mm were used in the OLED manufacturing process for fabricating OLED lighting panels in single pixel devices as large as 120.5mm x 120.5mm. The measured light extraction efficiency (calculated as external quantum efficiency, EQE) for on-line produced IEL samples (>50%) met the project’s initial goal.

  5. Gewaltenteilung im Rechsstaat und europäische Geschichte. 3 : Vorträge am Staatsgerichtshof und am Historischen Seminar der Universität Tartu (Dorpat)/Estland / Ingo von Münch, Niels von Redecker ; Forum Academicum Inter Nationes ; Roela Uemõisa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Münch, Ingo von

    1998-01-01

    Sisaldab: Die Gewaltenteilung im Rechtstaat = Võimude lahususe printsiip õigusriigis / Ingo von Münch ; Can we have a European history / Niels von Redecker ; The Ostpolitik of Willy Brandt / Niels von Redecker

  6. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    OpenAIRE

    Kardel, Troels; Maquet, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  7. Anatomy of a reindeer dissected in Copenhagen in 1672 by Niels Stensen as reported by Thomas Bartholin. I. Introduction by Troels Kardel. II. Translation by Paul Maquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Kardel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A report by Professor Thomas Bartholin on the dissection of a reindeer performed in 1672 by his former student Niels Stensen as Royal Anatomist in Copenhagen is presented in English translation with biographical introduction and bibliographical notes. The report is most likely the first of its kind being an early contribution to comparative anatomy.

  8. Povl Ole Fanger's impact ten years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2017-01-01

    This paper pays tribute to Povl Ole Fanger, the late professor at the Technical University of Denmark. His scientific studies, focused on the main parameters affecting indoor environmental quality, have inspired (and still inspire) professional design engineers and academic researchers on human...... after his death, this paper is a memorial of his research in the field of thermal comfort and some aspects of indoor air quality. Only the original papers of this Danish scientist will be discussed. The analysis of each single topic of his research and of its impact on past and present research would...

  9. Mina ei ole Albert Trapeezh / Illimar Paul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paul, Illimar, 1945-

    2000-01-01

    1975. a. trükkisid V. Järmut, J. Ollik ja I. Paul suuri bussipileteid, mis olid näitusel "Harku 75". I. Pauli nime ei ole näituse "Harku 75" osavõtjate loetelus kataloogis "Harku 1975-95" ega "Lühikeses Eesti kunsti ajaloos". Kataloogi tiitellehel oleval grupifotol on I. Pauli mustaks värvitud figuur. Käesolevat illustreeriv väljapanek on näitusel "Déj̉ vu" Tallinna Kunstihoones

  10. Ole Feldbæk havde begreb om dansk identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Den netop afdøde historiker Ole Feldbæk skrev indsigtsfuldt om ændringer i nationalforståelse i 1700-tallet......Den netop afdøde historiker Ole Feldbæk skrev indsigtsfuldt om ændringer i nationalforståelse i 1700-tallet...

  11. Kaido Ole seintel ja kaante vahel / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kunstnik Kaido Ole (sünd. 1963) eluloolisi andmeid, looming. Eesti Kunstiakadeemia andis välja kataloogi "Ole", toimetaja Eero Epner. Kunstinäitus "Jonas & Kaido" koos Jonas Gasiunasega Vilniuse Vartai galeriis. Näitus "Hümn" Vaal galeriis

  12. Lock-in thermography of OLEDs through cover glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lovera, T.; Van der Tempel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many photovoltaic cells and OLEDs are covered by cover glass or foil to protect the device against oxygen and moisture. The cover glassor foil is semitransparent for infrared radiation and conducts the heat and blurs lock-in thermograms. In lock-in thermograms of OLEDs with cover glass short

  13. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  14. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O 2 -based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (∼9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (∼ 1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O 2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O 2 concentration, which indicates that O 2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O 2 :dye collisional quenching rate due to microheterogeneity. Effect of Ti

  15. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yuankun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O2-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point (~9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time (~1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O2 or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O2 concentration, which indicates that O2 is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O2:dye collisional quenching

  16. OLED Display For Real Time Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or services like petrol pumps. Itll also display information like incoming calls or received messages. All this information will be obtained through a Smartphone connected via Bluetooth. Also the car mileage can be monitored with help of fuel sensor as the consumption of fuel is directly related to it. Abnormalities if detected will be immediately notified in the glasses. Also the angle of the tilt angle sensor can be defined and set by the user according to his needs. Also the main idea of using OLED glasses is that it is organic thereby helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is quite slim. Therefore it can be easily mounted on the specs without making it heavy. Also they higher level of flexibility and have low power drain and energy consumption

  17. EDITORIAL: Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics Flexible OLEDs and organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Joo; Han, Min-Koo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-03-01

    Following the great discovery of the electrically conducting polymer, doped polyacetylene, which was honorably recognized in 2000 with the Nobel Prize in chemistry, conjugated molecules, i.e. organic semiconductors, have become an attractive class of active elements for various electronic or opto-electronic applications. Significant effort has been made in both academia and industry to investigate π-conjugated molecules for their unique electrical or opto-electrical properties over the last three decades. The discovery of electroluminescence in conjugated small molecules in 1982 and in polymers in 1989 was a major breakthrough, bringing those molecules to commercial applications within reach for the first time in (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and field-effect transistors (OFETs). Nowadays, we use OLED displays in everyday life in mobile devices. The potential of these devices, which have been fabricated with conjugated molecules, lies in the possibility to combine the advantages of solution processability, chemical tunability and material strength of polymers with the typical properties of plastics, to realize low-cost, large-area electronic devices on flexible substrates by solution deposition and direct-write graphic art printing techniques. The articles in the flexible OLEDs and organic electronics special issue in Semiconductor Science and Technology deal with a diversity of topics and effectively reflect the current status of research from all over the world on various organic electronic devices, including OLEDs, OPVs, and OFETs. Firstly, S Park et al describe the recent progress in thin-film encapsulation techniques for flexible AM-OLED and large-area OLED lightings, and their applications are discussed by J-W Park et al. Flexible active-matrix OLEDs on plastics require stable and flexible thin-film transistors processed at low temperature. Metal oxide thin-film transistors are proposed

  18. Highly efficient phosphorescent, TADF, and fluorescent OLEDs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Joo; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Shin, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    High efficiency OLEDs based on phosphorescent, thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) and fluorescent emitters will be presented. We will show that EQEs over 60% is achievable if OLEDs are fabricated using organic semiconductors with the refractive indices of 1.5 and fully horizontal emitting dipoles without any extra light extracting structure. We will also show that reverse intersystem crossing RISC rate plays an important role to reduce the efficiency roll-off in efficient TADF and fluorescent OLEDs and a couple to methods will be presented to increase the RISC rate in the devices.

  19. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Shin, D C; Park, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for lighting applications. We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction (power loss), and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings. The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed

  20. OLED displays in a ground-mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.; Lorimer, S.

    2008-04-01

    OLED technology has matured sufficiently to consider it a realistic candidate for military display applications. Manufacturing sources are transitioning from an early developer to a business focused and often rationalised supply base that already has a sustainable business model. New commercial products, with a growing list of applications are slowly swelling the list of available OLED display components that can be considered for military requirements. This paper describes an exploratory application of OLED technology to the Towed Artillery Digitisation (TAD) programme. The Gunners Display function in this system endures the most difficult environment available in Army programmes. By replicating the Gunners Display, we have confirmed that OLED technology is compatible with and technically almost ready for rugged military applications using newly available commercial sources.

  1. White Top-Emitting OLEDs on Metal Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This work focusses on the development of top-emitting white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which can be fabricated on metal substrates. Bottom-emitting OLEDs have been studied intensively over the years and show promising perspectives for future commercial applications in general lighting. The development of top-emitting devices has fallen behind despite the opportunities to produce these devices also on low-cost opaque substrates. This is due to the challenges of top-light-emission c...

  2. Seniorforsker Ole Hertel udnævnt til adjungeret professor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2009-01-01

    Sektionsleder og seniorforsker Ole Hertel, Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) ved Aarhus Universitet, er udnævnt til adjungeret professor ved Institut for Miljø, Samfund og Rumlig Forandring på Roskilde Universitet.......Sektionsleder og seniorforsker Ole Hertel, Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) ved Aarhus Universitet, er udnævnt til adjungeret professor ved Institut for Miljø, Samfund og Rumlig Forandring på Roskilde Universitet....

  3. Ole Rømer som enevældens administrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    En gennemgang af Ole Rømers liv med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og hans deltagelse eller mangel på samme i det politiske spil.......En gennemgang af Ole Rømers liv med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og hans deltagelse eller mangel på samme i det politiske spil....

  4. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Optical Parameters (OP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by UV-Vis has demonstrated that the Quartz/ITO/PEDOT/PANI-X1 layer does not have displacement of absorption for wavelengths greaters after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Thus, the spectral irradiance of the OLED informed the irradiance of 100 W/m2, and this result, compared with the standard Light Emitting Diode (LED, has indicated that the OLED has higher irradiance. After 1000 hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.

  5. de los hoteles españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Claver Cortés

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hoteles necesitan cada vez más información para su correcta gestión y para maximizar su desempeño o éxito empresarial. De esta forma, en este estudio se analizan una serie de variables estratégicas clave que influyen directamente sobre el desempeño hotelero. Estas variables son el tamaño, el tipo de gestión y la categoría de los hoteles. En este trabajo, empleando la teoría de los grupos estratégicos, se han agrupado los hoteles españoles de entre 3 a 5 estrellas en función de cada una de estas variables estratégicas con el objetivo de determinar si influyen significativamente sobre el desempeño hotelero y en qué sentido. Entre los resultados que se han obtenido destacan el hecho de que a mayor tamaño y categoría, mayor es el desempeño que alcanzan los hoteles. Así mismo, los hoteles que pertenecen a cadenas alcanzan niveles de desempeño mayores que los independientes. Por lo tanto, de esta investigación se deducen importantes implicaciones para la dirección hotelera.

  6. Review: Niels C. Taubert (2006. Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung [Productive Anarchy? Networks of Open Source Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Groß

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is software designed to allow anyone to use and make changes in the software. This practice often renders the product superior to more centralized models such as those used in commercial software companies. How is such a phenomenon possible in a time where nothing seems to be acquirable save by purchase? Niels C. TAUBERT's book Productive Anarchy? Networks of Open Source Software Development aims at a sociological understanding of the prerequisites and conditions for the success of open source software. One of the conclusions of TAUBERT's book is that the process of open software development needs to be understood as adaptive and experimental. A continuous feedback between the context of production and the context of application is the basis for robust and successful software production. One of the surprising results of the book is that the most important requirement for this feedback process is a set of norms—neutrality, communism, disinterestedness, and universalism—norms that Robert MERTON associated with academic science in the 1940s. If TAUBERT is right that these norms are to be found outside the world of institutional science in open source software development projects today, then his case study can be seen as an indicator for a new form of knowledge production in the 21st century, where the social relevance and responsibility of a research process are keys to successful innovation. With this book, which deserves a wide readership, TAUBERT makes an important contribution to our understanding of the successful organization of technology development. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701109

  7. Optical characterization of OLED emitter properties by radiation pattern analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaemmich, Michael

    2011-09-08

    Researches in both, academia and industry are investigating optical loss channels in OLED layered systems by means of optical simulation tools in order to derive promising concepts for a further enhancement of the overall device performance. Besides other factors, the prospects of success of such optimization strategies rely severely on the credibility of the optical input data. The present thesis provides a guideline to measure the active optical properties of OLED emitter materials in situ by radiation pattern analyses. Reliable and widely applicable methods are introduced to determine the internal electroluminescence spectrum, the profile of the emission zone, the dipole emitter orientation, and the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of emissive materials from the optical far field emission of OLEDs in electrical operation. The proposed characterization procedures are applied to sets of OLEDs containing both, fluorescent polymeric materials as well as phosphorescent small-molecular emitters, respectively. On the one hand, quite expected results are obtained. On the other hand, several novel and truly surprising results are found. Most importantly, this thesis contains the first report of a non-isotropic, mainly parallel emitter orientation in a phosphorescent small-molecular guest-host system (Ir(MDQ)2(acac) in a-NPD). Due to the latter result, emitter orientation based optimization of phosphorescent OLEDs seems to be within reach. Since parallel dipoles emit preferably into air, the utilization of smart emissive materials with advantageous molecular orientation is capable to boost the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs by 50%. Materials design, the influence of the matrix material and the substrate, as well as film deposition conditions are just a few parameters that need to be studied further in order to exploit the huge potential of the dipole emitter orientation in phosphorescent OLEDs.

  8. On the lighting design aspect of OLED lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Peter Y.

    2010-02-01

    One of the most promising market segments to mainstream OLED lighting is the Commercial and Institutional Segment. It account for 40% of the entire lighting market. 75% of all the fluorescent luminaires are sold into this market segment. In order to meet the future lighting energy allowances, it is recommended that OLED efficacy be designed to around 70+ lumens/watt initially and gradually increases to 100 lumens per watt and perhaps ultimately to 140 lumens per watt. Luminous Exitance of an OLED can be designed to 6400 - 8000 lumens per square meter (approximately 2000 - 2500 candelas per square meter). This level of performance will enable OLED to participate in most of the lighting applications found in commercial and institutional market segment. As for lifetime of an OLED, an initial lifetime of around 20,000 hours at L70 is reasonable. The performance will move toward the target of around 50,000 hours of effective operating life at L85. Proper lighting design with daylight harvesting and other means can be very helpful in accomplishing this target.

  9. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  10. Materials and architectures for efficient harvesting of singlet and triplet excitons for white light emitting OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Mark E; Forrest, Stephen

    2015-02-03

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  11. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  12. Design of OLED gamma correction system based on the LUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yonghang; Yun, Lijun; Shi, Junsheng; Chen, Zaiqing; Li, Qiong

    2011-11-01

    Gamma correction is an important processing in reproduce images information realizing of video source. In order to improve the image sharpness of the OLED micro-display, a Gamma correction system was established to compensate for the gray scale distortion of the micro-display which is caused by the difference between the optical and electrical characteristic property. Based on the North OLEiD Company's 0.5 inch OLED, We proposed a Gamma correction system to converts 8 bits input signal into 9 bits displayed on the OLED. It used Microchip as the MCU and the master of the I2C serial bus, Development of the hardware system measurement verified the correction of VGA and CVBS video input and the picture quality also apparently improved.

  13. OLED Luminaire with Panel Integrated Drivers and Advanced Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Michael [Acuity Brands Lighting, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Spindler, Jeff [OLEDWorks, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-01-31

    For this DOE award, Acuity Brands Lighting developed a novel OLED luminaire system featuring panel-integrated drivers at each individual OLED panel. The luminaire has a base station that receives user commands and performs AC/DC conversion. A power line communication (PLC) protocol is used to provide both power and digital control to each panel. A 66-panel CanvisTM luminaire using state-of-art OLED panels based on this system was successfully constructed. This is a first demonstration of such a luminaire architecture. It is also the first known implementation of this number of independently addressable nodes with a PLC protocol. This luminaire system architecture has added benefits in the flexibility of using multiple panel vendors for a given product, forward compatibility with future panels, and reduced luminaire wiring complexity and assembly time.

  14. Danish Post‐Secondary Students Use Public Libraries for Study Purposes. A review of: Pors, Niels Ole. “The Public Library and Students’ Information Needs.” New Library World 107.1226/12272 (2006: 275‐85.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether and how Danish university and higher education students use public libraries for studypurposes.Design – Online survey.Setting – Post‐secondary programs in Denmark.Subjects – 1,575 students in university‐level programs or other higher education programs (vocational three‐to‐four‐year programs in Denmark.Methods – A sample of students was drawn from the national database of students by selecting every student born on the 15th of every month (approximately 4,900 students. A letter describing the study and with an invitation to fill out an online questionnaire was sent to all students in the sample. There were 1,694 valid responses (approximately 35% response rate. Students following short vocational programs were deemed to be under‐represented and these subjects were omitted from the analysis of this report,which reflects the response of 1,575 students. The online questionnaire gathered demographic details (gender, age, educational institution, study topic, study year, geographical location, access to the Internet, etc. and used 110 questions or statements to gather information about student information‐seeking behaviour related to study purposes. These included use of the physical library and satisfaction with services, use of search engines, awareness and use of library Web‐based services, study behaviour, and participation in information literacy activities. Main results – For the purposes of this study, “academic library is used as a generic term covering university libraries, research libraries, educational libraries and all other kind of libraries outside the field of public libraries” (p. 278. The survey results confirmed many of the previous international reports of student information‐seeking behaviour: 85% of students use the academic library for study purposes; fewer than 10% of all students are able to cope without any library use; students in technology and engineering, the sciences and arts, architecture and music have a higher rate of non‐use of their academic libraries; a large percentage of students access the electronic resources from home; the physical library is still considered important to students; Google is used extensively and is nearly the exclusive choice for search engine. The public library is used for study purposes by about 58 percent of all students with the highest use (76% by students in higher education institutions (HEI; students of education, social topics and psychology are very frequent public library users. Female students in HEI were the most frequent users of the public library independent of study subject or year, or any other demographic variable. Seven per cent of students rely exclusively on the public library for study purposes and first‐year HEI students in the subject areas of education, social topics and psychology are over‐represented in this group (which additionally has less Internet access from home than the other students. Students perceive nearly all aspects of service in the academic library as superior; HEI students rate ambience, electronic resources and speed of inter‐library loan provision in the public library as higher than the academic. University students give a low rating to the collections of public library, although the students use the public library principally to supplement the collections available in their academic libraries. Another high use of public libraries by HEI students is for interlibrary loans placed through the national resource sharing system. Public library reference services are used often by only one per cent of students and only two per cent use the public library on a regular basis for “study related group activities.” Conclusion – Students use physical libraries to a great extent to support their studies and students have embraced digital access to collections, especially access from home. Google is the most heavily used search engine and is used by nearly all students;use of Google complements and supplements library use. Nearly 60% of all students use public libraries for study purposes and to supplement the collections of their academic library, but they find that the public library collections are insufficient to meet their needs. The inter‐library loan policies of public libraries are more lenient and accommodating to student needs and may drive the high use of public libraries. Students form a large constituency of the public library user population and they generally rate most aspects of service as substandard to those of academic libraries. There is a call for review of the public library’s role in meeting the information needs of students, and in particular, those of HEI programs who are most dependent on the public library.

  15. Ole Bjørn Kraft 1893-1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Houlberg

    2010-01-01

    Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister.......Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister....

  16. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and OLED-based photoluminescent sensing platforms by novel microstructures and device architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui [Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    After a general introduction to OLEDs and OLED-based PL sensors, the transient emission mechanism of guest-host OLEDs is described both experimentally and theoretically. A monolithic and easy-to-apply process is demonstrated for fabricating multicolor microcavity OLEDs (that improve the sensor platform). The outcoupling issues of OLEDs at the substrate/air interface are addressed by using a microstructured polymer film resulting from a PS and polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture. Based on the understanding of OLEDs and their improvement, research was done in order to realize integrated all organic-based O2 and pH sensors with improved signal intensity and sensitivity. The sensor design modification and optimization are summarized

  17. Prevention of short circuits in solution-processed OLED devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolt Oostra, A.; Blom, P.W.M.; Michels, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pinholes in the emitting layer of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), e.g. induced by particle contamination or processing flaws, lead to direct contact between the hole-injection layer (HIL) and the cathode. The resulting short circuits give rise to catastrophic device failure. We demonstrate

  18. Linnugripp ei ole biorelv / Kevin Probert-Ehaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Probert-Ehaver, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Vastukaja 10. juulil Eesti Ekspressis ilmunud artiklile "Linnugripp - surm katseklaasist", milles väidetakse, et linnugripp ning teised uued nakkushaigused on biorelvad. Kriisireguleerimise konsultant selgitab, et nii Eesti kui ka Ameerika spetsialistide hinnangul ei ole linnugripp kuidagi seotud biorelvade programmiga

  19. Ole Rømer som enevældens administrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    En biografisk skitse af Ole Rømers virke med vægt på hans rolle som embedsmand og rådgiver for Christian V. Hans virke analyseres på baggrund af en ny forståelse for den tidlige enevældes politiske kultur....

  20. Ole Ivar Lovaas--His Life, Merits and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Vea, Gunvor Dalby; Eikeseth, Svein; Özerk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and…

  1. Roll-to-Roll Solution-Processible Small-Molecule OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie Jerry

    2012-07-31

    The objective of this program is to develop key knowledge and make critical connections between technologies needed to enable low-cost manufacturing of OLED lighting products. In particular, the program was intended to demonstrate the feasibility of making high performance Small-Molecule OLEDs (SM-OLED) using a roll-to-roll (R2R) wet-coating technique by addressing the following technical risks (1) Whether the wet-coating technique can provide high performance OLEDs, (2) Whether SM-OLED can be made in a R2R manner, (3) What are the requirements for coating equipment, and (4) Whether R2R OLEDs can have the same performance as the lab controls. The program has been managed and executed according to the Program Management Plan (PMP) that was first developed at the beginning of the program and further revised accordingly as the program progressed. Significant progress and risk reductions have been accomplished by the end of the program. Specific achievements include: (1) Demonstrated that wet-coating can provide OLEDs with high LPW and long lifetime; (2) Demonstrated R2R OLEDs can be as efficient as batch controls (Figure 1) (3) Developed & validated basic designs for key equipment necessary for R2R SM-OLEDs; (4) Developed know-hows & specifications on materials & ink formulations critical to wetcoating; (5) Developed key R2R processes for each OLED layer (6) Identified key materials and components such as flexible barrier substrates necessary for R2R OLEDs.

  2. Improved multilayer OLED architecture using evolutionary genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, W.G. [LADOR - Laboratorio de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat - Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Teixeira, K.C. [LADOR - Laboratorio de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat - Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); LOEM - Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LADOR - Laboratorio de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat - Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Calil, V.L. [LADOR - Laboratorio de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat - Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); LOEM - Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Messer, B.; Neto, O.P. Vilela; Pacheco, M.A.C. [ICA - Laboratorio de Inteligencia Computacional Aplicada, Electrical Engineering Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.b [LADOR - Laboratorio de Dispositivos Organicos, Dimat - Inmetro, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); LOEM - Laboratorio de Optoeletronica Molecular, Physics Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-31

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) constitute a new class of emissive devices, which present high efficiency and low voltage operation, among other advantages over current technology. Multilayer architecture (M-OLED) is generally used to optimize these devices, specially overcoming the suppression of light emission due to the exciton recombination near the metal layers. However, improvement in recombination, transport and charge injection can also be achieved by blending electron and hole transporting layers into the same one. Graded emissive region devices can provide promising results regarding quantum and power efficiency and brightness, as well. The massive number of possible model configurations, however, suggests that a search algorithm would be more suitable for this matter. In this work, multilayer OLEDs were simulated and fabricated using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) as evolutionary strategy to improve their efficiency. Genetic Algorithms are stochastic algorithms based on genetic inheritance and Darwinian strife to survival. In our simulations, it was assumed a 50 nm width graded region, divided into five equally sized layers. The relative concentrations of the materials within each layer were optimized to obtain the lower V/J{sup 0.5} ratio, where V is the applied voltage and J the current density. The best M-OLED architecture obtained by genetic algorithm presented a V/J{sup 0.5} ratio nearly 7% lower than the value reported in the literature. In order to check the experimental validity of the improved results obtained in the simulations, two M-OLEDs with different architectures were fabricated by thermal deposition in high vacuum environment. The results of the comparison between simulation and some experiments are presented and discussed.

  3. Improved multilayer OLED architecture using evolutionary genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, W.G.; Teixeira, K.C.; Legnani, C.; Calil, V.L.; Messer, B.; Neto, O.P. Vilela; Pacheco, M.A.C.; Cremona, M.

    2009-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) constitute a new class of emissive devices, which present high efficiency and low voltage operation, among other advantages over current technology. Multilayer architecture (M-OLED) is generally used to optimize these devices, specially overcoming the suppression of light emission due to the exciton recombination near the metal layers. However, improvement in recombination, transport and charge injection can also be achieved by blending electron and hole transporting layers into the same one. Graded emissive region devices can provide promising results regarding quantum and power efficiency and brightness, as well. The massive number of possible model configurations, however, suggests that a search algorithm would be more suitable for this matter. In this work, multilayer OLEDs were simulated and fabricated using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) as evolutionary strategy to improve their efficiency. Genetic Algorithms are stochastic algorithms based on genetic inheritance and Darwinian strife to survival. In our simulations, it was assumed a 50 nm width graded region, divided into five equally sized layers. The relative concentrations of the materials within each layer were optimized to obtain the lower V/J 0.5 ratio, where V is the applied voltage and J the current density. The best M-OLED architecture obtained by genetic algorithm presented a V/J 0.5 ratio nearly 7% lower than the value reported in the literature. In order to check the experimental validity of the improved results obtained in the simulations, two M-OLEDs with different architectures were fabricated by thermal deposition in high vacuum environment. The results of the comparison between simulation and some experiments are presented and discussed.

  4. Biblioteka graficzna do sterownika z wyświetlaczem OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiony został proces opracowania biblioteki do sterowników z wyświetlaczem OLED. Przeprowadzono przegląd wybranych bibliotek graficznych. Pozwoliło to na zapoznanie się z ich funkcjonalnością zależną od platformy docelowej i przeznaczenia. Zdobyta wiedza posłużyła do opracowania biblioteki graficznej przystosowanej do wykorzystania w sterownikach. Bibliotekę graficzną przetestowano na Module Inteligentnego Sterownika MIS-1 będącego częścią systemu KOGASTER. Biblioteka zostanie wykorzystana w szczególności w iskrobezpiecznych urządzeniach z wyświetlaczem OLED.

  5. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang

    2011-03-01

    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  6. High efficiency and stable white OLED using a single emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). School of Mechanical, Aerospace, Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2016-01-18

    The ultimate objective of this project was to demonstrate an efficient and stable white OLED using a single emitter on a planar glass substrate. The focus of the project is on the development of efficient and stable square planar phosphorescent emitters and evaluation of such class of materials in the device settings. Key challenges included improving the emission efficiency of molecular dopants and excimers, controlling emission color of emitters and their excimers, and improving optical and electrical stability of emissive dopants. At the end of this research program, the PI has made enough progress to demonstrate the potential of excimer-based white OLED as a cost-effective solution for WOLED panel in the solid state lighting applications.

  7. Studying the Attribution of LiF in OLED by the - Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-lin Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic light-emitting device (OLED with simple structures of indium tin oxide (ITO/tris(8-quinolinolato aluminum (Alq3/LiF/Al and ITO/Alq3/Al was fabricated to analyze the contribution of LiF in OLED. We used the - characteristics to investigate the contribution of LiF in OLED and found that the capacitance of the above-mentioned structures was 12.5 nF and 77.5 nF, respectively. It is shown that the LiF layer affects the property of OLED resulting in the change of the capacitance of the device.

  8. Peeter Kreitzberg : Ma ei ole Savisaare käskjalg / Peeter Kreitzberg ; interv. Maarius Suviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2001-01-01

    Presidendikampaaniast ja presidendi missioonist. Kriitikat president Lennart Meri tegevuse kohta. Miks Eesti ei ole naispresidendikandidaati. Keskerakonna imago ja Edgar Savisaar. Eesti: probleemid ja tulevik. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  9. Improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq3 interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Jiarong; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Zhou Yunfei; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate an improved efficiency in OLEDs with a thin Alq 3 interlayer, which is inserted into the hole-transport layer for adjusting the hole-injection and transport, and improving the hole-electron balance. The thin Alq 3 interlayer can effectively influence the electrical performance and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency of the devices. The devices with an optimum Alq 3 interlayer exhibit a maximum EL efficiency of around 3.3 cd/A, which is improved by a factor of two over the conventional devices (1.6 cd/A) without the interlayer

  10. Cenizas de combustibles españoles. Propiedades aglomerantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García de Paredes y Gaibrois, Pablo

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl deseo que animó a la Dirección de este Instituto en orden a la máxima utilización de cuantos subproductos ofrezca la industria española y posean propiedades que permitan emplearlos en lo construcción, con el consiguiente abaratamiento de la misma, ha sido la idea rectora de este primer o preliminar estudio de las cenizas que algunos combustibles españoles dejan al ser utilizados en las centrales térmicas.

  11. An approach to integrated design based componet software and OLE-technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Susanne C; Emborg, Jørgen; Andersen, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The paper reports on a prototype developed as to demonstrate the (dis)abilities of the OLE-standard to integrate different design-applications to a CAD-syste.......The paper reports on a prototype developed as to demonstrate the (dis)abilities of the OLE-standard to integrate different design-applications to a CAD-syste....

  12. Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDS) and Their Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Organic Light-Emitting Devices (OLEDs), both small molecular and polymeric have been studied extensively since the first efficient small molecule OLED was reported by Tang and VanSlyke in 1987. Burroughes' report on conjugated polymer-based OLEDs led to another track in OLED development. These developments have resulted in full color, highly efficient (up to {approx} 20% external efficiency 60 lm/W power efficiency for green emitters), and highly bright (> 140,000 Cd/m{sup 2} DC, {approx}2,000,000 Cd/m{sup 2} AC), stable (>40,000 hr at 5 mA/cm{sup 2}) devices. OLEDs are Lambertian emitters, which intrinsically eliminates the view angle problem of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Thus OLEDs are beginning to compete with the current dominant LCDs in information display. Numerous companies are now active in this field, including large companies such as Pioneer, Toyota, Estman Kodak, Philipps, DuPont, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and Osram, and small companies like Cambridge Display Technology (CDT), Universal Display Corporation (UDC), and eMagin. The first small molecular display for vehicular stereos was introduced in 1998, and polymer OLED displays have begun to appear in commercial products. Although displays are the major application for OLEDs at present, they are also candidates for nest generation solid-state lighting. In this case the light source needs to be white in most cases. Organic transistors, organic solar cells, etc. are also being developed vigorously.

  13. Flexible barrier technology for enabling rollable AMOLED displays and upscaling flexible OLED lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.M.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Weijer, P. van de; Assche, F. van; Shen, J.; Ellis, T.; Manders, W.; Akkerman, H.; Bouten, P.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a high performance thin-film barrier is the most critical challenge in upscaling and commercializing flexible OLED products. We report a flexible thin-film-barrier technology that meets lifetime specifications for OLED lighting, and demonstrate it in rollable QVGA a-IGZO AMOLED

  14. Stacked white OLED having separate red, green and blue sub-elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen; Qi, Xiangfei; Slootsky, Michael

    2016-06-28

    The present invention relates to efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). More specifically, the present invention relates to white-emitting OLEDs, or WOLEDs. The devices of the present invention employ three emissive sub-elements, typically emitting red, green and blue, to sufficiently cover the visible spectrum. The sub-elements are separated by charge generating layers.

  15. Los jueces españoles como jueces de la Unión Europea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Ordóñez Solís, David; Berberoff, Dimitry

    2013-01-01

    sentido, el presente estudio trata de esclarecer si actualmente los jueces españoles se han adaptado a las exigencias creadas por el sistema legal de la Unión para la aplicación del derecho europeo. Para comprobar si los jueces españoles han asimilado su condición de jueces europeos, operando como...

  16. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-24

    At the offices of the accounting firm of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP in Rochester, NY, the GATEWAY program evaluated a new lighting system that incorporates a number of different OLED luminaires. Evaluation of the OLED products included efficacy performance, field measurements of panel color, flicker measurements, and staff feedback.

  17. GATEWAY Demonstrations: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    At the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  18. Making Image More Energy Efficient for OLED Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, more and more mobile smart devices are emerging massively; energy consumption of these devices has become an important consideration due to the limitation of battery capacity. Displays are the dominant energy consuming component of battery-operated devices, giving rise to organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a new promising display technology, which consumes different power when displaying different content due to their emissive nature. Based on this property, we propose an approach to improve image energy efficiency on OLED displays by perceiving image content. The key idea of our approach is to eliminate undesired details while preserving the region of interest of the image by leveraging the color and spatial information. First, we use edge detection algorithm to extract region of interest (ROI of an image. Next, we gradually change luminance and saturation of region of noninterest (NON-ROI of the image. Then we perform detailed experiment and case study to validate our approach; experiment results show that our approach can save 22.5% energy on average while preserving high quality of the image.

  19. Evidence that the Yeast Desaturase Ole1p Exists as a Dimer In Vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2010-06-18

    Desaturase enzymes are composed of two classes, the structurally well characterized soluble class found predominantly in the plastids of higher plants and the more widely distributed but poorly structurally defined integral membrane class. Despite their distinct evolutionary origins, the two classes both require an iron cofactor and molecular oxygen for activity and are inhibited by azide and cyanide, suggesting strong mechanistic similarities. The fact that the soluble desaturase is active as a homodimer prompted us test the hypothesis that an archetypal integral membrane desaturase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the {Delta}{sup o}-acyl-Co-A desaturase Ole1p, also exhibits a dimeric organization. Ole1p was chosen because it is one of the best characterized integral membrane desaturase and because it retains activity when fused with epitope tags. FLAG-Ole1p was detected by Western blotting of immunoprecipitates in which anti-Myc antibodies were used for capture from yeast extracts co-expressing Ole1p-Myc and Ole1p-FLAG. Interaction was confirmed by two independent bimolecular complementation assays (i.e. the split ubiquitin system and the split luciferase system). Co-expression of active and inactive Ole1p subunits resulted in an {approx}75% suppression of the accumulation of palmitoleic acid, demonstrating that the physiologically active form of Ole1p in vivo is the dimer in which both protomers must be functional.

  20. Kirigami-based three-dimensional OLED concepts for architectural lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehwan; Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex; Lee, Sora; Jackson, Thomas N.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Dramatic improvements in white organic light emitting diode (OLED) performance and lifetime over the past decade are driving commercialization of this technology for solid-state lighting applications. As white OLEDs attempt to gain a foothold in the market, however, the biggest challenge outside of lowering their manufacturing cost arguably now lies in creating an architecturally adaptable form factor that will drive public adoption and differentiate OLED lighting from established LED products. Here, we present concepts based on kirigami (the Japanese art of paper cutting and folding) that enable intricate three-dimensional (3D) OLED lighting structures from two dimensional layouts. Using an ultraflexible, encapsulated OLED device architecture on 25 60 μm thick clear polyimide film substrate with simple cut and fold patterns, we demonstrate a series of different lighting concepts ranging from a simple `pop up' structure to more complex designs such as stretchable window blind-like panel, candle flame, and multi-element globe lamp. We only find slight degradation in OLED electrical performance when these designs are shaped into 3D. Our results point to an alternate paradigm for OLED lighting that moves beyond traditional 2D panels toward 3D designs that deliver unique and creative new opportunities for lighting.

  1. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  2. Ole Ivar Lovaas - His Life, Merits and Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ole Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010 is known worldwide for his research within the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, and is probably the most influential researcher within the field of treatment of children with autism. In the first part of this biographically oriented paper, we inform the readers about his family background, childhood, elementary and secondary school years, and his adolescent years during World War II in his first homeland, Norway, based on archival research and interviews. In the second part, we describe his life, academic studies, research and successes in his second home country, the United States. Finally, we briefly recount the impact Lovaas has had on the field of Applied Behavior Analysis and the treatment of and services for children with autism spectrum disorders in Norway and in the North America.

  3. Agricultural activities in the Oleśnica commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Borkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the agricultural activity in the Oleśnica commune. The representative rural property owner was a secondary-educated 43-year old man. Over 70% of respondents demonstrated their willingness to expand by purchasing or renting land and also to develop infrastructure. Agricultural activities within this area were focused mainly on plant-growing, which was preferable due to sustained tide of the market. Arable land was the dominating land type and the main products were: grains, potatoes and rape. Introduced in farms innovations were focused on increasing ef-fectiveness of plant-growing and improving the quality of work in rural properties. These innovations were expected to increase income and, in longer term, make the rural production more competitive on the European market.

  4. Jumal tänatud, et sa siin oled! / Inge Pitsner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pitsner, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Kanal 2 sketshishõude sarja "Jumal tänatud, et sa siin oled!" esimesest saatest : saatejuht Andrus Vaarik : osalejad Peeter Oja, Anu Saagim, Juhan Ulfsak, Mihkel Raud : kohtunik Eino Baskin : tootjafirma Ruut

  5. Kuu plaat : Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea". Plaadid kauplusest Lasering

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Lauri Saatpalu ja Katrin Mandel "Sa oled hea", Goldfrapp "Supernature", Ultima Thule "Ingel ja suli", Sigur Ros "Takk...", Franz Ferdinand "You Could Have It So Much Better", Ans.Andur "Tuled peale"

  6. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  7. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  8. GATEWAY Report Brief: OLED Lighting in the Offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-31

    Summary of a GATEWAY report evaluation at the offices of Aurora Lighting Design, Inc., in Grayslake, IL, where the GATEWAY program conducted its first investigation involving OLED lighting. The project experienced several challenges, but also highlighted a number of promising attributes – which indicate that with continued improvements in efficacy, longevity, size, and flexibility, OLEDs could provide a new tool for creative and effective lighting.

  9. Blue phosphorescent OLEDs with 34.1% external quantum efficiency using a low refractive index electron transporting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Moon, Chang-Ki; Huh, Jin-Suk; Sim, Bomi; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a blue OLED with the EQE of 34% and power efficiency of 79.6 lm W-1 using low refractive index electron transporting layer which are the highest efficiencies ever reported in blue OLEDs. In addition, we quantitatively calculated maximum achievable outcoupling efficiencies according to change of refractive indices, which can be used to estimate the achievable outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs without fabrication. The simulation indicates that EQE over 60% can be achievable in PhOLEDs if refractive indices of consisting organic materials' are close to 1.5.

  10. Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency OLED Lighting. Building Technologies Solid State Lighting (SSL) Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-10-06

    This project developed an integrated substrate which organic light emitting diode (OLED) panel developers could employ the integrated substrate to fabricate OLED devices with performance and projected cost meeting the MYPP targets of the Solid State Lighting Program of the Department of Energy. The project optimized the composition and processing conditions of the integrated substrate for OLED light extraction efficiency and overall performance. The process was further developed for scale up to a low-cost process and fabrication of prototype samples. The encapsulation of flexible OLEDs based on this integrated substrate was also investigated using commercial flexible barrier films.

  11. Photochemically induced emission tuning of conductive polumers used in OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, M.; Pistolis, G.; Argitis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The present work focuses on the use of novel patterning technology schemes for the fabrication of OLED-based displays and in particular on the definition of two colour emitting pixels in one polymeric conducting layer. The approach adopted to this end is based on photochemically induced emition tuning. On the basis of this approach a novel photolithographic patterning technique was developed, aiming at the considerable simplification of the display fabrication process and on the performance improvement. We prepared electroluminescent devices that are emitting blue colour (λmax = 413 nm) with a turnon voltage about 12-15 V. In other devices we introduce a dispersed dye (1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-6-phenylhexatriene) and a series of photoacid generators (onium salts) in the polymeric layer and, by using an appropriate photochemical transformation through a photomask in a single layer, we were able to change the colour to desirable direction, since the parent compound and its photochemical product have distinguishable luminescence spectra (green and blue colour respectively). We were able to produce two of the three primary colours in a single layer of a conductive polymer by using a photochemical transformation based on photoacid induced emission change. A series of photoacid generators were evaluated.

  12. Surface treatment on polyethylenimine interlayer to improve inverted OLED performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ting; Zhuang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ya-Li; Zhang, Dong-Yu; Su, Wen-Ming; Cui, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylenimine (PEI) interlayer rinsing with different solvents for inverted organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is systematically studied in this paper. In comparison with the pristine one, the maximum current efficiency (CE max) and power efficiency (PE max) are enhanced by 21% and 22% for the device rinsing by ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EEA). Little effect is found on the work function of the PEI interlayer rinsed by deionized water (DI), ethanol (EtOH), and EEA. On the other hand, the surface morphologies of PEI through different solvent treatments are quite different. Our results indicates that the surface morphology is the key to improving the device performance for IOLED as the work function of PEI keeps stable. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Project of China (Grant No. 2015CB351901), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09020201), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. 2013206), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21402233), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK2012631 and BK20140387).

  13. Hole-Rich Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Darsell, Jens T.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2011-04-01

    Stable and efficient organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are an integral part of the future of lighting and displays. The hole accumulation at the hole transport/emissive layer interface in such devices is considered to be a major pathway for degradation and efficiency loss. Here we report the design and synthesis of two charge-transporting host materials, based on the phosphine oxide (PO) moiety, engineered to improve hole transport of the emissive layer. The compounds are an extension of a molecular design strategy already explored and reported by our team which incorporates a hole transporting moiety and an electron transporting moiety. These novel materials were designed with two hole transport moieties (HTms) to further improve hole transport, compared to the first generation host materials that were designed with one hole transport functional group. The triplet exciton energy was maintained at a level greater than that of FIrpic (2.7 eV) to prevent exciton quenching. The EHOMO and ELUMO of the two classes of molecules (i.e., one HTm vs. 2 HTms) were similar, however their device performance varied greatly. Emission zone experiments were conducted to further understand the differences between molecules.

  14. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  16. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  17. Narrow Bandwidth Top-Emitting OLEDs Designed for Rhodamine 6G Excitation in Biological Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jahnel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLED are promising candidates offering in optical sensor applications to detect different gas compositions and excitable optical marker groups in chemical and biological processes. They enable attractive solutions for monitoring the gas phase composition of e.g., dissolved molecular oxygen (O2 species in bio reactors or excitation of fluorescent markers. In this work, we investigate different OLED devices for biomedical applications to excite the fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G (R6G. The OLED devices are built in top emission geometry comprising a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR acting as optical mirror. The OLED is optimized to provide a very narrow emission characteristic to excite the R6G at 530 nm wavelength and enabling the possibility to minimize the optical crosstalk between the OLED electroluminescence and the fluorescence of R6G. The DBR includes a thin film encapsulation and enables the narrowing of the spectral emission band depending on the number of DBR pairs. The comparison between optical simulation data and experimental results exhibits good agreement and proves process stability.

  18. "Kus sa oled mu võluratsu..." : [luuletused] / Mõkola Vingranovski ; tlk. Harald Rajamets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vingranovski, Mõkola

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Kus sa oled mu võluratsu..." ; Ja rahvas on... ; "Oled rada, mu armsam..." ; "Sa oled siin! Mu armastus, mu lumm..." ; "Me ahvatluste aastad, albid aastad..." ; "Mul juba siis, kui oli kevad veel..." ; "Nüüd tõuse, kalur! Kustumas on tähed..." ; Meresügisel ; "Kauss hirsiputru, õilmelend..." ; "Õde võõpab aias õunapuid..." ; Esimene hälilaul ; "Noor tüdruk, alles laps. Ei kõnni kikivarvul..." ; "Ülal künka peal seisis päike..." ; "Jäid suve lõpul tuhmiks puud..." ; "Nüüd hakkab lumesadu, nüüd..." ; "Lumehämarus, hall nagu hall..." ; "Tüüpõllu aur on jäärakute kohal..." ; "Parv linde kriiskab salu kohal..." ; "Põld kuivi maisivarsi täis..." ; Haiavata

  19. Degradation in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hany; Popovic, Zoran D.; Hu, Nan-Xing; DosAnjos, Paulo; Ioannidis, Andronique

    2001-02-01

    Poor device stability has been a major concern for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The relatively short operational lifetime of the OLEDs is predominantly attributed to an intrinsic degradation behavior, which leads to a decrease in the electroluminescence quantum efficiency of the devices in time. Recently, we found that the injection of holes in tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ3), the most widely used organic electroluminescent material, is the main factor responsible for the intrinsic degradation behavior in OLEDs. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency of AlQ3 has been found to decrease as a result of predominantly hole current flow. Further studies using time-resolved fluorescence measurements reveal that degradation is also associated with a decrease in the lifetime of the AlQ3 excited states, thus revealing the nature of the degradation products as luminescence quenchers. Various phenomena pertaining to device degradation will be discussed.

  20. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  1. GATEWAY Report Brief: Evaluating OLED Lighting in the Accounting Office of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood LLP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-21

    Summary of GATEWAY report evaluating a new lighting system, at the offices of the accounting firm of DeJoy, Knauf & Blood, LLP in Rochester, NY, that incorporates a number of different OLED luminaires. Evaluation of the OLED products included efficacy performance, field measurements of panel color, flicker measurements, and staff feedback.

  2. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  3. El cuidado de los adolescentes en los hospitales españoles: los pacientes invisibles

    OpenAIRE

    Ullán de la Fuente, Ana María; González Celador, Rafael; Manzanera, Paloma

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo general de este trabajo fue realizar una aproximación a los modelos efectivos de atención hospitalaria no psiquiátrica que reciben los adolescentes en los hospitales españoles. En concreto se pretendía conocer si los hospitales españoles cuentan con unidades de ingreso no psiquiátrico específicas para pacientes adolescentes, qué parámetros de edad utilizan estas unidades, las patologías que atienden y qué servicios educativos y de ocio se ofrecen a los pacientes ingresado...

  4. Investigation of cross-linking characteristics of novel hole-transporting materials for solution-processed phosphorescent OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaemin; Ameen, Shahid; Lee, Changjin

    2016-04-01

    After the success of commercialization of the vacuum-evaporated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), solutionprocessing or printing of OLEDs are currently attracting much research interests. However, contrary to various kinds of readily available vacuum-evaporable OLED materials, the solution-processable OLED materials are still relatively rare. Hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials for solution-processed OLEDs are especially limited, because they need additional characteristics such as cross-linking to realize multilayer structures in solution-processed OLEDs, as well as their own electrically hole-transporting characteristics. The presence of such cross-linking characteristics of solutionprocessable HTL materials therefore makes them more challenging in the development stage, and also makes them essence of solution-processable OLED materials. In this work, the structure-property relationships of thermally crosslinkable HTL materials were systematically investigated by changing styrene-based cross-linking functionalities and modifying the carbazole-based hole-transporting core structures. The temperature dependency of the cross-linking characteristics of the HTL materials was systematically investigated by the UV-vis. absorption spectroscopy. The new HTL materials were also applied to green phosphorescent OLEDs, and their device characteristics were also investigated based on the chemical structures of the HTL materials. The device configuration was [ITO / PEDOT:PSS / HTL / EML / ETL / CsF / Al]. We found out that the chemical structures of the cross-linking functionalities greatly affect not only the cross-linking characteristics of the resultant HTL materials, but also the resultant OLED device characteristics. The increase of the maximum luminance and efficiency of OLEDs was evident as the cross-linking temperature decreases from higher than 200°C to at around 150°C.

  5. España y los españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba, Rubén

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The author here argues in favour of the historical reality that we call Spain. To recognize the Cadiz Constitution of 1812 as the origin of present Spain, he maintains, does not imply that our country had no national identity before the 19th century. And to this effect he expounds the famous controversy between Americo Castro and Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz. Before the Arab invasion there were no “españoles”, since this word of provençal origin dates back to the 11th century, as Castro points out. However, it is also true that during the Roman as well the Gothic domination, the peninsular inhabitants were known as “hispani”, as Sánchez-Albornoz sarcastically alleges. In addition, this article includes a number of quotations from Latin, Gothic and Spanish writers of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, references which bear witness to a feeling of belonging to an old country called “Hispania” or “España”.

    El autor aporta argumentos en favor de la realidad histórica que llamamos España. Sostiene que reconocer a la Constitución de Cádiz de 1812 como origen de la España política actual no implica que nuestro país careciera de identidad nacional antes del siglo XIX. Y expone la controversia de Américo Castro y de Claudio Sánchez-Albornoz sobre la génesis histórica de España para concluir que, si bien antes de la invasión árabe no había “españoles”, vocablo provenzal del siglo XI como advierte Castro, también es cierto que durante la dominación romana y goda los peninsulares eran “hispani”, como alega con sorna Sánchez-Albornoz. Además, se recogen citas de autores latinos, godos y españoles tanto medievales como renacentistas que testimonian su sentimiento de pertenecer a un viejo país llamado Hispania o España.

  6. Influence of the 3D-conformation, glycan component and microheterogeneity on the epitope structure of Ole e 1, the major olive allergen - Use of recombinant isoforms and specific monoclonal antibodies as immunological tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Eva M.; Villalba, Mayte; Lombardero, Manuel; Aalbers, Marja; van Ree, Ronald; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2002-01-01

    Ole e 1 is the main allergen of olive pollen, which is a major cause of pollinosis in countries of the Mediterranean area. Nine Ole e 1-specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as well as two Ole e 1-isoforms and two Ole e 1-like allergens from lilac and privet, all of them obtained in Pichia

  7. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconium Titanate Composite Touch Sensors for Integration with Flexible OLED Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a

  8. John Smith vastab / Kaido Ole, Marko Mäetamm ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido

    2003-01-01

    Marko Mäetamm ja Kaido Ole, kelle kosmoseteemaline näitus "Marko and Kaido. By John Smith" on avatud Veneetsia biennaalil räägivad teemadel "koosmaalimine", "kosmoseodüsseia", "maalikunst", "kunstnikuidentiteet", "Veneetsia biennaal", "kuraatori võim", "pseudonüüm", "Eesti kunstiruum", "video" jm.

  9. The electro-thermal-mechanical performance of an OLED : a multi-physics model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A.W.J.; Barink, M.; Brand, J. van de; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the electrical-thermo-mechanical interaction in OLEDs, finite element based simulation models were developed. Two dimensional models were used to study detailed design effects, such as the location of the bus bars, while a three dimensional model was used to study the effect of

  10. Diferencias en conducta agresiva entre adolescentes españoles, chinos y mexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Torregrosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia empírica ha revelado diferencias culturales en la expresión de la agresividad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias de agresividad entre estudiantes españoles, mexicanos y chinos de Educación Secundaria. La escala de Conducta Antisocial del Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS fue administrada a 420 españoles, 532 mexicanos y 431 chinos, con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 15 años. Los análisis de varianza mostraron que los estudiantes chinos presentaron niveles significativamente más altos de agresividad que los estudiantes españoles y mexicanos, no encontrándose diferencias entre los dos últimos grupos. Este patrón de resultados fue similar por género y edad. Así, todas las submuestras de estudiantes chinos (chicos, chicas, 12-13 años y 14-15 años informaron niveles significativamente más altos de agresividad que sus iguales españoles y mexicanos. Sin embargo, las diferencias encontradas fueron de magnitud pequeña y moderada. Los resultados son discutidos de acuerdo con las dimensiones culturales de individualismo vs. colectivismo y distancia de poder.

  11. Inverted solution processable OLEDs using a metal oxide as an electron injection contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolink, H. J.; Coronado, E.; Repetto, D.; Sessolo, M.; Barea, E. M.; Bisquert, J.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.; Procházka, Jan; Kavan, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 145-150 ISSN 1616-301X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : OLED * electroluminiscence * metal oxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.808, year: 2008

  12. Adhesion Promoting Polymer Interlayers for Ag Layers Deposited in OLED Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vicca, Peter; Steudel, Soeren; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the main drivers for organic electronic research are the backplanes for flexible active-matrix displays using organic light-emitting diodes (AM-OLEDs). In our work, we processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) at low temperatures (

  13. Kunstnikuks pürgija vajab paari õigeaegset impulssi / Kaido Ole, Eva Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ole, Kaido

    2006-01-01

    Antonia Claudio Carvalho meistriklass "Ava oma silmad/Open Your Eyes" 23.-27. I ja näitus 27. I-9. II Eesti Kunstiakadeemia galeriis. Meistriklassist vestlesid EKA maaliosakonna juhataja Kaido Ole ja maalieriala III kursuse üliõpilane Eva Unt

  14. Molecular electrophosphorescence in (Sm, Gd)-{beta}-diketonate complex blend for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R., E-mail: fisicaplic@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, UNI, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 31, Peru (Peru); Cremona, M. [DIMAT - Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial, INMETRO, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, C.P. 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Teotonio, E.E.S. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, UFPB, C.P. 5093, Joao Pessoa, PB, CEP 5805-970 (Brazil); Brito, H.F. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, USP, C.P. 26077, Sao Paulo, SP, CEP 05599-970 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, CCEN, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE, CEP 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    In this work the preparation and characterization of the triple-layer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a mixture of the samarium and gadolinium {beta}-diketonate complexes [Sm{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 0.5}(TTA){sub 3}(TPPO){sub 2}] as emitting layer is reported. The OLED's devices contain 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-6-carboxyaldehyde-1, 1'-diphenylhydrazone (MTCD) as hole-transporting layer and tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as electron transporting layer. The electroluminescence spectrum present emission narrow bands from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub J} transitions (where J=5/2, 7/2 and 9/2) characteristic of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. These sharp lines are overlapped with a broad band attributed to the electrophosphorescence from the T{sub 1}{yields}S{sub 0} transition in the ligand TTA. The intramolecular energy transfer is discussed and applied on the change of the emission color of the organic LEDs at different bias voltages. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samarium and gadolinium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OLED with complex blend (Sm,Gd). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophosphorescence emission detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application in OLED changing the color emission.

  15. Construction of Context-Based Module: How OLED can be used as a Context in High School Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, I. R.; Mudzakir, A.; Sumarna, O.

    2017-09-01

    Teaching materials used in Indonesia generally just emphasize remembering skill so that the students’ science literacy is low. Innovation is needed to transform traditional teaching materials so that it can stimulate students’ science literacy, one of which is by context-based approach. This study focused on the construction of context-based module for high school using Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) topics. OLED was chosen because it is an up-to-date topic and relevant to real life. This study used Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER) to reconstruct science content structure about OLED through combining scientist’s perspectives with student’s preconceptions and national curriculum. Literature review of OLED includes its definition, components, characteristics and working principle. Student’s preconceptions about OLED are obtained through interviews. The result shows that student’s preconceptions have not been fully similar with the scientist’s perspective. One of the reasons is that some of the related Chemistry concepts are too complicated. Through curriculum analysis, Chemistry about OLED that are appropriate for high school are Bohr’s atomic theory, redox and organic chemistry including polymers and aromatics. The OLED context and its Chemistry concept were developed into context-based module by adapting science literacy-based learning. This module is expected to increase students’ science literacy performance.

  16. Overexpression of OLE1 enhances stress tolerance and constitutively activates the MAPK HOG pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2017-03-01

    OLE1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the sole and essential Δ-9 desaturase catalyzing the conversion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. Upon ectopic overexpression of OLE1 in S. cerevisiae, significant increases in the membrane oleic acid content were observed. OLE1-overexpressing strains displayed enhanced tolerance to various stresses, better proton efflux, lower membrane permeability, and lessened internal hydrogen peroxide content. The OLE1-mediated enhanced stress tolerance was considerably diminished upon deletion of HOG1, which encodes the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. Furthermore, OLE1 overexpression constitutively activated Hog1, which remained in the cytoplasm. Hog1 activation was accomplished through the MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) Ssk2, but not Ste11 and Ssk22, the other MAPKKKs of the HOG pathway. Despite its cytoplasmic location, activated Hog1 was able to activate the expression of its canonical targets, including CTT1, HSP12, and STL1, and further, the cAMP and stress response elements present in the promoter. OLE1 overexpression neither caused nor relieved endoplasmic reticulum stress. Individually or in combination, the physiological and molecular changes caused by OLE1 overexpression may contribute to enhanced tolerance to various types of stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 620-631. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengqing, Gan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides

  18. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Gary S.; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu, Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianaca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred; Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  19. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  20. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  1. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a

  2. Theoretical investigation of the degradation mechanisms in host and guest molecules used in OLED active layers

    KAUST Repository

    Winget, Paul

    2014-10-08

    A feature of OLEDs that has to date received little attention is the prediction of the stability of the molecules involved in the electrical and optical processes. Here, we present computational results intended to aid in the development of stable systems. We identify degradation pathways and define new strategies to guide the synthesis of stable materials for OLED applications for both phosphorescent emitters and organic host materials. The chemical reactivity of these molecules in the active layers of the devices is further complicated by the fact that, during operation, they can be either oxidized or reduced (as they localize a hole or an electron) in addition to forming both singlet and triplet excitons. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  3. OLED Hybrid Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Biosensing for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microfluidic platform with external hybrid integration of an organic light emitting diode (OLED as an excitation source. This device can be used as a simple and cost effective biosensing element. The device is capable of rapid in-situ detection of biological elements such as sensing of interaction of antigen with fluorescent tagged antibody conjugates. These portable microfluidic systems have great potential for use an OLED in a single chip with very high accuracy and sensitivity for various point-of-care (POC diagnosis and lab on a chip (LOC applications, as the miniaturization of the biosensor is essential for handling smaller sample volumes in order to achieve high throughput. The biosensing element was successfully tested to detect anti-sheep IgG conjugates tagged to Alexafluor using a fluorescence based immunoassay method.

  4. Simulation of exciton effects in OLEDs based on the master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weifeng; Zimmermann, Christoph; Jungemann, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Electroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes is simulated by the master equations for free carriers and excitons. The IV characteristics of both unipolar and bipolar devices can be well reproduced. The luminous efficacies of the phosphorescent OLEDs, which are doped with Ir(ppy)3 in the emission layer, depend on both the triplet generation zone and the triplet transfer capability. Triplet diffusion into the hole-transport layer is primarily attributed to the decline in efficiencies of OLEDs with low emitter concentrations. Higher luminous efficacies can be obtained by graded doping profiles with the merits of broad triplet distribution within and confined to the emission layer. Moreover, triplet-polaron quenching plays a more significant role in the triplet loss than triplet-triplet annihilation does according to our simulations.

  5. Study of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with optimal emission efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple 12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    The external emission efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) is analysed by studying the rate of spontaneous emission of both singlet and triplet excitons and their corresponding radiative lifetimes. Rates of spontaneous emissions are calculated from the first order perturbation theory using the newly discovered time-dependent spin-orbit-exciton-photon interaction operator as the perturbation operator. It is clearly shown how the new interaction operator is responsible for attracting triplet excitons to a phosphor (heavy metal atom) and then it flips the spins to a singlet configuration. Thus, the spin forbidden transition becomes spin allowed. Calculated rates agree with the experimental results qualitatively. Results are of general interests for OLED studies. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Polystyrene Backbone Polymers Consisting of Alkyl-Substituted Triazine Side Groups for Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ch. D. Salert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of new electron-transporting styrene monomers and their corresponding polystyrenes all with a 2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine basic structure in the side group. The monomers differ in the alkyl substitution and in the meta-/paralinkage of the triazine to the polymer backbone. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the new electron-transporting polymers are discussed in regard to their chemical structures. Phosphorescent OLEDs were prepared using the obtained electron-transporting polymers as the emissive layer material in blend systems together with a green iridium-based emitter 13 and a small molecule as an additional cohost with wideband gap characteristics (CoH-001. The performance of the OLEDs was characterized and discussed in regard to the chemical structure of the new electron-transporting polymers.

  7. High-throughput quantum chemistry and virtual screening for OLED material components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang

    2013-09-01

    Computational structure enumeration, analysis using an automated simulation workflow and filtering of large chemical structure libraries to identify lead systems, has become a central paradigm in drug discovery research. Transferring this paradigm to challenges in materials science is now possible due to advances in the speed of computational resources and the efficiency and stability of chemical simulation packages. State-of-the-art software tools that have been developed for drug discovery can be applied to efficiently explore the chemical design space to identify solutions for problems such as organic light-emitting diode material components. In this work, virtual screening for OLED materials based on intrinsic quantum mechanical properties is illustrated. Also, a new approach to more reliably identify candidate systems is introduced that is based on the chemical reaction energetics of defect pathways for OLED materials.

  8. Zgodovina Podružnične osnovne šole Trje

    OpenAIRE

    Grobelnik, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je predstavljena zgodovina Podružnične osnovne šole Trje, podružnice Osnovne šole Petrovče, in zajema 170 let šolstva v Krajevni skupnosti Galicija. Podružnična osnovna šola Trje je bila zgrajena leta 2002. V šolskem letu 2002/2003 je združila vse učence v krajevni skupnosti, ki so se do takrat šolali v dveh šolah, v Galiciji in Veliki Pirešici. Šola v Galiciji je bila ustanovljena leta 1845, ko je bil nameščen prvi učitelj Franc Kramar. Pouk je potekal v mali lesen...

  9. Performance and Stability Analysis of Negative Capacitor in OLED Driving Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Chang-Hoon; Hattori, Reiji

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated in the previous work that the negative capacitor can effectively prevent the signal delay due to the parasitic capacitance in the current programmed OLED display. However, there were some problems in the real panel application. Therefore, we discussed the difference between the simulation and measurement results and proposed the methods to improve the negative capacitor performance. We also analyzed the stability of negative capacitor considering the parasitic resistance ...

  10. OLED microdisplays in near-to-eye applications: challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Richter, Bernd; Wartenberg, Philipp; König, Peter; Hild, Olaf R.; Fehse, Karsten; Schober, Matthias; Bodenstein, Elisabeth; Beyer, Beatrice

    2017-06-01

    Wearable augmented-reality (AR) has already started to be used productively mainly in manufacturing industry and logistics. Next step will be to move wearable AR from "professionals to citizens" by enabling networked, everywhere augmented-reality (in-/outdoor localisation, scene recognition, cloud access,…) which is non-intrusive, exhibits intuitive user-interaction, anytime safe and secure use, and considers personal privacy protection (user's and others). Various hardware improvements (e.g., low-power, seamless interactivity, small form factor, ergonomics,…), as well as connectivity and network integration will become vital for consumer adoption. Smart-Glasses (i.e., near-to-eye (NTE) displays) have evolved as major devices for wearable AR, that hold potential to become adopted by consumers soon. Tiny microdisplays are a key component of smart-glasses, e.g., creating images from organic light emitting diodes (OLED), that have become popular in mobile phone displays. All microdisplay technologies on the market comprise an image-creating pixel modulation, but only the emissive ones (for example, OLED and LED) feature the image and light source in a single device, and therefore do not require an external light source. This minimizes system size and power consumption, while providing exceptional contrast and color space. These advantages make OLED microdisplays a perfect fit for near-eye applications. Low-power active-matrix circuitry CMOS backplane architecture, embedded sensors, emission spectra outside the visible and high-resolution sub-pixel micro-patterning address some of the application challenges (e.g., long battery life, sun-light readability, user interaction modes) and enable advanced features for OLED microdisplays in near-to-eye displays, e.g., upcoming connected augmented-reality smart glasses. This report is to analyze the challenges in addressing those features and discuss solutions.

  11. Synthesis of Some Green Dopants for OLEDs Based on Arylamine 2,3-disubstituted Bithiophene Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Seon Song

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of green dopants based on 2,2-diphenylvinyl end-capped bithiophene and three different arylamine moieties (9-phenylcarbazole, triphenylamine, and N,N’-di-(p-tolylbenzeneamine were successfully synthesized by the Suzuki and Wittig coupling reactions. The photophysical properties of these compounds are reported. The strongest PL emitting compound with the 9-phenylcarbazole moiety has been used for fabricating an OLED device with good overall performance.

  12. Universal Host Materials for High-Efficiency Phosphorescent and Delayed-Fluorescence OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Jiuyan; Wang, Fang; Gao, Zhuo; Zhang, Shufen

    2015-12-02

    A series of bipolar hosts, namely, 5-(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (o-CzDPz), 5-(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (m-CzDPz), 5-(9-phenyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (3-CzDPz), and 5-(3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)-phenyl)-1,3-dipyrazolbenzene (mCPDPz), are developed for phosphorescent and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). They are designed by selecting pyrazole as n-type unit and carbazole as p-type one. The triplet energy (E(T)), the frontier molecular orbital level, and charge transporting abilities, are adjusted by varying the molar ratio of pyrazole to carbazole and the linking mode between them. They have high E(T) values of 2.76-3.02 eV. Their electroluminescence performance is evaluated by fabricating both phosphorescent and TADF devices with blue or green emitters. The m-CzDPz hosted blue phosphorescent OLEDs achieves high efficiency of 48.3 cd A(-1) (26.8%), the 3-CzDPz hosted green phosphorescent device exhibits 91.2 cd A(-1) (29.0%). The blue and green TADF devices with 3-CzDPz host also reach high efficiencies of 26.2 cd A(-1) (15.8%) and 41.1 cd A(-1) (13.3%), respectively. The excellent performance of all these OLEDs verifies that these pyrazole-based bipolar compounds are capable of being universal host materials for OLED application. The influence of molar ratio of n-type unit to p-type one and the molecular conformation of these hosts on their device performance is discussed and interpreted.

  13. Calculation of the emission power distribution of microstructured OLEDs using the reciprocity theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, S.; Martins, E.R.; Diyaf, A.G.; Wilson, J.I.B.; Turnbull, G.A.; Samuel, Ifor David William

    2015-01-01

    S. Zhang, E.R. Martins, G.A. Turnbull and I.D.W. Samuel are grateful to the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for financial support. Integrating photonic microstructures into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has been a widely used strategy to improve their light out-coupling efficiency. However, there is still a need for optical modelling methods which quantitatively characterise the spatial emission patter...

  14. Candle light-style OLED: a plausibly human-friendly safe night light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chen, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tung, F.-C.; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Candles emit sensationally-warm light with a very-low color-temperature, comparatively most suitable for use at night. In response to the need for such a human-friendly night light, we demonstrate the employment of a high number of candle light complementary organic emitters to generate mimic candle light based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). One resultant candle light-style OLED shows a very-high color rendering index, with an efficacy at least 300 times that of candles or twice that of an incandescent bulb. The device can be fabricated, for example, by using four candle light complementary emitters, namely: red, yellow, green, and sky-blue phosphorescent dyes, vacuum-deposited into two emission layers, separated by a nano-layer of carrier modulation material to maximize both the desirable very-high color rendering index and energy efficiency, while keeping the blue emission very low and red emission high to obtain the desirable low color temperature. With different layer structures, the OLEDs can also show color tunable between that of candle light and dusk-hue. Importantly, a romantic sensation giving and supposedly physiologically-friendly candle light-style emission can hence be driven by electricity in lieu of the hydrocarbon-burning and greenhouse gas releasing candles that were invented 5,000 years ago.

  15. Fundamental processes governing operation and degradation in state of the art P-OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Asada, Kohei; Cass, Michael; Coward, Chris; King, Simon; Lee, Andrew; Pintani, Martina; Ramon, Miguel; Foden, Clare

    2010-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of operation and degradation of model fluorescent blue bilayer polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLED). Optical and electrical simulations of bilayer P-OLEDs are used to highlight the key material and device parameters required for efficient recombination and outcoupling of excitons. Mobility data for a model interlayer material poly (9,9-dioctylfluorene-N-(4-(2-butyl)phenyl)-diphenylamine) (TFB) and a model fluorescent blue light emitting material poly-(9,9'- dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N, N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'- phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (95:5 mol%) (F8-PFB random copoloymer), is shown to satisfy the key charge transport characteristics required to ensure exciton formation at the optimum location for efficient extraction of the light where μh (LEP) 90%) of the quenching sites produced. This highlights the importance of understanding these reversible phenomena in improving P-OLED lifetime and commercial adoption of the technology.

  16. Security Implications of OPC, OLE, DCOM, and RPC in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-01-01

    OPC is a collection of software programming standards and interfaces used in the process control industry. It is intended to provide open connectivity and vendor equipment interoperability. The use of OPC technology simplifies the development of control systems that integrate components from multiple vendors and support multiple control protocols. OPC-compliant products are available from most control system vendors, and are widely used in the process control industry. OPC was originally known as OLE for Process Control; the first standards for OPC were based on underlying services in the Microsoft Windows computing environment. These underlying services (OLE [Object Linking and Embedding], DCOM [Distributed Component Object Model], and RPC [Remote Procedure Call]) have been the source of many severe security vulnerabilities. It is not feasible to automatically apply vendor patches and service packs to mitigate these vulnerabilities in a control systems environment. Control systems using the original OPC data access technology can thus inherit the vulnerabilities associated with these services. Current OPC standardization efforts are moving away from the original focus on Microsoft protocols, with a distinct trend toward web-based protocols that are independent of any particular operating system. However, the installed base of OPC equipment consists mainly of legacy implementations of the OLE for Process Control protocols.

  17. Concentration-insensitive phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PhOLEDs) for easy manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumur, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.dumur@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Lepeltier, Marc [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Zamani Siboni, Hossein, E-mail: hzamanis@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Xiao, Pu; Graff, Bernadette; Lalevée, Jacques [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse IS2M, UMR 7361 CNRS, Université de Haute Alsace, 15 rue Jean Starcky, 68057 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Aziz, Hany [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Two heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes Ir(piq){sub 2}(dbm) and Ir(btp){sub 2}(acac) have been tested as emitters for phosphorescent OLEDs (PhOLEDs). Interestingly, device performance exhibited a marked insensitivity to the dopant concentration. In this study, a dibenzoylmethane (dbm)-based complex has also been tested for the first time as dopant for OLEDs. To evaluate the emissive properties of this new emitter belonging to a family of complexes that has not been investigated yet, identical devices were prepared with the well-known red dopant Ir(btp){sub 2}(acac) for comparison. The new complex Ir(piq){sub 2}(dbm) exhibited comparable performance to that obtained with Ir(btp){sub 2}(acac). - Highlights: • A new neutral iridium complex has been tested as emitter. • TD-DFT calculations and electrochemical measurements were carried out to support the experimental results. • UV–visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy of complexes were investigated. • Concentration-insensitive phosphorescent organic light emitting devices were obtained.

  18. La Sociedad de Autores Españoles (1899-1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante ia úitima parte dei sigio xix ios autores españoies iniciaron un movimiento asociativo en defensa de sus derechos como profesionales. El proceso culminó en la fundación de la Sociedad de Autores Españoles (precedente de la actual Sociedad General de Autores Españoles. El objetivo principal de la SAE fue conseguir para los autores la administración y gestión de los derectios derivados de sus composiciones musicales y teatrales, lo que tuvo una gran importancia en un momento en que se estaban transformando las formas de ocio en nuestro país. Estas páginas pretenden llevar a cabo un repaso de su organización, sus logros y su evolución desde 1899 hasta 1932.During the last part of xix century, Spanish authors started a movement looking after their rights as professionals in pursuit of assoclations to defend them. The process finished in the foundation of the Sociedad de Autores Españoles (precedent of the SGAE. The principal objective of the SAE was to obtain the right to manage and to negotiate their own works and compositions. This was a very important sucess because of the change of leisure in Spain. In these pages, I will try to study the organization, the achievements and the evolution of the SAE from 1899 to 1932.

  19. La movilidad social de los emigrantes españoles en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La migración española de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se ha caracterizado en un primer momento por su carácter masivo y poco cualificado, seguido por un interregno de procesos de retorno y finalmente por una migración estable, no masiva pero altamente cualificada. La atención prestada a la inmigración masiva que recibe España a finales del siglo XX relegó a un segundo plano esta emigración cualificada de españoles. En este artículo se considera la relación entre movilidad espacial (migración de españoles y su posible consecuencia sobre la movilidad social ascendente que experimentan. Para ello se utilizan los datos procedentes de la encuesta internacional EIMSS (European Internal Migrations Social Survey y los procedimientos de escalamiento de clase social basados en la ocupación de Goldthorpe. El análisis se complementa con una simulación sobre la movilidad de clase, con la finalidad de visualizar y comparar los efectos sobre la movilidad social de la emigración de españoles a Francia, Alemania, Italia y Gran Bretaña.

  20. Vegetable proteomics: the detection of Ole e 1 isoallergens by peptide matching of MALDI MS/MS spectra of underivatized and dansylated glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Anna; Aiello, Donatella; Di Donna, Leonardo; Moschidis, Petros; Sindona, Giovanni

    2008-07-01

    Ole e 1 (NCBI entry gi|14424429) is the major allergen of Oleaceae family. Multiple isoforms and variants are present in varying degrees of distribution. In this report, we present a new approach to the resolution of multiple forms of Ole e 1 from whole antigen extracts, based on a preliminary chemical fractionation procedure followed by MALDI MS and MS/MS measurements. The characterization of Ole e 1 isoallergens was accomplished through the identification of the amino acid sequence including the glycosylation site and the structure of the glycan moieties. The structure feature of the identified Ole e 1.0102 (gi|2465127), main olive allergen [Olea europaea] (gi|13195753), Major pollen allergen Ole e 1 (gi|33329740) and Ole e 1c (gi|1362131) is represented by the point mutation K(106) --> I and by the presence of a glycan moiety. Two other variants Major pollen allergen (Allergen Ole e1) (Ole e I) (gi|14424429) and Ole e 1.0103 protein [Olea europea] (gi|2465129) were identified as nonglycosylated species. These results, partially in disagreement with Swiss-Prot annotation, were validated by matching the MALDI MS/MS spectra of the natural tryptic mixture with those obtained after deglycosylation.

  1. P1-7: Modern Display Technology in Vision Science: Assessment of OLED and LCD Monitors for Visual Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, cathode ray tube (CRT monitors have been the dominant display technology in vision science. However, in recent years, most manufacturers stopped their CRT production lines, which enforces the application of alternative display technology in the field of vision science. Here, we analyze liquid crystal displays (LCDs and organic light-emitting diode (OLED monitors for their applicability in vision science experiments. Based on extensive measurements of their photometric output, we compare these technologies and contrast them with classical CRT monitors. Vision scientists aim to accurately present both static and dynamic stimuli on their display devices. As for the presentation of static stimuli, we demonstrate an increased accuracy for LCD and OLED devices compared to CRT monitors, because the former exhibit a higher degree of independence of neighboring pixels. As for dynamic presentations, both CRTs and OLEDs outperform LCD devices in terms of accuracy, because dynamic presentations on LCDs require a reorientation of the liquid crystal molecules, so that successive frames in time depend on each other. Together with widely unknown and uncontrolled technical artifacts, these properties of LCDs may impair visual experiments that require high temporal precision. Therefore, OLED monitors are more suitable for vision science experiments with respect to both their static and their temporal characteristics. However, for certain applications in visual neuroscience, the low duty cycle of some OLED devices may introduce frequencies to the photometric output which fall within the window of visibility of neurons in the visual cortex and therefore interfere with single unit recordings.

  2. Towards Optimality in Online Learning – The OLeCenT Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Beckford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education Institutions (HEIs employ Learning Management Systems (LMSs primarily for greater efficiency, profitability, technological advancement or survival. The predominantly used LMSs, Moodle and Blackboard account for in excess of 60% usage by the top HEIs. However, the individual international regions do not necessarily bear the percentages of the overall total. Gaps are identified in optimality in course delivery within online learning when one studies LMSs and their functionalities. Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL Initiative which was established to standardize and modernize training and education management and delivery, developed and recommended usage of Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM 2004 and later versions. SCORM 2004 which provides for flexibility in sequencing and navigation for learner-centric course delivery is not supported in any version of the more prevalently used LMSs. It is believed that most people have a preferred way in processing information. We propose codifying one or more Learning Style Instruments (LSIs, diagnosing the preferred teaching approach(es and dominant/existing learning styles within a batch of learners, then providing course delivery as a best-fit per learner. As a proof of concept, OLeCenT allows the input of one or more course learning paths with real-time learning and automatic reconfiguration of the course path where a new trend or pattern is identified. OLeCenT identified disparity in teaching-learning and provided a mechanism towards improving online learner-centric course delivery. OLeCenT also identified comparative levels of similarities among learners and instructors even where they are deemed to be of different teaching-learning styles/mechanisms.

  3. Modulation of n-Type Units in Bipolar Host Materials toward High-Performance Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Liu, Di; Li, Jiuyan; Ma, Mengyao

    2017-11-01

    9'-Pyridinyl-9'H-9,3':6',9″-tercarbazole (PyCz) is a bipolar host material in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). A second n-type unit, either pyridine or diphenylphosphine dioxide (DPPO), is introduced onto the pyridine ring of PyCz at para- or metasite to design and prepare four novel "dual n-type unit bipolar host" materials m-BPyCz, p-BPyCz, m-POPyCz, and p-POPyCz. The incorporation of the second n-type unit pulls down the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and facilitates electron injection and transportation, resulting in better charge-balancing ability. As a result, these dual n-type unit bipolar hosts exhibit higher efficiencies and slower efficiency roll-off in their blue and green PhOLEDs. In particular, m-POPyCz containing a bulky DPPO as the second n-type unit with a metalinking possesses the best charge-balancing state and generates a maximum external quantum efficiency (η ext ) of 27.0% (corresponding to a current efficiency of 51.9 cd A -1 and a power efficiency of 46.5 lm W -1 ) in its sky-blue device and still remained at a high η ext of 23.6% even at the practical brightness of 1000 cd m -2 . These results clearly demonstrate that the "dual n-type unit bipolar hosts" with an optimized substitution position and steric effect is a new and effective type of host materials for high-performance OLEDs.

  4. Full-Color LCD Microdisplay System Based on OLED Backlight Unit and Field-Sequential Color Driving Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Woo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single-panel LCD microdisplay system using a field-sequential color (FSC driving method and an organic light-emitting diode (OLED as a backlight unit (BLU. The 0.76′′ OLED BLU with red, green, and blue (RGB colors was fabricated by a conventional UV photolithography patterning process and by vacuum deposition of small molecule organic layers. The field-sequential driving frequency was set to 255 Hz to allow each of the RGB colors to be generated without color mixing at the given display frame rate. A prototype FSC LCD microdisplay system consisting of a 0.7′′ LCD microdisplay panel and the 0.76′′ OLED BLU successfully exhibited color display and moving picture images using the FSC driving method.

  5. El ecosistema multiplataforma de los grupos televisivos españoles: los formatos de entretenimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, E. (Enrique)

    2011-01-01

    La revolución digital ha transformado de un modo decisivo la industria del entretenimiento audiovisual, especialmente la del sector televisivo. Los operadores españoles han pasado de gestionar una cadena de televisión a un grupo de canales y toda una serie de plataformas complementarias accesibles desde el móvil e Internet. Como consecuencia, toda la cadena de valor de la producción audiovisual necesita ser revisada, desde la ideación de los contenidos hasta su producción y comercializaci...

  6. ortho-, meta-, and para-dihydroindenofluorene derivatives as host materials for phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Maxime; Thiery, Sébastien; Shirinskaya, Anna; Declairieux, Céline; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Jeannin, Olivier; Rault-Berthelot, Joëlle; Métivier, Rémi; Poriel, Cyril

    2015-01-19

    This work reports the first structure-properties relationship study of ortho [2,1-c]-, meta [1,2-a]-, and para [1,2-b]dihydroindenofluorenes, highlighting the influence of bridge rigidification on the electronic properties. This study has made it possible to devise an extended π-conjugated molecule with both a high triplet state energy level and excellent thermal and morphological stability. As a proof of concept, dihydroindenofluorenes were used as the host in sky-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with high performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Vpliv toplotnih mostov na porabo energije za ogrevanje na primeru osnovne šole

    OpenAIRE

    Megušar, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Na primeru Osnovne šole Dobrova sem preveril, kakšen vpliv imajo dejanski toplotni mostovi na porabo energije za ogrevanje. Iz načrtov stavbe sem evidentiral vse toplotne mostove, kateri vplivajo na porabo energije. Tem toplotnim mostovom sem nato v standardu SIST EN ISO 14683 poiskal ustrezne približke. Nato sem s programom TOST izvedel tri simulacije. V prvem primeru toplotnih mostov nisem upošteval. V drugem primeru sem toplotne mostove upošteval na poenostavljen način, v zadnjem primeru p...

  8. Actitudes de los consumidores españoles frente al fraude fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopo López, María Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2016. Director de la Tesis: Enrique Pérez Del Campo. Codirectora: Susana Romero Sanz El presente trabajo de investigación trata del estudio de las actitudes de los consumidores españoles frente al fraude fiscal. Y la elección del término consumidores en vez del clásico contribuyentes es, por supuesto, intencionada. Esta referencia a los consumidores trata de llamar la atención sobre el hecho de que, aunque los ...

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of europium picrate tetraethylene glycol complex as emissive material for OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusrini, Eny, E-mail: ekusrini@che.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Saleh, Muhammad I.; Adnan, Rohana [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Yulizar, Yoki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, 16424 Depok (Indonesia); Sha Shiong, Ng; Fun, H.K. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Adhha Abdullah, M.A.; Mamat, Mazidah [Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu Darul Iman (Malaysia); Za' aba, N.K.; Abd. Majid, W.H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-01-15

    A new europium complex [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O was synthesized and used as the emission material for the single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al, using a spin-coating technique. Study on the optical properties of the [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75H{sub 2}O complex where EO4=tetraethylene glycol and Pic=picrate anion, had to be undertaken before being applicable to the study of an organic light emitting diode (OLED). The electrical property of an OLED using current-voltage (I-V) measurement was also studied. In complex, the Eu(III) ion was coordinated with the EO4 ligand as a pentadentate mode, one water molecule, and with two Pic anions as bidentate and monodentate modes, forming a nine-coordination number. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the crystalline complex in the solid state and its thin film showed a hypersensitive peak at 613.5-614.9 nm that assigned to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition. A narrow band emission from the thin film EO4-Eu-Pic was obtained. The typical semiconductor I-V curve of device ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al showed the threshold and turn on voltages at 1.08 and 4.6 V, respectively. The energy transfer process from the ligand to the Eu(III) ion was discussed by investigating the excitation and PL characteristics. Effect of the picrate anion on the device performance was also studied. - Highlights: > The [Eu(Pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(EO4)](Pic).0.75(H{sub 2}O) is crystallized in triclinic with space group P-1. > The complex is applied as a emissive center in single layer device structure of ITO/EO4-Eu-Pic/Al. > The complex displays a red luminescence in both the crystalline complex and its thin film state. > The low turn on voltage of the device (4.6 V), indicating that this material is suitable for OLED. > The roughness and morphology of the thin film affects luminance and electrical properties of OLED.

  10. La classe des adjectifs dans un créole français : le cas du mauricien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleesaib Muhsina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Certains auteurs soutiennent qu'il n'y a pas lieu de distinguer une classe adjectivale dans les créoles français en se basant sur les ressemblances entre les verbes et les adjectifs. Cet article soutient l'hypothèse inverse pour le créole mauricien qui distingue bien une classe adjectivale. Deux critères sont proposés comme étant distinctifs : l'incompatibilité avec la marque du progressif et la possibilité de se combiner avec le verbe vinn « devenir ».

  11. Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies Toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad Omary; Bruce Gnade; Qi Wang; Oussama Elbjeirami; Chi Yang; Nigel Shepherd; Huiping Jia; Manuel Quevedo; Husam Alshareef; Minghang Li; Ming-Te Lin; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Iain Oswald; Pankaj Sinha; Ravi Arvapally; Usha Kaipa; John Determan; Sreekar Marpu; Roy McDougald; Gustavo Garza; Jason Halbert; Unnat Bhansali; Michael Perez

    2010-08-31

    This project has advanced solid-state lighting (SSL) by utilizing new phosphorescent systems for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The technical approach was two-fold: a) Targeted synthesis and screening of emitters designed to exhibit phosphorescence with maximized brightness in the solid state; and b) Construction and optimizing the performance of monochromatic and white OLEDs from the best new emitters to improve performance metrics versus the state of the art. The phosphorescent systems were screened candidates among a large variety of recentlysynthesized and newly-designed molecular and macromolecular metal-organic phosphors. The emitters and devices have been optimized to maximize light emission and color metrics, improve the long-term durability of emitters and devices, and reduce the manufacturing cost both by simplifying the process flow and by seeking less expensive device components than common ones. The project succeeded in all these goals upon comparison of the best materials and devices investigated vs. the state of the art of the technology.

  12. Lanthanide tetrakis-β-diketonate dimers for solution-processed OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, J.P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Av. Luís de Camões 57, P-9004-514 Funchal, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, P. [Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Coya, C.; Álvarez, A.L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Madrid (Spain); Pereira, L.C. [Solid State Group, UCQR, IST/CTN, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Díaz, R. [Electrochemical Processes Unit, IMDEA Energy Institute, Avda. Ramón de la Sagra 3, 28935 Móstoles Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gil, J. [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia (Spain); Ramos Silva, M., E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    Two Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} homodinuclear complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propanedione have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography, vibrational analysis, calorimetric, magnetic and optical studies. The two isostructural complexes consist of two tetrakis units bridged by two potassium ions, thus affording a neutral charge. The photoluminescence measurements reveal that efficient energy transfer from the β-diketonate ligand to the central Ln{sup 3+} ion by antenna effect is achieved for Eu{sup 3+}, leading to intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48%. The Eu{sup 3+}-based material has been assessed as the active layer in a solution-processed OLED with glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:Eu-dimer/TiO{sub 2}/Al structure and its electroluminescent properties have been inspected, showing a threshold voltage of 6 V. - Highlights: • Europium and terbium homodinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized. • Efficient energy transfer from ligands to Eu{sup 3+} is achieved by antenna effect. • Intense red emission with an intrinsic quantum yield of 48% is attained. • Eu{sup 3+} complex has been integrated in a solution-processed OLED as the emissive layer.

  13. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David; Hamer, John

    2017-06-30

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the innovative high-performance deposition technology required to deliver dramatic reductions in the cost of manufacturing OLED lighting in production equipment. The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is the most urgent barrier to its market acceptance. The new deposition technology delivers solutions to the two largest parts of the manufacturing cost problem – the expense per area of good product for organic materials and for the capital cost and depreciation of the equipment. Organic materials cost is the largest expense item in the bill of materials and is predicted to remain so through 2020. The high-performance deposition technology developed in this project, also known as the next generation source (NGS), increases material usage efficiency from 25% found in current Gen2 deposition technology to 60%. This improvement alone results in a reduction of approximately $25/m2 of good product in organic materials costs, independent of production volumes. Additionally, this innovative deposition technology reduces the total depreciation cost from the estimated value of approximately $780/m2 of good product for state-of-the-art G2 lines (at capacity, 5-year straight line depreciation) to $170/m2 of good product from the OLEDWorks production line.

  14. Photovoltaic OLED Driver for Low-Power Stand-Alone Light-to-Light Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) stand-alone systems need to achieve multiple energy conversion modes. I.e. the energy conversion from PV to a local energy storage as well as energy conversion from the energy storage to the load. This paper documents the practical design considerations for the development of a ...... conversion from photovoltaic panel to the battery, and 97 % in the area 1.4 W to 2 W for power delivery to the OLED.......Photovoltaic (PV) stand-alone systems need to achieve multiple energy conversion modes. I.e. the energy conversion from PV to a local energy storage as well as energy conversion from the energy storage to the load. This paper documents the practical design considerations for the development...... of a three-port-converter for this purpose optimized for the specifications for driving an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) panel intended for lighting purposes. By using a three-port-converter, featuring shared components for each conversion mode, the converter reaches 97 % efficiency at 1.8 W during...

  15. Fast responsive and highly efficient optical upconverter based on phosphorescent OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinbo; Guan, Min; Niu, Litao; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Yiyang; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Zhanping; Wang, Baoqiang

    2014-11-12

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid optical upconverter that can convert irradiated 980 nm IR light to 510 nm green phosphorescence sensitively was fabricated and studied. fac-Tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) doped 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) was used as emitting layer in the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) unit. The upconverter using a phosphorescent OLED as display unit can achieve a higher upconversion efficiency and a low power consumption when compared with the one using fluorescent. An upconversion efficiency of 4.8% can be achieved for phosphorescent device at 15 V, much higher than that of fluorescent one (2.0%). The upconverter's transient optical and electric response to IR pulse were also investigated for the first time. The response time was found to be influenced by IR intensity and applied voltage. It has a response time as short as 60 μs. The rapid response property of the upconverter makes it feasible to be applied to high-speed IR imaging systems.

  16. 3,3'-Bicarbazole-Based Host Molecules for Solution-Processed Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungwoon; Lee, Suhan; Lee, Jaemin; Lim, Eunhee; Jung, Byung Jun

    2018-04-08

    Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are attractive due to their low-cost, large area displays, and lighting features. Small molecules as well as polymers can be used as host materials within the solution-processed emitting layer. Herein, we report two 3,3'-bicarbazole-based host small molecules, which possess a structural isomer relationship. 9,9'-Di-4-n-butylphenyl-9 H ,9' H -3,3'-bicarbazole ( BCz-nBuPh ) and 9,9'-di-4-t-butylphenyl-9 H ,9' H -3,3'-bicarbazole ( BCz-tBuPh ) exhibited similar optical properties within solutions but different photoluminescence within films. A solution-processed green phosphorescent OLED with the BCz-tBuPh host exhibited a high maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of 43.1 cd/A and 40.0 lm/W, respectively, compared to the device with the BCz-nBuPh host.

  17. Study of interface properties of electrodes for the Alq3 base OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, A.; Lee, C. B.; Hu, X.

    2004-02-01

    We have studied the carrier transport properties of amorphous organic material tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) for Al, LiF/Al, NaCl/Al, KBr/Al cathodes and ITO and ITO/HTL anodes at room temperature. The investigation was made by the current - voltage, luminescence - current characteristic measurements. The current density increases by several orders for LiF/Al and NaCl/Al cathodes over that of Al at a given bias voltage. The electron injection processes at the metal/organic contact dominate the current - voltage characteristics. The carrier injection seems to be limited by the charge hopping of interfacial molecular sites. We have also developed a process method for the preparation of anodic indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surface for high efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure atomic concentration of each element In, Sn, O and C on treated ITO surface. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to scan the surface profiles of ITO. The OLED performance considerably improved by the ITO surface treatments as well as by ITO/HTL anode due to the reduction of holes injection barrier between ITO and Alq3 interface.

  18. Efficient OLEDs Fabricated by Solution Process Based on Carbazole and Thienopyrrolediones Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Abraham Lozano-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Four low molecular weight compounds—three of them new, two of them with carbazole (Cz as functional group and the other two with thienopyrroledione (TPD group—were used as emitting materials in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. Devices were fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS/emitting material/LiF/Al. The hole injector layer (HIL and the emitting sheet were deposited by spin coating; LiF and Al were thermally evaporated. OLEDs based on carbazole derivatives show luminances up to 4130 cd/m2, large current efficiencies about 20 cd/A and, cautiously, a very impressive External Quantum Efficiency (EQE up to 9.5%, with electroluminescence peaks located around 490 nm (greenish blue region. Whereas, devices manufactured with TPD derivatives, present luminance up to 1729 cd/m2, current efficiencies about 4.5 cd/A and EQE of 1.5%. These results are very competitive regarding previous reported materials/devices.

  19. Efficient and stable single-doped white OLEDs using a palladium-based phosphorescent excimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetham, Tyler; Ji, Yunlong; Huang, Liang; Fleetham, Trenten S; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    A tetradentate Pd(ii) complex, Pd3O3, which exhibits highly efficient excimer emission is synthesized and characterized. Pd3O3 can achieve blue emission despite using phenyl-pyridine emissive ligands which have been a mainstay of stable green and red phosphorescent emitter designs, making Pd3O3 a good candidate for stable blue or white OLEDs. Pd3O3 exhibits strong and efficient phosphorescent excimer emission expanding the excimer based white OLEDs beyond the sole class of Pt complexes. Devices of Pd3O3 demonstrate peak external quantum efficiencies as high as 24.2% and power efficiencies of 67.9 Lm per W for warm white devices. Furthermore, Pd3O3 devices in a carefully designed stable structure achieved a device operational lifetime of nearly 3000 h at 1000 cd m -2 without any outcoupling enhancement while simultaneously achieving peak external quantum efficiencies of 27.3% and power efficiencies over 81 Lm per W.

  20. Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, You-Hyun; Yoon, Ju-An; Lee, Sang Youn; Ryu, Dae Hyun; Wood, Richard; Moon, C.-B.; Kim, Woo Young

    2013-01-01

    The electroluminescent characteristics of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were investigated including single emitting layer (SEL) with an ADN host and dopants; BCzVBi, C545T, and DCJTB for blue, green and red emission, respectively. The structure of the high efficiency WOLED device was; ITO/NPB(700 Å)/ADN: BCzVBi-7%:C545T-0.05%:DCJTB-0.1%(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) for mixing three primary colors. Luminous efficiency was 9.08 cd/A at 3.5 V and Commission Intenationale de L’eclairage (CIE x,y ) coordinates of white emission was measured as (0.320, 0.338) at 8 V while simulated CIE x,y coordinates were (0.336, 0.324) via estimation from each dopant's PL spectrum. -- Highlights: • This paper observes single-emissive-layered white OLED using fluorescent dopants. • Electrical and optical properties are analyzed. • Color stability of white OLED is confirmed for new planar light source

  1. Color optimization of single emissive white OLEDs via energy transfer between RGB fluorescent dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, You-Hyun; Yoon, Ju-An; Lee, Sang Youn [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dae Hyun [Department of Information Technology, Hansei University, Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Wood, Richard [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Moon, C.-B. [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: wykim@hoseo.edu [Department of Green Energy and Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    The electroluminescent characteristics of white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were investigated including single emitting layer (SEL) with an ADN host and dopants; BCzVBi, C545T, and DCJTB for blue, green and red emission, respectively. The structure of the high efficiency WOLED device was; ITO/NPB(700 Å)/ADN: BCzVBi-7%:C545T-0.05%:DCJTB-0.1%(300 Å)/Bphen(300 Å)/Liq(20 Å)/Al(1200 Å) for mixing three primary colors. Luminous efficiency was 9.08 cd/A at 3.5 V and Commission Intenationale de L’eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates of white emission was measured as (0.320, 0.338) at 8 V while simulated CIE{sub x,y} coordinates were (0.336, 0.324) via estimation from each dopant's PL spectrum. -- Highlights: • This paper observes single-emissive-layered white OLED using fluorescent dopants. • Electrical and optical properties are analyzed. • Color stability of white OLED is confirmed for new planar light source.

  2. Los españoles ante la Justicia penal: actitudes y expectativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RUIDÍAZ GARCÍA

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objeto estudiar las opiniones de los españoles en torno a un cierto número de cuestiones de política criminal en el período de transición y consolidación democrática, con especial consideración a la valoración que hacen los ciudadanos de la administración de justicia, la percepción de la evolución de la criminalidad y las medidas que consideran más eficaces para paliar esta situación. Igualmente vamos a intentar penetrar en la conciencia penal de los españoles, a fin de evaluar el grado de permisividad o severidad ante determinados comportamientos delictivos. por último, trataremos de sintetizar estas aportaciones dentro del marco general de la crisis de legitimidad de las instituciones públicas.-- en todos los casos, y siempre que lo permitan los datos, trataremos de presentar una realidad diacrónica y sincrónica del estado de la cuestión.

  3. The effect of Indium metal nanoparticles on the electronic properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhor, Davood, E-mail: d_kalhor@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Damghan University, POB 3671941167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin, E-mail: e-mohajerani@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi Pour, Omid, E-mail: HashemiPour@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper the effect of Indium nanoparticles (NPs) on the electronic properties of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is experimentally investigated. The metal NPs which are added to the hole transfer layer can be considered as a blocker layer for injected electrons. By optimizing hole and electron ratio, current density and voltage can be decreased. In order to study this effect, among various fabricated devices, a specific structure, namely ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/TPD (45 nm)/NPs (x nm)/Alq{sub 3} (50 nm)/Ag (80 nm) has been used. Also, the experiment is investigated for Au and Cu as different cathode the results of structures are compared with Ag cathode. A manually controllable shutter was used for vacuum deposition process to prepare the same structures and to avoid any disturbing effects. It is observed that specific Indium NPs reduce current density and turn on voltage of the device. - Highlights: • The effect of In NPs on the electronic properties of OLEDs is investigated. • Current density and voltage may be reduced by optimizing electron hole ratio. • In NPs reduce the current density and turn on voltage of the device.

  4. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Ole1, fatty acid desaturase, is required for Atg9 delivery and isolation membrane expansion during autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ogasawara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy, a major degradation pathway of cytoplasmic components, is carried out through formation of a double-membrane structure, the autophagosome. Although the involvement of specific lipid species in the formation process remains largely obscure, we recently showed that mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA generated by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 are required for autophagosome formation in mammalian cells. To obtain further insight into the role of MUFA in autophagy, in this study we analyzed the autophagic phenotypes of the yeast mutant of OLE1, an orthologue of SCD1. Δole1 cells were defective in nitrogen starvation-induced autophagy, and the Cvt pathway, when oleic acid was not supplied. Defects in elongation of the isolation membrane led to a defect in autophagosome formation. In the absence of Ole1, the transmembrane protein Atg9 was not able to reach the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS, the site of autophagosome formation. Thus, autophagosome formation requires Ole1 during the delivery of Atg9 to the PAS/autophagosome from its cellular reservoir.

  6. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are

  7. Senses and Hands to the Same Degree as Thought – Ole Rømer’s Mechanical Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The astronomer Ole Rømer emphasized the mechanical nature of the practice of astronomy and this paper attempts to unravel what Rømer meant by the close association between mechanics and astronomy. The point of departure is Rømer's work with Tycho Brahe's observations and his stay at the Royal...

  8. ["The Society for letters and natural science" The young Ole H. Mynster and the chemical revolution around 1800].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sven Erik

    2015-01-01

    Ole H. Mynster (1772-1818) was a stepson of the leading physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital in Copenhagen. At an early age he became fond of zoology and mineralogy. He created "societies" in Enlightenment-style for boys and young people with lectures and collections. Later on a circle of talented young students, scientists and poets met in his small room at the hospital. Some of them with Ole Mynster as the head set up a modern scientific journal, Physicalsk, oeconomisk og medicochirurgisk Bibliotek for Danmark og Norge which encouraged the introduction of antiphlogistic chemistry. Ole Mynster became physician at the Royal Frederik Hospital and lecturer in clinical pharmacology. He wrote the first book in Danish on pharmacology based upon chemistry. In their memoirs, prominent members of his circle have told about him, and his son F.L. Mynster has written a draft for a biography. An overview of the activities within natural science and medicine of the young Ole Hieronymus Mynster is presented.

  9. Flexible Al-doped ZnO films grown on PET substrates using linear facing target sputtering for flexible OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin-A; Shin, Hyun-Su; Choi, Kwang-Hyuk; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    We report the characteristics of flexible Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films prepared by a plasma damage-free linear facing target sputtering (LFTS) system on PET substrates for use as a flexible transparent conducting electrode in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical, optical and structural properties of LFTS-grown flexible AZO electrodes were investigated as a function of dc power. We obtained a flexible AZO film with a sheet resistance of 39 Ω/□ and an average transmittance of 84.86% in the visible range although it was sputtered at room temperature without activation of the Al dopant. Due to the effective confinement of the high-density plasma between the facing AZO targets, the AZO film was deposited on the PET substrate without plasma damage and substrate heating caused by bombardment of energy particles. Moreover, the flexible OLED fabricated on the AZO/PET substrate showed performance similar to the OLED fabricated on a ITO/PET substrate in spite of a lower work function. This indicates that LFTS is a promising plasma damage-free and low-temperature sputtering technique for deposition of flexible and indium-free AZO electrodes for use in cost-efficient flexible OLEDs.

  10. Device reflectivity as a simple rule for predicting the suitability of scattering foils for improved OLED light extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levell, J.W.; Harkema, S.; Pendyala, R.K.; Rensing, P.A.; Senes, A.; Bollen, D.; MacKerron, D.; Wilson, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    A general challenge in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) is to extract the light efficiently from waveguided modes within the device structure. This can be accomplished by applying an additional scattering layer to the substrate which results in outcoupling increases between 0% to <100% in

  11. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLED); Degradation der phosphoreszenten blauen organischen Leuchtdioden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic materials harvest singlet and triplet excitons through inter-system crossing and improve the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This improvement increases the potential of OLEDs, particularly white phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs), for lighting application. Although much progress has been made in the development of white PHOLEDs, the lifetime of phosphorescent emitters, especially the blue emitter, still needs to be improved. This thesis discusses the developments of blue PHOLEDs and investigations of degradation mechanisms. For development of blue PHOLEDs, two phosphorescent blue emitters were investigated: commercially available FIrpic and B1 provided by BASF. By varying the matrix and blocker materials, diode efficiency and lifetime have been investigated and improved. Blue PHOLEDs with emitter B1 show better efficiency and lifetime than devices with FIrpic. From lifetime measurement with constant DC current density, intrinsic degradation including luminance loss and voltage increase on both FIrpic and B1 PHOLEDs was observed. Photoluminescence measurement shows degradation in the emitting layers. To investigate the degradation of emitter layers, single-carrier devices with emitter systems or pure matrix materials were fabricated. Degradation on these devices was investigated by applying constant DC current, UV-irradiation and combination of both. We found that due to excited states (excitons), FIrpic molecules become unstable and polarons would enhance the degradation of FIrpic during DC operation and UV-excitation. To investigate the impact the exciton formation and exciton decay have on the degradation of FIrpic molecules, red phosphorescent emitter Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was doped in blue emitter layer TCTA:20% FIrpic. The doping concentration of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was much lower than FIrpic to ensure that most of the exciton formation occurred on FIrpic molecules. Lower triplet energy of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) molecules

  12. Substrate Trapping in Crystals of the Thiolase OleA Identifies Three Channels That Enable Long Chain Olefin Biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Jensen, Matthew R.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2016-11-04

    Phylogenetically diverse microbes that produce long chain, olefinic hydrocarbons have received much attention as possible sources of renewable energy biocatalysts. One enzyme that is critical for this process is OleA, a thiolase superfamily enzyme that condenses two fatty acyl-CoA substrates to produce a β-ketoacid product and initiates the biosynthesis of long chain olefins in bacteria. Thiolases typically utilize a ping-pong mechanism centered on an active site cysteine residue. Reaction with the first substrate produces a covalent cysteine-thioester tethered acyl group that is transferred to the second substrate through formation of a carbon-carbon bond. Although the basics of thiolase chemistry are precedented, the mechanism by which OleA accommodates two substrates with extended carbon chains and a coenzyme moiety—unusual for a thiolase—are unknown. Gaining insights into this process could enable manipulation of the system for large scale olefin production with hydrocarbon chains lengths equivalent to those of fossil fuels. In this study, mutagenesis of the active site cysteine in Xanthomonas campestris OleA (Cys143) enabled trapping of two catalytically relevant species in crystals. In the resulting structures, long chain alkyl groups (C12 and C14) and phosphopantetheinate define three substrate channels in a T-shaped configuration, explaining how OleA coordinates its two substrates and product. The C143A OleA co-crystal structure possesses a single bound acyl-CoA representing the Michaelis complex with the first substrate, whereas the C143S co-crystal structure contains both acyl-CoA and fatty acid, defining how a second substrate binds to the acyl-enzyme intermediate. An active site glutamate (Gluβ117) is positioned to deprotonate bound acyl-CoA and initiate carbon-carbon bond formation.

  13. Non-Doped Sky-Blue OLEDs Based on Simple Structured AIE Emitters with High Efficiencies at Low Driven Voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Amjad; Zhang, Dongdong; Peng, Ruixiang; Yang, Rongjuan; Hong, Ling; Song, Wei; Wei, Qiang; Duan, Lian; Ge, Ziyi

    2017-09-05

    Blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are necessary for flat-panel display technologies and lighting applications. To make more energy-saving, low-cost and long-lasting OLEDs, efficient materials as well as simple structured devices are in high demand. However, a very limited number of blue OLEDs achieving high stability and color purity have been reported. Herein, three new sky-blue emitters, 1,4,5-triphenyl-2-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (TPEI), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-2-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (TPEMeOPhI) and 1-phenyl-2,4,5-tris(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole (3TPEI), with a combination of imidazole and tetraphenylethene groups, have been developed. High photoluminescence quantum yields are obtained for these materials. All derivatives have demonstrated aggregation-induced emission (AIE) behavior, excellent thermal stability with high decomposition and glass transition temperatures. Non-doped sky-blue OLEDs with simple structure have been fabricated employing these materials as emitters and realized high efficiencies of 2.41 % (4.92 cd A -1 , 2.70 lm W -1 ), 2.16 (4.33 cd A -1 , 2.59 lm W -1 ) and 3.13 % (6.97 cd A -1 , 4.74 lm W -1 ) for TPEI, TPEMeOPhI and 3TPEI, with small efficiency roll-off. These are among excellent results for molecules constructed from the combination of imidazole and TPE reported so far. The high performance of a 3TPEI-based device shows the promising potential of the combination of imidazole and AIEgen for synthesizing efficient electroluminescent materials for OLED devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Niels Bohr and the Atomic Structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the electrons such as optical spectroscopy or chemical reactivity. This picture of the .... body of uncorrelated data, and thus could get to the heart of the problem. Second, he appreciated the distinction between atomic processes and the nuclear processes. .... theory needed new concepts and mathematical tools, but classical.

  15. Niels Bohr and the Atomic Structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    that succeeded in explaining the spectral features of hydrogen atom. In the process, he incorporated some non-classical features such as discrete energy levels for the bound electrons, and quantization of their angular ... element in the periodic table is determined by the nuclear charge. The particle has a mass of four ...

  16. Tetraaryl pyrenes: photophysical properties, computational studies, crystal structures, and application in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    El-Assaad, Tarek H.

    2015-10-15

    Pyrene was derivatized in positions 1, 3, 6, and 8 to yield a series of nine tetraarylpyrenes for which absorption, emission, emission lifetimes and solvatochromism in solution were determined. The fluorescence quantum yields in thin films and crystalline state, electrochemistry, and quantum-chemical calculations were completed for the series along with the X-ray crystal structure analysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 9. Compounds 2, 3, 4 as well as 7 were identified as the most suitable candidates for OLED application. Notably, in an unoptimized single-layer device geometry, these compounds exhibited blue electroluminescence coupled with impressively low turn-on voltages and high maximum luminances such as 2.8 V and 13 542 cd m-2 at 8.2 V for compound 2, respectively. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  17. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  18. Improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yunfei; Yuan Yongbo; Cao Lingfang; Zhang Jie; Pang Hongqi; Lian Jiarong; Zhou Xiang

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate improved stability of OLEDs with mild oxygen plasma-treated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as anode buffer layer. The devices with treated PEDOT:PSS layer exhibited dramatically enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to the control devices. We investigated the substantial changes in surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS layer after the mild oxygen plasma treatment by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We found that the appropriate treatment can form uniformly distributed nano scaled hillocks/islands on the surface of PEDOT:PSS layer, which possibly result in improved contact to hole transport layer and thus enhanced lifetime of the devices

  19. Spirobifluorene Core-Based Novel Hole Transporting Materials for Red Phosphorescence OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, named HTM 1A and HTM 1B, were designed and synthesized in significant yields using the well-known Buchwald Hartwig and Suzuki cross- coupling reactions. Both materials showed higher decomposition temperatures (over 450 °C at 5% weight reduction and HTM 1B exhibited a higher glass transition temperature of 180 °C. Red phosphorescence-based OLED devices were fabricated to analyze the device performances compared to Spiro-NPB and NPB as reference hole transporting materials. Devices consist of hole transporting material as HTM 1B showed better maximum current and power efficiencies of 16.16 cd/A and 11.17 lm/W, at the same time it revealed an improved external quantum efficiency of 13.64%. This efficiency is considerably higher than that of Spiro-NPB and NPB-based reference devices.

  20. Research and analysis of the level of physical preparedness of Oles Honchar Dnipro National University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Hotienko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study and analyze the level of physical preparedness of Oles Honchar Dnipro National University students. Material & Methods: the level of physical readiness of students was determined with the help of tests and standards for the annual assessment of the physical preparedness of the population of Ukraine, the results of which determine the level of development of the basic physical qualities: strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, agility. Students performed 5 types of tests. Results: obtained results made it possible to compile the dynamics of the level of physical preparedness of students: high, decent, medium, low, and also an appropriate assessment of the physical state: excellent, good, satisfactory, unsatisfactory. Conclusion: these data suggest that the majority of students are middle and low level of physical preparednes. In connection with the results suggested a set of exercises to improve the physical preparedness of students.

  1. Los cautivos españoles en Argel durante el Siglo Ilustrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano BARRIO GOZALO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Dentro del contexto de la guerra corsaria que practican los musulmanes y cristianos en el Mediterráneo, el presente estudio se centra en el corso argelino y en su consecuencia más importante: la captura de muchos españoles que pasan a engrosar el número de los cautivos cristianos en Argel, su forma de vida y posibilidades de liberación.ABSTRACT: Within the context of the corsair wars between Muslims and Christians in the Mediterranean sea, this study focuses on Algerire privateering and its most important consequence: the seizure of many Spaniards who swelled the numbers of Christian captives in Algiers, as well as their way of life and their chances of being released.

  2. Easily controlled dye doped phosphorescent OLEDs with evaporation rate in single furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Malek; Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin, E-mail: e-mohajerani@sbu.ac.ir

    2015-04-15

    Electrical and optical characteristic, surface morphology and energy transfer of Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP were studied as a function of thermal evaporation rate. We have investigated the effect of various evaporation rates for mixture of dyes using single furnace method. When the deposition rate increased from 0.5 to 5 Ǻ/s, the luminescence efficiency, current density and energy transfer of OLED increased. AFM measurements showed that the surface roughness of the Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP films decreased with increasing deposition rates. These blends show excellent red emitting guest–host system with easier deposition rate control. - Highlights: • Thermal evaporation rate is used to control the doping by using single furnace. • The advantages of using single furnace are discussed. • It is shown that the evaporation rate also affects the surface roughness.

  3. Preparation of Cyano-Substituted Tetraphenylethylene Derivatives and Their Applications in Solution-Processable OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of organic luminescent materials with high solid-state efficiency is of vital importance for their applications in optoelectronic fields. Here, a series of AIE luminogens (AIE gens, (Z-2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenyl-3-phenylacrylonitrile (SFC, and 2,3-bis(4-(9,9-bis(6-(9H-carbazol-9-ylhexyl-9H-fluoren-2-ylphenylfumaronitrile (DFC, utilizing 2,3,3-triphenylacrylonitrile and 2,3-diphenylfumaronitrile as respective centers, are designed and synthesized by Suzuki coupling reactions with high yields. The cis- and trans-isomers of DFC are also successfully obtained. All of them are thermally stable and show good solubility in common organic solvents. They all emit weakly in solution, but become strong emitters when fabricated into solid films. It is found introduction of one additional cyano group in DFC induced a big red-shift in solid-state emission, owing to its high electron-withdrawing ability. The cis- and trans-DFC show similar photophysical and Cyclic voltammogram (CV behaviors. Non-doped solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs using the three compounds as light-emitting layers are fabricated. SFC gives the best device performance with a maximum luminance of 5201 cd m−2, a maximum current efficiency of 3.67 cd A−1 and a maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQE of 1.37%. Red-shifted EL spectra are observed for cis- and trans-DFC-based device, and the OLED using trans-DFC as active layer exhibits better performance, which might derive from their different conformation in film state.

  4. Exciton-dopant and exciton-charge interactions in electronically doped OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Christopher; Lee, Sergey; Ferraris, John; Zakhidov, A. Anvar

    2004-01-01

    The electronic dopants, like tetrafluorocyanoquinodimethane (F 4 -TCNQ) molecules, used for p-doping of hole transport layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are found to quench the electroluminescence (EL) if they diffuse into the emissive layer. We observed EL quenching in OLED with F 4 -TCNQ doped N,N'-diphenyl-N'N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine hole transport layer at large dopant concentrations, >5%. To separate the effects of exciton-dopant quenching, from exciton-polaron quenching we have intentionally doped the emissive layer of (8-tris-hydroxyquinoline) with three acceptors (A) of different electron affinities: F 4 -TCNQ, TCNQ, and C 60 , and found that C 60 is the strongest EL-quencher, while F 4 -TCNQ is the weakest, contrary to intuitive expectations. The new effects of charge transfer and usually considered energy transfer from exciton to neutral (A) and charged acceptors (A - ) are compared as channels for non-radiative Ex-A decay. At high current loads the EL quenching is observed, which is due to decay of Ex on free charge carriers, hole polarons P + . We consider contributions to Ex-P + interaction by short-range charge transfer and describe the structure of microscopic charge transfer (CT)-processes responsible for it. The formation of metastable states of 'charged excitons' (predicted and studied by Agranovich et al. Chem. Phys. 272 (2001) 159) by electron transfer from a P to an Ex is pointed out, and ways to suppress non-radiative Ex-P decay are suggested

  5. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhu; Zhou, Shunliang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Hu, Song [Chengdu Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m{sup 2} to 10,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone.

  6. Highly luminescent pure-red-emitting fluorinated β-diketonate europium(III) complex for full solution-processed OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Avenida Luís de Camões 57, Funchal 9004-514, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Coya, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.coya@urjc.es [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S. [Chemistry Department, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra P-3004-535 (Portugal); Andrés, Alicia de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Álvarez, Ángel L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, Palencia 34004 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Current manufacturing technologies for OLEDs involve the use of expensive high vacuum techniques and call for thermal stability requirements which are not fulfilled by many materials. These problems disappear when the OLED films are deposited directly from solution. In this study, we have designed, synthesized and characterized a novel octacoordinated complex, Tris(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1, 3-butanedionate)mono(bathophenanthroline) europium(III), to be used as a “complex-only” emissive layer in wet-processed OLEDs. Upon excitation in the UV region, very efficient energy transfer from the ligands to Eu{sup 3+} takes place, giving rise to intense red emission with very high monochromaticity (R=19), both in powder and as a thin film. The decay times of 754 µs (powder) and 620 µs (thin film) are comparable to those of the most efficient Eu{sup 3+} β-diketonate complexes reported to date. The same energy transfer leading to saturated red and narrow emission is also observed in the OLED device (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa){sub 3}(bath)]/Ca/Al) when biased at >5.2 V. Its high quantum efficiency (∼60%), good thermal stability up to 200 °C and adequate thin film forming properties make this material a promising chromophore for cost-effective OLEDs. - Highlights: • A highly fluorinated europium(III) octacoordinated complex, [Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)], has been synthesized and its structure elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • The chosen coordination environment is well-suited for sensitizing the luminescence of the Eu{sup 3+} ion, achieving very efficient energy transfer from the organic ligands (excited in the UV region) to the rare earth ion, leading to highly efficient (Q∼60% in crystalline powder and Q∼50% in thin film) and saturated red photoluminescence. • The material has also been integrated into a single active layer, full solution-processed OLED, with ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)]/ Ca/Al structure.

  7. News Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

  8. Pyrene-Based Blue AIEgen: Enhanced Hole Mobility and Good EL Performance in Solution-Processed OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic luminogens with strong solid-state emission have attracted much attention for their widely practical applications. However, the traditional organic luminogens with planar conformations often suffer from the notorious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ effect in solid state for the π–π stacking. Here, a highly efficient blue emitter TPE-4Py with an aggregation-induced emission (AIE effect is achieved by combining twisted tetraphenylethene (TPE core and planar pyrene peripheries. When the emitter was spin-coated in non-doped OLEDs with or without a hole-transporting layer, comparable EL performance was achieved, showing the bifunctional property as both an emitter and a hole-transporting layer. Furthermore, its EL efficiency was promoted in doped OLED, even at a high doping concentration (50%, because of its novel AIE effect, with a current efficiency up to 4.9 cd/A at 484 nm.

  9. Final Report DOE SSL Grant (No. DE-EE0006673) Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Gregory [Pixelligent Technologies LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States); Monickam, Selina [Pixelligent Technologies LLC, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-08-29

    The innovation proposed in this grant is to demonstrate a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design that can maximize the energy efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) lighting devices without negatively impacting the device voltage, efficacy or angular color dependences. Even though, OLEDs have unique features compared to its inorganic counterparts, LEDs, in terms of technology development and market readiness levels, it still lags LEDs by several years. The main challenges as identified in the National Research Council’s 2013 Assessment on Solid State Lighting, are the cost of the materials and the low light extraction efficacy [1]. Improving the light extraction will improve both the $/Klm and lm/W, two important metrics DOE uses to measure the cost effectiveness of a light source.

  10. In Search of Deeper Blues: Trans-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Platinum Phenylacetylide as a Dopant for Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James D; Salehi, Amin; Zeman, Charles J; Abboud, Khalil A; So, Franky; Schanze, Kirk S

    2017-11-29

    A trans-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) platinum(II) acetylide complex bearing phenyl acetylene ligands (NPtPE1) has been synthesized via the Hagihara reaction in 64% yield. The complex features spectrally narrow deep blue emission with a phosphorescence quantum yield (0.30) and lifetime (∼10 μs) in the solid state. The modest quantum yield and lifetime make NPtPE1 a candidate for incorporation into an organic light emitting diode (OLED). Prototype devices exhibited a maximum EQE of 8% with CIE (0.20,0.20). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a platinum(II) acetylide bearing NHC ligands to be incorporated into an OLED.

  11. The Electroluminescence Mechanism of Solution-Processed TADF Emitter 4CzIPN Doped OLEDs Investigated by Transient Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency, solution-processed, organic light emitting devices (OLEDs, using a thermally-activated delayed fluorescent (TADF emitter, 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl-4,6-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN, are fabricated, and the transient electroluminescence (EL decay of the device with a structure of [ITO/PEDOT: PSS/4CzIPN 5 wt % doped 4,40-N,N0-dicarbazolylbiphenyl(CBP/bis-4,6-(3,5-di-4-pyridylphenyl-2-methylpyrimidine (B4PyMPM/lithium fluoride (LiF/Al], is systematically studied. The results shed light on the dominant operating mechanism in TADF-based OLEDs. Electroluminescence in the host–guest system is mainly produced from the 4CzIPN emitter, rather than the exciplex host materials.

  12. Optogenetic Stimulation of Peripheral Vagus Nerves using Flexible OLED Display Technology to Treat Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Mental Health Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    transcutaneous VNS OLED ‘bandage’ would be manufactured on a thin plastic substrate using commercial thin - film , flexible-display technology...Flexible displays are fundamentally a very thin , transparent sheet of plastic, approximately the same thickness as a piece of paper, and are constructed...by sequentially layering and patterning a series of nanoscale thin films . This is a technology that we’re extremely familiar with and we’ve already

  13. Doping chloro boron subnaphthalocyanines and chloro boron subphthalocyanine in simple OLED architectures yields warm white incandescent-like emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor G.; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    We have incorporated chloro boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) and chloro boron subnapthalocyanines (Cl-ClnBsubNcs) into organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) that enabled an overall warm white emission with CIE coordinates close to that of a 60 W incandescent lightbulb. More specifically, we have shown that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be used as dopant emitters in a simple host-dopant architecture, and we have compared the use of NPB and Alq3 as potential hosts for these materials. When doped into Alq3, Cl-BsubPc shows a strong orange emission, and Cl-ClnBsubNcs shows a moderately strong red emission. We have further demonstrated that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be co-doped into the same layer giving combined orange and red emission peaks. A "cascade" energy transfer mechanism of sequential absorption and re-emission is proposed. Device performance characteristics such as luminance, current efficiency, photoluminescence efficiency, and external quantum efficiency are tabulated. Additionally, in view of ongoing research into white emitting OLEDs for indoor lighting purposes, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), R9 values, and CIE co-ordinates for these devices are also discussed. We conclude from this study that the BsubNc chromophore has potential application as a red dopant in OLEDs including for indoor lighting. Additionally, given the scope for axial and peripheral derivatization of the BsubNc motif, we believe that this chromophore has many unexplored molecular design handles that will affect its ultimate performance and application in OLEDs and other opto-electronic devices.

  14. Organización espacial de la arquitectura religiosa Postridentina: el confesonario en algunos ejemplos españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Cómez Ramos, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo trata sobre el impacto de los decretos del Concilio de Trento en la transformación del espacio de la arquitectura eclesiástica a través del confesonario, haciendo referencia a ciertos ejemplos españoles This paper deals with the impact of the Council of Trenton the space and function in ecclesiastical architecture of confessionals. Reference is made to several Spanish examples

  15. Achieving High-Performance Solution-Processed Orange OLEDs with the Phosphorescent Cyclometalated Trinuclear Pt(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Jiao, Bo; Dang, Jing-Shuang; Sun, Yuanhui; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2018-03-28

    Cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes can show intense phosphorescence at room temperature. Their emission properties are determined by both the organic ligand and the metal center. Whereas most of the related studies focus on tuning the properties by designing different types of organic ligands, only several reports investigate the key role played by the metal center. To address this issue, phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes with one, two, and three Pt(II) centers are designed and synthesized. With more Pt(II) centers, the cyclometalated multinuclear Pt(II) complexes display red-shifted emissions with increased photoluminescence quantum yields. Most importantly, solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the conventional device structure using the multinuclear Pt(II) complexes as emitters show excellent performance. The controlled device based on the conventional mononuclear Pt(II) complex shows a peak external quantum efficiency, current efficiency, and power efficiency of 6.4%, 14.4 cd A -1 , and 12.1 lm W -1 , respectively. The efficiencies are dramatically improved to 10.5%, 21.4 cd A -1 , and 12.9 lm W -1 for the OLED based on the dinuclear Pt(II) complex and to 17.0%, 35.4 cd A -1 , and 27.2 lm W -1 for the OLED based on the trinuclear Pt(II) complex, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, these efficiencies are among the highest ever reported for the multinuclear Pt(II) complex-based OLEDs.

  16. Multispectral surface plasmon resonance approach for ultra-thin silver layer characterization: Application to top-emitting OLED cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, S.; Caron, B.; Gétin, S.; Lartigue, O.; Lopez, C.; Meunier-Della-Gatta, S.; Gorge, V.; Reymermier, M.; Racine, B.; Maindron, T.; Quesnel, E.

    2018-01-01

    While dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer thin films have raised considerable interest as transparent and conductive electrodes in various optoelectronic devices, the knowledge of optical characteristics of thin metallic layers integrated in such structures is still rather approximate. The multispectral surface plasmon resonance characterization approach described in this work precisely aims at providing a rigorous methodology able to accurately determine the optical constants of ultra-thin metallic films. As a practical example, the refractive index and extinction dispersion curves of 8 to 25 nm-thick silver layers have been investigated. As a result, their extreme dependence on the layer thickness is highlighted, in particular in a thickness range close to the critical threshold value (˜10 nm) where the silver film becomes continuous and its electrical conductance/optical transmittance ratio particularly interesting. To check the validity of the revisited Ag layers constant dispersion curves deduced from this study, they were introduced into a commercial optical model software to simulate the behavior of various optoelectronic building blocks from the simplest ones (DMD electrodes) to much more complex structures [full organic light emitting device (OLED) stacks]. As a result, a much better prediction of the emission spectrum profile as well as the angular emission pattern of top-emitting OLEDs is obtained. On this basis, it is also shown how a redesign of the top encapsulation thin film of OLEDs is necessary to better take benefit from the advanced DMD electrode. These results should particularly interest the micro-OLED display field where bright and directive single color pixel emission is required.

  17. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ∼32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented

  18. Low cost UV-Ozone reactor mounted for treatment of electrode anodes used in P-OLEDs devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Low cost UV-Ozone reactor using a high pressure mercury vapor lamp of 80 watts without outer bulb showed good results for treatment of ITO films used as anode electrode in the assembly of P-OLED (polymer-organic light emitting diode devices. This study revealed 20 minutes as effective treatment time and it was verified also that the effect of UV-Ozone treatment loses its efficiency as the elapsed time increases. It was analyzed with measurements of contact angle using a droplet of PEDOT:PSS polymer. P-OLEDs devices were mounted with architecture: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The PVK polymer was diluted in organic solvent of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene with concentrations of: 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg/mL. Results revealed better performance of P-OLED devices for concentration of 5 mg/mL resulting in lower threshold voltage, elevation of electrical current and similar diode curve.

  19. Organic solution-processible electroluminescent molecular glasses for non-doped standard red OLEDs with electrically stable chromaticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xiaoman; Zuo, Weiwei; Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: liuylxn@sohu.com; Zhang, Zhenru; Zeng, Cen; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The D–A–D electroluminescent molecular glasses are synthesized. • Non-doped red electroluminescent film is fabricated by spin-coating. • Red OLED shows stable wavelength, luminous efficiency and chromaticity. • CIE1931 coordinate is in accord with standard red light in PAL system. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting molecular glasses (OEMGs) are synthesized through the introduction of nonplanar donor and branched aliphatic chain into electroluminescent emitters. The target OEMGs are characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, IR, UV–vis and fluorescent spectra as well as elemental analysis, TG and DSC. The results indicated that the optical, electrochemical and electroluminescent properties of OEMGs are adjusted successfully by the replacement of electron-donating group. The non-doped OLED device with a standard red electroluminescent emission is achieved by spin-coating the THF solution of OEMG with a triphenylamine moiety. This non-doped red OLED device takes on an electrically stable electroluminescent performance, including the stable maximum electroluminescent wavelength of 640 nm, the stable luminous efficiency of 2.4 cd/A and the stable CIE1931 coordinate of (x, y) = (0.64, 0.35), which is basically in accord with the CIE1931 coordinate (x, y) = (0.64, 0.33) of standard red light in PAL system.

  20. Highly efficient orange and warm white phosphorescent OLEDs based on a host material with a carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yun; Tao, Silu; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chuan; Wei, Huaixin; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-01

    A new carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid compound, 3,3'(2,7-di(naphthaline-2-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(9-phenyl-9H-carbazole) (NFBC) was synthesized and characterized. The compound exhibits blue-violet emission both in solution and in film, with peaks centered at 404 and 420 nm. In addition to the application as a blue emitter, NFBC is demonstrated to be a good host for phosphorescent dopants. By doping Ir(2-phq)3 in NFBC, a highly efficient orange organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a maximum efficiency of 32 cd A(-1) (26.5 Lm W(-1)) was obtained. Unlike most phosphorescent OLEDs, the device prepared in our study shows little efficiency roll-off at high brightness and maintains current efficiencies of 31.9 and 26.8 cd A(-1) at a luminance of 1000 and 10,000 cd m(-2), respectively. By using NFBC simultaneously as a blue fluorescence emitter and as a host for a phosphorescent dopant, a warm white OLED with a maximum efficiency of 22.9 Lm W(-1) (21.9 cd A(-1)) was also obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Chengliang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ~32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  2. Percepción social de la conducta de los españoles en materia medioambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Sevillano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se examina la relación entre la conducta individual de las personas y su percepción social sobre la conducta de los españoles en materia medioambiental dentro del marco teórico de los sesgos cognitivos de falso consenso y falsa unicidad. Se hizo uso de una encuesta realizada por el CIS (2005; estudio n.º 2590 sobre una muestra representativa de la población española formada por 2.490 participantes. Los resultados muestran que las personas cuya frecuencia de comportamientos proambientales resultó ser moderada mostraron una clara tendencia a atribuir a los españoles esa misma frecuencia en su comportamiento pro-ambiental. Sin embargo, aquellos cuyo comportamiento pro-ambiental resultó ser más extremo, debido a una alta frecuencia de conductas pro-ambientales, mostraron una tendencia a atribuir un comportamiento distinto del suyo. Estas personas se consideraron como diferentes del resto de la población. Además, se encontró que las diferencias en la percepción social del comportamiento de los españoles en materia medioambiental están asociadas con percepciones diferentes del deterioro ambiental y de la preocupación hacia el medio ambiente.

  3. Phosphorescent Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes for Efficient, High-Color-Quality, and Stable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetham, Tyler; Li, Guijie; Li, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are leading candidates for next-generation displays and solid-state lighting technologies. Much of the academic and commercial pursuits in phosphorescent OLEDs have been dominated by Ir(III) complexes. Over the past decade recent developments have enabled square planar Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes to meet or exceed the performance of Ir complexes in many aspects. In particular, the development of N-heterocyclic carbene-based emitters and tetradentate cyclometalated Pt and Pd complexes have significantly improved the emission efficiency and reduced their radiative lifetimes making them competitive with the best reported Ir complexes. Furthermore, their unique and diverse molecular design possibilities have enabled exciting photophysical attributes including narrower emission spectra, excimer -based white emission, and thermally activated delayed fluorescence. These developments have enabled the fabrication of efficient and "pure" blue OLEDs, single-doped white devices with EQEs of over 25% and high CRI, and device operational lifetimes which show early promise that square planar metal complexes can be stable enough for commercialization. These accomplishments have brought Pt complexes to the forefront of academic research. The molecular design strategies, photophysical characteristics, and device performance resulting from the major advancements in emissive Pt and Pd square planar complexes are discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los intentos de clasificación de interjecciones, onomatopeyas y formas inarticuladas no han resultado satisfactorios, pues no existe una taxonomía aceptada de forma generalizada. Basándonos en estudios anteriores, el presente trabajo pretende revisar estos fenómenos en tebeos tan netamente españoles como Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia y TBO. Para ello se compila un corpus de unidades léxicas que reflejan tanto sonidos inarticulados, como interjecciones y onomatopeyas con el objetivo de estudiar si dichas unidades utilizadas en los tebeos corresponden a la representación de ese sonido articulado, esa interjección o esa onomatopeya en su forma inglesa o en su forma española. Así, se podrán obtener conclusiones sobre la posible influencia de la lengua inglesa en los tebeos españoles a través de la clasificación de las unidades recopiladas en el corpus, aún no tratándose de traducciones sino de producciones nacionales, y posiblemente se podrá determinar hasta qué punto dichas formas podrían entenderse por parte de un hablante hispano sin la ayuda gráfica que supone la viñeta.The attempts at classifying interjections, onomatopoeias and inarticulated forms have not turned out satisfactory, as there is no taxonomy that is widely accepted. Taking as basis previous studies, the present piece of work intends to revise these phenomena in so genuine Spanish comics as Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia and TBO. To do so, a corpus of lexical units including inarticulated sounds, interjections and onomatopoeias is compiled in order to examine whether the units used in the comics correspond to the representation of that articulated sound, that interjection or that onomatopoeia in their English form or in their Spanish form. This will allow us to draw conclusions on the possible influence of the English language in the Spanish comics through the classification of the units compiled in

  5. Investigation of quinoline-based materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changqing

    Blue electroluminescent materials are essential for the development of full-color displays. A blue-emitting quinoline-based material 8,8' -dimethoxy-5,5'-bisquinoline (DMeOBQ) was synthesized and characterized. This material is sublimable and has significantly improved hydrolytic stability as well as promising electron transporting and emitting properties. A blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was made with this material. The device configuration is indium tin oxide/NPB/DMeOBQ/CsF/Al. N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl-1,1 '-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine (NPB) was used as the hole transporting material, DMeOBQ as the electron transporting and blue emitting material, and CsF/Al as the cathode. The device showed a bright blue emission with a peak wavelength of 425nm (CIE coordinates: x = 0.155, y = 0.10) and narrow EL band (FWHM = 63 nm). The device also showed a low turn on voltage of 2.8 ev. Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) has become one of the most widely used electroluminescent materials in OLEDs because of its good stability and luminescence properties. The existence of various isomers (meridianal and facial) as well as left- and right-handed enantiomers of the meridianal isomer could potentially contribute to structure randomization of Alq3, thereby qualitatively addressing the microcrystaline nature of this material. We studied exchange dynamics of the three inequivalent ligands and the enantiomers in Alq3 complexes. Liquid state NMR spectroscopy was used to quantify the interchange of the three ligands, the temperature dependence of this process and the enantiomers of Alq3 in the presence of a chiral shift reagent. The three inequivalent ligands were found to exchange following a first-order kinetic model. Activation parameters were obtained from the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants. The activation energies for the flip of the three inequivalent ligands were found to be around 100 kJ/mol. The existence of the two enantiomers of

  6. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  7. La posición económica de los ancianos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURDES PÉREZ ORTIZ

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende abordar el problema de la posición económica de los ancianos españoles en los comienzos de la década de los noventa a partir de las principales estadísticas básicas disponbles y centrando la atención en la estructura de los hogares de ancianos. El envejecimiento es considerado como un proceso dinámico carente de comportamientos estancos, y la vejez, como fenómeno social, es entendida como una situación que recoge heterogéneas posiciones sociales y económicas en su interior. Se analizan las diversas formas de convivencia en hogares con ancianos, así como configuraciones de renta y de gasto en función de estas distintas situaciones. igualmente, se presentan las distintas interpretaciones posibles para situar a los ancianos en relación con el umbral de pobreza, y se comparan las distintas situaciones que se registran entre tipos de hogares con y sin ancianos.

  8. BODIPY associates in organic matrices: Spectral properties, photostability and evaluation as OLED emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkushev, D.A.; Usoltsev, S.D. [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Marfin, Yu.S., E-mail: marfin@isuct.ru [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A.P., E-mail: pushkarev@iomc.ras.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry RAS, Tropinina 49, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volyniuk, D.; Grazulevicius, J.V. [Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu pl. 19, LT-50254 Kaunas (Lithuania); Rumyantsev, E.V. [Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Sheremetevskiy Avenue 7, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    In the present study four BODIPY (boron dipyrromethene: 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) dyes with π-extended substituents in C-8 position were investigated in solvents and polymer mediums. High aggregation degree was observed for the dyes in the solid state. Association and twisted intramolecular charge transfer processes were found to affect the spectral properties of the compounds causing bathochromic shifts in absorption and fluorescence spectra. The extension of substituent π-conjugation gains molecular association evoked presumably by π-π interaction between the substituents of the adjacent molecules. Photostability of the complexes in different forms was analyzed and the distorted form stabilized by polymer matrix was found to be the most stable. The substituent nature did not affect strongly the photostability of dyes. Displacement of monomer-associate equilibrium in hybrid materials with polymethylmethacrylate and poly(9-vinylcarbazole) was exploited for tuning spectral characteristics of the materials. Two dyes readily forming aggregates at the lowest concentrations were applied for the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes. The fabricated devices exhibited electroluminescence in the appropriate spectral ranges with moderate efficiency. - Highlights: • Four BODIPY dyes with π-extended substituents in 8-position were investigated in solvents and polymers. • Substituent influence on photophysical properties and photostability of the compounds are discussed. • Aggregation induced spectral changes were observed. • Displacement of monomer-aggregate equilibrium was exploited for tuning electroluminescent characteristics of OLED devices.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of germane/stannane-capped polysiloles for the fabrication of luminescent OLED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Kim, Whan Gi; Cho, Myong-Shik

    2009-12-01

    Dehydropolymerization (with various inorganic hydrides) and subsequent germane/stannane-capping (with Me2GeHCI and Ph2SnHCI) of 1,1-dihydrotetraphenylsilole (1) give electroluminescent germane/stannane-capped polysiloles (2) in high yield. The polymerization yield and molecular weight with Selectride increase in the order L-Selectride < N-Selectride < K-Selectride. The molecular weights increase in the order Red-Al < K-Selectride < Super Hydride. The germane/stannane-capped polysiloles 2 emit at 521 nm and are electroluminescent at 522 nm. The fluorescence quantum yield of 2 in toluene is (1.66 +/- 0.26) x 10(-2). The emission color is green and the maximum brightness of the device is 2,800 cd/m2 with a luminous efficiency of 0.68 lm/W. The type of end group exhibited no appreciable effect on the luminescent properties of polysilole backbone. Thus, the germane/stannane-capped polysiloles are found to be a good material for OLED fabrication.

  10. Predictores de la adicción en atletas veteranos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ruiz-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio se centró, por un lado, en obtener los niveles de adicción al entrenamiento, motivación, ansiedad, satisfacción intrínseca, percepción y creencias sobre las causas del éxito en su deporte de una muestra de 401 atletas veteranos españoles de ambos sexos especialistas en las diversas pruebas de pista. Por otro, se pretendió analizar la predicción de las diferentes dimensiones de la adicción de estos atletas por el resto de constructos psicológicos considerados. Se obtuvieron valiosos datos descriptivos en todos los constructos psicológicos analizados y el análisis regresivo mostró que la subescala positiva de la adicción se podría predecir por puntuar alto en los constructos más deseables y positivos analizados, en concordancia con la hipótesis, mientras que las subescalas negativas lo fueron por puntuar alto en los menos deseables y positivos. Se concluye que la adicción en estos atletas está más cerca de un sano compromiso con su práctica deportiva que de las dimensiones negativas de la adicción.

  11. Influencia familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available En la cultura mediterránea la familia sigue siendo la agencia socializadora por excelencia, a pesar de diversos cambios referenciales y en la intensidad de los afectos, así como en los estilos disciplinares característicos de nuevas tipologías de familias postmodernas. La influencia y modelado familiar sobre las actitudes ante el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en adolescentes está bien establecida en indicadores tales como experiencias paternas con las drogas, apego y supervisión parental, clima afectivo, dinámica sociofamiliar, etc. Nuestro objeto de estudio se centra en el análisis psicosocial de tales indicadores, así como en ofrecer un análisis diferencial de la valoración de la relación paterno-filial en relación con las actitudes ante el consumo de drogas en un colectivo de adolescentes españoles. Se ha confirmado una mayor permisividad actitudinal y menor concienciación ante los efectos dañinos de las drogas en los hijos de padres consumidores de sustancias psicoactivas tanto legales como ilegales. Se confirma la importancia psicosocial del Apoyo más valorado por los adolescentes que no consumen drogas, así como la percepción diferencial del empleo del Castigo-Coerción y de la Reprobación en adolescentes consumidores que presentan niveles de mayor permisividad actitudinal.

  12. Assistant dopant system in solution processed phosphorescent OLEDs and its mechanism reveal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juntao; Hu, Sheng; Lu, Chaochao; Huang, Yang; Xu, Kai; Wang, Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an assistant dopant system in phosphorescent OLEDs. The system is consisted of a conventional host material 4,4‧-Bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) 2,4,5,6-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-1,3-dicyanobenzene (4CzIPN) and a red phosphor Bis[2-(4-n-hexylphenyl)quinoline](acetylacetonate)iridium(III) (Hex-Ir(phq)2(acac)), it has achieved maximum current efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 21.52 cd/A and 9.22%, respectively. The intrinsic mechanism and energy transfer process in the system have been discussed in detail. Moreover, a satisfactory critical current density J0 of 106.1 mA/cm2 has been obtained when the assistant dopant concentration ascends to a suitable level, which indicated low efficiency roll-off of the device. By investigating the exciton generation mechanism and the transient electroluminescence (EL), the main cause of the improvement has been revealed.

  13. Enhancement of efficiency and stability of phosphorescent OLEDs based on heterostructured light-emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Byung Doo, E-mail: bdchin@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-23

    The light-emitting efficiency and stability of a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED), whose emission characteristics are strongly dominated not only by the energy transfer but also by the charge carrier trapping influenced by heterostructured emissive layers, are studied. The variation of the material combination of the heterostructured emitter, both for mixed and double layer configuration, affects the charge injection behaviour, luminous efficiency and stability. Both double and mixed emitter configurations yield low-voltage and high-efficiency behaviour (51 lm W{sup -1} at 1000 cd m{sup -2}; 30 lm W{sup -1} at 10 000 cd m{sup -2}). Such an improvement in power efficiency at elevated brightness is sufficiently universal, while the enhancement of device half-lifetime is rather sensitive to the circumstantial layout of heterostructural emitters. With an optimal mixture of hole-transport type and electron-transport type, a half-lifetime of more than 2500 h at 4000 cd m{sup -2} is obtained, which is 8 times the half-lifetime of control devices with a single emitter structure. The origin and criterion for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime are discussed in terms of the carrier transport behaviour with a specific device architecture.

  14. Accurate prediction of emission energies with TD-DFT methods for platinum and iridium OLED materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Glenn R

    2017-06-01

    Accurate prediction of triplet excitation energies for transition metal complexes has proven to be a difficult task when confronted with a variety of metal centers and ligand types. Specifically, phosphorescent transition metal light emitters, typically based on iridium or platinum, often give calculated results of varying accuracy when compared to experimentally determined T1 emission values. Developing a computational protocol for reliably calculating OLED emission energies will allow for the prediction of a complex's color prior to synthesis, saving time and resources in the laboratory. A comprehensive investigation into the dependence of the DFT functional, basis set, and solvent model is presented here, with the aim of identifying an accurate method while remaining computationally cost-effective. A protocol that uses TD-DFT excitation energies on ground-state geometries was used to predict triplet emission values of 34 experimentally characterized complexes, using a combination of gas phase B3LYP/LANL2dz for optimization and B3LYP/CEP-31G/PCM(THF) for excitation energies. Results show excellent correlation with experimental emission values of iridium and platinum complexes for a wide range of emission energies. The set of complexes tested includes neutral and charged complexes, as well as a variety of different ligand types.

  15. OLED-based DNA biochip for Campylobacter spp. detection in poultry meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Marisa; Cecchini, Francesca; Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Melpignano, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Integrated biochips are the ideal solution for producing portable diagnostic systems that uncouple diagnosis from centralized laboratories. These portable devices exploit a multi-disciplinary approach, are cost effective and have several advantages including broader accessibility, high sensitivity, quick test results and ease of use. The application of such a device in food safety is considered in this paper. Fluorescence detection of a specific biological probe excited by an optical source is one of the most commonly used methods for quantitative analysis on biochips. In this study, we designed and characterized a miniaturized, highly-sensitive DNA biochip based on a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode. The molecular design of the diode was optimized to excite a fluorophore-conjugated DNA probe and tested using real meat samples to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity against one of the most common poultry meat contaminants: Campylobacter spp. Real samples were analyzed also by classical plate methods and molecular methods to validate the results obtained by the new DNA-biochip. The high sensitivity obtained by the OLED based biochip (0.37ng/μl) and the short time required for the results (about 24h) indicate the usefulness of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evaluation of the quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría versus Medicina Clínica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonillo Perales, A

    2002-08-01

    To compare the scientific methodology and quality of articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica. A stratified and randomized selection of 40 original articles published in 2001 in Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica was made. Methodological errors in the critical analysis of original articles (21 items), epidemiological design, sample size, statistical complexity and levels of scientific evidence in both journals were compared using the chi-squared and/or Student's t-test. No differences were found between Anales Españoles de Pediatría and Medicina Clínica in the critical evaluation of original articles (p > 0.2). In original articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría, the designs were of lower scientific evidence (a lower proportion of clinical trials, cohort and case-control studies) (17.5 vs 42.5 %, p 0.05), sample sizes were smaller (p 0.003) and there was less statistical complexity in the results section (p 0.03). To improve the scientific quality of Anales Españoles de Pediatría, improved study designs, larger sample sizes and greater statistical complexity are required in its articles.

  17. Sistema de ayuda visual para apoyar aprendizaje de fonemas españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique San Juan Urrutia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo  tiene como propósito  mostrar un sistema computacional con la capacidad de apoyar el aprendizaje de la  pronunciación de un conjunto determinado de fonemas españoles, dirigido a personas sordas o con dificultades auditivas, que tienen como consecuencia trastornos del habla. La posibilidad de “ver lo que se dice”, puede resultar  muy útil como método para la implantación y rehabilitación del Habla. Visualizar de forma inmediata, mediante una gráfica, los perfiles acústicos de los principales parámetros de la señal de voz y asociarlos con imágenes que representan lo dicho, ha resultado una alternativa adicional muy estimulante en el campo de la Foniatría. Dicho sistema basa su  funcionamiento en la extracción y comparación de parámetros fundamentales de las señales de voz, entre los cuales se puede mencionar los LPC (Linear Predictive Coding, Formantes y  coeficientes Ceptrales en la escala de frecuencias de Mel (Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, MFCCs.  Se espera que el sistema constituya una  herramienta  de apoyo a la rehabilitación de trastornos del habla, reemplazando el canal de realimentación auditivo por un canal de realimentación visual. Es decir, mediante gráficas de los perfiles acústicos y principales parámetros característicos de la señal de voz, con imágenes e indicadores de  avance, se estructura en conjunto una importante herramienta alternativa adicional para la rehabilitación en trastornos del habla.

  18. La educación intercultural en los centros escolares españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henar RODRÍGUEZ NAVARRO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Son muchas las iniciativas que sobre educación intercultural se están llevando a cabo en las escuelas de nuestro país. El panorama es variado y adaptado a las decisiones y a las necesidades que cada autonomía ha considerando relevantes. Consideramos interesante visibilizar las prácticas escolares que sobre interculturalidad se han realizado en los centros educativos españoles en las últimas décadas. Empezamos este escrito a través de un repaso de las políticas educativas que han dado cobertura a tales actuaciones para describir posteriormente las características concretas de la práctica escolar. Las líneas de análisis que vertebran estas acciones las hemos sintetizado en: I. Los planes de acogida, II. La atención a la diversidad lingüística y cultural, III. Las estructuras escolares cooperativas, IV. La participación de la comunidad educativa, V. La mediación intercultural y la resolución de conflictos, VI. La Formación de Profesorado, VII. Los observatorios de las diferentes comunidades. Podemos entender todas estas actuaciones desde dos enfoques diferenciados; uno más relacionado con la educación inclusiva y otro que actúa desde la educación compensatoria. Relacionamos al final las acciones de la interculturalidad educativa con los principios básicos de las comunidades de aprendizaje, considerándolas un soporte desde el que dar cobertura a las acciones educativas previamente descritas.

  19. Microwave assisted transformation of N,N-diphenylamine as precursors of organic light emitting diodes (OLED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefri,; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Organic Chemistry Research Division, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    In this research, study on the transformation of N,N-diphenylamine (DPA) using iodine (I2) utilizing solid state Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method has been carried out. The reaction was performed by variations of three parameters namely the mole of reagents, the amount and type of solid support (alumina/Al2O3), and the reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that neutral-alumina was a better solid support than basic-alumina. The optimum temperature for the reaction was approximately at 125-133 °C with reaction time of 15 minutes and microwave reactor power at 500-600 W. The separation of the yellowish green product solution with preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) method using n-hexane:ethyl acetate = 4:1 (v/v) as eluent yielded two fractions (I and II) and both fractions can undergo fluorescence under 365 nm UV light. Based on the LC chromatogram with methanol:water = 95:5 (v/v) as eluent and its corresponding mass spectra (ESI+), fraction I contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole A, triphenylamine, and impurities in the form of plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Fraction II also contained three compounds, which were tetracarbazole C, tetraphenylhydrazine, and plasticizer such as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Both FT-IR (KBr disks) and NMR (500 MHz, CDCl{sub 3}) spectra of fraction I and II confirmed the aromatic amine groups in those compounds. The observed fluorescence colors of fraction I and II were violet and violet-blue, respectively. Based on their structures and fluorescence characters, the compounds in fraction I and II have the potential to be used as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) compound precursors.

  20. Influência de diferentes solventes utilizados na deposição de filme de poli(9-vinilcarbazol em dispositivos OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the influence of the film deposition process on light emission performance and on threshold voltage of OLEDs, with architecture glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The commercial PVK was dissolved in different solvents such as: chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and trimethylpentane. OLEDs were characterized by current-voltage and revealed a significant influence of the solvents, although all devices emitted green electroluminescence. A difference in threshold voltage up to 10 V was observed among OLEDs prepared from different solvents. The 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene showed best performance, presenting lowest treshold voltage (≈ 6 V, followed by tetrahydrofuran (≈ 8 V, trimethylpentane (≈ 14 V and chloroform (≈ 16 V.

  1. Motivos de pr??ctica de actividad f??sico-deportiva en adolescentes espa??oles: estudio AVENA

    OpenAIRE

    Mart??nez-Baena, Alejandro C??sar; Chill??n, Palma; Mart??n-Matillas, Miguel; P??rez L??pez, Isaac Jos??; Castillo, Ruth; Zapatera, Bel??n; Vicente-Rodr??guez, Germ??n; Casaj??s, Jos?? Antonio; ??lvarez-Granda, Lino; Romero Cerezo, Cipriano; Tercedor S??nchez, Pablo; Delgado Fern??ndez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fundamentos: La pr??ctica de actividad f??sico-deportiva es un medio ideal para la obtenci??n de beneficios bio-psico-sociales en la salud de los j??venes. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer los motivos de pr??ctica de actividad f??sico-deportiva en una muestra representativa de adolescentes espa??oles. M??todos: Se efectu?? un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y se emple?? la encuesta sobre comportamientos, actitudes y valores sobre actividad f??sica y deportiva del G...

  2. Tipología de los orígenes de los sufijos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pharies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication in 2002 of our Diccionario etimológico de los sufijos españoles, it is now possible for the first time to classify all Spanish suffixes according to their origins, that is, according to the processes through which they were coined. After reviewing briefly the few works that have been dedicated to the origins of suffixes, and clarifying the distinction between authentic suffixes and nonsuffixal final elements, I offer an etymological classification of the former according to the various genetic categories to which they belong.

  3. FIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DEL CUESTIONARIO DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA PAQ-A EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES

    OpenAIRE

    David Martínez-Gómez; Vicente Martínez-de-Haro; Tamara Pozo; Gregory J. Welk; Ariel Villagra; Marisa E. Calle; Ascensión Marcos; Oscar L. Veiga

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentos: Los cuestionarios son una herramienta útil para valorar la actividad física (AF) en grandes poblaciones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar la fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de AF PAQ-A en adolescentes españoles utilizando como criterio de referencia la medición de la AF por acelerómetro. Métodos: En una muestra de 82 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años se evaluó la fiabilidad test-retest de la versión española del cuestionario PAQ-A en una semana. La fiabilidad se ...

  4. Análisis comparativo de las cabeceras de los diarios digitales españoles respecto a los impresos

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquin Basilio López del Ramo

    2012-01-01

    Análisis comparativo de las cabeceras de las ediciones digital e impresa de 20 periódicos representativos de los principales grupos de prensa españoles. Se clasifican las características básicas de este elemento y se emplea una ficha documental de diseño propio para su estudio. Los resultados muestran la pérdida de protagonismo visual del logotipo o logosímbolo por su menor tamaño y desplazamiento lateral, y el empleo del marco de la cabecera para insertar otros elementos y acceso a recursos ...

  5. [Analysis of the impact of Anales Españoles de Pediatría through the Science Citation Index from 1997-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Río, F; Mayoralas Alises, S; Esparza Paz, P; González Pérez-Yarza, E

    2002-08-01

    To quantify the impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatría from 1997 until 2000 and to identify the journal's citation patterns and the topics with the greatest impact. SCISEARCH was used to locate citations of articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría between 1995 and 1999. The following data were collected for each article: year of publication, authors, journal, country of publication, language, specialty or specialties, institution(s), residence of the first author and topic. The impact factor was calculated as the ratio between citations received over 1 year by articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría in the two previous years and the total number of articles published by Anales Españoles de Pediatría over the 2 years under study. The impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatría was 0.052 in 1997, 0.080 in 1998, 0.101 in 1999, 0.089 in 2000 and 0.064 in 2001. Citations were found in a wide range of source journals. The greatest proportion (35.6 %) were found in Spanish medical journals. Citations were made mainly by Spanish authors (62.8 %) and self-citation was moderate (14.3 %). Topics related to neurology (16.9 % of the citations received), infectious diseases (16.2 %) and neonatology (14.8 %) had the greatest impact. The impact factor of Anales Españoles de Pediatria is modest, although higher than that of some other biomedical publications included in Journal Citation Reports.

  6. In tenebris adhuc versantes. La respuesta de los novatores españoles a la invectiva de Pierre Régis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Vidal, Àlvar; Pardo-Tomás, José; Pardo-Tomás, José

    1995-01-01

    Pierre Régis, un médico calvinista de origen francés exilado en Holanda, aludió despectivamente a los españoles y a los portugueses en el prefacio de las "Opera Posthuma" de M. Malpighi (Amsterdam, 1698). Diversos médicos españoles, sobre todo Diego Mateo Zapata, replicaron a Régis y utilizaron su invectiva como pretexto para conseguir el apoyo de la nueva dinastía, los Borbones, al movimiento de renovación científica iniciado a finales del siglo XVII. En sus réplicas implicaron a dos sign...

  7. [Anales Españoles de Pediatría 2001. Bibliometric indicators of scientific quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Dios, J

    2002-08-01

    BACKGROUND. One important objective of Anales Españoles de Pediatría (An Esp Pediatr) is to be included in Journal Citation Reports-Science Citation Index and the main step to achieve this is to increase the scientific quality of this Spanish journal. Bibliometric indicators are important tools used to determine the quality of scientific publications. A bibliometric study of all the original articles published in An Esp Pediatr in 2001 (n 76) was performed; bibliometric indicators were classified into quantitative and qualitative (statistical analyses and level of scientific evidence). The results were compared with the original articles published in the journal from 1994 to June 2000 (n 733) and with the original articles published in Pediatrics in 2001 (n 276). The differences found in An Esp Pediatr between the two study periods were the following in 2001: greater collaboration between epidemiologists and/or biostatisticians in the authorship of articles (19.7 %), increased complexity of statistical analyses (statistical accessibility > 7 in 25 %) and greater use of evidence-based methodological concepts (19.7 %). However, no improvement was found in the scientific evidence (evidence was good in only 1.4 % and average in 25.7 %). Other aspects of interest were a lower number of original articles (due to an increase in other types of articles, such as Letters to the Editor or Special Articles) and a greater percentage of articles on evidence-based medicine or articles using its methodology. The differences in bibliometric indicators of quality found between An Esp Pediatr and Pediatrics continued to be considerable: statistical accessibility, evidence-based methodological concepts and scientific evidence (for example, good evidence was 22 times more frequent in Pediatrics). The scientific quality of An Esp Pediatr improved in 2001 compared with that of previous years, but the differences found between this journal and the gold standard of Pediatrics are still

  8. Turbocharged molecular discovery of OLED emitters: from high-throughput quantum simulation to highly efficient TADF devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Aguilera-Iparraguirre, Jorge; Hirzel, Timothy D.; Ha, Dong-Gwang; Einzinger, Markus; Wu, Tony; Baldo, Marc A.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán.

    2016-09-01

    Discovering new OLED emitters requires many experiments to synthesize candidates and test performance in devices. Large scale computer simulation can greatly speed this search process but the problem remains challenging enough that brute force application of massive computing power is not enough to successfully identify novel structures. We report a successful High Throughput Virtual Screening study that leveraged a range of methods to optimize the search process. The generation of candidate structures was constrained to contain combinatorial explosion. Simulations were tuned to the specific problem and calibrated with experimental results. Experimentalists and theorists actively collaborated such that experimental feedback was regularly utilized to update and shape the computational search. Supervised machine learning methods prioritized candidate structures prior to quantum chemistry simulation to prevent wasting compute on likely poor performers. With this combination of techniques, each multiplying the strength of the search, this effort managed to navigate an area of molecular space and identify hundreds of promising OLED candidate structures. An experimentally validated selection of this set shows emitters with external quantum efficiencies as high as 22%.

  9. Trabajadores y empresarios españoles en el estado de Puebla en 1930: Una aproximación cuantitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Moreno Lázaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo sostenemos la tesis de que, en contra de lo escrito hasta la fecha, el grueso de los emigrados españoles a México trabajó como asalariado y no alcanzó el éxito empresarial. Para demostrarlo, hemos empleado el censo de españoles elaborado por el Consulado español en Puebla. Pero, al mismo tiempo, determinamos las razones del mayor éxito empresarial de la minoría española que el de la mayoría mexicana, sustentado en la fortaleza de sus instituciones no formales, los lazos de solidaridad, la política matrimonial y la cultura empresarial de origen, al margen del valor intangible de enorme importancia que representaba el idioma común.Contrary to what has been written so far, in this paper we present the argument that the bulk of Spanish emigrants to Mexico worked as employees and were not successful in business. To demonstrate this we have used the Spanish census prepared by the Spanish Consulate in Puebla. However, at the same time, we have also determined the reasons for the greater business success of the Spanish minority over the Mexican majority, based on the strength of their non-formal institutions, bonds of solidarity, marriage policy and corporate culture of origin, without mentioning the tremendously important intangible value that the common language represented.

  10. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raupp@kit.edu; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm [Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hummel, Helga [Philips Technologie GmbH Innovative Technologies, Aachen (Germany); Bruns, Michael [Institute for Applied Materials and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  11. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline-(4-phenylphenoxyaluminum, originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  12. Revisión de las características y usos De la planta Moringa oleífera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Villarreal Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el estado de conocimiento de la planta Moringa oleífera y su posible impacto en la solución de problemas de seguridad alimentaria. De la variedad de beneficios que aporta esta especie a la humanidad en materia de usos médicos, químicos y agrícolas, se puede destacar forraje animal, biogás, productos de limpieza doméstica, productos cosméticos y medicinales, purificación del agua, entre otros (Fuglie, 1999. Debido a que sus beneficios potenciales son muchos y tiene bajísimos niveles de sustancias antinutricionales, la Moringa oleífera es un alimento nutritivo y benéfico que ofrece características muy atractivas para establecer su cultivo (Olson & Fahey, 2011; si los estudios demuestran la riqueza nutricional de la planta y su biodisponibilidad de una manera suficiente, se tendría un poderoso recurso natural para combatir la desnutrición infantil y familiar, especialmente en poblaciones vulnerables.

  13. Los códices modelo y los manuscritos hebreos bíblicos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Monasterio, Mª Teresa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Biblical Hebrew manuscripts preserved in Spanish libraries is well known. Some of them, for example, were used in the edition of celebrated Polyglote Bibles, such as the Complutensian or Antwerp Bible. Despite the apparent similarity of the Masorah of most significant Spanish manuscripts, the style and the information they provide show some differences. In the present article I have selected some important Spanish manuscripts, and studied the notes in the Masorah of the Pentateuch referring to the so-called Model Codices.

    La importancia de los manuscritos hebreos bíblicos conservados en bibliotecas españolas es bien conocida. Algunos de ellos, por ejemplo, han sido utilizados en la composición de famosas biblias, tales como la Políglota Complutense o la Biblia Regia. A pesar de la aparente similitud de la masora de los manuscritos españoles más significativos, el estilo y la información que proporcionan muestran algunas diferencias. En este artículo he seleccionado algunos manuscritos españoles relevantes y he analizado las notas que aparecen en las masoras del Pentateuco acerca de estos códices modelo.

  14. Design and Synthesis of Pyrimidine-Based Iridium(III) Complexes with Horizontal Orientation for Orange and White Phosphorescent OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin-Song; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Two phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) were synthesized and characterized with emission ranged at 584/600 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 0.90/0.92, respectively. The angle-dependent PL spectra analysis reveals that the two orange iridium(III) complexes embodied horizontal orientation property. The high photoluminescence quantum yield and high horizontal dipoles ratio determine their excellent device performance. The devices based on Ir(ppm)2(acac) and Ir(dmppm)2(acac) achieved efficiencies of 26.8% and 28.2%, respectively, which can be comparable to the best orange phosphorescent devices reported in the literature. Furthermore, with the introduction of FIrpic as sky-blue emitter, phosphorescent two-element white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) have been realized with external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) as high as 25%, which are the highest values among the reported two-element white OLEDs.

  15. Light emission in forward and reverse bias operation in OLED with amorphous silicon carbon nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, R [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru SN, Lima (Peru); Cremona, M [Departamento de Fisica, PontifIcia Universidade Catolica de Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, Cx. Postal 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Achete, C A, E-mail: rreyes@uni.edu.pe [Departamento de Engenheria Metalurgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiC:N) thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering were used in the structure of an organic light emitting diode (OLED), obtaining an OLED operating in forward and reverse bias mode. The device consist of the heterojunction structure ITO/a-SiC:N/Hole Transport Layer (HTL)/ Electron Transport Layer (ETL)/a-SiC:N/Al. As hole transporting layer was used a thin film of 1-(3-methylphenyl)-1,2,3,4 tetrahydroquinoline - 6 - carboxyaldehyde - 1,1'- diphenylhydrazone (MTCD), while the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) is used as electron transport and emitting layer. A significant increase in the voltage operation compared to the conventional ITO/MTCD/Alq{sub 3}/Al structure was observed, so the onset of electroluminescence occurs at about 22 V in the forward and reverse bias mode of operation. The electroluminescence spectra is similar in both cases, only slightly shifted 0.14 eV to lower energies in relation to the conventional device.

  16. Red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a heteroleptic cyclometalated Iridium (III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepeltier, Marc [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Dumur, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.dumur@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Wantz, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wantz@ims-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); Vila, Neus; Mbomekallé, Israel [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Mayer, Cédric R., E-mail: cmayer@lisv.uvsq.fr [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes de Versailles LISV – EA 4048, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 10/12 avenue de l’Europe, 78140 Vélizy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highly efficient red-emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a neutral vacuum-sublimatable heteroleptic iridium (III) complex have been designed and studied. Heteroleptic complex Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) was prepared in one step with acetylacetone (acac) as the ancillary ligand. Electronic and spectroscopic properties of Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) were investigated by UV–visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Electrophosphorescent devices comprising Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) as dopant of TCTA exhibited outstanding electroluminescence performance with a current efficiency of 10.0 cd A{sup −1}, a maximum power efficiency of 7.2 lm W{sup −1} and a maximal brightness of 3540 cd m{sup −2} was reached at 8.0 V. CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained (0.67, 0.33). -- Highlights: • A saturated red OLED has been prepared. • High power efficiency and brightness were obtained. • Thickness of the device was determined as a parameter determining the overall performance. • CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained.

  17. Theoretical rationalization of the singlet-triplet gap in OLEDs materials: impact of charge-transfer character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, M; Muccioli, L; Son, W-J; Olivier, Y; Sancho-García, J C

    2015-01-13

    New materials for OLED applications with low singlet-triplet energy splitting have been recently synthesized in order to allow for the conversion of triplet into singlet excitons (emitting light) via a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) process, which involves excited-states with a non-negligible amount of Charge-Transfer (CT). The accurate modeling of these states with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), the most used method so far because of the favorable trade-off between accuracy and computational cost, is however particularly challenging. We carefully address this issue here by considering materials with small (high) singlet-triplet gap acting as emitter (host) in OLEDs and by comparing the accuracy of TD-DFT and the corresponding Tamm-Dancoff Approximation (TDA), which is found to greatly reduce error bars with respect to experiments thanks to better estimates for the lowest singlet-triplet transition. Finally, we quantitatively correlate the singlet-triplet splitting values with the extent of CT, using for it a simple metric extracted from calculations with double-hybrid functionals, that might be applied in further molecular engineering studies.

  18. Effect of Substituents on the Electronic Structure and Degradation Process in Carbazole Derivatives for Blue OLED Host Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Minki

    2016-07-25

    We investigate the dissociation mechanism of the C-N bond between carbazole and dibenzothiophene in carbazole-dibenzothiophene (Cz-DBT) positional isomers, selected as representative systems for blue host materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The C-N bond dissociation energies, calculated at the density functional theory level, are found to depend strongly on the charge states of the parental molecules. In particular, the anionic C-N bond dissociations resulting in a carbazole anion can have low dissociation energies (∼1.6 eV) with respect to blue emission energy. These low values are attributed to the large electron affinity of the carbazole radical, a feature that importantly can be modulated via substitution. Substitution also impacts the energies of the first excited electronic states of the Cz-DBT molecules since these states have an intramolecular charge-transfer nature due to the spatially localized character of the frontier molecular orbitals within the carbazole moiety (for the HOMO) and the dibenzothiophene moiety (for the LUMO). The implications of these results must be considered when designing blue OLED hosts since these materials must combine chemical stability and high triplet energy. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  19. Cathode encapsulation of OLEDs by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films and Al2O3/a-SiNx:H stacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, W.; Van de Weijer, P.; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Creatore, M.

    2011-01-01

    Al2O3 thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition(ALD) at room temperature (25 ºC) have been tested as water vapor per-meation barriers for OLED devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiNx:H)deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) servedas reference and were

  20. Actitudes y conductas sexuales de riesgo para la infección por VIH/SIDA en jóvenes españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil, María Dolores; Giménez, Cristina; Ruiz, Estefanía

    2009-01-01

    En este estudio se analizan las actitudes y conductas sexuales de riesgo de los jóvenes españoles respecto a la infección por VIH. Se administró el Cuestionario de Prevención del SIDA a 196 jóvenes. Los resultados muestran lagunas importantes en l

  1. Características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles: e-ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio FUENTES ESPARRELL

    2011-01-01

    telefonía móvil como principales tecnologías de uso en los momentos actuales. De esa manera, nos podremos hacer una idea de las principales características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles para una adecuada e¿ciudadanía.

  2. The portrait miniature of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki on a letter of indulgence issued in 1449 for the Church of All Saints in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Walczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A particularly interesting example of illuminated document is the indulgence granted to all who would visit the parish church of All Saints in Cracow on the major feasts of the liturgical year, issued by the Cracow Bishop, Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki (1423–1450 in 1449. A piece of parchment is decorated with the miniature composed of two juxtaposed fields, of which the upper one shows Christ with St Peter on His right, surrounded by the community of saints; the bottom field depicts the Pope seated between St Jerome and Cardinal Oleśnicki. This hierarch had been raised to the purple no fewer than three times. For the first time, Pope Eugene IV granted him this dignity with the accompanying title of St Prisca, but Oleśnicki did not accept it. Then Antipope Felix V, elected by the Council of Basle, elevated Oleśnicki to the cardinalate (with the title of St Anastasia, but the Cracow prelate likely did not accept the cardinal’s hat again and did not use the title, abiding by the orders of King Ladislaus the Jagiellon who was reluctant towards the Council. It was only in 1447 that Oleśnicki had relinquished the camp of the Council’s supporters, regarded by Rome as schismatics, and endorsed the rightful pope, Nicholas V. Oleśnicki received the cardinal’s hat sent from Rome in Cracow Cathedral, on 1 October 1449. The portrait composition on the Cracow miniature is complex and combining a few iconographic solutions popular in the late Middle Ages. Of particular significance seem to be the representation of the pope enthroned, the Traditio legis and Traditio clavium, as well as the juxtaposition of ecclesiastical hierarchy with the heavenly one. The Cracow miniature fitted perfectly in the then current problems of Church discussed anew in the mid-fifteenth century. Commissioned shortly after Oleśnicki had pledged obedience to Nicholas V and had received his cardinal’s hat, it is a public declaration by the former conciliarist of his new

  3. Alcaldes españoles en Twitter: ¿diálogo o monólogo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo VÁZQUEZ SANDE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia de las redes sociales ha permitido que los políticos, al igual que cualquier otro ciudadano, recurran a ellas como una herramienta más de comunicación. En la presente investigación pretendemos ver cómo es el contacto que se establece entre los alcaldes de las capitales de provincia españolas y los ciudadanos. El objetivo es constatar si existe una verdadera intención comunicativa y una orientación hacia la interacción o si, por el contrario, los políticos españoles emplean las redes sociales simplemente como un altavoz de los mensajes que trasladan empleando otros medios, tanto online como offline.

  4. Algunas desigualdades en el envejecer de los ancianos españoles de los años noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFREDO ALFAGEME CHAO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No existe una definición satisfactoria del envejecimiento como proceso universal e irreversible que experimentan todos los individuos. El envejecimiento real u observable viene siendo identificado a partir de sus correlatos convencionales (declive físico, psíquico y social. Utilizando datos españoles de encuesta, se apoya la hipótesis de que las personas relativamente pobres (por razón de su nivel educativo y posición económica tienden a envejecer peor y más rápido. La mayoría de ellos alcanzan niveles superiores de discapacidad física, aislamiento social y malestar psicológico. Empobrecen, y realmente envejecen, con respecto a las personas mejor situadas socialmente.

  5. Retos para alcanzar la excelencia en comunicación corporativa en los clubs deportivos profesionales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo SANAHUJA PERIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación trata de presentar los principales retos que deben afrontar los clubes deportivos profesionales españoles para alcanzar la excelencia –entendida como el reconocimiento positivo por parte de los distintos públicos y grupos de interés. La metodología empleada es una combinación de técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas ante un universo de estudio formado por las 56 entidades deportivas que forman la Liga de Fútbol Profesional (LFP y la Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto (ACB. Como resultado se señalan cinco palancas de cambio orientadas hacia ese horizonte de actuación excelente.

  6. Análisis comparativo de las cabeceras de los diarios digitales españoles respecto a los impresos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Basilio López del Ramo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Análisis comparativo de las cabeceras de las ediciones digital e impresa de 20 periódicos representativos de los principales grupos de prensa españoles. Se clasifican las características básicas de este elemento y se emplea una ficha documental de diseño propio para su estudio. Los resultados muestran la pérdida de protagonismo visual del logotipo o logosímbolo por su menor tamaño y desplazamiento lateral, y el empleo del marco de la cabecera para insertar otros elementos y acceso a recursos de la web. La cabecera pierde valor como referente visual corporativo y gana un nuevo sentido funcional. Los cambios representan a nivel visual una autonomía del periódico digital respecto del impreso. 

  7. Aarhus Conference on Probability, Statistics and Their Applications : Celebrating the Scientific Achievements of Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, Robert; Thorbjørnsen, Steen; Veraart, Almut

    2016-01-01

    Collecting together twenty-three self-contained articles, this volume presents the current research of a number of renowned scientists in both probability theory and statistics as well as their various applications in economics, finance, the physics of wind-blown sand, queueing systems, risk assessment, turbulence and other areas. The contributions are dedicated to and inspired by the research of Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen who, since the early 1960s, has been and continues to be a very active and influential researcher working on a wide range of important problems. The topics covered include, but are not limited to, econometrics, exponential families, Lévy processes and infinitely divisible distributions, limit theory, mathematical finance, random matrices, risk assessment, statistical inference for stochastic processes, stochastic analysis and optimal control, time series, and turbulence. The book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in probability, statistics and their applications. .

  8. Actitud emprendedora de los jóvenes españoles en un contexto de crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ortiz García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El emprendimiento ha despertado un gran interés en los últimos años. Éste responde a la necesidad de dinamizar el empleo, especialmente en economías como la española, con altos niveles de desempleo en un período de crisis que va desde 2007 hasta la actualidad. Por esta razón, resulta de especial relevancia analizar la actitud de los jóvenes españoles ante el emprendimiento empresarial, objetivo de este artículo. El estudio utiliza una metodología cuantitativa para analizar los microdatos de la encuesta de ámbito nacional del Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas: “Actitudes de la juventud española ante el emprendimiento”, realizada mediante entrevista personal en domicilio a una muestra de 1.437 jóvenes, del universo poblacional compuesto por personas de ambos sexos entre 15 y 29 años en España. La Teoría del Capital Social – colectivo e individual- sirve como marco para un análisis cuyos resultados evidencian que los jóvenes españoles poseen unos “capitales” débiles, lo que marca una actitud reacia al emprendimiento. La conclusión es que la socialización de los jóvenes en un mercado de trabajo marcado por la inestabilidad en el empleo, debilita los capitales sociales que inducen al emprendimiento y la asunción de riesgos y, por el contrario, promueve una actitud conservadora en el trabajo.

  9. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES LA INFLUENCIA DE LAS FORMAS INARTICULADAS, INTERJECCIONES Y ONOMATOPEYAS INGLESAS EN LOS TEBEOS ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de la Cruz Cabanillas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los intentos de clasificación de interjecciones, onomatopeyas y formas inarticuladas no han resultado satisfactorios, pues no existe una taxonomía aceptada de forma generalizada. Basándonos en estudios anteriores, el presente trabajo pretende revisar estos fenómenos en tebeos tan netamente españoles como Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia y TBO. Para ello se compila un corpus de unidades léxicas que reflejan tanto sonidos inarticulados, como interjecciones y onomatopeyas con el objetivo de estudiar si dichas unidades utilizadas en los tebeos corresponden a la representación de ese sonido articulado, esa interjección o esa onomatopeya en su forma inglesa o en su forma española. Así, se podrán obtener conclusiones sobre la posible influencia de la lengua inglesa en los tebeos españoles a través de la clasificación de las unidades recopiladas en el corpus, aún no tratándose de traducciones sino de producciones nacionales, y posiblemente se podrá determinar hasta qué punto dichas formas podrían entenderse por parte de un hablante hispano sin la ayuda gráfica que supone la viñeta.The attempts at classifying interjections, onomatopoeias and inarticulated forms have not turned out satisfactory, as there is no taxonomy that is widely accepted. Taking as basis previous studies, the present piece of work intends to revise these phenomena in so genuine Spanish comics as Mortadelo y Filemón, Zipi y Zape, Super López, Bruguelandia and TBO. To do so, a corpus of lexical units including inarticulated sounds, interjections and onomatopoeias is compiled in order to examine whether the units used in the comics correspond to the representation of that articulated sound, that interjection or that onomatopoeia in their English form or in their Spanish form. This will allow us to draw conclusions on the possible influence of the English language in the Spanish comics through the classification of the units compiled in

  11. Estrategias de aprendizaje en Educación Secundaria: un estudio comparativo sobre su uso entre alumnos españoles e inmigrantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lanza Escobedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en conocer el uso que hacen los alumnos de las estrategias de aprendizaje, viendo si existen diferencias en función de su origen nacional. Para ello, se aplicó el Cuestionario de Estrategias de Aprendizaje (CEA a un total de 70 estudiantes –37 españoles y 33 inmigrantes– de 1º y 4º ESO, procedentes de cuatro centros, de diferente titularidad, ubicados en la provincia de Lugo (Galicia. Para el análisis estadístico se empleó el programa SPSS 15.0. Nuestros resultados indican que los alumnos, españoles e inmigrantes, muestran un nivel adecuado en el uso que hacen de las estrategias de aprendizaje sin que se hayan registrado diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. Sin embargo, sí se encontraron diferencias significativas en función del género. Concretamente en la subescala de control emocional, en la que los chicos españoles obtuvieron una puntuación más alta que los inmigrantes. Además, si tenemos en cuenta el curso, vemos cómo los alumnos de 1º ESO españoles alcanzan puntuaciones más elevadas en la escala de sensibilización y en la subescala de control emocional frente a los chicos inmigrantes de su mismo curso. Por otro lado, aunque los estudiantes inmigrantes de 4º ESO –varones– obtienen puntuaciones más bajas en las subescalas de organización y transferencia frente a sus compañeros de 1º ESO, manifiestan un mayor control emocional

  12. Efectos de la reforma contable en el patrimonio neto consolidado a 1 de enero de 2008 de los grupos españoles que no aplican normativa NIIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Legaz Ortiz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de los cambios en las políticas y criterios contables sobre el patrimonio neto consolidado a 1 de enero de 2008 de los grupos españoles, no cotizados, que no aplicaron las NIIF como consecuencia de la adaptación de la normativa contable, instrumentada a través del nuevo PGC y la nota explicativa del ICAC sobre las normas de formulación de cuentas anuales consolidadas. Asimismo, se evalúan los efectos de la transición a la nueva normativa teniendo en cuenta el tamaño de los grupos. Con este objetivo, se examinaron las cuentas anuales consolidadas de los 100 mayores grupos españoles formuladas de acuerdo con la normativa española, buscando diferencias significativas entre los patrimonios netos bajo ambas normativas. Los resultados obtenidos ofrecen evidencia sobre la ausencia de impacto significativo en el patrimonio neto consolidado de estos grupos españoles en la transición a las nuevas normas contables del ejercicio 2007 al 2008 y, con ello, de que la información resulta útil para los usuarios en cuanto a su comparabilidad. Por consiguiente, el hecho de que el Gobierno permitiera para los grupos (y empresas españoles que no aplican NIIF no presentar información comparativa, puede considerarse finalmente una decisión acertada, pues ha facilitado la transición a las nuevas normas sin coste de comparabilidad y sin problemas de presentación y conversión de las cifras anteriores.

  13. OleA Glu117 is key to condensation of two fatty-acyl coenzyme A substrates in long-chain olefin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Matthew R.; Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Christenson, James K.; Esler, Morgan A.; Mohamed, Fatuma A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

    2017-10-12

    In the interest of decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, microbial hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathways are being studied for renewable, tailored production of specialty chemicals and biofuels. One candidate is long-chain olefin biosynthesis, a widespread bacterial pathway that produces waxy hydrocarbons. Found in three- and four-gene clusters, oleABCD encodes the enzymes necessary to produce cis-olefins that differ by alkyl chain length, degree of unsaturation, and alkyl chain branching. The first enzyme in the pathway, OleA, catalyzes the Claisen condensation of two fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) molecules to form a β-keto acid. In this report, the mechanistic role of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Glu117 is investigated through mutant enzymes. Crystal structures were determined for each mutant as well as their complex with the inhibitor cerulenin. Complemented by substrate modeling, these structures suggest that Glu117 aids in substrate positioning for productive carbon–carbon bond formation. Analysis of acyl-CoA substrate hydrolysis shows diminished activity in all mutants. When the active site lacks an acidic residue in the 117 position, OleA cannot form condensed product, demonstrating that Glu117 has a critical role upstream of the essential condensation reaction. Profiling of pH dependence shows that the apparent pKa for Glu117 is affected by mutagenesis. Taken together, we propose that Glu117 is the general base needed to prime condensation via deprotonation of the second, non-covalently bound substrate during turnover. This is the first example of a member of the thiolase superfamily of condensing enzymes to contain an active site base originating from the second monomer of the dimer.

  14. Investigation of the Representation of OLEs and Terrain Effects within the Coastal Zone in the EDMF Parameterization Scheme: An Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-21

    in the EDMF Parameterization Scheme: An Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar Perspective 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N000141110450 5c. PROGRAM...Wind Lidar (TODWL) data near Monterey, CA and Dugway, UT to investigate the physical characteristics, TKE transports and contributions to EDMF...EDMF. 15. SUBJECT TERMS OLE, EDMF, Doppler Wind Lidar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS

  15. Investigations of solution-processed charge generation unit with low concentration of small molecule doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} for tandem OLED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A., E-mail: azrina_talik@hotmail.com [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yeoh, K.H. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre for Photonics and Advanced Materials Research (CPR), Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ng, C.Y.B. [Low Dimensional Material Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tan, C.Y. [Centre of Advanced Manufacturing & Material Processing (AMMP), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yap, B.K., E-mail: kbyap@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Microelectronic and Nano Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the charge generation and injection mechanism in solution processed charge generation unit (CGU) used in our high performance tandem organic light emitting diode (OLED) via capacitance–voltage (C–V) and current density–voltage (J–V) measurements. By doping 2 wt% of small molecule 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) into Poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as p-type layer of the CGU, we obtained more than two folds improvement in the tandem device efficiency compared to single device. The performance improvement of the TAPC doped CGU could be attributed to low built-in potential, large vacuum level shift as well as high charge density for efficient charge generation. - Highlights: • Charge-generation and injection mechanism in CGU for tandem OLED is investigated. • Small molecule, TAPC doped in p-type/HAT-CN{sub 6} has been used for tandem OLED. • The improvement attributes to the lower V{sub bi} and larger ΔV{sub L} in doped layer. • Narrower W and high carrier density also contribute to efficiency improvement.

  16. Interetnicidad y espacios de convivencia. Indígenas, españoles y africanos en la Mérida novohispana, 1542-1620

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Victoria Ojeda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo los autores, apoyados principalmente en material de archivo proveniente del Sagrario de la ciudad de Mérida, y en otras fuentes históricas y bibliográficas, proponen desdibujar antiguas ideas acerca de la ocupación del centro de Mérida en el siglo xvi y primeros años del siguiente, basado únicamente por españoles y sus descendientes. Asimismo, plantean que la ocupación del pueblo maya de Santa Lucía como barrio para los africanos y sus castas, no corresponde a su lectura en los textos históricos del Sagrario. Por último, bosquejan una relación de convivencia entre las etnias existentes en el centro de la ciudad –españoles, mayas y africanos–, mucho más dinámica que lo que se ha sugerido hasta ahora, puesto que en el lapso estudiado se propone que parte de esos grupos vivían en el mismo solar que muchos de los vecinos españoles.

  17. High efficiency and low roll-off green OLEDs with simple structure by utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence material as the universal host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Miao, Yanqin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Wang, Kexiang; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yuying; Xu, Bingshe; Li, Wenlian

    2017-08-01

    We achieved high-efficiency and low-roll-off green fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) simultaneously by adopting the thermally activated delayed fluorescence material of bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)phenyl]sulfone as the universal host. At a luminance of 1000 cd/m2, fluorescent OLEDs based on C545T get a current efficiency, power efficiency, and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 31.8 cd/A, 25.0 lm/W, and 9.26%, respectively. This is almost the highest efficiency based on C545T at the luminance of 1000 cd/m2 to date. On the other hand, phosphorescent OLEDs with Ir(ppy)3 as the emitter realize a maximum current efficiency, power efficiency, and EQE of 64.3 cd/A, 62.4 lm/W, and 18.5%, respectively. More important, the EQE remains 17.8% at the representative luminance of 1000 cd/m2 and the roll-off ratio is just 3.78%. The transient photoluminescence decay measurement demonstrates that the up-conversion of host triplet excitons plays a key role in the high efficiency and low roll-off. More detailed discussions are also given.

  18. High efficiency and low roll-off green OLEDs with simple structure by utilizing thermally activated delayed fluorescence material as the universal host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Bo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We achieved high-efficiency and low-roll-off green fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs simultaneously by adopting the thermally activated delayed fluorescence material of bis[4-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridinephenyl]sulfone as the universal host. At a luminance of 1000 cd/m2, fluorescent OLEDs based on C545T get a current efficiency, power efficiency, and external quantum efficiency (EQE of 31.8 cd/A, 25.0 lm/W, and 9.26%, respectively. This is almost the highest efficiency based on C545T at the luminance of 1000 cd/m2 to date. On the other hand, phosphorescent OLEDs with Ir(ppy3 as the emitter realize a maximum current efficiency, power efficiency, and EQE of 64.3 cd/A, 62.4 lm/W, and 18.5%, respectively. More important, the EQE remains 17.8% at the representative luminance of 1000 cd/m2 and the roll-off ratio is just 3.78%. The transient photoluminescence decay measurement demonstrates that the up-conversion of host triplet excitons plays a key role in the high efficiency and low roll-off. More detailed discussions are also given.

  19. Investigation on internal electric field distribution of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Shengwei; Ma, Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130022 Changchun (China)

    2009-11-15

    We have found that organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance was highly improved by using europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as a buffer layer on indium tin oxide (ITO) in OLEDs based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq{sub 3}), which showed low turn-on voltage, high luminance, and high electroluminescent (EL) efficiency. The thickness of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally was 0.5-1.5 nm. We investigated the effects of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} on internal electric field distributions in the device through the analysis of current-voltage characteristics, and found that the introduction of the buffer layer balanced the internal electric field distributions in hole transport layer (HTL) and electron transport layer (ETL), which should fully explain the role of the buffer layer in improving device performance. Our investigation demonstrates that the hole injection is Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling and the electron injection is Richardson-Schottky (RS) thermionic emission, which are very significant in understanding the operational mechanism and improving the performance of OLEDs. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. La política de expulsión de españoles indeseables en México. (1915-1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankelevich, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the laws and policies that, following the revolution, led to the deportation from Mexico of Spanish nationals. The first section explains the constitutional provisions that granted authority to the president to deport any foreigners whose presence was considered «inconvenient». The article also provides a quantitative sample of the Spaniards who were deported. Finally, an analysis of the deportation practices is presented through a study of the accusations made against them and the procedures that Mexican authorities implemented as a result.

    En este artículo se estudian las normas legales y las prácticas políticas que condujeron a la expulsión de españoles de territorio mexicano en los años de la posrevolución. En primer lugar, se explican los mecanismos constitucionales que autorizan al Presidente a deportar a cualquier extranjero cuya presencia sea juzgada como inconveniente; en segunda instancia, se muestra el universo de los españoles expulsados desde una dimensión cuantitativa; y por último, se presentan las prácticas de expulsión a través del estudio de las denuncias contra españoles y de las conductas de las autoridades derivadas de esas denuncias.

  1. Quality changes of Moringa oleífera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The frying performance of Moringa oleífera variety Mbololo of Kenya seed oil (produced by cold pressure, extraction with n-hexane and a mixture of chloroform-methanol was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 ± 5°C for 5 consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. The chemical changes occurring in the oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effect of the oils on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold pressure produced oil and the highest in n-hexane extracted oil.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la fritura, especialmente en el caso de frituras repetidas de aceite de semilla Moringa oleífera variedad Mbololo de Kenya (producido por presión en frío, extracción con n-hexano y una mezcla de cloroformo-metanol. Los aceites se usaron para la fritura intermitente de rodajas de patatas y filetes de bacalao a temperatura de 175 ± 5°C durante 5 días consecutivos. Bajo estas condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los aceites. Se evaluaron los cambios químicos ocurridos en los aceites. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, extinción específica a 232 nm, compuestos polares, color y viscosidad de los aceites aumentaron, en tanto que el índice de iodo, punto de humo, contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, período de inducción y concentración en tocoferol disminuyeron. También se determinó el efecto de los aceites sobre

  2. FIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DEL CUESTIONARIO DE ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA PAQ-A EN ADOLESCENTES ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Los cuestionarios son una herramienta útil para valorar la actividad física (AF en grandes poblaciones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar la fiabilidad y validez del cuestionario de AF PAQ-A en adolescentes españoles utilizando como criterio de referencia la medición de la AF por acelerómetro. Métodos: En una muestra de 82 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años se evaluó la fiabilidad test-retest de la versión española del cuestionario PAQ-A en una semana. La fiabilidad se calculó mediante el Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase (CCI, y la consistencia interna mediante el coeficiente ¿¿de Cronbach. En otra muestra de 232 adolescentes de 13 a 17 años se administró el PAQ-A, a la vez que se midió su AF durante 7 días mediante el acelerómetro ActiGraph GT1M. La asociación entre los resultados del PAQ-A y de la AF total y AF de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV obtenidos por el acelerómetro se analizó mediante la correlación de Spearman (rho. Resultados: La fiabilidad test-retest del PAQ-A mostró un CCI = 0,71 para la puntuación final del cuestionario. La consistencia interna mostró un coeficiente a= 0,65 para el primer cuestionario, a= 0,67 para el retest en la muestra de 82 adolescentes, y un coeficiente a= 0,74 en la muestra de 232 adolescentes. El PAQ-A mostró correlaciones moderadas con la AF total (rho = 0,39 y la AFMV (rho = 0,34 medidas mediante el acelerómetro. El PAQ-A obtuvo correlaciones moderadas y significativas para los chicos y no para las chicas al comparse con las medidas del acelerómetro. Conclusiones: El cuestionario de AF PAQ-A presenta una adecuada fiabilidad y una razonable validez para valorar la AF en adolescentes españoles.

  3. Problemas sociales del trabajo deportivo: El caso de los atletas españoles de élite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL GARCÍA FERRANDO

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las actitudes, el trasfondo social y las necesidades de los atletas españoles. Aunque existe una preponderancia de la clase media baja, el atletismo aglutina a todos los estratos sociales. Los 25 atletas más punteros, la élite, son predominantemente estudiantes universitarios y empleados. La mayoría de los entrevistados (78.9% respondieron que el atletismo interfiere en el trabajo o en el estudio. Se consideran dos tipos de atleta: (1 aquéllos que conciben su deporte como una actividad recreativa, y (2 aquellos que reciben un apoyo económico para facilitar su concentración en el perfeccionamiento de las tareas asociadas al atletismo. Para los componentes del segundo grupo, el entrenamiento y la preparación son prioritarios, en contraposición a la consideración que tales tareas merecen en el primer grupo. La mayoría de los entrevistados estiman estar trabajando en un ambiente favorable al ejercicio del atletismo. Cuando se les solicitó que compararan el modelo anglosajón de los deportes "amteur" al "modelo socialista", en el cual el gobierno facilita la dedicación exclusiva del atleta al perfeccionamiento de su rendimiento en el deporte, el 52% manifestó preferir el segundo, mientras que el 32.8% de los entrevistados se inclinó por el primero.

  4. Adaptación del Cuestionario de Voluntad de Trabajo a una muestra de universitarios españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Voluntad de Trabajo adaptado a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles, tanto en su versión de autoinforme como en la versión destinada a evaluar los pares. Los participantes de este estudio son 194 estudiantes de la Universidad de Barcelona, a los que se aplicaron tanto el cuestionario de Voluntad de Trabajo (CVT como su versión para evaluar a los pares (CVT-P, así como las subescalas de Perseverancia y Distorsión del Big Factor Questionnaire. Los resultados sugieren la eliminación de dos de los ítems de los cuestionarios CVT y CVT-P. Las correlaciones ítem-total corregidas y la consistencia interna fue adecuada para ambos, y el análisis factorial confirmatorio confirma su unidimensionalidad. La relación entre la escala CVT y las demás medidas criterio es adecuada. En conclusión, podemos afirmar que las escalas CVT y CVT-P obtuvieron unas adecuadas propiedades psicométricas tras la depuración de las mismas.

  5. Spectroscopic mapping and selective electronic tuning of molecular orbitals in phosphorescent organometallic complexes – a new strategy for OLED materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal R. Ewen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of molecular electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes requires fundamental knowledge about the structural and electronic properties of the employed molecules as well as their interactions with neighboring molecules or interfaces. We show that highly resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and spectroscopy (STS are powerful tools to correlate the electronic properties of phosphorescent complexes (i.e., triplet emitters with their molecular structure as well as the local environment around a single molecule. We used spectroscopic mapping to visualize several occupied and unoccupied molecular frontier orbitals of Pt(II complexes adsorbed on Au(111. The analysis showed that the molecules exhibit a peculiar localized strong hybridization that leads to partial depopulation of a dz² orbital, while the ligand orbitals are almost unchanged. We further found that substitution of functional groups at well-defined positions can alter specific molecular orbitals without influencing the others. The results open a path toward the tailored design of electronic and optical properties of triplet emitters by smart ligand substitution, which may improve the performance of future OLED devices.

  6. [Assessment of the quality of scientific evidence in Anales Españoles de Pediatría].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Dios, J

    2001-04-01

    Evidence-based medicine is a new scientific paradigm that aims to use medical literature more effectively in guiding medical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of scientific evidence in Spanish pediatric articles. Original articles published in Anales Españoles de Pediatría during a 6.5year period (n733) were compared with those published in Pediatrics during a 1.5year period (n300). The quality of scientific evidence in Anales was high in only 3% of original articles (randomized clinical trials). It was average in 30.4% (non-randomized clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies) and poor in 66.6% (descriptive studies, case reports, etc.). Only 10.2% of articles used appropriate methodological concepts according to evidence-based medicine. These concepts were mainly "soft" (odds ratio, relative risk, confidence interval) and no "hard" concepts (number needed to treat, likelihood ratio, odds pretest) were detected. The pediatric specialty showing the highest quality of scientific evidence, greatest use of appropriate methodological concepts and greatest statistical accessibility was pneumology. The first step in improving the quality of scientific evidence would be to establish collaboration between epidemiologists and/or biostatisticians. The evidence-based bibliometric indicators found in Pediatrics serve as a gold standard for Anales.

  7. Diseño de un modelo de reputación para cooperativas oleícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Castilla-Polo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido definir una escala de medida de la reputación de cooperativas oleícolas. La inexistencia de estudios previos y la trascendencia de la reputación como activo para las empresas en general y para las cooperativas almazareras en particular justifican nuestro interés y la oportunidad de esta investigación. Concretamente, se presenta un modelo causal integrado por 4 variables explicativas de este importante intangible, siendo la calidad, la innovación, los premios y la responsabilidad social, variable esta última a la que se presta una especial atención por ser causante, en cierto grado, de las primeras. Para validar empíricamente el modelo conceptual desarrollado se ha diseñado un cuestionario al que de forma anónima ha respondido una muestra representativa de directivos del sector. Mediante la técnica Partial Least Squares (PLS se ha analizado tanto el modelo de medida como el modelo estructural. Los resultados obtenidos son satisfactorios en tanto que permiten verificar la relación directa de los comportamientos responsables de las almazaras con la percepción que tienen sus directivos de la reputación de la misma en el mercado.

  8. Simultaneous Enhancement of Efficiency and Stability of Phosphorescent OLEDs Based on Efficient Förster Energy Transfer from Interface Exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Zhang, Yunge; Bin, Zhengyang; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2016-02-17

    Exciplex forming cohosts have been widely adopted in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), achieving high efficiency with low roll-off and low driving voltage. However, the influence of the exciplex-forming hosts on the lifetimes of the devices, which is one of the essential characteristics, remains unclear. Here, we compare the influence of the bulk exciplex and interface exciplex on the performances of the devices, demonstrating highly efficient orange PHOLEDs with long lifetime at low dopant concentration by efficient Förster energy transfer from the interface exciplex. A bipolar host, (3'-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)-9-carbazole (CzTrz), was adopted to combine with a donor molecule, tris(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)amine (TCTA), to form exciplex. Devices with energy transfer from the interface exciplex achieve lifetime almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the ones based on bulk exciplex as the host by avoiding the formation of the donor excited states. Moreover, a highest EQE of 27% was obtained at the dopant concentration as low as 3 wt % for a device with interface exciplex, which is favorable for reducing the cost of fabrication. We believe that our work may shed light on future development of ideal OLEDs with high efficiency, long-lifetime, low roll-off and low cost simultaneously.

  9. Independencia familiar y situación laboral de los jóvenes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Consuelo Colom Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se viene observando que en España los jóvenes retrasan cada vez más la edad de emancipación, por lo que cabría preguntarse si este fenómeno se debe exclusivamente a factores culturales o está relacionado con la situación del mercado laboral. Estudios anteriores en otros países y en España han puesto en evidencia que la formación de hogar y la actividad laboral son dos decisiones que los jóvenes toman conjuntamente. El objetivo de este trabajo es averiguar si estas dos decisiones siguen estando interrelacionadas para los jóvenes españoles El análisis se ha realizado para el conjunto de todos los jóvenes y, por separado, para jóvenes residentes en ámbitos urbano y no urbano.

  10. Photoluminescence of Alq3 - and Tb-activated aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) complex for blue chip-excited OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawalkar, P W; Dhoble, S J; Thejo Kalyani, N; Atram, R G; Kokode, N S

    2013-01-01

    The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium complex is the most important and widely studied as electron transporting and green light emitting material. Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) have been synthesized (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) and blended films of Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) with PMMA and PS at different percentage weight (wt%) concentrations (e.g., 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 wt%) have been prepared. The synthesized materials and their blended thin films have been characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) technique; the synthesis and PL characterization are reported in this paper. The synthesized metal complex shows bright emission of green light with blue light excitation (440 nm) and the prepared Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) phosphor may be applicable in blue chip-excited OLEDs for the newly developed wallpaper lighting technology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhar, N. E. A., E-mail: najwaezira@yahoo.com; Shafura, A. K., E-mail: shafura@ymail.com; Affendi, I. H. H., E-mail: irmahidayanti.halim@gmail.com; Shariffudin, S. S., E-mail: sobihana@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, UiTM Sarawak, Kampus Kota Meranek, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Research Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), 245 Riyadh 11454 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. The optical and electrical of nanocomposite films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured of various deposition layers (1 to 3 layers) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films were deposited using spin-coating technique. The surface morphology nanocomposite films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope. From surface profiler measurement, we found that the thickness of nanocomposite films increased as deposition time increased. The optical properties were measured using photoluminescence spectroscope. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that two deposition layers is the highest intensity at visible region (green emission) due to high energy transfer from particles to the polymer. The current density for two layers sample is due to aggregation of conjugated polymer chain hence form excited interchain exciton for optical excitation. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  12. Los maestros españoles de los «niños de Morelia» nuevas aportaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cruz, José

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available On the performance of the Spanish teachers that accompanied the so called «Children of Morelia» expedition, the specialists that have dealt with the topic so far have made a severe negative judgment. In this work we bring to light, for the first time and through unpublished documentation, the repeated initiatives that these teachers took to try to complete their guardian mission, which could not be carried out completely due to the position of the Mexican authorities.

    Sobre la actuación de los maestros españoles que acompañaron a la expedición de los «niños de Morelia», se ha formado un severo juicio negativo por parte de los especialistas que han tratado el tema. En este trabajo se dan a conocer, por primera vez y a partir de documentación inédita, las repetidas iniciativas que plantearon dichos maestros para intentar cumplir su misión tutelar, las cuales chocaron con los planteamientos de las autoridades mexicanas.

  13. Improvement of color purity in white OLED based on Zn(HPB){sub 2} as blue emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Eun [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Sam [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Inje University, Gimhae, 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Sang [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Burm-Jong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Inje University, Gimhae, 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, Busan, 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.kr

    2008-04-01

    We synthesized zinc (II) [2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole] (Zn(HPB){sub 2}) as blue emitting materials and evaluated in the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The layer of Zn(HPB){sub 2} doped with 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB) (Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB) as emitters has been demonstrated. The structure of the device is indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/N,N'-bis-(1-naphthl)-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB, 40 nm)/Zn(HPB){sub 2}/Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/LiF/Al. The thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2} layer was 0, 10, 20, 30 nm at the same time the thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB layer were 40, 30, 20, 10 nm. When thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2} layer was 30 nm and the thickness of Zn(HPB){sub 2}:DCJTB layer was 10 nm, white emission is achieved. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the white emission are (0.304, 0.332) at an applied voltage of 10.5 V.

  14. Hybrid LbL/LB films as molecular OLEDs: An acoustic shear wave attenuation and Brewster angle microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambinossi, F.; Baglioni, P.; Caminati, G.

    2007-01-01

    Molecularly organized organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were constructed using a combination of polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition. The hetero-structure was based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), on poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) and on poly(ethylenimine) (PEI). The film-forming properties of MEH-PPV were investigated at the water-air interface by recording surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms. Stable MEH-PPV monolayers were transferred by means of the LB technique on solid supports. The assembling process of the LbL layers was followed by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The final multilayered structure was characterized by means of ellipsometric thickness determination, static contact angle and conductivity measurements. The morphology of the outer surface of the LbL/LB/LbL structure was analyzed by means of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) studies. The optical response of the hybrid multilayer was tested measuring the electronic absorption and the emission spectra

  15. Highly efficient tandem OLED based on C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as charge generation layer and LiF/Al as electron injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Science, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Wu, Xiaoming, E-mail: wxm@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xiao, Zhihui; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Rui, Hongsong; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Yulin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yin, Shougen, E-mail: sgyin@tjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs are fabricated. • The optimal tandem OLED consists of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} as a CGL and LiF/Al as an EIL. • Current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem OLED is markedly enhanced. • The turn-on and driving voltages of optimal tandem OLED is obviously reduced. - Abstract: Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have received much attention in solid-state lighting due to their high current efficiency, long lifetime and excellent stability. The highly efficient blue fluorescent tandem OLEDs based on the charge generation layer (CGL) of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3} and the electron injection layer (EIL) of LiF/Al were fabricated. The ultra-thin Al layer in EIL was introduced to further increase electron injection from CGL to the emission unit. We found that the maximal current efficiency and power efficiency of optimal tandem device can reach to 43.1 cd/A and 15.1 lm/W, respectively, which are approximately 2.8 and 1.9 times compared with those of single-emissive-unit device. Moreover, compared with the traditional tandem device, the driving voltage of the optimal device is reduced by 6 V, and the turn-on voltage is reduced by 2.4 V. We analyzed the mechanism and characterization of these tandem devices. The effective charge separation and transport of C{sub 60}/rubrene: MoO{sub 3}, and excellent electron injection ability of ultra-thin Al layer are the main factors for the remarkable enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency of tandem OLEDs.

  16. Apellidos y estructura de la población a partir de una muestra de gitanos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesa Saturnino, María Soledad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha tomado una muestra de 837 familias gitanas, recogida en cuatro provincias españolas: Barcelona, Córdoba, Madrid y Zaragoza. Se ha analizado dicha muestra de manera global y dividida en cuatro series, según su procedencia geográfica, utilizando el primer apellido de cada miembro de la pareja. El total de apellidos encontrados asciende a 212, para los cuales se ha realizado una distribución de frecuencias, encontrándose algunos de estos apellidos como típicos de la población gitana española, mientras que hay un cierto porcentaje que se presenta esporádicamente. La vinculación de apellidos por zonas geográficas permite establecer la distribución y dispersión de los individuos. La complejidad de la muestra permite la posibilidad de estudiar apellidos con una máxima extensión sobre la geografía española, como el apellido Cortés, por ejemplo, o el caso extremo de determinados apellidos concentrados en una sola región, como sucede con el apellido Motas. Los resultados indican una diferente distribución de apellidos según la procedencia. También se ha utilizado el método de Crow para estimar la consanguinidad por isonimia, que ha proporcionado información acerca de las pautas de comportamiento social del grupo. Las estimas encontradas son altas, mayores que las halladas en otras poblaciones españolas, previamente estudiadas. Todo ello, marca un perfil diferencial de los gitanos españoles respecto al resto de la población.

  17. Como recuerda la televisión. El pasado evocado en los informativos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescutti, Luis Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mass media relationships with collective memory are the subject of ongoing debate; either they are blamed for immersing the audience into a fleeting amnesic present; or they are hailed as crucial mediators of remembering and forgetting in contemporary society. This article contributes to the discussion with a research about one of the ways television has to remember: anniversaries. The content analysis of Spanish news programs confirmed the regular broadcasting of anniversaries. These news narrate a version of history highly dependent upon the news program format, reshaping the borders of the subjects, countries and facts worthy of remembrance while legitimizing television as witness to history and as history narrator. Far from promoting social amnesia, this commemorative journalism allows television to get involved in the management of collective memory.Las relaciones de los medios de comunicación con la memoria colectiva son objeto de controversia: ora se les acusa de instalar a la audiencia en un presente fugaz y desmemoriado; ora se reconoce su papel de procesadores del recuerdo y el olvido. Para contribuir al debate se presenta un estudio sobre una de las maneras de recordar de la televisión: las conmemoraciones. El análisis de contenido de los informativos televisivos españoles muestra que estas noticias se han vuelto un contenido permanente de estos programas. Las efemérides construyen una versión de la historia altamente condicionada por el formato del noticiario, que reconfigura el perímetro de los asuntos dignos de evocación al tiempo que legitima al dispositivo televisivo como testigo y narrador de los hechos históricos. Se concluye que, lejos de fomentar la amnesia social, el periodismo conmemorativo le sirve al medio audiovisual para intervenir en la gestión de la memoria colectiva.

  18. El nacimiento del miedo, 1692. Indios y españoles en la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the year 1692 there was a shortage of cereals and the became too expensive. On Sunday; June the eighth; the corn was finished and the functionaries responsible of the distribution beat the Indian women that protested. Very soon a lot of people congregated and started a riot. The viceroyal palace and the «cabildo» houses were burned and many shops plundered. The repression was very hard; specially against the Indian people; but the Indians weren’t the only ones involved. Blacks and mestee population were the «plebe»; the populace of the city; offended by the injustices of the government and the humiliations of the proud rich Spaniards. The Spanish population started feeling fear of their neighbors; not only Indians but poor people.

    En 1692 hubo escasez y carestía de cereales en la ciudad de México. Un domingo del mes de junio se acabó el maíz en la alhóndiga y los encargados de repartirlo golpearon a las indias que protestaban. Muy pronto llegó mucha gente y se inició un alboroto que duró varias horas y durante el cual se incendiaron el palacio de los virreyes y las casas del cabildo; muchas tiendas fueron saqueadas. La represión fue muy dura y se dirigió contra los indios; pero no fueron sólo indios los que participaron en el motín, sino la «plebe» de la ciudad, mezcla de todos los grupos resentidos por las injusticias del gobierno y las humillaciones de los ricos españoles. La población española comenzó a sentir miedo de sus vecinos, que ya no se identificaban con los indios.

  19. Apéndices masoréticos en manuscritos bíblicos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Monasterio, María Teresa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant corpus of Spanish Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible dated 13th-15th centuries. These manuscripts do all contain Masorah in its different categories: parva, magna, finalis or Masoretic lists being it ornamental or not. So far, these manuscripts have been studied from a textual point of view, either critical editions of their texts or Masorah, or textual comparative studies. However, comparative studies on the specific characteristics of the Masoretic contents and, moreover, a comparison of the different manuscripts from this specific perspective, are scarce. In this paper, I intend to analyse some of these Masoretic lists, by comparing a selection of the most prestigious Spanish Bible manuscripts, their similarities and discrepancies. Furthermore, I will present under scrutiny some of the so-considered ornamental Masorahs and their texts.

    Existe un importante corpus de manuscritos hebreos bíblicos hispánicos datado entre los siglos XII y XV. Estos manuscritos contienen información masorética de diversas categorías: masoras parva, magna, finalis, o bien apéndices masoréticos, ya sean ornamentales o no. Hasta el momento, estos manuscritos han sido estudiados desde un punto de vista textual, es decir, mediante ediciones críticas de sus textos y masoras o de forma comparativa entre ellos. Sin embargo, los estudios comparativos sobre los contenidos masoréticos y sus características especiales son escasos. En este artículo se analizan algunas de estas listas masoréticas contenidas en una selección de manuscritos españoles escritos en la misma época, comparando sus similitudes y discrepancias, prestando especial atención a los apéndices masoréticos,las masoras ornamentales y sus textos.

  20. Baja percepción de riesgo en el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Suárez-Relinque

    Full Text Available Según los estudios recientes, los adolescentes españoles muestran una baja percepción del riesgo asociado al consumo de alcohol. El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar los factores que favorecen esta baja percepción a partir de la opinión de un grupo de 32 profesionales/expertos en adolescencia, familia, escuela, medios de comunicación y políticas locales. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa, fundamentada en Grounded Theory, a partir de la información obtenida mediante 5 grupos de discusión guiados por entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se identificaron 12 factores o subcategorías agrupados en 4 categorías generales: riesgo a corto plazo, inmediatez y percepción de invulnerabilidad (categoría “pensamiento adolescente”; concepción benévola del alcohol, normalización del consumo y binomio alcohol-diversión (categoría “normas sociales”; consumo habitual en los padres, inconsistencia verbal-no verbal en el modelado parental, consumo sin riesgo en los medios, consumo con resultados positivos en los medios (categoría “modelos sociales”; excesivo contenido sanitario, riesgo a largo plazo (categoría “discurso preventivo”. Tras discutir los resultados en el contexto de la literatura científica actual, se realizan varias propuestas con el objetivo de aumentar la percepción del riesgo en los adolescentes: incidir con mayor fuerza en contenidos sobre los riesgos a corto plazo del alcohol; orientar las estrategias educativas dirigidas al adolescente, también hacia los agentes de socialización, especialmente los padres; incidir en políticas centradas en la sustancia y en reducir la oferta.

  1. Hábitos de uso en Internet y en las redes sociales de los adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Jiménez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Profundizar en los cambios que se están perfilando en los hábitos online de los adolescentes, en particular debido a la fuerte irrupción de las redes sociales en su vida cotidiana, así como en las implicaciones socioculturales de estos procesos, es el objeto de este trabajo. La metodología de investigación se centró en un cuestionario autoadministrado aplicado a escala nacional. Sobre una muestra representativa nacional de 2.077 adolescentes (de 12 a 17 años, se ha buscado actualizar la información relativa a las prácticas online entre los menores y adolescentes españoles, con atención específica a la extensión del fenómeno de las redes sociales e identificando su influencia sobre las prácticas de los adolescentes en la Red. De igual modo, se comparan los usos entre los usuarios habituales de las redes sociales y los que no las tienen entre sus prácticas cotidianas, con la idea de detectar la influencia del uso de las redes sociales en los usos generales en Internet y controlando esa relación en función de cuatro variables: sexo, edad, titularidad del centro al que asisten los adolescentes y clase social. Entre las principales conclusiones destacamos el uso más intensivo en tiempo y en actividades de los usuarios que utilizan muy frecuentemente las redes sociales, con especial incidencia en aquellas actividades que les permiten mantener el contacto y compartir contenidos con sus pares.

  2. Surface tailoring of newly developed amorphous Znsbnd Sisbnd O thin films as electron injection/transport layer by plasma treatment: Application to inverted OLEDs and hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongsheng; Kim, Junghwan; Yamamoto, Koji; Xing, Xing; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We report a unique amorphous oxide semiconductor Znsbnd Sisbnd O (a-ZSO) which has a small work function of 3.4 eV for as-deposited films. The surface modification of a-ZSO thin films by plasma treatments is examined to apply it to the electron injection/transport layer of organic devices. It turns out that the energy alignment and exciton dissociation efficiency at a-ZSO/organic semiconductor interface significantly changes by choosing different gas (oxygen or argon) for plasma treatments (after a-ZSO was exposed to atmospheric environment for 5 days). In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurement reveals that the work function of a-ZSO is increased to 4.0 eV after an O2-plasma treatment, while the work function of 3.5 eV is recovered after an Ar-plasma treatment which indicates this treatment is effective for surface cleaning. To study the effects of surface treatments to device performance, OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells with O2-plasma or Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO are compared. Effects of these surface treatments on performance of inverted OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells are examined. Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO works well as the electron injection layer in inverted OLEDs (Alq3/a-ZSO) because the injection barrier is small (∼ 0.1 eV). On the other hands, O2-plasma treated a-ZSO is more suitable for application to hybrid solar cells which is benefiting from higher exciton dissociation efficiency at polymer (P3HT)/ZSO interface.

  3. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs deposited by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm, ii the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii the material used as cathode (Aluminium or Silveron the electrical response of the devices, was evaluated through current-voltage (I-V measurements. Materials and methods. PEDOT:PPSand MDMO-PPV organic layers were deposited by spin coating on ITO substrates, and the OLED structure was completed with cathodesof aluminium and silver. The electric response of the devices was evaluated based on the I-V characteristics. Results. Diodes prepared withthinner organic films allow higher currents at lower voltages; this can be achieved either by increasing the frequency of the spin coater orby using concentrations of MDMO-PPV: Toluene lower than 2% weight. A fit of the experimental data showed that the diodes have twocontributions to the current. The first one is attributed to parasitic currents between anode and cathode, and the other one is a parallel currentthrough the organic layer, in which the carrier injection mechanism is mediated by thermionic emission. Conclusions. The results of thefitting and the energy level alignment through the whole structure show that PPV-based OLEDs are unipolar devices, with current mainlyattributed to hole transport.

  4. Metas y satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Díaz Morales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza el tipo de metas personales y la satisfacción vital en adolescentes españoles y peruanos según sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Se trabajó con 389 adolescentes españoles y con 285 peruanos, de ambos sexos y de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Análisis de Metas Personales de Palys y Little (1983 y la Escala D-T (Delight-Terrible de Andrews y Withey (1976 para la muestra española, y el Método de Inducción Motivacional de Nuttin (1985 junto con la Escala de Satisfacción con la vida de Pavot y Diener (1993 para la muestra peruana, que aunque no son equivalentes, permiten una comparación general. Los resultados muestran importantes semejanzas en las metas descritas  por los adolescentes de ambos estudios, así como en la influencia de la variable sexo. Las principales diferencias entre los adolescentes españoles y peruanos se encuentran en la variable nivel socioeconómico.   This study analyzes the kind of personal goals and life satisfaction levels amongst Spanish and Peruvian adolescents according to their sex and socioeconomic level. 389 Spanish and 285 Peruvian adolescents of both sexes from different socioeconomic level participated in this study. For the Spanish sample Palys and Little's (1983 Personal Goals Analysis and Andrews and Withey's (1976 D-T Scale (Delight-Terrible were used; for the Peruvian sample the measurement instruments were Nuttin's (1985 Motivational lnduction Method along with Pavot and Diener's (1993 Life Satisfaction Scale. Results show significant similarities in the goals described by samples, as well as sex differences and socioeconomic differences.

  5. One step process of decomposition and polymerization to fabricate SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres/polyimide composite for foldable OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Won; Moon, Soo Hyun [School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong-Wook [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Oh, Tae Sik [School of Mechanical and ICT Convergence Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji Beom, E-mail: jbyoo@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and polyimide hybrid synthesized using one step process, simultaneous occurrence of decomposition and polymerization (SODP) is useful with a ultra-low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for flexible OLED. - Highlights: • We fabricated hybrid films of SHS/PI by using a one step process with SODP. • The film has ultralow dielectric constant (50 vol% at k = 1.67). • There is no collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in the PI matrix after bending test for 50,000 cycles. - Abstract: The fabrication of interlayer dielectrics (ILDs) in flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) requires flexible materials with a low dielectric constant as well as materials with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties for optimal device performance. Hybrid films of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres (SHS)/polyimide (PI) were prepared using a one-step process, with simultaneous occurrence of decomposition (polystyrene, PS) and polymerization (PI) (SODP). No collapse of SiO{sub 2} hollow spheres in PI was observed from 10 vol% to 60 vol% SHS in hybrid films. The dielectric constant of hybrid films was reduced from 3.45 to 1.67 and was saturated at above 50 vol% of SHS due to the maximum fill factor of SHS in the PI matrix. The thermal stability was excellent up to 500 °C due to the inherent thermal property of PI. After a bending test for 50,000 cycles at a bending radius of 1 mm, the SHS/PI hybrid films retained their dielectric constant and current density. These results indicate the hybrid film to be the most promising candidate for flexible ILDs with a low dielectric constant and high thermal stability for foldable OLEDs.

  6. Contenidos de estructura atómica en libros de textos españoles de química general (1928-1975)

    OpenAIRE

    González Canle, Felicísimo

    2012-01-01

    En nuestro trabajo, tratamos de hacer una aproximación al modo en que se fueron introduciendo las ideas de la Mecánica Cuántica en los libros de texto españoles tanto de primer curso del nivel universitario como preuniversitarios, en un periodo de tiempo en donde vamos a encontrar superpuestas, en mayor o menor grado dependiendo de los autores, ideas de la nueva teoría con otras ideas clásicas y precuánticas sobre la constitución del átomo. Estudiaremos como se afianzan las diferentes teor...

  7. La independencia de México y las misiones de las Californias: españoles versus mexicanos, 1821-1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ruiz de Gordejuela Urquijo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available La secularización de las misiones de las Californias, gobernadas por religiosos dominicos y franciscanos, todos ellos de origen español, fue motivo de preocupación de los distintos gobiernos de la primera república mexicana. A pesar de la creencia generalizada de que fueron las leyes liberales las que hicieron desaparecer las misiones, se demuestra en este trabajo que fue el rechazo de los religiosos mexicanos a cubrir las vacantes dejadas por sus hermanos españoles la causa principal de que finalmente las misiones de las Californias desaparecieran.

  8. Presencia de los inmigrantes españoles en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba (1902- 1940

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    M. Sc. Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrantes españoles tuvieron una activa participación en la economía de la región de Santiago de Cuba aunque no pudieron competir con los monopolios norteamericanos en sectores claves como la industria azucarera, la minería, las finanzas y los ferrocarriles; por lo que concentraron sus inversiones en el comercio, las manufacturas y la producción de bebidas, alimentos, confituras y otros artículos.

  9. Fomento de la cultura y espíritu emprendedor en los jóvenes españoles desde las instituciones educativas

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Vidal, José

    2012-01-01

    La opción de montar un negocio por cuenta propia como una posibilidad más de futuro profesional no está en la mente de los jóvenes españoles. Se prefiere trabajar en una empresa privada o en la Administración Pública antes que embarcarse en una aventura empresarial. Tanto es así que, el 77% de los jóvenes encuestados prefieren la estabilidad y el 70% un ingreso fijo a la posibilidad de crear su propia empresa, según se recoge en el Libro Blanco de la Iniciativa Emprendedora en ...

  10. Evaluación de las actitudes sexistas en estudiantes españoles/as de educación secundaria obligatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Yolanda; Lameiras, Maria; Carrera, María; Failde, José

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta investigación es identificar el nivel de sexismo interiorizado tanto hacia mujeres como hacia hombres por estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, como variable independiente se tiene en cuenta la tipología del centro educativo y se analiza también la relación entre las distintas escalas de sexismo moderno. La muestra representativa a nivel nacional, está compuesta por 1113 estudiantes españoles de Educaci&...

  11. Representación social de "los argentinos", "los españoles", "los latinoamericanos" y "los europeos" en estudiantes universitarios argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Daniel Roselli

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación es descriptivo: producir una caracterización de cómo los estudiantes universitarios argentinos definen subjetivamente a los referidos grupos nacionales ("los "los argentinos", "los españoles" y supranacionales, "los latinoamericanos" y "los europeos"). Sin embargo, no esun mero estudio de estereotipos nacionales. La originalidad consiste en el encuadre metodológico, propio de análisis de las representaciones sociales. Se basa en un análisis estadístico d...

  12. Bailini, Sonia (2016. La interlengua de lenguas afines. El español de los italianos, el italiano de los españoles. Milano: LED.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana di Gesù

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El volumen del que se ofrece una reseña analiza el fenómeno de la interlengua de lenguas afines: el español de los aprendientes italianos y el italiano de los aprendientes españoles. El objetivo principal del volumen es el análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la interlengua de estas dos tipologías de aprendientes, a través del estudio de dos corpus paralelos y longitudinales.

  13. Adolescentes colombianos y españoles: diferencias, similitudes y relaciones entre la socialización familiar, la autoestima y los valores

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Lila; Gonzalo Musitu; Sofía Buelga

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las relaciones existentes entre los proceses de socialización familiar, valores y autoestima de los adolescentes desde una perspectiva transcultural. La muestra la conforman 706 adolescentes (españoles 424 y colombianos 282) de ambos sexos (382 mujeres y 324 varones), con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 años. Todos los sujetos eran estudiantes de educación básica secundaria en el período en que se obtuvo la información. Los instrument...

  14. Características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles: e-ciudadanía

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio FUENTES ESPARRELL

    2011-01-01

    En este estudio trataremos de ilustrar y aportar datos sobre el acceso, uso, equipamiento, hábitos y motivaciones de los adolescentes y jóvenes españoles hacia las TIC (ordenadores, redes sociales, Internet, telefonía móvil¿). Nos centraremos principalmente en las redes sociales y telefonía móvil como principales tecnologías de uso en los momentos actuales. De esa manera, nos podremos hacer una idea de las principales características de la actividad cívica de los adolescentes y jóvenes esp...

  15. Bifunctional star-burst amorphous molecular materials for OLEDs: achieving highly efficient solid-state luminescence and carrier transport induced by spontaneous molecular orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Yun; Yasuda, Takuma; Yang, Yu Seok; Adachi, Chihaya

    2013-05-21

    Bifunctional star-burst amorphous molecular materials displaying both efficient solid-state luminescence and high hole-transport properties are developed in this study. A high external electroluminescence quantum efficiency up to 5.9% is attained in OLEDs employing the developed amorphous materials. It is revealed that the spontaneous horizontal orientation of these light-emitting molecules in their molecular-condensed states leads to a remarkable enhancement of the electroluminescence efficiencies and carrier-transport properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. La ordenación normativa de la asistencia sanitaria en la corte de los Habsburgos españoles (1515-1700)

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Bueno, Mar

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo ofrece una visión de la estructura de la sanidad real durante los reinados de los monarcas españoles de los siglos XVI y XVII. Tras una primera aproximación al significado de Casa Real y Etiqueta palaciega, imprescindible para comprender las características de los oficios y criados al servicio del monarca, pasamos a describir los diversos sanitarios que atendían al rey español: los médicos reales, jerarquizados en diversas categorías (médicos de cámara, médicos de familia,...

  17. The Niels Bohr Archive is Placing Collections on its Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaserud, Finn

    2010-01-01

    -quality digital copies in TIFF format to be kept as a security backup of the collection itself. From these, we then made black-and-white PDF-files of significantly lower resolution with the intention of making them available to researchers as digital documents. The sound recordings and films were digitized out...... this supplement, the documents of which we hope to make available on our website by 2013, the centennial for Bohr's model of the nuclear atom. We have found the task of digitizing our collections generally complex, sometimes frustrating, and in the end satisfying. At this stage it is particularly important...

  18. Caracterización de aceites de las semillas de Moringa oleífera a partir de la extracción por diferentes métodos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Gómez Mitjans; Vicenta Pita Bravo; Beatriz Zumalacárregui de Cárdenas

    2016-01-01

    La Moringa oleífera es una planta que se utiliza como materia prima en diferentes industrias, como la alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética. Una de las partes aprovechables del árbol es la semilla debido a su contenido entre un 30 y 45 % de aceite. Sus propiedades terapéuticas potencian su uso en el tratamiento de más de 300 enfermedades. En esta investigación se caracterizó el aceite extraído de las semillas de Moringa oleífera de las variedades de origen cubano Supergenious, Plain y Nicarag...

  19. La percepción de los periodistas españoles acerca de sus roles profesionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación empírica internacional sobre la percepción que los periodistas tienen de sus roles y funciones profesionales presenta un notable auge en los últimos años, aunque no en el caso español. Esta investigación, que forma parte del estudio comparativo transnacional «Worlds of Journalism Study», analiza los datos de una encuesta realizada en España (representativa y estratificada por tipo de medio y por Comunidad Autónoma a 390 periodistas de 117 medios de comunicación, quienes fueron consultados sobre su trabajo para detectar las funciones profesionales con las que más se identificaban. El estudio señala seis roles: el de perro guardián, el altavoz de la ciudadanía, el instructor de la audiencia, el favorecedor del statu quo, el que entretiene a la opinión pública y el difusor de información objetiva. En línea con la evolución política, económica y social de los últimos años en España, los profesionales se identifican más con el papel de altavoz de la ciudadanía. Esta función desplaza en importancia al rol protagonista de los estudios similares más recientes sobre periodistas españoles: el de difusor de la información objetiva. Se hallan también dos grandes grupos de periodistas: los estimuladores y los narcotizadores de la opinión pública. Además, se observa que algunos factores organizacionales (en concreto, la propiedad del medio y otros individuales (el género, la edad y los años de experiencia laboral influyen significativamente en las percepciones de los roles profesionales.

  20. Anglicismos en el léxico de las actividades deportivas de los gimnasios españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Rodríguez Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es la recopilación y análisis de los anglicismos más frecuentes en el léxico de las actividades deportivas ofrecidas por los gimnasios españoles, pues se trata de un campo inexplorado en la investigación sobre el anglicismo en la lengua española, que, desde hace años, cuenta con estudios centrados en otros ámbitos del deporte como el fútbol (Fernández1971; Alonso 1996; Rodríguez González 2012. Con tal fin, hemos analizado una muestra de 268 anglicismos detectados en los folletos y webs de 15 gimnasios. Este análisis no solo es cuantitativo, sino que también se describe las distintas funciones pragmáticas de uso, lo que permitirá establecer una serie de conclusiones significativas sobre el grado de madurez del anglicismo en español como fenómeno sociolingüístico y cultural.Palabras clave: anglicismos, léxico, pragmática, deporte AbstractThe aim of this paper is to compile and analyse the most frequent anglicisms in the lexicon used in sports activities offered by Spanish gyms. This domain remains unexplored in the research of the phenomenon of anglicisms in the Spanish language, since the published literature has focused so far on the lexicon of other sports such as football (Fernández 1971; Alonso1996; Rodríguez González 2012. We have studied a sample of 268 anglicisms taken from the brochures and websites of 15 gyms. Our analysis is not only quantitative but also describes different pragmatic functions of the anglicisms found in the data. This allows us to draw significant conclusions about the evolution of anglicisms as a sociolinguistic and cultural phenomenon in Spanish.Keywords: anglicisms, lexicon, pragmatics, sports

  1. Estrategias de afrontamiento, optimismo y satisfacción con la vida en futbolistas españoles y polacos: un estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cant\\u00F3n Chirivella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran las relaciones existentes entre las estrategias de afrontamiento, el optimismo disposicional y el bienestar de una muestra de 61 futbolistas de dos nacionalidades, polaca y española, de forma que también pueden observarse diferencias culturales. Los futbolistas españoles obtienen puntuaciones significativamente más altas en la utilización de estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en la emoción (F = 12.919; p = .001 que los polacos, obteniendo un tamaño del efecto relevante (>.130 y una elevada potencia (.942. Además, los futbolistas polacos son significativamente más optimistas que los españoles (F = 5.96; p = .025. Los resultados son discutidos en base a los modelos teóricos del optimismo (Scheier y Carver, 1985 y las estrategias de afrontamiento (Lazarus y Folkman, 1984, resaltando el papel de las diferencias culturales.

  2. Realizing Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Homojunction-Like Sky-Blue OLEDs by Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Emitters Featuring an Aggregation-Induced Emission Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kailong; Wang, Zian; Zhan, Lisi; Zhong, Cheng; Gong, Shaolong; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2018-03-13

    Two new blue emitters, i.e., bis-[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( o-ACSO2) and bis-[3-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( m-ACSO2), with reserved fine thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) nature and simply tuned thermal and optoelectronic properties, were synthesized by isomer engineering. The meta-linking compound, i.e., m-ACSO2, obtains the highest photoluminescence quantum yield with a small singlet-triplet energy gap, a moderate delayed fluorescent lifetime, excellent solubility, and neat film homogeneity. Due to its unique aggregation-induced emission (AIE) character, neat film-based heterojunction-like organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are achievable. By inserting an excitonic inert exciton-blocking layer, the PN heterojunction-like emission accompanied by intefacial exciplex was shifted to a homojunction-like channel mainly from the AIE emitter itself, providing a new tactic to generate efficient blue color from neat films. The solution-processed nondoped sky-blue OLED employing m-ACSO2 as emitter with homojunction-like emission achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.2%. The design strategies presented herein provide practical methods to construct efficient blue TADF dyes and realize high-performance blue TADF devices.

  3. Metabolitos sanguíneos en caprinos alimentados con mezclas integrales frescas con Moringa oleífera: Pennisetum purpureum Clon-OM22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Norberto González González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento de metabolitos sanguíneos energéticos y proteicos con el uso de mezclas de Moringa oleífera : Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22. Se utilizaron cuatro machos caprinos de raza Alpina, con 37.78 ±4.87 kg de peso vivo, dos años de edad y alojados en jaulas metabólicas individuales, or - ganizados en un diseño cuadrado latino (4x4. El tiempo experimental fue 60 días, con cuatro periodos de 15 días. Los tratamientos consistie - ron en la inclusión creciente de Moringa oleífera (MO20%, MO40%, MO80% en sustitución de Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22 (20:80, 40:60; 80:20% en la mezcla integral y un testigo, al que se le ofertó concentrado comer - cial (6g kg PV -1 . La totalidad de los forrajes frescos fueron cosechados, molidos (3-5cm y mezclados, ofertados a razón del 3% del peso vivo base seca, en dos ocasiones (10:30-16:30 horas durante el día. El estado de los metaboli - tos sanguíneo fue evaluado 22 horas posteriores al consumo de alimento. Las concentraciones de Glucosa, Colesterol, Triglicéridos y Urea se mantuvieron dentro del rango fisiológico. Los valores de Urea y Colesterol mostraron una ten - dencia creciente con la moringa en la mezcla, a diferencia de los Triglicéridos, que disminu - yeron. Los niveles de Creatinina en MO40 y MO80% superaron el límite fisiológico para la especie (59.7-134.8 μmol/l, indicando un posible fallo renal. Estos resultados permiten concluir que la Moringa oleífera con un nivel de inclusión del 20% constituye una alternativa alimentaria para caprinos; pero requiere de es - tudios para dilucidar niveles de Creatinina con la inclusión de 40 y 80% moringa.

  4. La (desconfianza de los periodistas españoles hacia las instituciones públicas a partir del estudio de factores organizacionales

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    Rosa Berganza Conde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Existe un creciente interés en la bibliografía científica por conocer las prácticas y rutinas de las y los periodistas en distintos contextos (Hanitzsch et al., 2011. La confianza que tienen estos profesionales en las instituciones públicas es una variable clave para comprender su cultura profesional (Hanitzsch & Berganza, 2012; Brants, de Vreese, Möller & van Praag, 2010; van Dalen, Albæk & de Vreese, 2011, así como el interés y la confianza de la ciudadanía en la política (Cappella & Jamieson, 1997. Este estudio pretende conocer el nivel de confianza de las y los periodistas españoles en las instituciones públicas y verificar si el tipo, alcance y propiedad del medio influyen en dichos niveles de confianza. Para ello, se llevó a cabo una encuesta a una muestra probabilística de periodistas españoles (n=390 estratificada por tipo de medio y comunidad autónoma, entre marzo de 2014 y mayo de 2015. El estudio fue desarrollado como parte del proyecto Worlds of Journalism Study. En contraste con la última medición de Hanitzsch y Berganza (2014, los resultados muestran una caída significativa en los niveles de confianza, en especial hacia el sector político y, probablemente, como consecuencia de la crisis económica. Los datos del estudio revelan diferencias parciales en los niveles de confianza respecto al tipo de medio (televisión, radio, prensa, en línea, etc., pero niveles homogéneos entre los diferentes alcances (regional, nacional y propiedades (pública, privada, etc. de los medios, de modo que se sugiere avanzar hacia modelos explicativos que permitan seguir profundizando en el origen de la desconfianza de las y los periodistas españoles/as.

  5. Los españoles en los caminos del extremo norte del Perú en 1532

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    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available LES ESPAGNOLS SUR LES CHEMINS DE L'EXTRÊME NORD DU PÉROU EN 1532. À partir des relations des chroniqueurs qui ont accompagné Pizarro de Tumbes à Cajamarca, de la liste des tambos de 1543, des informations sur les caciques de 1548 et de la prospection des sites le long des chemins muletiers de l’extrême nord du Pérou, les routes incas de la côte et de la sierra par lesquelles sont passés les espagnols en 1532 ont été identifiées. On a repéré les centres administratifs et cérémoniels depuis lesquels les incas controlaient les caciques locaux des versants nord-ouest et sud-est des monts Amotape, des vallées du Chira et du Piura, sur la côte, et des hautes terres de Caxas et Huancabamba, ainsi que les tambos situés le long de ces routes. On a pu retrouver les maisons fortifiées et les villages des caciques de Pabur et Serrán dans la vallée du Piura. Finalement on a tenté de délimiter les terres et les canaux d’irrigation qui permettaient la produccion des differents cacicazgos. A partir de las relaciones de los cronistas que acompañaron a Pizarro de Tumbes a Cajamarca, de la lista de los tambos de 1543, de las informaciones sobre los caciques de 1548 y de la prospección de los sitios a lo largo de los caminos de herradura del extremo norte del Perú, se identificaron las rutas incaicas de la costa y de la sierra por las cuales pasaron los españoles en 1532. Se ubicaron los centros administrativos y ceremoniales desde los cuales los incas controlaban los caciques locales de las vertientes noroeste y sureste de los cerros de Amotape, de los valles de los ríos Chira y Piura, en la costa, y los de las serranías de Caxas y Huancabamba, así como los tambos ubicados a lo largo de estas rutas. Se logró encontrar las casas cercadas y los pueblos de los caciques de Pabur y Serrán en el valle del río Piura. Finalmente se intentó deslindar las tierras y los canales de irrigación que permitían la producción de los

  6. Estrategias comunicativas de escritores españoles en Twitter/ Communication strategies of Spanish writers on Twitter

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    Flávia Gomes-Franco e Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo comunicativo característico de la web 2.0 ha proporcionado nuevos escaparates institucionales, corporativos y personales basados en la interactividad derivada de las herramientas digitales de carácter social. En un entorno cambiante, es menester revisar las estrategias y tácticas aplicadas a la autopromoción con el propósito de adaptarlas conforme a las posibilidades que ofrecen los canales interactivos. El presente estudio tiene por objeto el análisis de las principales estrategias de comunicación y marketing personal empleadas por los escritores españoles en Twitter. La metodología utilizada comprende un análisis sistemático cuantitativo de los perfiles de una muestra de reconocidos autores con el fin de identificar las principales tácticas empleadas por ellos en la mencionada red social. Los resultados evidencian el interés del colectivo analizado por garantizar su presencia en la web social, incorporando a su rutina la práctica del microblogging. En esta dinámica, se percatan igualmente la construcción de una imagen y una marca personal más cercanas y transparentes que las que suelen ofrecer los canales tradicionales, incidiendo a menudo en los intereses personales de los escritores. Se observa asimismo una autopromoción que camina hacia la horizontalidad pese a que presente aún vestigios de la verticalidad propia de la comunicación tradicionalmente impuesta y unidireccional. The Web 2.0 communication model has provided new institutional, corporate, and personal showcases based on the interactivity that derived from the social character of the digital tools. In a changing environment, it becomes necessary to review the strategies and tactics applied to self-promotion in order to adapt them according to the possibilities offered by interactive channels. This study aims to analyze the main strategies of communication and personal marketing used by Spanish writers on Twitter. The methodology includes a quantitative

  7. Empatía, habilidades de colaboración interprofesional y aprendizaje médico permanente en residentes españoles y latinoamericanos que inician los programas de formación médica especializada en España. Resultados preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat San-Martín; Helena Roig-Carrera; Rosa M. Villalonga-Vadell; Carmen Benito-Sevillano; Miquel Torres-Salinas; Gemma Claret-Teruel; Bernabé Robles; Antonia Sans-Boix; Adelina Alcorta-Garza; Luis Vivanco

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar similitudes y diferencias en la empatía, en las habilidades de trabajo colaborativo interprofesional, y en las habilidades de aprendizaje médico permanente entre médicos residentes españoles y latinoamericanos que inician su formación especializada en hospitales docentes españoles. Diseño: Estudio observacional mediante encuesta. Emplazamiento: Cinco hospitales docentes de la provincia de Barcelona, España. Participantes: Médicos residentes, españoles y latinoam...

  8. 1,2,4-Triazines in the Synthesis of Bipyridine Bisphenolate ONNO Ligands and Their Highly Luminescent Tetradentate Pt(II) Complexes for Solution-Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pander, Piotr; Bulmer, Rachel; Martinscroft, Ross; Thompson, Stuart; Lewis, Frank W; Penfold, Thomas J; Dias, Fernando B; Kozhevnikov, Valery N

    2018-04-02

    This article describes a convenient method for the synthesis of ONNO-type tetradentate 6,6'-bis(2-phenoxy)-2,2'-bipyridine (bipyridine bisphenolate, BpyBph) ligands and their platinum(II) complexes. The methodology includes the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazine precursors followed by their transformation to functionalized pyridines by the Boger reaction. Two complementary routes employing 3,3'- and 5,5'-bis-triazines allow a modification of the central pyridine rings in different positions, which was exemplified by the introduction of cyclopentene rings. The new ligands were used to prepare highly luminescent ONNO-type Pt(II) complexes. The position of the cyclopentene rings significantly influences the solubility and photophysical properties of these complexes. Derivatives with closely positioned cyclopentene rings are soluble in organic solvents and proved to be the best candidate for solution-processable organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), showing efficient single-dopant candlelight electroluminescence.

  9. Calidad y características de los sitios web de los hospitales españoles de gran tamaño

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    Calvo-Calvo, Manuel Ángel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to assess the quality and describe characteristics of websites of large Spanish hospitals, i.e. minimum 500 beds. Cross-sectional descriptive study is made, to evaluate the global quality, accessibility, usability, interactivity, updating, quality model and information given in 53 different websites belonging to Spanish hospitals with more than 500 beds. Only 22 (41.5% of the websites analyzed fall into the upper half of the scale used. As such, the mean quality of these websites is shown to be low. On one hand, both accessibility and usability of the evaluated websites were notable, with specific sections for health professionals and hospital suppliers. On the other, the websites were characterized by a limited incorporation of tools for interacting with users, a poor presentation of information about health, diseases, waiting lists and care activities, as well as a deficient updating of their content and almost no adherence to quality references. In short, the websites of large Spanish hospitals are simple informational spaces that don’t facilitate the interaction, participation and collaboration of hospital users. In conclusion, websites of large Spanish hospitals, in addition to being informative spaces, should facilitate more interaction, participation and collaboration with hospital users.El objetivo es evaluar la calidad y describir las características de los sitios web de los hospitales españoles con más de 500 camas. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, de corte transversal, que evalúa la calidad de 53 sitios web de hospitales españoles con más de 500 camas. Se analizan la accesibilidad, usabilidad, interactividad, actualización de la información, referentes de calidad y contenidos presentados en los sitios web. Sólo 22 (41,5% de las webs estudiadas superaron la mitad de los puntos posibles. Por tanto, como media, la calidad de las webs de los grandes hospitales españoles analizados es baja. Las webs

  10. Hacia la coparentalidad post-divorcio: percepción del apoyo de la ex pareja en progenitores divorciados españoles

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    Sagrario Yárnoz-Yaben

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo es analizar el apoyo recibido de la ex pareja en una población de progenitores divorciados españoles. Los datos del presente estudio corresponden a 223 progenitores, 130 madres y 93 padres, procedentes de quince comunidades del estado. Madres y padres, progenitores custodios y no custodios, dicen recibir niveles similares de apoyo de sus ex parejas. Los análisis de regresión múltiple muestran que el 60% de la varianza de la percepción del apoyo recibido de la ex pareja es explicado por el propio ajuste al divorcio del progenitor que responde, su estilo relacional, niveles bajos de afectividad positiva y su nivel socio-cultural. Los resultados son analizados a la luz de la importancia que el ejercicio de la coparentalidad tras el divorcio tiene para el desarrollo adecuado de los hijos e hijas.

  11. Presencia de profesores españoles en la Universidad de Oriente. Su contribución a la casa de altos estudios

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    Lic.Daineris Mancebo-Céspedes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde que se funda la Universidad de Oriente, la misma contó con los servicios de profesores españoles, que, debido a su experiencia académica contribuyeron a elevar el nivel científico y cultural de este centro docente. Precisamente el presente trabajo de investigación propone analizar la contribución académica y científica de profesores foráneos a la Universidad, a través de varias personalidades que prestaron sus servicios en el período prerrevolucionario. Ellos fueron Juan Chabás y Martí, Herminio Almendros, José Luis Galbe, Julio López Rendueles y Francisco Prat Puig. Cada uno desde sus especialidades dejaron profundas huellas en nuestro recinto universitario.

  12. Emigrantes industriosos: los trabajadores españoles y el «milagro económico alemán», 1960-1985.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lafuente, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la integración de los emigrantes españoles en laRFA entre 1960 y los años previos a la entrada de España en la CEE abordando su papel dentrode la inmigración y del crecimiento industrial alemán. El primer apartado se centra en elmarco institucional, productivo y tecnológico del «milagro económico» del país de destino. Posteriormente,se estudian los ciclos económicos del empleo y el espacio regional en el que se asentóla inmigración española, pasando ...

  13. La cortesía verbal atenuadora en el aula de ELE/N: las estrategias de atenuación en alemanes y españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Garrido, Laura

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: El presente trabajo fin de máster se encuadra en el área temática de Lingüística aplicada a la enseñanza y al aprendizaje de español como lengua extranjera. Dentro de esta área, se aborda la pragmática intercultural y, en concreto, el estudio de la cortesía verbal y de su implicación en el aula de español de los negocios. En él, se hace un acercamiento al análisis y al cotejo de las estrategias para la atenuación de las peticiones empleadas por españoles y por alemanes en el conte...

  14. Studies on high power ultrasonic microembossing and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for the creation of lab-on-CD devices for sensor related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengasandra, Srikanth G.

    This study demonstrates the application of High Power Ultrasonic Microembossing Technology (HPUMT) in producing microfeatures on polymer substrates. The work reviews a novel method of obtaining flash free and precise microfeatures by manipulating the material density through microcellular foaming. The microfeatures created on the polymer substrates were further characterized by analyzing the feature depth with respect to the critical ultrasonic embossing operating parameters such as embossing heating times (s), embossing amplitude (microm) at a constant embossing trigger force (N). An experiment design was constructed and performed to characterize the parameters on foamed and unfoamed (or regular) versions of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) sample materials. Results indicated feature depth was proportional to heating times, amplitude and force. It was also seen the maximum depth was achieved in the shortest cycle times with higher amplitudes and forces of operation. HPUMT was further studied to create functional network of microchannels functioned as reservoirs, reaction chamber and burst or gate valves to form a centrifugal biosensing platform that is also referred to as a lab-on-CD or a bio-CD device. The surface energy of the polymer substrates was increased to enable fluid flow by using a surfactant based organic coating to facilitate hydrophilicity. Using an organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) as an electroluminescence source provided luminescence decay results in good agreement with stern-volmer relationship. The functionality of the OLED-coupled lab-on-CD device was further tested in measuring unknown concentrations of a particular analyte in corn slurry sample which contained numerous contaminants. Combinatorial multianalyte sensing was also made possible on a single bio-CD using a four photodetector (PD) quad preamp disk sensor.

  15. Los periodistas españoles y la pérdida de la calidad de la información: el juicio profesional

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    Juan Francisco Gutiérrez Lozano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación acerca del modo en el que los periodistas españoles en ejercicio enjuician la calidad periodística y cómo esta se ve afectada por el contexto económico, tecnológico, empresarial, laboral y profesional actual del periodismo. El texto recoge los resultados de una encuesta en la que participan 363 periodistas españoles con al menos tres años de experiencia en medios de comunicación. Sus respuestas aluden, entre otros aspectos, a las reflexiones acerca de la estructura y el comportamiento de las empresas informativas, así como las características predominantes de la información periodística en la actualidad. En particular, el artículo se centra en exponer las consideraciones de los periodistas acerca del cuidado o esmero de su labor profesional. Entre los principales resultados destaca que el 81% de los encuestados reconoce un empeoramiento de los patrones de calidad del producto periodístico, que ligan a la crisis del sector. Entre las posibles causas se mencionan la falta de independencia económica y política de los medios, la falta de inversión empresarial y los problemas derivados de los cambios tecnológicos, todo ello en un contexto de precarización del mercado laboral periodístico. El artículo vincula estos resultados a otros estudios internacionales que han abordado, de manera sistemática, la calidad periodística, aportando por primera vez en el contexto académico español una perspectiva de la cuestión a partir de los propios profesionales.

  16. Ejemplos de represión contra comunistas españoles y franceses en 1939 en el centro-oeste de Francia (departamento de la Haute-Vienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Haute-Vienne acogió en febrero de 1939 a más de 2.700 civiles españoles refugiados en Francia. Se trata de un departamento esencialmente rural, excepto la capital, conocida por su tradición obrera muy fuerte. Esta tierra fue bastante hospitalaria para los españoles, a pesar de los ataques de la prensa de derecha, entreteniendo el mito del “rojo” español. Entonces, los refugiados fueron objeto de una estricta vigilancia por parte del Estado francés (gobierno Daladier. Se impidió todo tipo de contacto entre los comunistas españoles y franceses, en un contexto de repatriaciones, a veces forzadas, hacia la España franquista. En este artículo, me propongo presentar algunos casos de represión contra los españoles y contra los comunistas, a partir de informes policiales o prefectorales de la Haute-Vienne.Palabras Claves: memoria histórica; exilio; republicanos; Francia; Guerra Civil española___________________________ABSTRACT:In February 1939, Haute-Vienne department accommodated more than 2700 spanish civilians’ refugees.  This department is mainly rural except the capital where there is a strong working class tradition. This land was in general welcoming for refugees, in spite of the attacks of conservative press, which maintained the myth of the “red spanish”. Thus, Spanish refugees were under a strong surveillance by the French state (the Daladier’s government. Any contact between Spanish communists and French was avoided, in a context of repatriation, sometimes forced, back to pro-Franco Spain. This article will present some cases of repression against Spanish and communists that appear in reports from the police and the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne.Keywords: France, Spanish Civil War, exile, historical memory

  17. La condena de españoles a obrajes en Nueva España en 1721: su secuela en la provisión de oficios de las Audiencias indianas

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    Baeza Martín, Ascensión

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1721 la Sala del Crimen de la Audiencia de México, compuesta en ese tiempo por un oidor de turno y dos alcaldes, los tres criollos, había condenado por robo a dos españoles y otros socios a una pena pecuniaria. Si no la cumplían se les llevaría a un obraje hasta satisfacer la sanción. La sentencia fue mal vista por los reos y por un grupo de españoles y criollos adinerados que se hicieron llamar “la nación española”, los cuales se sintieron agraviados por considerarla inusitada y ser una puerta abierta para que en adelante se pudiera imponer dicha pena a los españoles.

    Este suceso desencadenaría una serie de polémicas y tensiones entre el referido grupo y los ministros de la Sala, que daría como resultado una drástica resolución del monarca, cuyo solo rumor había causado ya la protesta de D. Juan Antonio de Ahumada, quien dirigió un alegato al monarca en favor de los criollos.

  18. ¿Qué trabajos ocupan quienes abandonan el desempleo? Diferencias entre españoles y extranjeros en un contexto de cambio económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Comet, Jacobo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the occupational attainment of those who leave unemployment. Specifically, the paper addresses the factors that explain initial differences found between foreigners and Spaniards, and examines the extent to which the economic context reduces or increases the gap between those groups. In order to do so, panel data from the Spanish Labour Force Survey from 2005 until 2010 are used. The logistic regression analyses show that, while it is important to consider various socio-demographic factors, the type of occupation in which people worked before becoming unemployed has a remarkable influence on the skill-level of subsequent jobs. Even after controlling for all relevant variables, it remains more likely for foreigners from outside EU15 to occupy the lowest positions in the labor market, regardless of the state of the economy. With regard to the risk of falling into a lower occupation relative to the last one, this is equal for all national groups in gross terms, but not when taking into account socio-demographic variables and the professional status of workers before the spent in unemployment.En este artículo se estudia el acceso a la ocupación para aquellos que logran salir del desempleo. En concreto, se pretende conocer qué factores explican las diferencias iniciales halladas entre extranjeros y españoles y, al mismo tiempo, averiguar en qué medida la coyuntura económica reduce o incrementa la brecha inicial entre ambos colectivos. Para ello se han utilizado los ficheros de flujos de la Encuesta de Población Activa desde 2005 hasta 2010. Los análisis de regresión logística muestran que la ocupación en la que se trabajó por última vez tiene una influencia notable. No obstante, una vez controladas todas las variables del estudio, los extranjeros de la UE15 continúan teniendo mayor probabilidad que los españoles de escapar del desempleo a costa de ocupar las posiciones más bajas del sistema productivo, con

  19. La literatura como fuente de la historia : los republicanos españoles en los campos de concentración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Richart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Al terminar en 1939 la Guerra Civil española, centenares de miles de republicanos se refugiaron en Francia, muchos de ellos lucharon después contra las tropas de ocupación nazis y contra el régimen de Vichy, muchos de ellos fueron detenidos y deportados a campos de concentración alemanes (caso de Max Aub, internado en Le Vernet primero y en Djelfa en Argelia después. Como hicieron otros republicanos españoles en esas circunstancias, Semprún reconstruyó su permanencia en Buchenwaid en varios de sus libros pero especialmente en Aquel domingo con el propósito de transmitir un testimonio histórico de la lucha contra el nazismo y de los horrores increíbles de esos campos a las nuevas generaciones. Max Aub, por su parte, también ha descrito en varias de sus obras sus atroces experiencias tanto en Le Vernet como en Djelfa, pero de forma especial en Diario de Djelfa, campo equiparable a los peores de exterminio nazi. Esas dos obras de Semprún y de Aub son una contribución de indudable valor histórico para reconstruir las inimaginables experiencias de los republicanos españoles en los campos de concentración de Alemania y Francia.At the end of the Spainsh Civil War in 1939, hundreds of thousands of republicans fled to France, many of them later fought against the nazi occupation forces and the Vichy regime, many of them were arrested and deported to German concentration camps (as was the case of Jorge Semprún, who was taken to Buchenwaid or French internment camps (such as Max Aub, who was internad first at Le Vernet and later at Djelfa, Algeria. Like other republicans who lived through the same circumstances, Semprún revived the time he had to spent in Buchenwaid in several of his books, but especially in Aquel domingo with the aim of bearing testimony to the new generations of the struggle against nazism and the incredible horrors committed in those camps. Max Aub has described in several of his works the terrible experiencias he

  20. Características de 107 registros sanitarios españoles y valoración de su utilización (parte b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Imaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La información sobre los registros sanitarios existentes en nuestro país es poco accesible y escasa y algunos son poco conocidos, pudiendo estar infrautilizados en relación con sus múltiples usos potenciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las características de los Registros Sanitarios españoles y su utilización, especialmente en Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los Registros Sanitarios españoles entre 1997 y 2002. La identificación de los registros se realizó a través de búsqueda bibliográfica y mediante encuesta a Sociedades Científicas y Administración sanitaria central y autonómica. Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica específica de las publicaciones que utilizan datos de los registros sanitarios incluidos y se han evaluado aplicando los criterios de calidad de la evidencia científica. Resultados: Se han identificado 107 registros sanitarios, preferentemente de cobertura local o regional (71% y dependientes en su mayoría de la Administración autonómica (64,5%. Las áreas con mayor número de registros identificados corresponden a la mortalidad (16,8% y al cáncer (15,9%. Se han recuperado 298 publicaciones que analizan datos producidos por los registros identificados, de las que la mayoría se dedican al estudio de la frecuencia y distribución de los eventos registrados (58,1% y con menor frecuencia a la realización de estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (24,4%. Conclusiones: La evaluación crítica de las publicaciones ha permitido identificar algunos elementos relacionados con el diseño y la metodología de análisis que incrementarían la calidad de los estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias.Los registros sanitarios en España han tenido un desarrollo desigual y reciente. Se han detectado áreas relevantes sin registros y elementos de mejora relacionados con la utilización de los registros sanitarios para

  1. Características de 107 registros sanitarios españoles y valoración de su utilización (parte a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Imaz Iglesia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La información sobre los registros sanitarios existentes en nuestro país es poco accesible y escasa y algunos son poco conocidos, pudiendo estar infrautilizados en relación con sus múltiples usos potenciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las características de los Registros Sanitarios españoles y su utilización, especialmente en Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los Registros Sanitarios españoles entre 1997 y 2002. La identificación de los registros se realizó a través de búsqueda bibliográfica y mediante encuesta a Sociedades Científicas y Administración sanitaria central y autonómica. Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica específica de las publicaciones que utilizan datos de los registros sanitarios incluidos y se han evaluado aplicando los criterios de calidad de la evidencia científica. Resultados: Se han identificado 107 registros sanitarios, preferentemente de cobertura local o regional (71% y dependientes en su mayoría de la Administración autonómica (64,5%. Las áreas con mayor número de registros identificados corresponden a la mortalidad (16,8% y al cáncer (15,9%. Se han recuperado 298 publicaciones que analizan datos producidos por los registros identificados, de las que la mayoría se dedican al estudio de la frecuencia y distribución de los eventos registrados (58,1% y con menor frecuencia a la realización de estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (24,4%. Conclusiones: La evaluación crítica de las publicaciones ha permitido identificar algunos elementos relacionados con el diseño y la metodología de análisis que incrementarían la calidad de los estudios de evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias.Los registros sanitarios en España han tenido un desarrollo desigual y reciente. Se han detectado áreas relevantes sin registros y elementos de mejora relacionados con la utilización de los registros sanitarios para

  2. Effect of the substituents on the photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence properties of OLED dopant Iridium bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato- N,C2')(acetylacetonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" >Ivanov, P; Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" >Tomova, R; Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies Acad. J. Malinowski, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 109, 1113 Sofia, BG (Bulgaria))" >Petrova, P

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two substituents: clorine and 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, placed on different position in the molecule of Iridium (III) bis(2-phenylbenzothiozolato-N,C2')- (acetylacetonate) (bt)2Ir(acac), on its electrochemical behaviour, photophysical and electroluminescence properties were investigated. Three complexes (bt)2Ir(acac), Iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2']-acetylacetonate (Clbt)2Ir(acac), in which the Cl atom was introduced on the 4-position in the benzothiazole ring, and the new Iridium (Ill) bis[2 -phenylbenzothiazolato -N,C2'] -(1,3 -diphenylpropane-1,3 -dionate) (bt)2Ir(dbm), where ancillary acetylacetonate ligand was replaced by 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate, were synthesized and characterised by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The HOMO/LUMO energy levels of the complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and their properties were established by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The application of (Clbt)2Ir(acac), (bt)2Ir(bsm) and (bt)2Ir(acac) as dopants in hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light- emitting diodes(OLEDs). It was found that with respect to the reference (bt)2Ir(acac): both LUMO and HOMO of the substituted complexes were shifted to more positive values accordingly with 0.23 and 0.19 eV for (Clbt)2Ir(acac) and 0.14 and 0.12 eV for (bt)2Ir(dbm). OLEDs doped with 1 w% of the complexes irradiated the warm white light with Commission internationale de l'eclairage (CIE) coordinates: 0.24;0.38 for (Clbt)2Ir(acac), 0.30;0.44 for (bt)2Ir(acac) and 0.28;0.46 for (bt)2Ir(dbm). Devices doped with 10 w% of all complexes irradiated in the yellow orange region of the spectrum

  3. TIPOLOGÍA Y GRADO DE PREJUICIO DE UN GRUPO DE ESPAÑOLES HACIA EL COLECTIVO COLOMBIANO. UNA LECTURA CON PERSPECTIVA DE GÉNERO

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    Daniela Herrera Rubalcaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación identifi ca la tipología y el grado de prejuicio que un grupo de españoles, residente en la provincia de Almería (España, presenta hacia el colectivo de inmigrantes colombianos. Para recabar la información se contactó a 16 mujeres y 14 hombres que respondían a la escala de Pettigrew y Meertens (1995, adaptada por Rueda; Navas y Gómez (1995 y Rueda y Navas (1996. En una lectura con perspectiva de género de las respuestas se observa que, en este contexto de migración y multiculturalidad, más de la mitad de mujeres y hombres del total de participantes se presenta en la misma proporción como personas “igualitarias”. El resto, seis españolas y cuatro españoles, presentan prejuicio sutil hacia el colectivo colombiano. En esta investigación ni mujeres ni hombres se pueden identifi car como “fanáticos”. Los resultados se discuten en relación con los encontrados en otras investigaciones. AbstractThis research paper aims to identify typology and prejudice based on information using a group of Spanish people who live in Almería (Spain, in relation to a group of Colombian immigrants. In order to support this information, sixteen women and fourteen men who responded to Pettigrew & Meertens Scale (1995, and adapted by Rueda et al. (1995 and Rueda & Navas (1996, were used as a sample. The answers, based on gender perspective, showed that more than half of the total men and women are presented in the same proportion as “egalitarian”. The rest of the people, six Spanish males and four Spanish females, presented subtle prejudice towards Colombians. So, in this research project neither women, nor men can be identifi ed as “fanatic”. The results also are controversial in relation with the ones found in other studies.

  4. El peso de la ley: la política hacia los españoles en la independencia del Perú

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    Ascensión Martínez Riaza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de San Martín al Perú, septiembre de 1820, provocó el desconcierto entre la población local. En Lima se transformó en miedo cuando el virrey La Serna abandonó la capital. Iniciaba para los españoles un tortuoso proceso de connamiento, emigración, expulsión y secuestro de bienes que se extendió por el territorio a medida que era controlado por las fuerzas patriotas. En este contexto, el artículo analiza la política de los distintos gobiernos independientes a través del estudio del marco legislativo, las instancias que intervinieron y los mecanismos con los que se aplicó la normativa. Se hace un estudio comparativo entre distintas etapas: desde la conciliación inicial de San Martín hasta las medidas de Bolívar después de la capitulación de Ayacucho.

  5. MEDIDA DEL RENDIMIENTO DE LAS JUNTAS DE OBRAS DE LOS PUERTOS ESPAÑOLES DURANTE LA NOVENA LEGISLATURA DE LA DICTADURA FRANQUISTA (1962-1965

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    Isidoro Guzmán Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Los enclaves portuarios son importantes centros de desarrollo económico, cuya actuación eficiente es una premisa fundamental de su modelo de negocio para ofrecer adecuadamente los servicios que prestan. En este sentido, el presente trabajo está dedicado al estudio del rendimiento de los puertos españoles durante el periodo 1962-1965, los cuales se encontraban gestionados por las entonces denominadas Juntas de Obras del Puerto (en adelante JOP, que hoy en día conocemos con el apelativo de Autoridades Portuarias (en adelante AP. Sobre un censo de 29 JOP para el periodo objeto de estudio, se aplicó la técnica no paramétrica del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (Data Envelopment Analysis, DEA (Charner et al., 1978; Banker et al., 1984 para determinar las puntuaciones de rendimiento basadas en el trazado de fronteras eficientes por periodos anuales, a partir de la implementación de un modelo de eficiencia en el que se recogen los principales variables en que se basa el servicio portuario. El trabajo se complementa con el cálculo del Índice de Productividad Total de los Factores de Malmquist (Färe et al., 1994, con el fin de conocer la evolución del cambio productivo, junto por el cambio tecnológico y en eficiencia de los puertos evaluados.

  6. De coyotes y gallinas: Hispanidad, identidad nacional y comunidad política durante la expulsión de españoles

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    Pani, Erika

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores one of the most contentious moments in the struggle to redefine political community during the early independence period in Mexico: the 1827 expulsion of Spaniards, through the analysis of parliamentary debates and pamphleteer literature. It tries to uncover the borders that, according to the contenders, were to define the new national community, and the place within it of the «gachupines», now considered by some to be strangers.

    Este artículo explora uno de los momentos más candentes de las pugnas por redefinir la comunidad política durante los primeros años del México independiente: la expulsión de españoles de 1827, a partir del análisis de los discursos parlamentario y panfletario en la ciudad de México. Se trata de descubrir las fronteras que, según los contendientes, debían contener a la nueva comunidad nacional, y el lugar que, dentro de ésta, debían tener los «gachupines», ahora considerados, por algunos, como extraños.

  7. Conducta sexual segura y hábitos de salud en jóvenes españoles de 14 a 24 años

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    José María Faílde Garrido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los jóvenes son un colectivo de especial importancia para la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y para la promoción de la salud en general, por ello resulta de interés estudiar las causas y determinantes de sus conductas de salud. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en estudiar el grado de relación existente entre la conducta de uso del preservativo y otros hábitos de salud, en jóvenes españoles de 14 a 24 años. La muestra estuvo formada por 2171 jóvenes de las comunidades autónomas de Galicia, Andalucía y Madrid. Los resultados indican la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género. En general las chicas presentan hábitos más saludables, a excepción de la práctica deportiva y el uso sistemático del preservativo masculino. Asimismo, las variables práctica deportiva e higiene buco-dental se muestran como predictores confiables de la conducta de usar el preservativo.

  8. Relación entre la imagen corporal y los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario en una serie de jóvenes españoles y argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrodán, María D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la conformidad con la imagen corporal y prevalencia de trastornos del comportamiento alimentario (TCA en una muestra de 517 jóvenes españoles y 490 argentinos. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC y se relacionó la imagen real con la estimada mediante un método gráfico de siluetas. Para conocer la conducta alimentaria se utilizó un el test psicométrico de respuesta múltiple. Respecto a la autopercepción no existen diferencias significativas en función del país de origen pero si hay diferencias de género. También se tuvieron en cuenta las preferencias por el sexo contrario, así como la imagen considerada más saludable. La insatisfacción con la propia imagen aparece como probable factor de predisposición al desarrollo de TCA, que presenta una frecuencia mas elevada en la serie femenina española.

  9. OBTENÇÃO DO BIODIESEL ATRAVÉS DA TRANSESTERIFICAÇÃO DO ÓLEO DE Moringa Oleífera Lam

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    Daniele Silva Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Moringa Oleífera Lam é uma oleaginosa que tem um grande potencial para a produção de bicombustível no semi-árido nordestino, uma vez que se adapta a várias condições climáticas. A semente produz entre 35 % a 40 % de óleo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter o biodiesel através do processo de transesterificação e caracterizar as propriedades físico-químicas do óleo e biodiesel de acordo com as normas estabelecidas pela ANP. O biodiesel foi produzido pela rota metílica com o catalisador KOH. Os resultados mostraram que a semente de moringa produz óleo em boa quantidade com características físico-químicas adequadas para ser usado como matéria prima na transesterificação para obtenção de biodiesel. O teor de óleo médio encontrado para as sementes de moringa foi de 40 %, fornecendo rendimento de 83,68% em biodiesel e conversão dos ácidos graxos em ésteres metílicos de 99,9 %.

  10. La competencia digital de los políticos españoles en Twitter. El caso de las elecciones europeas de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gelado Marcos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Twitter se ha convertido en un controvertido objeto de debate en varios aspectos de la vida pública. Sin embargo, antes de plantearnos la educación mediática que eclosiones como la de Twitter requiere de una ciudadanía que ve la oportunidad de sumergirse de nuevo en profundidad en la esfera pública, cabe preguntarse si actores de suma importancia en ella como los políticos entienden bien estas nuevas posibilidades de comunicación con sus gobernados. Este artículo pretende contribuir a el debate entre quienes defienden el potencial de la red de microblogging y quienes constatan, en cambio, que los actores que la utilizan no están exprimiendo tal potencial. Para ello, hemos analizado el uso que de Twitter se hizo por parte de los líderes políticos españoles más significativos durante las Elecciones Europeas de 2014, combinando a tal fin metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas que permitan un análisis más profundo de sus discursos y su comprensión de la herramienta.

  11. Turismo de eventos: los cruceros españoles en la inauguración del canal de suez de 1869

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    Gaetano Cerchiello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El 17 de noviembre de 1869 tuvo lugar el solemne acto de inauguración del Canal de Suez. Largamente celebrado por los medios de información, el histórico acontecimiento atrajo visitantes de toda Europa, generando asimismo la promoción de varios viajes organizados. Tras una breve introducción sobre los principales hechos que condujeron a la apertura de la nueva ruta marítima, este artículo se ocupa de dos singulares proyectos de cruceros turísticos españoles, en una época en la que los viajes de recreo al extranjero, y el turismo en general, sólo proliferaban entre las élites foráneas. Su estudio ayuda a esclarecer, por otra parte, algunos rasgos diferenciales de las primeras experiencias crucerísticas en España, que habían empezado a llevarse a cabo desde mediados del siglo XIX.

  12. Estudio Psicométrico del Índice de Carga Mental NASA-TLX con una Muestra de Trabajadores Españoles

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    Eva Díaz Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento de evaluación de la carga mental de trabajo NASA-TLX en distintos grupos profesionales españoles. La muestra estuvo formada por 398 trabajadores que pertenecían a siete sectores profesionales diferentes. Todos los trabajadores evaluaron la carga mental percibida en sus puestos de trabajo, debida a cada una de las seis dimensiones de carga que distingue el NASA-TLX: esfuerzo, demanda mental, demanda física, demanda temporal, rendimiento y frustración. Los resultados mostraron una consistencia interna aceptable y una estructura factorial constituida por dos factores. Uno de los factores estaba formado únicamente por la dimensión "frustración", mientras que el otro factor englobaba a las cinco dimensiones restantes. Por último, se encontraron diferencias importantes en los perfiles de carga mental entre los grupos profesionales considerados, en todas las dimensiones de carga, excepto en rendimiento.

  13. Shedding light on the photophysical properties of newly designed platinum(II) complexes by adding substituents on functionalized ligands as highly efficient OLED emitters from a theoretical viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jieqiong [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Wang, Li, E-mail: chemwangl@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Wang, Xin [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); He, Chaozheng, E-mail: hecz2013@nynu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061 (China); Zhang, Jinglai, E-mail: zhangjinglai@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The phosphorescent properties of three synthesized and three new designed platinum(II) complexes are focused on in this work. To reveal their structure–property relationships, a density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) investigation is performed on the geometric and electronic structures, absorption and emission spectra. The electroluminescent (EL) properties are evaluated by the ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), and reorganization energy (λ). Furthermore, the radiative rate constant (k{sub r}) is qualitatively elucidated by various factors including the strength of the SOC interaction between the higher-lying singlet excited states (S{sub n}) and the T{sub 1} state, the oscillator strength (f) of the S{sub n} states that can couple with the T{sub 1} state, and the energy separation between the coupled states. A combined analysis of various elements that could affect the phosphorescent efficiency is beneficial to exploring efficient triplet phosphors in OLEDs. Consequently, complexes Pt-1 and 1 would be more suitable blue-emitting phosphorescent materials with balance of EL properties and acceptable quantum yields. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The absorption and phosphorescence spectra of Pt(II) complexes are investigated. • Their Φ{sub em}, IP, EA, and reorganization energy are compared. • Three new Pt(II) complexes are designed.

  14. Perfeccionismo y factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de trastornos alimentarios en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros

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    Lidia Pamies

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las dimensiones del perfeccionismo que estaban relacionadas con conductas alimentarias de riesgo en adolescentes españoles de ambos géneros, así como analizar si existían diferencias significativas en estas dimensiones entre los adolescentes con mayor y menor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria. Método: se administró la adaptación española de The Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS y el EAT- 40 a una muestra representativa de 2142 adolescentes de la provincia de Alicante(1130 chicas y 1012 chicos, con una media de edad de 13.96 años (DT = 1.34. Resultados: el perfeccionismo auto-orientado y el prescrito socialmente estaban relacionados de forma positiva con la puntuación total en el EAT-40 y los diferentes factores que lo componen, en ambos géneros. Los adolescentes con mayor riesgo de desarrollar un trastorno alimentario presentaban un mayor perfeccionismo auto-orientado y prescrito socialmente que los adolescentes con menor riesgo de desarrollar el problema. Conclusión: Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de identificar estas tendencias perfeccionistas en los adolescentes antes de que se conviertan en conductas patológicas, como un medio para prevenir el desarrollo de un trastorno alimentario.

  15. Conducta prosocial y estrategias de aprendizaje en una muestra de estudiantes españoles de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria

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    Cándido J. Inglés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analizó la relación entre conducta prosocial y las estrategias de aprendizaje en una muestra de 2022 estudiantes españoles (51.1% varones de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO. La conducta prosocial fue medida con la escala de Conducta Prosocial del Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS y las estrategias de aprendizaje fueron medidas con el Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (LASSI-HS. Los análisis de regresión logística revelaron que la conducta prosocial es un predictor positivo y estadísticamente significativo de puntuaciones altas en las siguientes estrategias y habilidades de estudio: actitud hacia el éxito académico, motivación, procesamiento de la información, selección de ideas principales, ayudas al estudio, autoevaluación y estrategias de evaluación. Además, la conducta prosocial fue un predictor negativo y estadísticamente significativo de puntuaciones altas en ansiedad. Estos resultados fueron encontrados en varones, mujeres y en estudiantes de todos los cursos de ESO. Sin embargo, la conducta prosocial sólo fue un predictor positivo y estadísticamente significativo de altas puntuaciones en control del tiempo (en las muestras de 2o y 4o de ESO y en concentración (en las muestras de chicos y 4o de ESO.

  16. El desengaño del naturalismo: análisis de la evolución de algunos novelistas españoles del siglo XIX

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    Barrero Pérez, Óscar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Spanish writers' production during the Restoration exemplifies the constant attempt to assimilate the techniques of Naturalism, without necessarily conforming to its ideological premises. Among other aspects, this essay investigates the possibility of exploiting the idea of «Romantic hypotext» as a productive concept in the history of XIXth century literature —so as to open the way to the overcoming of the traditional dualism between Realism and Naturalism—, and draws the attention to the formal, stylistic and linguistic aspects of the text so far subordinated to the concern for content.La evolución de los escritores españoles de la Restauración ejemplifica el constante esfuerzo por asimilar la técnica del naturalismo, sin que esta absorción implicara conformidad con sus presupuestos ideológicos. Entre otros aspectos, se analizan en este artículo las posibilidades de hacer del hipotexto romántico un concepto productivo en la historia de la literatura decimonónica, hasta el punto tal vez de abrir la puerta a la superación de la dialéctica entre realismo y naturalismo, y se apuesta por la atención a los aspectos formales, estilísticos y lingüísticos hasta hoy soterrados por un criterio que prima el contenido del texto.

  17. Cubanos y españoles después del 98: de la confrontación a la convivencia pacífica

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    García Álvarez, Alejandro

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Once a consensus was reached in the system of comercial and political relations between Spain and Cuba, the readjustment in the interaction between Cubans and Spaniards was easier, as the situation of open war turned into another of peaceful coexistence guaranteed by the jural framework of the new republic, strengthened by the rise of Spanish immigration, and sustained by the enormous influence of the Hispano-Cuban cultural tradition.

    Una vez consensuado el sistema de relaciones entre España y Cuba el reajuste de las interacciones entre españoles y cubanos, en el plano concreto de la convivencia, se hizo más fluido, por transitar desde una situación de agudo enfrentamiento representado por la guerra, hasta una convivencia pacífica garantizada por el marco jurídico ofrecido por la república, reforzada por el incremento de la inmigración española, y conservada por el enorme peso de la tradición hispano-cubana.

  18. A comparative study of electrode effects on the electrical and luminescent characteristics of Alq3/TPD OLED: Improvements due to conductive polymer (PEDOT) anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, H.; Li, W.; Jones, R.; Steckl, A.; Klotzkin, D.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of organic light emitting device (OLED) structures, based on identically fabricated Alq 3 /TPD active regions, with various anode and cathode electrode structures are compared, and performance differences related to the different anode structure. The best performance was achieved with a conductive polymer, 3,4-polyethylenedioxythiopene-polystyrenesultonate (PEDOT), used as an anode layer, yielding a brightness of 1720 cd/m 2 at 25 V, a turn-on voltage of 3 V, and electroluminescence (EL) efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 8.2 cd/A and 2%, respectively, at a brightness of 100 cd/m 2 and 5 V. Compared to a baseline device (TPD/Alq 3 /Al), PEDOT anodes substantially reduce the turn-on voltage and made current injection almost linear after turn-on, whiles devices incorporating a LiF and CuPc layers significantly improved device efficiency while slightly improving turn-on voltage and maintaining superlinear I-V injection. This is attributed to the reduced barrier at the organic-organic interface in PEDOT, the 'ladder' effect of stepping the band offset over several interfaces, and the favorable PEDOT film morphology. The benefit of the PEDOT anode is clearly seen in the improvement in device brightness and the high external quantum efficiency obtained

  19. «Extranjeros perniciosos». Infractores y delincuentes españoles en la ciudad de México (1910-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Lázaro, Alicia

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a sector of the Spanish immigrants who lived in Mexico City during the Mexican revolution and the first two post-revolutionary decades. It focuses on every-day life through the analysis of their illegal and violent behavior within their homes, workplace and recreational spaces, as well as on the common crimes (against property, etc. they committed. Mexican authorities labeled them as «pernicious» foreigners.

    Este artículo trata de acercarse a las vidas de un grupo de inmigrantes españoles en la Ciudad de México durante la revolución mexicana y las primeras décadas posrevolucionarias. La mirada se centra en sus comportamientos delictivos que incluyen actitudes violentas en ámbitos domésticos, de trabajo y de ocio y recreación y también delitos contra la propiedad y otros. Las autoridades mexicanas los calificaron en la época como «extranjeros perniciosos».

  20. Evidencia empírica de los economistas españoles tras 5 años de aplicación de la reforma contable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Marín Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcurridos 5 años desde la aplicación efectiva de la reforma contable en España, con el presente trabajo se ha buscado mostrar la opinión de los «Economistas Expertos en Contabilidad e Información Financiera» (ECIFCGE sobre diversas cuestiones relacionadas con la misma. Para ello se ha utilizado una base empírica obtenida de sendas encuestas realizadas en 2008, 2009 y, la última, a finales del año 2012. De forma general se concluye que los economistas españoles, de este ámbito de la profesión, tienen un amplio conocimiento de la normativa que emana de la reforma contable; que este ha aumentado y/o se ha consolidado con el paso del tiempo; que las complicaciones han disminuido con el transcurso del mismo, que ven ahora con menos distancia la adaptación y el uso de las NIC/NIIF, y que su dominio ha aumentado con el grado de conocimiento y formación. De forma específica siguen ocupando mayor dedicación las áreas de patrimonio neto, valoración de activos y pasivos financieros, derivados, grupos 8 y 9, partes vinculadas y resultados extraordinarios, pero con valores medios en disminución por cada año transcurrido.

  1. På sporet af 5. C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida; Christoffersen, Erik Exe

    2016-01-01

    Borgerscener er landsdelsscenernes niche. Præmissen for scenerne er at bruge teatermediet til at skildre mennesker i deres autentiske liv, og i Lars Ole 5. C på Aarhus Teater leges der med Niels Malmros’ film fra 1973, som 10 århusianske børn i 12 årsalderen bruger som filter for deres egne...

  2. Acercando los archivos a los ciudadanos. Una experiencia desde el Portal de Archivos Españoles (PARES del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mairena, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Archives Portal is the third generation in the computerization of the State Archives. It is intended to provide citizens and researchers with integrated on-line access to the archival databases of the eight state general archives distributed across Spain, while facsimiles or digital versions of the documents are added to the archival description catalogue. At the same time, PARES is producing a line of tools for electronic management of the public services offered in the network of the State Archives to researchers and members of the public visiting the archive in person. And thirdly, PARES is an archival platform intended to promote the whole range of possible dissemination strategies. The platform today is fundamentally a repository for the creation, management and dissemination of historical records. However, also it is involved in a process of transformation to accommodate the concepts of “open files” and web 2.0 principles. To do this, different courses of action are being pursued such as converting PARES into an OAI-PMH repository, which allows interoperability with other archival information systems, both Spanish and international, and the development of new tools and standards for the incorporating multilingual access Points.El Portal de Archivos Españoles supone la tercera generación en la informatización de los Archivos Estatales. Está destinado a facilitar a los investigadores y a los ciudadanos el acceso integrado en red a las bases de datos archivísticas de los ocho grandes archivos de titularidad estatal distribuidos por la geografía española, al mismo tiempo que se van incorporando los facsímiles u objetos digitales de los documentos. Al mismo tiempo, PARES elabora una línea de herramientas para la gestión electrónica de los servicios públicos ofrecidos en la red de centros a los investigadores y ciudadanos que acceden presencialmente. Y en tercer lugar, PARES es una plataforma destinada a favorecer

  3. La opinión de los consumidores españoles sobre los alimentos transgénicos y su seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Múñoz, Emilio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the public perception of food safety issues and transgenic foods among Spanish citizens. The results show two distinct types of behavior with respect to the acquisition of a product based on a new technology (like biotechnology: the behavior as consumers of a product, and the behavior as citizen and user of this technology. One of the reasons for this schism is the difference between the relatively high level of (general information and the low level of (specific knowledge with respect to this technology. People in Spain perceive transgenic foods as similar to existing industrial foodstuffs. This leads a majority of them to reject purchasing those products. These attitudes are in line with the responses given in relation to the introduction of regulation (labeling of transgenic foodstuffs.

    El presente artículo resume los resultados de una encuesta a ciudadanos españoles sobre su percepción de la seguridad alimentaria, especialmente en el área de los productos transgénicos. Los resultados indican que las personas se comportan de dos maneras distintas en el momento de comprar un producto: por un lado, como consumidores de un determinado producto y, por el otro, como usuarios (o ciudadanos-usuarios de tecnología. En ello influye que existe un alto nivel de información general sobre la biotecnología, pero todavía hay poco conocimiento sobre los aspectos específicos de los productos. La tecnología de los alimentos transgénicos se percibe en claves parecidas a los alimentos industriales existentes, lo que influye en las actitudes de compra (mayoritariamente de rechazo. Estas actitudes guardan relación con las respuestas aducidas para justificar el establecimiento de regulaciones (etiquetado sobre la comercialización de los alimentos modificados genéticamente.

  4. El lugar de la sátira en la poética: los tratados españoles del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Alcázar, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the satirical genre and its connections with Poetics in the Spanish Poetry and Rhetoric precept treatises of the nineteenth century. Throughout that century, literary theory was subject to major changes, such as the success of Hegel’s postulates on literary genres. Satire faces these changes and its own evolution: it was first identified with the Roman satura and afterwards through its various forms, it became a mixed or transitional genre. Its fragile nature seems to confront directly the normative perpetuity of treatises that, in spite of their rupture with romanticism, may be considered inheritors of the classicist principles.Se propone en este artículo investigar el género satírico y sus relaciones con la Poética a través de los tratados poético-retóricos de preceptiva españoles del siglo XIX. A lo largo de toda esa centuria la teoría literaria estuvo sujeta a grandes transformaciones, entre ellas, el triunfo de los principios hegelianos acerca de los géneros literarios. La sátira se enfrenta a esas mismas transformaciones y a su propia evolución: primero, identificada con la satura romana, y luego, a través de sus numerosas formas, convertida en un género mixto o de transición. Su lábil naturaleza parece enfrentarse directamente con la perennidad normativa de los tratados que, a pesar de la ruptura romántica, pueden considerarse herederos de los principios clasicistas.

  5. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnAlQ{sub 5} (zinc aluminum quinolate) organic phosphor for OLED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpure, I. M., E-mail: indrajitnagpure@gmail.com; Painuly, Deepshikha [Physics, Department of Sciences and Humanities, National Institute of Technology,Uttarakhand-246174 (India); Rabanal, Maria Eugenia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering,University Carlos III of Madrid, Avd. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-06

    The various composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5} such as Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 1}Al{sub 1}Q{sub 5}, Zn{sub 0.5}Al{sub 1.5}Q{sub 5} organic phosphors were prepared via simple cost effective co-precipitation method. The FTIR, SEM, photoluminescence analysis of the prepared phosphors were reported. ZnQ{sub 2} and AlQ{sub 3} were also prepared by similar method and their properties were compared with different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5}. The structural elucidation in the form of stretching frequencies of chemical bonds of the prepared phosphor was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The stretching frequency analysis confirms the formation of prepared phosphor materials. The SEM analysis shows the surface morphological behavior of prepared phosphor materials. Greenish photoluminescence were observed at 505 to 510 nm for the different composition of ZnAlQ{sub 5},in which Zn{sub 1.5}Al{sub 0.5}Q{sub 5} shows maximum luminescence intensity at 505 nm. PL emission of ZnQ{sub 2} was observed at 515 nm, while for AlQ{sub 3} at 520 nm. The blue shift of 10 nm was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} due to modification of energy level due to presence of Zn{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}. The enhancement in PL intensity was observed in Zn{sub 1.5}A{sub 10.5}Q{sub 5} compared to the other composition due to transfer of energy between Zn{sup 2+} and quinolate complex. Optical properties of the prepared materials were evaluated for possible applications in organic light emitting devices (OLED).

  6. Características de la planificación del entrenamiento en los deportes de equipo españoles de élite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moliner Urdiales

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue analizar mediante cuestionario la formación de los preparadores físicos (PF y las características de la planificación en los equipos masculinos españoles de élite de balonmano, baloncesto, voleibol, fútbol sala, fútbol y hockey hierba. El ratio de respuesta fue del 81,8 %. El cuestionario estaba dividido en 7 ítems: perfil formativo de los PF, modelo de planificación, nivel de individualización, organización de la sesión, planificación del periodo preparatorio, planificación del periodo competitivo, planificación del periodo transitorio. Un 80,5 % de los PF eran licenciados en CAFD, un 22 % tenía máster y un 40,3 % eran entrenadores nacionales. Sólo un 5,2 % consultaba revistas científicas (International Science Index. Un 48,1 % planificaban la temporada según el calendario competitivo. En baloncesto y fútbol, los entrenamientos se ajustaban al volumen competitivo individual (87 %. Un 71 % realizaban el trabajo condicional antes del técnico-táctico y un 7,8 % lo hacía habitualmente integrado. Los equipos de balonmano, baloncesto y fútbol (91 % disputaron más de 6 partidos preparatorios. El periodo transitorio fue superior a 6 semanas en balonmano, voleibol y hockey hierba (84 % vs. 38 %, realizando el 91 % un programa de trabajo. Las deficiencias observadas en la planificación de los equipos podrían estar relacionadas con ciertas carencias en la formación científica identificadas entre los PF

  7. Los flujos migratorios en las estadísticas de origen y destino: la emigración de españoles a Europa (2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Romero-Valiente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es ampliar el conocimiento demográfico de la emigración española a Europa en la actualidad. Para ello se realiza un análisis comparativo entre los datos y cifras que ofrecen las estadísticas españolas (emigración y la de los países receptores (inmigración para el período 2008-2013. Ello permite observar las diferencias notables entre las mismas a favor de los países receptores: duplican o triplican (al menos a las españolas según sea el concepto de migración utilizado para el registro estadístico. Estas diferencias se deben fundamentalmente a las existentes en el registro de migrantes jóvenes (especialmente de 20-29 años. Los problemas de subregistro en las estadísticas españolas, así como los de sobre-registro en las de los países receptores, que afectan especialmente a dicho colectivo, constituyen los principales factores explicativos de las mismas. Las estadísticas de los países receptores elaboradas siguiendo el concepto de migración de largo plazo, aunque no exentas de limitaciones, permiten aproximarnos mejor a la realidad el volumen, evolución y estructura demográfica del flujo migratorio de españoles hacia Europa. Un flujo muy superior, sin duda, al cifrado en las estadísticas de emigración española, y conformado en mucha mayor medida por personas jóvenes.

  8. COMPRENDIENDO EL ALARGAMIENTO DE LA JUVENTUD: EXPLICACIONES A PARTIR DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS DE JÓVENES BRASILEÑOS Y ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Nascimento Coelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca comprender cómo explican los jóvenes el fenómeno del alargamiento de la juventud a partir de sus experiencias y de su evaluación del contexto social e histórico en el que se insertan. Realizamos una investigación cualitativa de diseño transversal con jóvenes de 25 a 29 años brasileños y españoles. Se llevaron a cabo 25 entrevistas individuales en profundidad  con hombres y mujeres, totalizando 50 entrevistados en ambos países. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas, organizadas y categorizadas con el software Atlas-ti® y analizadas a través de análisis de contenido semántico.A partir del discurso de los entrevistados se evidencia dos modelos de explicación que toman como referencia aspectos extrínsecos e intrínsecos. Los primeros se refieren a la crisis económica y las dificultades de inserción laboral de los jóvenes, al aumento de la expectativa de vida, al permiso social e incentivo de la familia para seguir la vida de joven y a la influencia de los medios de comunicación en ese mismo sentido. Las explicaciones intrínsecas serían caracterizadas por los cambios de valores – vinculados a la prioridad dada a  aspectos financieros y de la vida profesional – y la valoración cada vez mayor de una ética hedonista que se observa en la juventud.

  9. Síntomas psicopatológicos en adolescentes españoles: relación con los estilos parentales percibidos y la autoestima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Rosa-Alcázar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la sintomatología psicopatológica evaluada con el SCL-90-R en una muestra comunitaria de 935 adolescentes españoles y su interacción con el estilo parental percibido y la autoestima. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 489 chicos y 446 chicas de edades comprendidas entre los 12 y 18 años (M = 14.84, DT = 1.83 que cursaban estudios de Educación Secundaria y Bachillerato. Catorce centros de la Región de Murcia y Castilla La Mancha aceptaron participar en el estudio. De éstos, fueron seleccionados al azar siete teniendo en cuenta la titularidad de los centros (pública y concertada. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de diferencias debidas a la edad en todas las variables medidas (síntomas psicopatológicos, autoestima y percepción de los estilos educativos parentales. Las mujeres presentaron menos niveles de sintomatología y mejor percepción de los estilos educativos. Los resultados de los análisis correlacionales confirmaron relaciones significativas y negativas entre autoestima y síntomas psicopatológicos y entre algunas dimensiones positivas de los estilos educativos. Los predictores más relevantes y de mayor peso en la salud psicológica fueron: autoestima, edad, sexo, revelación y afecto del padre y control psicológico de la madre.

  10. Las dietas mediáticas de los españoles. Estudio a través de los usos del tiempo en 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callejo, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Television remains the most consumed media by the Spanish. However, after this first statement we find a society with significant differences when it interacts with the media. A cluster analysis of the Time Uses Survey 2009-2010, conducted by Instituto Nacional de Estadística, has found four groups or media diets. Every media diet articulates different amount of time of television consumption, use of digital media (computer and internet and other media consumption in everyday life. This work also shows the importance in setting such diets of household income, type of household, relation to activity and age. Finally, gender appears not so much as a criterion to differentiate media diets as a criterion to explain the time spent on other activities within each media diet.La televisión sigue siendo el medio de comunicación más consumido por los españoles. Ahora bien, tras esta primera afirmación se encuentra una sociedad con importantes diferencias a la hora de relacionarse con los medios de comunicación. Un análisis cluster de los resultados de la Encuesta de Empleo del Tiempo 2009-2010 realizada por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística ha desvelado cuatro grupos o dietas mediáticas. Cada dieta articula diferentes cantidades de consumo televisivo, uso de medios digitales –ordenador o internet– y consumo de otros medios en la vida diaria. Asimismo, el trabajo muestra la importancia en la configuración de tales dietas de los ingresos del hogar, el tipo de hogar, la relación con la actividad y la edad. Por último, el sexo aparece no tanto como criterio diferenciador de dietas mediáticas, como criterio que explica distintas relaciones con otras actividades dentro de cada dieta mediática.

  11. Roles y medios de comunicación españoles, un estudio comparativo de tres décadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gutiérrez San Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Este artículo presenta los resultados parciales de una investigación interdisciplinar consecuencia de un proyecto de innovación subvencionado por la universidad de Salamanca. Objetivos. Los objetivos son la identificación de los roles representados en diversos documentos televisivos españoles de los años 60, 80 y 2000, y el detectar el cambio social de cada época. Metodología. Se utiliza una metodología mixta con la elaboración de una encuesta aplicada a estudiantes y profesores de diversos Máster para detectar la representación de los paradigmas sociales en la televisión en los períodos analizados, los valores y los estereotipos que los sustentan. Para analizar el cambio en las preguntas de la encuesta en las diferentes etapas, se realizaron anovas de medidas repetidas y la prueba post-hoc bonferroni para las variables cuantitativa, y las pruebas no paramétricas de Q Cochran y McNemar para las variables categóricas de respuesta dicotómica. Conclusión. Se establece un cambio de paradigma en la representación de los roles en el país, con una evolución desigual de los mismos. Los malos tratos se visibilizan en los documentos audiovisuales y estos parecen fundamentarse en la pérdida de la identidad tradicional.

  12. Simón Rodríguez Laso, un clérigo ilustrado en el colegio de San Clemente de los españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Sánchez, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simón Rodríguez Laso (Montejo, Salamanca, 1751, Bologna, 1821 Doctor of Law for the University of Bologna, Dignity of the Maestrecuela of the Cathedral of Ciudad Rodrigo, Knight of the Order of Carlos III and Rector of the College of San Clemente (Bolonga, Italy from 1788 until his death, in 1821. This article seeks to highlight the Italian stage of a Spanish Enlightenment men, who fought for the survival of a characteristic institution of the Ancien Regime, San Clemente of the Spaniards College, which resisted the offensive of liberalism. The article also underlines Laso´s personality, learned and regalist, he saw off his reformist thinking because of the new ideas that emerged from French Revolution and devoted his life to the Hispanic College of Bologna.Simón Rodríguez Laso (Montejo, Salamanca, 1751, Bolonia, 1821 Doctor en Cánones por la Universidad de Bolonia, dignidad de de maestrescuela de la S. I. catedral de Ciudad Rodrigo, caballero de la Orden de Carlos III y rector del Colegio de San Clemente de Bolonia desde 1788 hasta su muerte en 1821. En este artículo se pretende dar a conocer la etapa italiana de un ilustrado español, que luchó por la supervivencia de una institución característica del Antiguo Régimen, el Colegio de San Clemente de los españoles de Bolonia, que resistió a la ofensiva del liberalismo. En el artículo se quieren también destacar algunos rasgos de la personalidad de Laso, ilustrado y regalista, que vio mitigado su pensamiento reformista por las nuevas ideas que surgieron de la Revolución Francesa y que consagró su vida al Colegio hispánico de Bolonia.

  13. Análisis de la motivación en corredores de maratón españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ruiz-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se planteó como objetivo analizar la motivación de los maratonistas españoles para correr, las variables que predicen correr por unos u otros motivos y las diferencias de sexo. Al administrar las Motivations of Marathoners Scales-34 a una muestra de 1.226 corredores de 3 maratones, se obtuvo que las motivaciones más altas fueron intrínsecas o relacionadas con la tarea (significado de la vida-autoestima y orientación a la salud y las más bajas extrínsecas o relacionadas con el ego (reconocimiento. Se obtuvieron algunos resultados no predichos en la hipótesis como que las mujeres puntuaron significativamente más alto que los hombres en 4 de las 7 subescalas motivacionales, o que los días y kilómetros entrenados por semana y la marca personal apenas estuvieron asociadas con sus motivos. También se obtuvieron numerosos datos descriptivos y diferencias por sexo en cuanto a variables sociodemográficas, de entrenamiento y de rendimiento. El análisis regresivo dio 7 modelos explicativos de las variables que predicen correr por unos u otros motivos, y se concluyó que estos van evolucionando con la edad y el número de maratones terminados. Copyright © 2012, Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo de acceso abierto distribuido bajo los términos de la Licencia Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

  14. El discurso de y sobre los desempleados españoles mayores de 45 años en los blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Los desempleados mayores de 45 años son un colectivo social que está sufriendo la crisis económica española actual con especial intensidad. Esto es silenciado por los medios de comunicación. Esta invisibilidad social reduce sus oportunidades de reincorporarse al mercado laboral y daña su autoimagen. Los blogs, como sitios webs personales sobre un contenido específico, pueden ser una alternativa de presencia en la sociedad de la información. La finalidad de este trabajo es comprender la situación de estas personas a través de los textos generados en los blogs dedicados a empleo y formación. Para ello se usa el análisis lingüístico y crítico del discurso. Se analizan 12 blog españoles de especial relevancia. En estos blog aparece información relevante para comprender y visibilizar a este colectivo y su problemática. Los resultados muestran las temáticas principales que componen el discurso, así como sus principales orientaciones y contenidos (vivencias personales, reflexión, orientación vocacional y profesional. Concluimos que su situación de invisibilidad, así como de falta real de empleo está afectando a sus vidas, familias, economías e identidades. Reivindican la necesidad de tener empleo para ser y sentirse ciudadanos. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503266

  15. Planos de arquitectos españoles publicados en Roma (s. XIX: el Teatro de Marcelo y el Santuario de Hércules Vencedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Sánchez, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the eighteenth century, numerous architects, including Spaniards, travelled to Rome to study the ancient monuments, at a time when a view of the Greco-Roman past prevailed in European art as an aesthetic solution and theoretical answer to outdated Baroque art. These works constitute an important graphic document of the condition of the classic monuments at that time, and they reflect the archaeological interest of the Enlightenment. As a perfectly developed science, architecture approached the analysis of Antiquity with a precision that did not exist in antiquarian mentality, as demonstrated in the two examples we offer here: the elaboration of the archaeological plans of the Theatre of Marcellus and the Sanctuary of Hercules Victor.En el siglo XVIII el estudio de los monumentos de la Antigu.edad condujo a numerosos arquitectos a Roma, incluidos los españoles, en una época en la que predominaba en las artes europeas una contemplación del pasado grecorromano como solución estética y respuesta teórica al caduco arte barroco. Estos trabajos constituyen una importante documentación gráfica del estado de los monumentos clásicos en aquel entonces, y reflejan las inquietudes arqueológicas del Siglo de la Ilustración. Al tratarse de una ciencia ya perfectamente desarrollada, la arquitectura abordó el análisis de la Antigu.edad con una precisión inexistente en la mentalidad anticuaria, como demuestran los dos ejemplos que ofrecemos: la elaboración de los planos del Teatro de Marcelo y del Santuario de Hércules Victor.

  16. Fuentes alimentarias y adecuación de la ingesta de ácidos grasos omega-3 y omega-6 en una muestra representativa de adultos españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa M. Ortega Anta; Liliana G. González Rodríguez; Tania K. Villalobos Cruz; José Miguel Perea Sánchez; Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete; Ana María López Sobaler

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y Objetivos: Teniendo en cuenta la importancia sanitaria del aporte de ácidos grasos omega-3 y omega-6, y ante la escasez de estudios sobre el tema en colectivos españoles, se plantea la conveniencia de conocer la ingesta de estos ácidos grasos, su adecuación a los objetivos nutricionales marcados y sus fuentes alimentarias en una muestra representativa de la población española. Métodos: Se ha estudiado un colectivo de 1068 adultos (521 varones y 547 mujeres) de 17 a 60 años, sel...

  17. Desenvolvimento e aplicação de um método de processamento e caraterização elétrica, térmica e ótica para OLEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Patrício, João Gabriel Luís

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um projeto empresarial, numa parceria entre a Universidade de Aveiro e o Centro de Nanotecnologia e Materiais Técnicos, Funcionais e Inteligentes, tendo como principais objetivos o desenvolvimento de um sistema integrado de caracterização (SIC) e o processamento de OLEDs com uma área ativa de 18x18 mm. O programa que rege o funcionamento do SIC foi desenvolvido em plataforma Matlab e Arduino IDE, permitindo deste modo a caracterização elétrica...

  18. ¿Científico? sí, pero… opinión de los escolares españoles sobre los científicos y su trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Pro Bueno, A.

    2009-01-01

    A lo largo de 2005 realizamos un trabajo de investigación para conocer qué pensaban los niños y adolescentes españoles sobre las ciencias, sus repercusiones sociales, los científicos y sus descubrimientos, etc. El estudio se realizó con una muestra formada por 6827 estudiantes (3895 de 6º de Educación Primaria y 2932 de 4º de ESO), pertenecientes a centros públicos y privados de todas las comunidades autónomas del estado. En este trabajo analizamos sus respuestas a tres preguntas del cuestion...

  19. Inmigrantes españoles en Pachuca (1866-1911): redes de parentesco, matrimonio y ocupación. Tres estudios de caso (José Maquivar, Agustín Inurritegui y Lorenzo Maquivar)

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilla Montiel, Silvia Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    El matrimonio es un fenómeno social de larga duración que ha sido estudiado desde diversas disciplinas sociales (Derecho, Historia, Psicología, Sociología, Antropología, etc.). Tal diversidad de enfoques será de mucha ayuda para entender su complejidad. Por otro lado, la inmigración de españoles a Pachuca durante el Porfiriato se incrementó debido a varias causas,1 siendo una de ellas el conjunto de leyes de poblamiento, en el que se prefería a los europeos y porque, además la hispanofobia se...

  20. Cambios recientes en la ocupación del suelo de los parques nacionales españoles y su entorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hewitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de monitorizar los cambios en los usos del suelo (referido a menudo por sus siglas en inglés LUCC ocurridos en los parques nacionales (PPNN españoles, como medida para prever tendencias de cambio no deseadas que comprometan la protección del entorno, se presenta un análisis detallado de los LUCC en los parques que conforman la red de parques nacionales, según la metodología descrita en Pontious et al. (2004. Para realizarlo, la conocida base de datos cartográfica Corine Land Cover (CLC resulta imprescindible al tratarse de la única base de datos de usos del suelo con cobertura en toda España, y con versión multi-temporal contando con la misma clasificación temática en sus tres fechas (1990, 2000 y 2006. Como resultado del análisis de cambio, se investigaron las dinámicas en todos los parques y se determinó una serie de indicadores de dinamismo de cambios de los usos del suelo en la que se captaron las tendencias de cambio que suponen un peligro para los valores naturales, los servicios de los ecosistemas o los hábitats de los parques. Se entiende que los parques en sí mismos, definidos por un límite, dentro del cual se aplican restricciones severas a las actividades que pueden tener lugar, no puede conservarse si en sus inmediaciones se permite la degradación del medio. Por ello, se ha estudio no sólo cada uno de los parques que componen la red sino también sus zonas colindantes. El análisis permitió determinar las dinámicas de cambio que afectan a los parques y a sus zonas limítrofes sobre dos periodos distintos (1990-2000 y 2000-2006, poniendo de manifiesto los riesgos existente a la vez que su evolución temporal.

  1. Revisión de los trabajos publicados sobre promoción de la salud en jóvenes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Hernán García

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio ha sido revisar las intervenciones de promoción de la salud dirigidas a jóvenes españoles, publicadas entre los años 1995 y 2000 en español, y describirlas de acuerdo al ámbito en el que se han desarrollado, los temas a los que se han dirigido, la metodología y el diseño de evaluación utilizados y los resultados obtenidos. Se identificaron 214 intervenciones. Las drogas ilegales fueron el tema en el que se centraron el mayor número de intervenciones (29,8%, seguido por el alcohol (15,9%, las conductas sexuales de riesgo (14,6% y el ocio (12,6%. Las actividades realizadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: técnicas educativas participativas (30,7%, técnicas educativas expositivas (11,5% y elaboración de materiales educativos (11%. En el 80,8% de casos había constancia de que se había realizado una evaluación. De ellas, las más frecuente fueron las evaluaciones de proceso (73,7%, y las menos frecuente las evaluaciones de resultados a medio-largo plazo (2,2%. Las metodologías de evaluación más utilizadas fueron los cuestionarios (28,2%. La combinación de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas fue utilizada en el 13,2% de los casos. Las 4 intervenciones en las que se midió el impacto a medio-largo plazo tenían como objetivo la prevención o reducción del consumo de tabaco y/o alcohol y/o cánnabis, y todas ellas consiguieron reducir el consumo de tabaco. En conclusión, parece necesario mejorar el diseño evaluativo de las intervenciones de promoción de la salud dirigidas a jóvenes en nuestro país y aumentar la difusión de las mismas mediante su publicación.

  2. Viajeros españoles por Europa en los años cuarenta del siglo XIX: tres formas de entender el relato de viaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peñate Rivero, Julio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the Spanish travel literature, the 1840s have a particular place: after the Napoleonic Wars and the first Carlist War came a period of relative calm which encouraged visitors to Spain but also the Spanish to travel outside the Iberian Peninsula. France, Belgium, Netherlands and Germany are among the most attractive options. The variety of available texts gives the possibility to distinguish between at least three variants or perspectives: the travel story as discovery, as verification and as travel guide. This article intends to introduce these diverse perspectives from representative authors whose itineraries are partly similar: Modesto Lafuente, Ramón Mesonero Romanos y Ángel Fernández de los Ríos. There will be a special emphasis on the first author because he contributed in a special way to the history of the travel literature. Once the work of the others has been presented, there will be a brief conclusion to compare the variants presented.En la historia de la literatura de viajes española, la década de los años cuarenta del siglo XIX ocupa un lugar particular: después de las guerras napoleónicas y de la primera guerra carlista, se produce una relativa calma que no sólo favorece los viajes de los extranjeros hacia España, sino también los de los españoles hacia el exterior de la península ibérica. Entre las posibilidades más atractivas se encuentran Francia, Bélgica, los Países Bajos y Alemania. La diversidad de los textos disponibles permite distinguir al menos tres variantes o perspectivas: el relato como descubrimiento, como verificación y como manual de viaje. Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre estas diversas perspectivas a partir de autores representativos, cuyos itinerarios son en parte semejantes: Modesto Lafuente, Ramón Mesonero Romanos y Ángel Fernández de los Ríos. Insistiremos en el primer autor por su especial contribución a la historia de la literatura viática y, una vez

  3. The process of interruption in Spanish judicial contexts. A pragmalinguistic approach / El proceso de interrupción en los contextos judidicales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Ridao Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo nuestros objetivos se basan en analizar los contextos judiciales españoles desde una perspectiva pragmalingüística; más específicamente queremos hacer una contribución a los distintos estudios sobre el fenómeno de la (descortesía, en particular en el proceso de interrupción. El género del interrogatorio judicial se caracteriza por un cambio de hablante muy rápido, por ello creemos interesante analizar este género enfocando nuestra atención en las interrupciones. Así, después de una pequeña introducción, comentamos estudios que están relacionados con este tema y ofrecemos una sistematización de las interrupciones más peculiares que tienen lugar en los contextos legales, basando nuestra argumentación en la taxonomía ofrecida en Bañón (1997. Finalizamos el artículo con una conclusión general: las interrupciones que tienen lugar durante los interrogatorios se consideran más o menos descorteses en función del papel del interruptor.Summary: In this paper our aims are based on the analysis of Spanish judicial contexts from a pragmalinguistic perspective; more specifically we want to make a contribution to the various studies on the phenomenon of (impoliteness, particularly the process of interruption. The genre of judicial interrogation is characterized by a rapid change of speaker, so we believe it interesting to analyse this genre focusing our attention on interruptions. Thus, after a brief introduction, we comment on studies that are related to the topic and we offer a systematization of more peculiar interruptions that take place in legal contexts, basing our argument on Bañón's taxonomy (1997. We end the paper with a general conclusion: Interruptions which occur during interrogations are considered rather rude depending on the role of the interrupter.

  4. La mecánica ilustrada en los ingenieros militares españoles. El proyecto de los almacenes de pólvora (1715-1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis i Ginovart, J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The catenary arches were part of the great structural success of the modernist architecture, and especially in the Gaudí’s work. The study of the Spanish military engineers’ projects shows that they were the first that introduced in the Spanish territory in the first third of the eighteenth century. Knowledge and the attempt to apply this type of structure, especially in the construction of Powder-Magazines, will demonstrate the knowledge of the scientific theory of these structures made by Hooke. The study of pre-scientific Mechanics was claimed by Juan de Herrera in the Academy of Mathematics (1583, as it is scientific Mechanics at the Academy of Barcelona (1720. For this reason and due to the use of catenary arch and vault, this will show that they provided the bases of modern mechanic.Los arcos catenarios formaron parte del gran éxito estructural de la arquitectura modernista y, especialmente, de la obra de Gaudí. El estudio de los proyectos de los ingenieros militares españoles, demuestra que fueron ellos los primeros que los introdujeron en el territorio español en el primer tercio del siglo XVIII. El conocimiento y el intento de aplicación de este tipo de estructuras, especialmente en la construcción de polvorines, demostraría el conocimiento de la teoría científica de estas estructuras formulada por Hooke. El estudio de la Mecánica pre-científica fue reclamado por Juan de Herrera en la Academia de Matemáticas (1583, al igual que lo será la Mecánica científica en la Academia de Barcelona (1720. Por ello y ante la utilización del arco y bóveda catenaria, se demostraría también que aportaron las bases de la Mecánica moderna.

  5. La fotografía como documento informativo en las webs de los ministerios españoles. Acceso, visibilidad, funcionalidad y políticas de uso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador-Benítez, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public information constitutes a documentary corpus of exceptional interest. Its value has made it necessary to regulate both its use as well as its reutilization by means of specific laws, with the purpose of placing this information at the disposal of companies, institutions, researchers and citizens in general. An important part of this information consists of the photographic documents produced and distributed by public bodies, about which very few studies have been carried out. The purpose of this investigation is to learn more about the use of photographs as documents that are found on the websites of Spanish Ministries, by analyzing specific aspects such as the access to them, their visibility, functionality, documentation and rights. This investigation finds that users have at their disposal close to 30,000 photographs available on the web and concludes by recommending the creation of a common image bank to gather the dispersed photographs and normalize both functionality and terminology, as well as establishing common criteria for documenting the originals.La información pública constituye un corpus documental de excepcional interés. Sus valores han obligado a regular tanto el uso como la reutilización mediante leyes específicas, con el fin de ponerla a disposición de empresas, instituciones, investigadores y ciudadanos en general. Una parte de dicha información la constituyen los documentos fotográficos generados y difundidos a través de organismos públicos, sobre los que apenas se han realizado estudios. Se pretende con esta investigación conocer el uso de la fotografía como documento en las páginas webs de los ministerios españoles, analizando aspectos concretos como el acceso, la visibilidad, la funcionalidad, la documentación y los derechos. De la investigación resulta que los usuarios tienen a su disposición cerca de 30.000 fotografías en la web, y se concluye la necesidad de crear un banco de imágenes com

  6. EL TRATAMIENTO INFORMATIVO DE LA INMIGRACIÓN EN LOS MEDIOS ESPAÑOLES UN ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA PRENSA Y TELEVISIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñiz Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración es un hecho social presente en todos los países de la Unión Europea, entre ellos España, donde en los últimos años su aumento poblacional extranjero ha ido unido a un incremento de las actitudes perjudiciales hacia la inmigración. El tratamiento informativo (framing que los medios de comunicación hacen de esta realidad puede tener una alta influencia en las opiniones y actitudes mantenidas por la opinión pública hacia la inmigración. Ello hace necesario el estudio del tipo de cobertura que en los últimos años han dado la prensa y televisión españolas, como medios informativos de mayor audiencia, a los inmigrantes y la inmigración a través de sus noticias. Para ello, se realizó un análisis de contenido de las noticias aparecidas en las principales cadenas de televisión y periódicos españoles durante el año 2004, que permitiera comprobar las hipótesis de investigación planteadas en el estudio. En este sentido, se observó que la mayoría de las noticias que daban cobertura informativa a la inmigración solían tener un carácter negativo y ser emplazadas dentro de la sección de nacional o sociedad. Además, los datos permitieron observar un tratamiento polarizado entre las noticias positivas, que presentaban la contribución económica de los inmigrantes, y las negativas, que vinculaban en mayor medida la inmigración con aspectos negativos como la violencia, siendo además éste el encuadre noticioso dominante. En último lugar, se observó una falta de contextualización temática en las noticias analizadas, con una especial predominancia de la televisión.

  7. Uso del preservativo masculino en las relaciones con coito vaginal de jóvenes españoles entre catorce y veinticuatro años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lameiras Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available en la actualidad, el preservativo masculino continúa siendo el principal método para prevenir enfermedades de transmisión sexual, incluido el VIviH/SIDAsida. Eel objetivo de este estudio transversal analítico-descriptivo es evaluar la frecuencia de uso de dicho preservativo en las relaciones sexuales coito-vaginales de jóvenes españoles con edades entre 14 y 24 años, e identificar las variables relacionadas con los factores que predisponen, facilitan y refuerzan su utilización. Lla muestra estuvo integrada por 2.171 jóvenes de las comunidades de Ggalicia, Madrid y Aandalucía. 50,4% de los jóvenes encuestados manifestaron haber tenido relaciones coitovaginales en los últimos seis meses. Sse encontró que ser mayor de 18 años y tener más actividad sexual se asocia a menor frecuencia de uso del preservativo. tomó como referencia el modelo Precede; los análisis de regresión logística identificaron como predictores confiables: la intención de conducta de no riesgo y la habilidad autopercibida para usar el preservativo masculino con la pareja habitual (dentro del grupo de factores predisponentes; uso del preservativo masculino la primera vez que mantuvo relaciones coito-vaginales, hablar con la pareja sobre las prácticas sexuales por llevar a cabo, hablar con la pareja sobre los métodos de prevención que se van a utilizar y la baja frecuencia de relaciones con penetración vaginal (dentro del grupo de factores facilitadores; y haber sentido agobio, culpa o arrepentimiento por no tomar precauciones tras alguna práctica coito-vaginal (dentro del grupo de factores reforzantes. Los resultados de este estudio confirman la utilidad del modelo Precede para efectuar el diagnóstico de la conducta sexual.

  8. La situación profesional de los periodistas españoles: las repercusiones de la crisis en los medios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Soengas Pérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Esta investigación analiza la situación profesional, laboral y económica de los periodistas en España en los últimos cinco años, un periodo en que la crisis y la convergencia mediática coinciden con el proceso de digitalización. Metodología. Para conocer las características del escenario actual realizamos un análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo con encuestas a cuatro redactores de cada uno de los principales medios de comunicación públicos y privados, y se les ha preguntado por todos los cambios impuestos por sus empresas desde 2008. Además, realizamos una serie de entrevistas de contraste a expertos para tener una valoración complementaria y externa de la situación de la prensa. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que las condiciones de la mayoría de los periodistas españoles han empeorado desde el comienzo de la crisis, y los problemas se han acentuado en 2012. Los recortes realizados en este periodo son los más drásticos de los últimos veinte años y afectan a todos los elementos del proceso informativo. Discusión y Conclusiones. En la reestructuración de las redacciones han predominado los objetivos económicos por encima de los criterios periodísticos y del interés informativo, tal como reconocen el 54% de los trabajadores de los medios públicos y el 65% de los privados. El 87% de las empresas analizadas ha reducido su plantilla o recortado los recursos materiales, el 62% de los periodistas han perdido poder adquisitivo desde 2008 y el 33% de los redactores fijos teme por su puesto de trabajo, una cifra que aumenta hasta el 54% en los mayores de 50 años y llega al 68% en el caso de los contratados.

  9. Integración vertical y contratación externa en los servicios generales de los hospitales españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Junoy J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudio analiza los factores que influyen en las decisiones de integración vertical/contratación externa de cuatro servicios generales (limpieza, lavandería, alimentación y seguridad y mantenimiento en los hospitales españoles (3.160 transacciones que corresponden a 790 hospitales. Métodos: Se presenta la estimación empírica de un modelo logístico de maximización de la utilidad de los hospitales, en el que intervienen no sólo factores relacionados con los costes de transacción, sino también otros relacionados con la intervención pública y la dimensión política. Resultados: El 55,7% de los hospitales contrata al menos uno de los servicios generales analizados. El servicio de limpieza es el que presenta un mayor grado de contratación externa (45,1%, seguido del servicio de seguridad y mantenimiento (32,5%. En cambio, el servicio de lavandería es el que presenta un mayor grado de integración vertical (94,3% junto con el de alimentación (80,1%. La dimensión del hospital (economías de escala, medida a través del número de camas, es una de las variables que influyen de forma importante la decisión de integración vertical o contratación externa de los servicios de limpieza, alimentación y mantenimiento y seguridad. Conclusiones: Las economías de escala contribuyen a una mayor integración vertical, mientras que la especialización y el carácter lucrativo favorecen la decisión de contratación externa. El servicio de lavandería tiene un comportamiento diferenciado de los demás, mostrando efectos que indican la posible presencia de activos específicos.

  10. Bann en créole mauricien : nom de quantité et morphème de pluralité

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    Alleesaib Muhsina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’étudier le statut de l’élément polyfonctionnel bann en créole mauricien dans une perspective synchronique. Les études précédentes (telles que Baker 2003 ont été effectuées dans une perspective diachronique et traitent très peu de la distribution et l’interprétation en mauricien contemporain. Les emplois de bann se divisent en trois catégories : un nom lexical bann s’emploie comme un nom signifiant ‘groupe’ servant à désigner une classe ou un ensemble d’entités : enn bann garson signifie ‘un groupe de garçons’. Il s’emploie uniquement avec des référents [+humains]. Le second emploi de bann consiste à former avec enn ‘un’ une expression de quantité enn bann ‘une quantité de’. Ces syntagmes nominaux ont toujours une interprétation indéfinie. (1Ti ena enn bannlapousyer anba larmwar. ‘Il y avait une grande quantité de poussière sous l’armoire.’ La marque de pluriel bann peut apparaître dans des nominaux dont l’interprétation est définie ou indéfinie. (2a. Kevin inn zwenn etidyanla. ‘Kevin a rencontré l'étudiant.’ (2b. Kevin inn zwenn bann etidyan la. ‘Kevin a rencontré les étudiants.’ Dans le cadre de l’hypothèse DP, la marque de pluralité bann s’analyse comme occupant la même position que les numéraux et que l’indéfini enn. Suite à Borer (2005, cette projection est étiquetée Quantity Phrase. Sur le plan de l’interprétation, bann induit invariablement une lecture comptable et plurielle.

  11. Cross-Linked Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Li-Ion Battery Integrated with Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP by electrospinning for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE for use in flexible Li-ion batteries (LIBs. As a solvent, we use N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, which helps produce the cross-linked morphology of PVDF-co-HFP separator, owing to its low volatility. The cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an uptake rate higher than that of a commercialized polypropylene (PP separator. Moreover, the PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10−3 S/cm at room temperature, comparable with previously reported values. An LIB full-cell assembled with the PVDF-co-HFP-based GPE shows capacities higher than its counterpart with the commercialized PP separator, confirming that the cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator provides highly efficient ionic conducting pathways. In addition, we integrate a flexible LIB cell using the PVDF-co-HFP GPE with a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED, demonstrating a fully flexible unit of LIB and OLED.

  12. Retratos de Españoles ilustres con un epítome de sus vidas. Orígenes y gestación de una empresa ilustrada

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    Molina, Álvaro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Published from the early 1790s in order to celebrate the memory of the great heroes of the nation, the Españoles ilustres series is one of the most ambitious projects of the Age of Enlightenment in the field of engraving. This article provides unpublished documentation and new information regarding the conception of the project, the international references that served as models and the complete dating of the sales for the various installments of the series.Publicada a partir de la década de los años noventa con el fin de celebrar la memoria de los grandes héroes de la nación, la colección de Retratos de Españoles ilustres es una de las empresas al servicio del grabado más ambiciosas del siglo de las Luces. Este artículo aporta documentación inédita y nuevas noticias respecto a su concepción, los referentes internacionales que le sirvieron como modelo y la datación de la venta de todos los cuadernos de la serie.

  13. Efficient and stable single-doped white OLEDs using a palladium-based phosphorescent excimer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02512b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetham, Tyler; Ji, Yunlong; Huang, Liang; Fleetham, Trenten S.

    2017-01-01

    A tetradentate Pd(ii) complex, Pd3O3, which exhibits highly efficient excimer emission is synthesized and characterized. Pd3O3 can achieve blue emission despite using phenyl-pyridine emissive ligands which have been a mainstay of stable green and red phosphorescent emitter designs, making Pd3O3 a good candidate for stable blue or white OLEDs. Pd3O3 exhibits strong and efficient phosphorescent excimer emission expanding the excimer based white OLEDs beyond the sole class of Pt complexes. Devices of Pd3O3 demonstrate peak external quantum efficiencies as high as 24.2% and power efficiencies of 67.9 Lm per W for warm white devices. Furthermore, Pd3O3 devices in a carefully designed stable structure achieved a device operational lifetime of nearly 3000 h at 1000 cd m–2 without any outcoupling enhancement while simultaneously achieving peak external quantum efficiencies of 27.3% and power efficiencies over 81 Lm per W. PMID:29568445

  14. Análisis de clúster de la actividad física y las conductas sedentarias de los adolescentes españoles, correlación con la salud biopsicosocial

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    Pilar Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación forma parte de la edición 2006 del estudio Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC. Los datos que se presentan constituyen una muestra de 21811 adolescentes españoles de 11 a 18 años. Realizando análisis de clúster, Modelo Lineal General, pruebas de significación y tamaños de efecto, se obtiene información relevante acerca de los hábitos de actividad física y sedentarismo de los adolescentes españoles, evidenciando la situación de riesgo de los adolescentes mayores, especialmente en el caso de las chicas. Estos resultados tienen la fortaleza de relacionarse con una puntuación global de salud, obteniéndose indicadores claros de las ventajas que supone para los adolescentes un estilo de vida activo. Además, estos datos aportan información de interés en relación con la hipótesis de desplazamiento, muy discutid a en la literatura científica. En definitiva, este trabajo aporta claves interesantes para el debate teórico y para la intervención práctica en el campo de la actividad física durante la adolescencia.

  15. Signature of the WLCG Memorandum of Understanding between Norway and CERN by Ole Henrik Ellestad, Director of the Research Council of Norway and the Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen with C. Eck, S. Foffano and B. Jacobsen on 13 December 2007.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Signature of the WLCG Memorandum of Understanding between Norway and CERN by Ole Henrik Ellestad, Director of the Research Council of Norway and the Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen with C. Eck, S. Foffano and B. Jacobsen on 13 December 2007.

  16. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichak, Kelly Scott; Liu, Jie Jerry; Shiang, Joseph John; Natarajan, Arunkumar; Heller, Christian Maria Anton

    2017-07-18

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and electron transporting layer comprising a fluoro compound of formula I (Ar.sup.2).sub.n--Ar.sup.1--(Ar.sup.2).sub.n I wherein Ar.sup.1 is C.sub.5-C.sub.40 aryl, C.sub.5-C.sub.40 substituted aryl, C.sub.5-C.sub.40 heteroaryl, or C.sub.5-C.sub.40 substituted heteroaryl; Ar.sup.2 is, independently at each occurrence, fluoro- or fluoroalkyl-substituted C.sub.5-40 heteroaryl; and n is 1, 2, or 3.

  17. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  18. Grupos españoles de cálculos ab initio de moléculas de interés astrofísico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, M.

    grupos españoles han llevado, y siguen llevando a cabo, sobre sistemas débilmente enlazados, como complejos de Van der Waals o complejos por enlace de hidrógeno, que sin duda juegan un papel importante tanto en medios atmosféricos como interestelares.

  19. Españoles fuera de España. Historia y memoria de la última ola migratoria española (1945-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Vicente

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1980 furent marquées par la transformation d’une Espagne pays d’émigration en une Espagne accueillant des milliers d’immigrés. Submergée et souvent dépassée par cette réalité, nouvelle et conflictuelle, la société espagnole semble avoir oublié que l’Espagne avait été, jusque récemment, une « terre d’émigrants ». Ce travail a ainsi comme but de récupérer une partie de cette histoire-mémoire concernant la dernière vague migratoire espagnole. Prenant comme point de départ l’extrême richesse et complexité des sources orales, nous tenterons de reconstituer les raisons ayant poussé une partie des Espagnols à l’émigration. Face à l’impossibilité d’embrasser la totalité du flux migratoire, nous avons opté par une comparaison des deux destinations principales du flux : l’Argentine pour la période où l’émigration se dirigeait massivement vers des destinations d’Outre-mer (1945-1955, et la France pour la période dite « continentale » (1956-1980.Los años 80 asistieron a la transformación de una España que «emigraba» en una España que acogía a miles de inmigrantes. Sumida, y a menudo desbordada por esta nueva y conflictiva realidad social, la sociedad española parece haber olvidado que, hasta hace muy poco, España fue, esencialmente, «tierra de emigrantes». Por ello, este trabajo se propone contribuir a recuperar una parte de la historia-memoria de la última ola migratoria española. Partiendo de la riqueza y complejidad de las fuentes orales, se tratará de reconstituir las razones que empujaron a una parte de estos españoles a emigrar. Pero ante la imposibilidad de abarcar la totalidad del flujo migratorio, se optará por una comparación entre sus dos destinos principales : Argentina, para la etapa «ultramarina» (1945-1955 y Francia para la fase «continental» (1956-1980.The’80s have seen Spain transformed from an “Emigration country” to an

  20. La gestión de información en las sedes web de los ayuntamientos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaín Navarro, Celia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain’s authorities have become more agile since the generalisation of the Internet, the use of which has significantly improved the ways in which they communicate with the country’s citizens and companies. The subjects of this study were the websites produced by the Town Councils of Spain’s provincial capitals as well as those of the autonomous cities Ceuta and Melilla. Their content and the personnel in charge of their creation, development, maintenance and updating were all examined. A questionnaire was designed to study the content of and the services offered by these charged with the technical and content management of these sites were identified by a multiple choice-type questionnaire sent by e-mail and fax to those responsible for these new services. Thirty three of the 52 councils contacted responded. The results show that at the municipal level Spain is still in the phase of making information available, with some local governments moving faster than others towards an ‘electronic administration’. Nonetheless, the country is still far from working by ‘electronic government’.

    La Administración electrónica española ha experimentado un considerable avance desde la generalización de Internet, que ha facilitado que los procesos de comunicación de ciudadanos y empresas con las Administraciones Públicas hayan dado un considerable giro. El estudio realizado ha tenido como objetivo los webs de los ayuntamientos españoles de las ciudades capitales de provincia y de las dos ciudades autónomas (Ceuta y Melilla, y en concreto qué contenidos se ofrecen y quiénes se encargan de su creación, desarrollo, mantenimiento y actualización. Así, para el estudio sobre los contenidos y servicios que ofrecen los websites se elaboró un cuestionario aplicado mediante observación directa. Y para conocer quiénes se encargan de la gestión técnica del website y de la gestión de los contenidos se confeccion

  1. Comunicación Institucional en España. Estudio del uso que los diputados españoles hacen de las TIC en sus relaciones con la ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almansa Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de una reciente investigación sobre el uso que se hace de las redes sociales por parte de las instituciones para relacionarse con la ciudadanía. Los políticos españoles no hacen un buen uso de Internet, no están sabiendo aprovechar las oportunidades que se les brinda para tener un contacto más fluido y permanente con las personas a las que representan. En muchas ocasiones parece que no tienen muy claro el motivo por el que están en redes sociales y que simplemente están por moda. Utilizan las nuevas tecnologías en función de sus intereses electorales, ajustan y reorientan sus estrategias a la red en función únicamente de sus intereses electorales.

  2. Geografía de la información internacional: un estudio comparado entre medios de comunicación españoles y británicos

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Arroyo, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    Los medios de comunicación son la principal fuente de información para gran parte de los ciudadanos. Este artículo examina el papel de la televisión y de la prensa en relación con la información internacional actual, presentando los resultados de un estudio empírico en medios de comunicación británicos y españoles durante un período de cuatro semanas. La investigación aborda el estudio de la información internacional a través del periódico español “El País” y del británico “The...

  3. Análisis de contenido de los cibermedios generalistas españoles. Características y adscripción temática de las noticias principales de portada

    OpenAIRE

    Odriozola-Chéné, J. (Javier)

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es describir la agenda temática de una serie de cibermedios españoles generalistas. Así, por medio de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo, se estudia qué temas son los más relevantes dentro de las principales noticias de portada de los medios analizados, en función de determinados aspectos: la autoría, el ámbito geográfico, las fuentes informativas o el desarrollo de las informaciones en la portada. Además, este trabajo permite establecer las características bás...

  4. Presencia del streaming, mixture e inclusion en los centros educativos españoles de primaria y secundaria. Resultados de la encuesta nacional del proyecto I+D, MIXSTRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Cifuentes García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación i +D+ i , Formas de agrupación del alumnado y su relación con el éxito escolar: "Mixture", "Streaming" e Inclusion (2009-2011 ha aportado un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo sobre la presencia de estas modalidades de agrupación de alumnado en los centros españoles de educación primaria y secundaria. Los resultados cuantitativos reflejan que las prácticas que se dan con mayor incidencia son las de streaming. Los estudios de caso demuestran que los centros que implementan el modelo de inclusión con el uso de recursos de la comunidad para el trabajo con grupos heterogéneos consiguen una clara mejora de aprendizajes y rendimiento académico.

  5. Solution-Processed Blue/Deep Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) Hosted by a Polysiloxane Derivative with Pendant mCP (1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dianming; Zhou, Xiaokang; Liu, Junteng; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Huihui; Ren, Zhongjie; Ma, Dongge; Bryce, Martin R; Yan, Shouke

    2015-12-30

    The synthesis and characterization is reported of an efficient polysiloxane derivative containing the 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene (mCP) moiety as a pendant unit on the polysiloxane backbone. In comparison with mCP, the mCP-polysiloxane hybrid (PmCPSi) has significantly improved thermal and morphological stabilities with a high decomposition temperature (Td = 523 °C) and glass transition temperature (Tg = 194 °C). The silicon-oxygen linkage of PmCPSi prevents intermolecular π-stacking and ensures a high triplet energy level (ET = 3.0 eV). Using PmCPSi as a host, blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PhOLEDs) effectively confine triplet excitons, with efficient energy transfer to the guest emitter and a relatively low turn-on voltage of 5.8 V. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 9.24% and maximum current efficiency of 18.93 cd/A are obtained. These values are higher than for directly analogous poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) based devices (6.76%, 12.29 cd/A). Good color stability over a range of operating voltages is observed. A two-component "warm-white" device with a maximum current efficiency of 10.4 cd/A is obtained using a blend of blue and orange phosphorescent emitters as dopants in PmCPSi host. These results demonstrate that well-designed polysiloxane derivatives are highly efficient hosts suitable for low-cost solution-processed PhOLEDs.

  6. Communicating the Heisenberg uncertainty relations: Niels Bohr, Complementarity and the Einstein-Rupp experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein-Rupp experiments have been unduly neglected in the history of quantum mechanics. While this is to be explained by the fact that Emil Rupp was later exposed as a fraud and had fabricated the results, it is not justified, due to the importance attached to the experiments at the time. This

  7. Niels Bohr, Max Delbruck and the paradox of light and life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper features a concise, interdisciplinary history of philosophical issues which were the basis of Delbruck's scientific career. The paradox in living behavior of freedom-to-adapt versus deterministic atomism required complete reassessment with the advent of quantum mechanics. Apparent contradictions implied, for example, by the wave-particle model led Bohr to a belief in the ''complementarity of nature,'' which in 1932 he applied to biology. His claim was that purely physicochemical explanations of purposeful life functions such as ''self-generation and freedom of the will'' were impossible since mutually exclusive situations were involved. Thus Delbruck was challenged to spend his career investigating these vital functions. Beginning with ''fruit-fly photochemistry'' he established the molecular nature of the gene and then collected a world-wide group for a research effort on phage virus, which culminated in discovery of the DNA double helix by Watson and Crick. The second phase of his career featured a study of the total stimulus-response system of the fungus Phycomuces, which is still in progress. The extreme light-sensitivity observed, approaching one-quantum response, has raised the question of the survival value of amplified quantum noise. In critical comments to the author, Delbruck opposed the ''Compton-switch model'' for mind-body interaction; and in his lecture, ''Mind from Matter?'' he revealed his ''a priori concept of truth,'' which embraces a neutral monism and rejects the language of emergent evolution. His views are contrasted with those expressed in Popper's First Darwin Lecture

  8. What is complementarity?: Niels Bohr and the architecture of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bohr’s argument, advanced under the heading of ‘complementarity,’ concerning quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, and its physical and philosophical implications. In Bohr, the term complementarity designates both a particular concept and an overall interpretation of quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, in part grounded in this concept. While the argument of this article is primarily philosophical, it will also address, historically, the development and transformations of Bohr’s thinking, under the impact of the development of quantum theory and Bohr’s confrontation with Einstein, especially their exchange concerning the EPR experiment, proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in 1935. Bohr’s interpretation was progressively characterized by a more radical epistemology, in its ultimate form, which was developed in the 1930s and with which I shall be especially concerned here, defined by his new concepts of phenomenon and atomicity. According to this epistemology, quantum objects are seen as indescribable and possibly even as inconceivable, and as manifesting their existence only in the effects of their interactions with measuring instruments upon those instruments, effects that define phenomena in Bohr’s sense. The absence of causality is an automatic consequence of this epistemology. I shall also consider how probability and statistics work under these epistemological conditions. (paper)

  9. Niels Bohr's complementarity its structure, history, and intersections with hermeneutics and deconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Katsumori, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Through detailed textual and conceptual analysis, and with special attention to the potentially conflicting elements of Bohr's thought, this volume's fresh approach analyzes the relations between realism and antirealism through the prism of complementarity.

  10. Viikingite rünnakud algasid Eestist / Niels-Peter Granzow Busch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Granzow Busch, Niels-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Saaremaalt Salmelt kaevati välja kaks viikingilaeva koos 41 sõdalase skeletiga. Leidude kohta jagavad selgitusi antropoloog Raili Allmäe ja arheoloog Jüri Peets Tallinna Ülikooli Ajaloo Instituudist

  11. Euroopa jääb USAst aina enam maha / Niels Thygesen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thygesen, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii 28. veebr. lk. 12-13, Delovõje Vedomosti 8. märts lk. 10. Sissetulekute tase eurotsoonis tervikuna ning majandusnäitajate poolest tähtsamates riikides Prantsusmaal, Saksamaal ja Itaalias on ligikaudu 30% madalam kui Ameerika Ühendriikides. Oht, et vahe veelgi suureneb ning selle põhjustest

  12. The Life and Work of Niels Bohr – A Brief Sketch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    his family life, background, and education; the importance of his stay in England after PhD, and the crucial contact with. Rutherford; the period of the Old Quantum .... During the second World War, as Denmark was occupied by Nazi. Germany, Bohr had to be “smuggled out” to the USA under a false name – Nicholas Baker!

  13. Die ware rede agter Niels Bukh se besoek aan Suid-Afrika in 1939 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although physical education was made compulsory in South African schools in 1934, the period 1936-1939 was of great importance in the developmental history of the subject. The poor white problem and the urbanisation after the First World War left a large component of the European minority in a poor state of health.

  14. The Life and Work of Niels Bohr – A Brief Sketch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1962 at the University of Cologne. There are many statements of Bohr which are at the same time both profound and often subtly humorous. Here are a few: •. Strictly speaking, the conscious analysis of any concept stands in a relation of exclusion to its immediate application. •. Every sentence I say must be understood not ...

  15. Patterns of sedentary behavior and compliance with public health recommendations in Spanish adolescents: the AFINOS study Patrones de sedentarismo y cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de salud pública en adolescentes españoles: estudio AFINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez Gómez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were: (i describe patterns of sedentary behavior in Spanish adolescents; and (ii determine the proportion of adolescents that do not meet the public health recommendations for sedentary behavior. This study comprised 1,724 Spanish adolescents (882 girls, aged 13 to 16 years. Patterns of sedentary behavior (TV viewing, use of computer games, console games and surfing the Internet were assessed using the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire. The total proportion of adolescents watching TV, using computer and console games, and surfing the internet for more than two hours daily was 24%, 9%, 7%, and 17%, respectively, on weekdays, and 50%, 22%, 16%, and 35%, respectively, on weekends. Over 63% of the adolescents from the study did not meet the recommendation for sedentary behavior (Los objetivos del estudio son: (i describir los patrones de comportamiento sedentario en adolescentes españoles y (ii establecer cuántos de ellos no cumplen las recomendaciones de salud pública sobre comportamiento sedentario. Participaron 1.724 adolescentes españoles (882 chicas entre 13 y 16 años. Los patrones de comportamiento sedentario (ver la televisión, juegos de ordenador, videojuegos y navegar en Internet fueron evaluados a través del cuestionario HELENA. La proporción total de adolescentes que ven la TV, usan juegos de ordenador o de consola y navegan en Internet durante > 2h los días de diario fue del 24%, 9%, 7% y 17%, respectivamente. Durante los fines de semana, la proporción fue del 50%, 22%, 16% y 35%. Más del 63% del total de la muestra no cumplen las recomendaciones de tiempo sedentario total < 2 horas durante los días de diario y el 87% no lo hace en días del fin de semana. Dado que las conductas sedentarias podrían ser relevantes en la salud de los adolescentes, las intervenciones de salud pública son necesarias en España.

  16. Anne Scott Sørensen, Ole Martin Høystad, Erling Bjurström and Halvard Vike Nye kulturstudier - En innføring, Oslo: Spartacus Forlag AS/Scandinavian Academic Press, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Arvastson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nye kulturstudier [New Cultural Studies] is the first introduction to cultural studies in Scandinavia and an impressive presentation of the subject. The book aims to explain how cultural studies emerged as an interdisciplinary field in humanities and social sciences. Other introductions to cultural research in eth-nology and anthropology have been produced - but this one is different, since it is more comprehensive and am-bitious. Nye kulturstudier is the result of in-terdisciplinary collaboration between four colleagues from Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Senior lecturer Anne Scott Sørensen and Professor Ole Martin Høystad are affiliated to the Institute for Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark in Odense. Professor Erling Bjurström belongs to Tema Q at Linköping Uni-versity, and Professor Halvard Vike works at the Institute for Social Anthro-pology at Oslo University. The authors comment that they are oriented towards different subjects and educational pro-grammes at their respective universities. The book begins with a background to the theories and scientific traditions. This is followed by Cultural Analysis and Methodology, a chapter on Identity, Globalisation and Multiculturalism, one on Taste, Lifestyle and Consumption and, finally, by Nature, Body and Ex-perience Landscapes.

  17. Usos y tendencias adictivas de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles a la red social Tuenti: la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red como factor protector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Durán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, desde el paradigma de usos y gratificaciones, el uso que los estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 221 hacen de la red social Tuenti, y en qué medida estos usos se asocian con sus niveles de adicción a dicha red social. Además se analizó el papel que los progenitores tienen como facilitadores o inhibidores de dichas tendencias adictivas y el impacto del género. Los resultados muestran cuatro categorías de usos de la red Tuenti: entretenimiento, comunicación a través del muro, comunicación a nivel privado e información social. Además, la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red Tuenti se muestra como un factor de protección de las tendencias adictivas a la red. Por último, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género, tanto en los usos que realizan chicos y chicas, como en sus patrones de adicción a la red Tuenti, de tal manera que los chicos informan de niveles de adicción superiores a los informados por las chicas en el uso de esta red social.

  18. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014 is considered. For a year 4 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» and 3 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 1 work, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. 6 dissertations (besides thesis defended by A. V. Bortnikova were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  19. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013 is considered. Only for a year 6 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 5 works; 07.00.02 – «World history» – 1 work and 16 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 10 works, 07.00.02 – «world history» – 4 works, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  20. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015 is considered. For a year 2 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" and 4 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" – 1 work, 07.00.06 "Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines" – 3 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate's thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  1. Steering the Properties of MoOx Hole Transporting Layers in OPVs and OLEDs: Interface Morphology vs. Electronic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Marchal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification, fine‐tuning, and process optimization of appropriate hole transporting layers (HTLs for organic solar cells is indispensable for the production of efficient and sustainable functional devices. In this study, the optimization of a solution‐processed molybdenum oxide (MoOx layer fabricated from a combustion precursor is carried out via the introduction of zirconium and tin additives. The evaluation of the output characteristics of both organic photovoltaic (OPV and organic light emitting diode (OLED devices demonstrates the beneficial influence upon the addition of the Zr and Sn ions compared to the generic MoOx precursor. A dopant effect in which the heteroatoms and the molybdenum oxide form a chemical identity with fundamentally different structural properties could not be observed, as the additives do not affect the molybdenum oxide composition or electronic band structure. An improved surface roughness due to a reduced crystallinity was found to be a key parameter leading to the superior performance of the devices employing modified HTLs.

  2. La enseñanza del análisis matemático en en los libros de texto españoles de enseñanza secundaria del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa GONZÁLEZ AsTUDiLLO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se expone un estudio sobre la evolución de los conceptos de Análisis Matemático en los libros de texto españoles, desde que fue implantada su enseñanza en el plan de 1934 hasta nuestros días. Para ello se ha dividido este lapso de tiempo en cuatro periodos, que se corresponden a grandes rasgos con los diferentes planes de estudio. Dentro de cada periodo, se han estudiado los programas oficiales correspondientes, se han comparado diversos libros de texto y se han estudiado las sucesivas ediciones de los libros, lo que ha proporcionado los datos esenciales para establecer cuál ha sido la evolución de estos conceptos y ha permitido determinar el perfil que caracteriza a cada uno de los libros considerados. ABSTRACT: Along this article is studied the evolution of some concepts of Mathematical Analysis in Spanish texbooks from the beginning of the teaching of this branch of the mathematics until now. This time has been divided in four periods that are related with different educational programs. In each period it has been studied the different programs, it has been compared diverse texbooks and it has been analysed the successive editions of the books. So we have the essential information to concrete the evolution of this concepts in the learning and to determine a profile to characterize each of the books.

  3. Relaciones entre factores sociodemográficos, motivación hacia el retiro temprano y satisfacción en la vida postlaboral: análisis exploratorio en una muestra prejubilados españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La prejubilación es una experiencia heterogénea en lo referente tanto a la forma en que se produce la salida laboral como a sus posteriores consecuencias personales y psicosociales. Con el objetivo de conocer la relación entre variables sociodemográficas, motivos de la salida organizacional temprana, y ajuste a la vida postlaboral se administró una adaptación del Retirement Satisfaction Inventory (Floyd et al., 1992 a una muestra de 638 prejubilados españoles con una media de edad de 61.28 años. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados mediante ANOVA. Con respecto a la motivación hacia el retiro, las mujeres tienen más intereses en aceptar la oferta de retiro temprano que los hombres, mientras que estos señalan haber experimentado más problemas de salud y presiones organizacionales. Los prejubilados con un mayor nivel formativo presentan un mayor interés en el retiro temprano, y los prejubilados con mayor nivel profesional mantienen una mayor satisfacción con el retiro. Conocer las relaciones entre características sociodemográficas, motivación hacia el retiro temprano y satisfacción en la vida post-laboral es un primer paso necesario para desarrollar análisis más complejos sobre las experiencias de prejubilación.

  4. Asociación entre condición física y autoconcepto físico en estudiantes españoles de 12-16 años

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    Alberto Grao-Cruces

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue examinar la asociación de la fuerza muscular, potencia aeróbica y composición corporal con el autoconcepto físico en adolescentes de diferente sexo. Un total de 1816 adolescentes españoles (12-16 años participaron en este estudio transversal. Se administró el Cuestionario de Autoconcepto Físico, las pruebas de fuerza muscular y potencia aeróbica de la batería ALPHA y se calculó el índice de masa corporal a partir de medidas objetivas. Los análisis de regresión logística mostraron que los adolescentes de ambos sexos con baja fuerza muscular, potencia aeróbica y con sobrepeso u obesidad tuvieron significativamente mayores odds ratios de reportar autoconcepto físico bajo. Los resultados de la asociación entre fuerza muscular y autoconcepto físico fueron sensibles al sexo y a la prueba de evaluación. Unos niveles de condición física saludable estuvieron asociados con el autoconcepto físico positivo en adolescentes. La influencia del sexo en esta asociación debe considerarse cuando se busque mejorar el autoconcepto físico.

  5. Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa y Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social: fiabilidad y validez en una muestra de adolescentes españoles

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    Ihab Zubeidat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es examinar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa (FNES y la Escala de Evitación y Malestar Social (SADS en una muestra de 1.012 jóvenes españoles escolarizados. El análisis factorial de primer orden señala la existencia de un factor dominante (alfa = 0,85 para la FNES (y otros cinco de menor relevancia, mientras que el método de rotación normalización Oblimin con Kaiser indica que la SADS tiene dos factores (evitación social y malestar social con valores alfa de 0,77 y 0,73, respectivamente. La FNES discriminó entre adolescentes con y sin psicopatologías frente a otros con ansiedad social específica y generalizada, mientras que la SADS lo hizo entre cada uno de los cuatro grupos frente al resto. Ambas escalas muestran una validez de constructo adecuada con distintas variables evaluadas por instrumentos específicos de ansiedad y fobia social y por otros de screening.

  6. La comunicación de los diputados españoles a través de Internet (The communication of the members of the Congress of Deputies of Spain over Internet

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    Manuel Sánchez Matito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Aunque Internet se presenta como un espacio que puede disminuir la distancia entre la ciudadanía y el poder político, los políticos todavía no han desarrollado de forma adecuada las posibilidades que ofrece el ciberespacio. Para comprobar esta situación hemos investigado la forma en que los diputados españoles de la décima legislatura se comunican a través de Internet, mostrando las peculiaridades que presenta la comunicación en cada una de las herramientas virtuales estudiadas y concluyendo que el grado de interacción a través de este medio es todavía bastante bajo.Abstract: Although Internet appears like a space that can shorten the range between the citizenship and the political power, politicians have still not developed the possibilities that the cyberspace offers. In order to verify this situation we have investigated the form in which Spanish parliamentarians of the X legislature communicate through Internet, showing the peculiarities that the communication displays in each one of the studied virtual tools and concluding that the interaction degree that unfolds through this means is still enough low.

  7. La mediación parental de las prácticas online de los menores españoles: una revisión de estudios empíricos

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    María Cruz López de Ayala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan las principales características temáticas y metodológicas de la investigación científica sobre las estrategias de mediación parental de las prácticas online de los y las menores españoles. El trabajo se basa en una revisión bibliográfica sistemática de los artículos, informes y otros documentos publicados en la última década, con una dimensión doble que toma en consideración tanto las iniciativas académicas como las institucionales. Después de analizar las aportaciones más recientes de las estrategias de mediación parental en España en comparación con los países de su entorno europeo, elaboramos un diagnóstico de las principales carencias, lagunas y sesgos de la producción científica en este campo. Se destaca el escaso desarrollo y madurez de este objeto de estudio en la investigación en España.

  8. Validez de cuatro cuestionarios para valorar la actividad física en adolescentes españoles Validity of four questionnaires to assess physical activity in Spanish adolescents

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    David Martínez-Gómez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Es necesario conocer la actividad física que realizan los adolescentes españoles para valorar cómo la falta de este hábito afecta al incremento de la prevalencia de la obesidad. Por ello, para medir la actividad física en estas edades es imprescindible tener instrumentos de medición válidos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la validez de cuatro cuestionarios de fácil aplicabilidad (las preguntas enKid y FITNESSGRAM, el cuestionario PACE y una escala comparativa para medir la actividad física en adolescentes españoles, utilizando como criterio un acelerómetro. Métodos: 232 adolescentes rellenaron los cuestionarios y usaron durante siete días el acelerómetro ActiGraph. Se utilizó la correlación de Spearman (rho para comparar los resultados de los cuestionarios y la actividad física total, moderada, vigorosa y moderada a vigorosa obtenida por el acelerómetro. Resultados: Todos los cuestionarios obtuvieron correlaciones moderadas en comparación con la actividad física total (rho=0,36-0,43 y moderada a vigorosa obtenidas por el acelerómetro (rho=0,34-0,46 en el total de la muestra. Se encontraron correlaciones más altas al comparar los cuestionarios con la actividad física vigorosa (rho=0,42-0,51 que con la moderada (rho=0,15-0,17. La pregunta FITNESSGRAM y el cuestionario PACE obtuvieron débiles correlaciones en las chicas, mientras que la pregunta enKid y la escala comparativa obtuvieron correlaciones moderadas para chicos y chicas. Conclusiones: Los cuatro cuestionarios presentan una aceptable validez para valorar la actividad física de la población adolescente española.Objectives: The physical activity (PA levels of Spanish adolescents must be determined to assess how the lack of PA may affect the increasing prevalence of obesity. Thus, to assess PA in this age range valid measurement instruments are essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of four easily applied questionnaires

  9. Deep-fat frying of meat products in palm olein Fritura por imersão de produtos cárneos em oleína de palma

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    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the discontinuous frying of breaded meat products in palm olein in a 28 L-electric fryer maintained at 182 ºC for 8 hours a day. Three 400-500 g batches of meat products were fried for 4.5 minutes daily. For comparison purpose, thermoxidation tests were performed using inert material with added moisture and without the addition of f ood (heating only. The total polar compound content did not reach the 25% limit, and nor did the formation of polymerized products exceed 5%, which indicates the good frying performance of palm olein for frying. Other analytical parameters and rapid tests were also evaluated. The sensory attributes, such as odor, colour, and foam formation determined when the frying oils should be discarded. The addition of water to the inert material contributed to the final value of 1.00 ± 0.01% (in palmitic acid, while the oil subjected only to heating reached respectively 0.26 ± 0.02%, and the oils used to fry breaded meat and breaded chicken reached 0.38 ± 0.00% and 2.35 ± 0.01%, respectively. This suggests a protective effect of the water during frying since the oil subjected only to heating was more prone to degradation.Este artigo estudou a fritura descontínua de alimentos cárneos empanados em oleína de palma em uma fritadeira elétrica de 28 L, mantida a 182 ºC durante 8 horas por dia. Diariamente, três bateladas de 400-500 g de alimentos cárneos foram fritos durante 4,5 minutos. Para comparação, foram conduzidos testes de termoxidação com a adição de material inerte com umidade adicionada e sem a adição de alimentos (apenas aquecimento. O teor de compostos polares totais não atingiu o limite de 25% e a formação de compostos polimerizados também não ultrapassou 5%, refletindo a boa performance da oleína de palma para frituras. Outros parâmetros analíticos, assim como testes rápidos, foram avaliados. Os atributos sensoriais, tais como odor, cor e formação de fuma

  10. Satisfacción laboral de los profesionales de enfermería españoles que trabajan en hospitales ingleses Work satisfaction among Spanish nurses working in English hospitals

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    María Ruzafa-Martínez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la satisfacción laboral de los profesionales de enfermería españoles que trabajan en hospitales ingleses y la influencia de diversas variables sociolaborales. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Se incluyó a todo el personal de enfermería español que en abril de 2003 tenía contrato laboral en algún hospital inglés (n = 360. Se aplicó el cuestionario autoadministrado y validado de Font Roja. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue del 78,6%. Las enfermeras que trabajan en hospitales ingleses tienen un nivel medio de satisfacción global. Las dimensiones asociadas a una satisfacción laboral más alta fueron las relaciones con los compañeros y las relaciones con los jefes; las dimensiones con una satisfacción laboral más baja fueron la satisfacción por el trabajo y la competencia profesional. Se ha observado una asociación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el nivel de satisfacción laboral y las variables nivel de inglés, grado profesional y tiempo trabajado en Inglaterra; la jornada laboral, «otros» y trabajar en unidades de cuidados intensivos y urgencias también se asocian positivamente con la satisfacción laboral. Conclusiones: Los responsables de los hospitales ingleses que contratan profesionales de enfermería españoles deberían incidir en mejorar su satisfacción por el trabajo y su competencia profesional. Para ello, se podrían incluir sistemas de incentivación y promoción profesional, tomar medidas previas a la contratación para mejorar el nivel de inglés, prestar especial atención a las necesidades del personal, sobre todo durante el primer año de trabajo, y facilitar la elección del servicio y la jornada laboral.Objectives: To evaluate work satisfaction among Spanish nurses employed by English hospitals, as well as the influence of several social and work-related variables associated with satisfaction. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study. All Spanish nurses (n = 360 with

  11. Evolución del impacto de la cardiopatía isquémica en la reincorporación laboral de trabajadores españoles

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    Ángel García García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La cardiopatía isquémica es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad en los países desarrollados dificultando la vuelta al trabajo de estos pacientes. Pretendemos estudiar la evolución de la incapacidad Temporal y Permanente en trabajadores españoles que causan baja por cardiopatía isquémica, así como analizar las variables que influyen en la reincorporación laboral. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de cohortes con pacientes menores 65 años que sufrieron un infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM entre Enero de 2000 y mayo de 2011. Se recogieron datos clínicos, demográficos, socioeconómicos y laborales para analizar su relación con la reincorporación laboral. Resultados: Se seleccionaron un total de 5067 pacientes, el 94% varones, y con una edad media de 54,3 años. Un total de 3.679 pacientes (72,6% se reincorporaron a su actividad laboral tras el infarto, mientras que 1261 (24,9% obtuvieron la incapacidad laboral permanente. La mayores tasas de incapacidad laboral se observan en los pacientes > 50 años, en los que han sufrido un mayor daño cardiaco (FEVI 50% y el procedimiento de revascularización empleado (percutáneo/cirugía así como las variables socioeconómicas referentes al tipo de trabajo (autónomo/cuenta ajena, ocupación profesional (carga física/carga intelectual y la edad del trabajador

  12. La diplomacia mexicana: ¿Agente al servicio del exilio español? Las relaciones entre diplomáticos mexicanos y los organismos de ayuda a los republicanos españoles (1939-1942

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    Aurelio Velázquez Hernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En el Texto pretendemos realizar un acercamiento a la actuación de los diplomáticos mexicanos en Francia a favor de los refugiados españoles de la Guerra Civil. Asimismo, realizamos un repaso por la muy relevante participación de destacados nombres de la diplomacia mexicana que  también lo son ya del exilio español. Nombres como lo de Narcisso Bassols, Luis I. Rodríguez o Gilberto Bosques. Planteándonos hasta que punto llegó esta colaboración, cuáles fueron las causas que la motivaron y cómo evolucionará dicha relación entre diplomáticos mexicanos y las autoridades españolas encargadas de los organismos de ayudaPalabras clave: Exilio Republicano, Francia, Diplomacia Mexicana, ayuda humanitaria, embarques_______________________________ABSTRACT:This article is an attempt of approach to Mexican ambassadorial actuations in favor of Spanish Civil War refugees in France.In addition, the document is also a revision of the most relevant personalities of Mexican diplomacy, which are equally important between the Spanish exiles. There are people like Narciso Bassols, Luis I. Rodríguez or Gilberto Bosques. We would try to know how intensive diplomatic alliance was, what their causes were and how Spanish-Mexican relationship between authorities in charge of humanitarian cares transform along the time.Keywords: Spanish Republican exile, France. Mexican diplomacy, humanitarian help, shipments

  13. La perspectiva moral de las relaciones de victimización entre iguales: un análisis exploratorio de las atribuciones de adolescentes españoles y portugueses

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    Mª Jesús Caurcel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, se exploran las atribuciones de emociones morales de los adolescentes, ante una historia de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Con ese objetivo, les preguntamos a cerca de los sentimientos de culpa, vergüenza, orgullo e indiferencia de agresores, víctimas y espectadores y les pedimos que justificaran la atribución de los mismos. Procuramos además saber si en términos de su experiencia personal se identifican o se desvinculan de cualquiera de ellos. Participaron un total de 1.237 preadolescentes y adolescentes españoles y portugueses de edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 16 años. Para el estudio diseñamos el cuestionario SCAN-Bullying 2005 con soporte gráfico (conjunto de viñetas que representan una historia típica de maltrato entre iguales en el contexto escolar. Los resultados muestran un patrón emocional diferente en función del rol: orgullo e indiferencia fueron las emociones más atribuidas a los agresores, inversamente la vergüenza fue la emoción más atribuida a la víctima, mientras que la indiferencia, vergüenza y culpa se atribuyeron en porcentajes muy semejantes a los espectadores. La investigación se inscribe en el cuadro teórico de estudios anteriores que analizan el fenómeno del agresor feliz y de la desvinculación moral, y a la luz de este encuadramiento teórico, procuraremos discutir los resultados.

  14. Grandeza y miseria de los liberales españoles ante la educación secundaria (1834-1857 Greatness and poverty of the Spanish liberals in the presence of seconday education (1834-1857

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    Manuel DE PUELLES BENÍTEZ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paradójicamente, los gobiernos liberales españoles de mitad del siglo xix no se ocuparon debidamente de la instrucción pública, y en especial de la segunda enseñanza. Esta es la conclusión a la que se llega en este artículo, después de analizar diversos escritos de los principales intérpretes de la política educativa liberal de ese tiempo, así como de los documentos legislativos más significativos. Desde Gil y Zarate a Posada Herrera, y a través de las Sesiones de Cortes y Colecciones Legislativas, se comprueba cómo se produce un falseamiento en la estructuración de la segunda enseñanza tal como fue concebida por los primeros gobiernos liberales y establecida por el Duque de Rivas en 1836, sacrificando de esta manera la propia enseñanza primaria.Paradoxycally, the liberal Spanish gobernments of the middle of the xix century didn't pay the proper attention to public education, and especially to the secondary one. This being the conclusion one comes to in this article after analysing several writings of the main performers of the liberal educational policy of that time, as well as in the most significant legislative documents. From Gil y Zarate to Posada Herrera, and through the Sessions of Parlament and Legislative Collections, it can be proved how a falseness is produced in the structure of the secondary education, just as it was conceived by the first liberal government and established by the Duke of Rivas in 1836, in this way, sacrifing the very elementary education.

  15. ¿Qué diferencia a los docentes fineses de los españoles? Un paso hacia la realidad: desde la formación hasta la práctica docente

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    Judit Ruiz Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración de investigaciones y evaluaciones actuales enfocadas en la práctica docente en las aulas tiene como principal objetivo avanzar y mejorar los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Por este motivo y dada la importancia de dar respuesta a las necesidades de los alumnos en el siglo XXI, se presenta este estudio comparado sobre la formación teórica y la práctica docente en España y en Finlandia en el que se recogen las estrategias que los docentes fineses y españoles utilizan en el aula con sus alumnos. Para la consecución de dicho objetivo se elaboró un cuestionario formado por 5 dimensiones: estrategias metodológicas, estrategias de planificación, estrategias educativas, estrategias tecnológicas y estrategias de evaluación, respectivamente; compuesto por un total de 39 ítems, contestados por 60 profesores de Educación Primaria (20 de Madrid, 20 de Ciudad Real y 20 de Finlandia. Tras los análisis estadísticos realizados se puede verificar que existen diferencias significativas en la formación inicial de los profesores en España y Finlandia y como consecuencia en la enseñanza práctica que llevan a cabo en las aulas con sus alumnos, siendo los profesores fineses los que obtienen mayores puntuaciones en el uso de estrategias de carácter práctico en la clase.

  16. España y los Juegos Olímpicos. Análisis de participación de los deportistas españoles en los JJOO de la Era Moderna e historia del movimiento olímpico español.

    OpenAIRE

    Arrechea Rivas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Determinar el nivel del deporte de alto rendimiento en un país resulta altamente complejo por la diversidad de deportes, la dificultad se multiplica si se intenta hacer desde una perspectiva histórica. Se han realizado estudios de este tipo de ámbito autonómico, provincial y local. A nivel nacional se ha realizado alguno, pero sin contar con una base de datos definitiva de olímpicos españoles con lugares de nacimiento, lo que da unas estadísticas finales de carácter no definitivo o concluy...

  17. El control de la comprensión de textos científicos en inglés como lengua extranjera, en estudiantes universitarios españoles no bilingües : evaluación, transferencia y una intervención didáctica basada en un modelo cognitivo de procesamiento de la información

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez López, Ángela

    2013-01-01

    'Esta tesis presenta un estudio sobre el uso de estrategias metacognitivas y su impacto en la comprensión lectora en inglés como LE de estudiantes universitarios españoles. Se analiza dónde se encuentran las deficiencias, en su caso, y cómo pueden ser superadas mediante intervenciones didácticas apropiadas. Los estudios empíricos realizados se agrupan en tres grandes bloques. El primer bloque está dedicado a la caracterización de los estudiantes universitarios en lo que respecta a su comp...

  18. Spectral characterizations and photophysical properties of one-step synthesized blue fluorescent 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine for OLEDs application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Raja [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Shivaprakash, Narayanapura Chennegowda [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Nair, Sindhu Sukumaran, E-mail: sindhunair@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We have synthesized a series of 4′-aryl substituted 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (terpy) derivatives, namely 4′-(4-methylphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-1), 4′-(2-furyl)-2,2′:6′2′′-terpyridine (C-2), and 4′-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine (C-3). The synthesized terpy compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FTIR, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C), and ESI-Mass spectrometry. Photophysical, electrochemical and thermal properties of terpy compounds were systematically studied. Maximum excitation band was observed between 240 and 330 nm using UV–visible spectra, and maximum emission peaks from PL spectra were observed at 385, 405 and 440 nm for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. Fluorescence lifetime (τ) of the fluorophores was found to be 0.35 and 1.55 ns at the excitation wavelength of 406 nm for C-1 and C-2 respectively, and τ value for C-3 was found to be 0.29 ns at the excitation wavelength of 468 nm. We noticed that the calculated values of HOMO energy levels were increased from 5.96 (C-1) to 6.08 (C-3) eV, which confirms that C-3 derivative is more electrons donating in nature. The calculated electrochemical band gaps were 2.95, 2.82 and 3.02 eV for C-1, C-2 and C-3 respectively. These blue fluorescent emitter derivatives can be used as an electron transport and electroluminescent material to design the blue fluorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) applications. - Highlights: • Facile one-step synthesized blue fluorescent emitter, 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine derivatives. • The exceptionally broad emission band (365–525 nm) was achieved in the blue region. • Fast fluorescence life time and good thermal stability.

  19. Eficacia del consejo médico para la reducción del consumo excesivo de alcohol: metaanálisis de estudios españoles en atención primaria

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    Ballesteros J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Revisiones sistemáticas previas han apoyado la eficacia del consejo médico, como intervención breve, en el abordaje de bebedores excesivos detectados en la asistencia primaria. Sin embargo, estos resultados no pueden extrapolarse directamente a poblaciones que, como las mediterráneas, no están representadas en dichas revisiones. El objetivo de este estudio fue actualizar la evidencia sobre la eficacia de la intervención breve en consumidores excesivos de alcohol según estudios españoles. Métodos: Búsqueda de estudios en bases bibliográficas y consultas a expertos para localizar estudios no publicados. Se calcularon las estimaciones combinadas para dos variables de resultado, la reducción del consumo de alcohol y la disminución de la frecuencia de bebedores excesivos. Resultados: Dos de los 5 estudios localizados no estaban incluidos en una revisión previa. La eficacia de la intervención breve fue moderada para la disminución del consumo de alcohol (d = - 0,46; intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%, - 0,29 a - 0,63; p < 0,0005; el grupo tratado mejoró un 22% más que el control y pequeña para la disminución de la frecuencia de bebedores excesivos (OR = 1,55; IC del 95%, 1,06 a 2,26; p = 0,02; el grupo tratado mejoró un 11% más que el control. El análisis basado en el cumplimiento del protocolo sobrestimó 1,5 veces el tamaño del efecto respecto del análisis basado en la intención de tratamiento. Conclusiones: Los resultados del estudio señalan que, en nuestro país, la intervención breve en atención primaria sobre bebedores a riesgo es eficaz, aunque su efecto sea sólo moderado.

  20. La Virgen de Guadalupe en Madrid. La movilización de los católicos españoles contra las políticas anticlericales de Plutarco Elías Calles. The Virgin of Guadalupe in Madrid. The mobilization of spanish catholics against the anticlerical policies of Plutarco Elías Calles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio de la Cueva Merino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es dar cuenta de cómo reaccionaron los católicos españoles ante la situación de los católicos mexicanos, en un contexto internacional de movilización frente a las políticas anticlericales del presidente Plutarco Elías Calles y de solidaridad con la Iglesia mexicana. El impacto en España, como en otros puntos, de las noticias sobre esta segunda oleada de anticlericalismo revolucionario mexicano fue grande. Además, la movilización que generaron y el discurso que se fue elaborando contribuyeron a moldear, o al menos reforzar, determinados rasgos presentes en la cultura política y religiosa del catolicismo español. Los católicos españoles se miraron en el espejo mexicano e incorporaron la “persecución” y el “martirio” de sus hermanos de ultramar a su propio imaginario y a las luchas que habían librado −y habrían de librar− en España

  1. Análisis de la variabilidad de nombres de autores españoles en depósitos digitales universitarios de acceso abierto: un estudio por áreas de conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduña-Malea, Enrique

    2009-12-01

    español (dos apellidos y a veces dos nombres o que varían su firma a lo largo del tiempo, tendrán más dificultades para reunir su producción científica. A partir de la experiencia con IraLIS (International Registry for Authors:: Library and Information Science = Links to Identify Scientists; http://www.iralis.org, este trabajo estudia cómo aparecen registradas las autoridades personales en dos proyectos españoles, de entorno no propietario, que cumplen con el protocolo OAI-PMH: Recercat y E-Prints Complutense.

    Se descarga la base de datos de autoridades de los dos repositorios estudiados, se clasifica el estilo de firma —recomendando la que contiene dos únicas ristras de elementos— y se distribuyen los resultados según el sector de conocimiento, usando para ello las clasificaciones temáticas del proyecto Intute y de la Agencia Nacional de Evaluación y Prospectiva (ANEP.

    El estilo de firma más usado es mediante dos apellidos (76 % en Recercat y 94 % en E-Prints Complutense. En cuanto a áreas temáticas, las ciencias sociales son las que presentan un mayor porcentaje de registros de autor con estilos de firma recomendados (un 20 % del total de registros pertenecientes a esta área.

    El nivel de uso del estilo de firma recomendado en ambos repositorios es bajo, especialmente en E-Prints Complutense. El índice de firma recomendado por sector científico nos muestra el paisaje real de los mayores repositorios de acceso abierto españoles. Con esta información se puede diseñar una campaña de concienciación personalizada por sectores. Hipotéticamente pensamos que las ciencias más internacionalizadas o los autores vinculados a la documentación tendrán en cuenta estos aspectos de la firma, pero el estudio estadístico no lo ha corroborado, ya que son las ciencias sociales las que presentan el mayor nivel de uso de estilos de firma recomendados. Según los datos, las

  2. Eestis ei ole rassismi / Iris Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Iris, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 15. apr. nr. 15 lk. 148-149. Sotsioloogist autor ei nõustu Eesti meedias tehtud järeldustega EL-i rassismiuuringute keskuse uuringu kohta. Tema sõnul on Eestil rassismiga väga vähe kokkupuuteid, eestlaste puhul saab rääkida vaid sallivusest teiste rahvuste ja kultuuride suhtes. Autor tutvustab 2005. aasta veebruaris läbiviidud uuringut eestlaste sallivuse kohta. Diagrammid: 47% eestlastest on sallimatud

  3. Elaval skulptuuril ei ole valuvormi? / Kaire Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Kaire, 1960-

    2005-01-01

    Amandus Adamsoni 150. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud workshop'i esitlus Paldiski linnapargis 3. VII (kuraator Terje Ojaver, A. Adamsoni kujudeks kehastusid Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli üliõpilased), "Elavad skulptuurid" Tallinna Kunstihoones 24. XI (kuraator Anders Härm) "Continental Breakfast Tallinn NU performance'i" festivali raames

  4. Tõsielust midagi jaburamat ei ole / Kristjan Ots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ots, Kristjan

    2004-01-01

    PÖFFi filme - mängufilmid "Kadudega tuleb arvestada" ("Mit Verlust ist zu Rechnen") : režissöör Ulrich Seidl : Austria 1992 ja "Tş̌ehhi unelm" ("Česky sen") : režissöörid Vit Klusak ja Filip Remunda : Tšehhi 2004

  5. Kõik ei ole action / Mari Sobolev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sobolev, Mari, 1968-

    1998-01-01

    Noorte videoprojektidest. Marko Laimre ja Andrus Kõresaare "Egoistically Correct", ainus actionil rajanev video. Jasper Zoova "Sheeps Are Everywhere". J. Zoova ja Tarrvi Laamannni "Fuck". Karol Kallase kureeritud näitusel "Kunstnik tapab koletise" "Kullo" galeriis olnud Jan Bergi, Meelis Salujärve, Al Paldroki videod, Andrus Joonase töö põhjal tehtud Kiwa video "Kunstnik tapab koletise". Publiku soov vaatemängu järele.

  6. Kui sind ei ole siin, siis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käesel, Tiina, 1943-

    2010-01-01

    Münchenis 62. rahvusvahelise käsitöömessi raames toimunud rahvusvahelisest konkurssnäitusest "Ehe" (Schmuck"), kuhu Eestist oli valitud Tanel Veenre tööga "Flora talv", konkurssnäitusest "Talendid" ("Talente"), Eesti ehtekunstnike rühmituse ÕhuLoss näitusest Müncheni Vana põhjakalmistu surnuaiavahi majas jt. ehtenäitustest

  7. ole of Women in Darfur Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The male-dominated social structure impairs their effective participation in conflict prevention, management and resolution. The article is based on information obtained from the ... demonstrate endurance when undergoing pain. Likewise, it is ..... In 1976 an lnternational Labour Urganisation (ILO) report described the mode ...

  8. Milline Sa oled, politseinik? / Liivia Anion

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anion, Liivia

    2003-01-01

    Kevadel 2002 korraldatud politseitöötajate rahulolu-uurimuses "Politsei personalibaromeeter" osales Eesti 22 politseiasutust 153 üksusega, kuhu kuulus 2346 ametnikku, neist 405 juhti. Diagramm: Politseiniku hinnang oma otsesele ülemusele

  9. Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDS Based on Vacuum Deposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  10. Når Bjarke tegner OLE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2007-01-01

    Børns forskellige udtryksformer kan vise forældre og andre, hvad børnene er optaget af og hvordan de udvikler sig i forhold til bl.a. børnekulturelle tilbud. Artiklen introducerer dette område med ugangspunkt i børns tegninger....

  11. Ole tegner og fortæller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Repræsentationer (tegn) defineres som noget der for nogen angiver noget som de er udformet til at angive. Repræsentationer indebærer intentionalitet, som er defineret ved at være OM noget og ved muligheden for misrepræsentation. Der skelnes mellem ydre repræsentationer (tekster og billeder) og in...

  12. Riik ei ole inimeste hirmutamiseks / Eugen Veges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veges, Eugen, 1955-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa 12. aug., lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 12. aug., lk. 2, Koit 12. aug., lk. 6, Valgamaalane 12. aug. lk. 2, Põhjarannik 14. aug. lk. 4, Sakala 15. aug. lk. 2, Järva Teataja 21. aug. lk. 2, Harju Ekspress 22. aug. lk. 4, Nädaline 26. aug., lk. 4, Võrumaa Teataja 26. aug. lk. 2, Lääne Elu 4. sept. lk. 2. Autori sõnul parandab rahvale kõrgeima võimu andmine liigselt pingestunud inimsuhteid, muudab väärastunud väärtushinnanguid ning ta on veendunud, et praegune valimisseadus ja erakonnaseadus nullivad igasuguse demokraatia

  13. Ameerika ei ole Jaapan / Michael Craig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Craig, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Kuidas Jaapani ärimees Minoru Isutani 1981. aastal ei arvestnud, et ameeriklased ei osta golfiklubi eluaegset liikmekaarti 750 000 dollari eest, ning kaotas USA kuulsaima Pebble Beachi golfiväljaku. Katkend raamatust "50 parimat ja halvimat tehingut läbi aegade"

  14. These Are the "Good Ole Days."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sheldon F.

    It is important for the teacher to be aware of the variety of uses for media and there are many practical ways to incorporate media in the classroom. When combined with a cassette recorder, slides made with or without a camera can make an inexpensive slide tape presentation within any class period. An alternative to making slides could be making a…

  15. Ruggedized Full-Color Flexible OLED Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hack, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The team comprised Universal Display Corporation, Princeton University, the University of Southern California, Penn State University, L3 Displays and Vitex Systems, and was led by Universal Display Corporation (PI: Michael Hack...

  16. Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDS Based on Vacuum Deposition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereby, we demonstrate high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating a double emission layer {i.e. both doped with the green phosphorescent dye tris(phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3]} into p-i-n-type device structure based on vacuum deposition technology. The intrinsic and doped transports layers are ...

  17. Integración vertical y contratación externa en los servicios generales de los hospitales españoles Vertical integration and contracting-out in generic hospital services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puig-Junoy

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Este estudio analiza los factores que influyen en las decisiones de integración vertical/contratación externa de cuatro servicios generales (limpieza, lavandería, alimentación y seguridad y mantenimiento en los hospitales españoles (3.160 transacciones que corresponden a 790 hospitales. Métodos: Se presenta la estimación empírica de un modelo logístico de maximización de la utilidad de los hospitales, en el que intervienen no sólo factores relacionados con los costes de transacción, sino también otros relacionados con la intervención pública y la dimensión política. Resultados: El 55,7% de los hospitales contrata al menos uno de los servicios generales analizados. El servicio de limpieza es el que presenta un mayor grado de contratación externa (45,1%, seguido del servicio de seguridad y mantenimiento (32,5%. En cambio, el servicio de lavandería es el que presenta un mayor grado de integración vertical (94,3% junto con el de alimentación (80,1%. La dimensión del hospital (economías de escala, medida a través del número de camas, es una de las variables que influyen de forma importante la decisión de integración vertical o contratación externa de los servicios de limpieza, alimentación y mantenimiento y seguridad. Conclusiones: Las economías de escala contribuyen a una mayor integración vertical, mientras que la especialización y el carácter lucrativo favorecen la decisión de contratación externa. El servicio de lavandería tiene un comportamiento diferenciado de los demás, mostrando efectos que indican la posible presencia de activos específicos.Objectives: This study examines the factors that influence make or buy decisions corresponding to four generic services (housekeeping, laundry, food services, and maintenance and security in Spanish hospitals (3,160 transactions in 790 hospitals. Methods: The empirical estimation of a logistic model based on hospital utility maximization is presented

  18. Aging and immigration in Spanish urban spaces. An analysis at the municipal level / Envejecimiento e inmigración en los espacios urbanos españoles. Un análisis a escala municipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Aldrey Vazquez

    2013-09-01

    opiniones, además, se vieron reafirmadas por la gran cantidad de inmigrantes que llegaron a España en un lapso de tiempo muy breve, concretamente entre mediados de los años 1990 y poco más allá de mediados de la primera década del presente siglo; si bien la crisis iniciada en 2008 ha supuesto un cambio sustancial, frenando la llegada de nuevos inmigrantes. En el presente trabajo pretendemos medir el impacto de la inmigración sobre la estructura de edad los municipios urbanos españoles, concretamente su contribución a la variación entre 2002 y 2008 de la población mayor (considerado como freno al envejecimiento en términos absolutos, al colectivo de los jóvenes contribución directa al rejuvenecimiento de la población española a corto plazo y a la natalidad (expectativas de continuación del rejuvenecimiento a medio plazo.

  19. Los apellidos de los gitanos españoles en los censos de 1783-85 (The family names of Gitanos or Spanish Romani in the listings of 1783-85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Gamella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Los registros de población gitana elaborados a raíz de la Real Pragmática de 1783 conforman el principal documento sobre esta minoría de todo el Antiguo Régimen. Este artículo analiza los apellidos o nombres de familia que tenían las 12.037 personas gitanas incluidas en esos censos, de las que 756 habían fallecido. En total aparecen 567 diferentes, una gran variedad, que se ve muy reducida si atendemos a los apellidos más comunes, pues 20 de ellos identifican a la mitad (53% de la población gitana y 57 (un 10%, al 75%. El peso de los apellidos más populares es mayor aún que el que se da en el total de la población española, que destaca en Europa por este rasgo. Los apellidos gitanos de 1785 eran todos españoles y en su mayoría, castellanos. Los más populares eran de dos tipos: primero, los patronímicos que compartían con la población mayoritaria, como Fernández, Jiménez, Rodríguez, Muñoz, García, etc., y segundo, aquellos que, aún siendo de origen español, se han ido asociando con la minoría gitana hasta percibirse como elementos de identidad étnica, sobre todo en algunas regiones: Heredia, Vargas, Cortés, Reyes, Maya, Montoya, Moreno, Santiago, Gabarri, etc. La mayoría de los apellidos pudieron haber sido adoptados por los gitanos en el bautismo y también como resultado de matrimonios mixtos. Seguramente, la mayor frecuencia de algunos apellidos se correlaciona con la antigüedad de su adopción. Este trabajo ofrece el más completo listado de apellidos gitanos del que se dispone hasta la fecha.Abstract: The last Royal Order addressed to Spanish Gypsies in 1783 required that local authorities listed all Gitanos residing in their counties ("partidos". By mid 1785 a Census had been collected that included data on 12.037 persons, 756 of whom had died. These lists form the most important document on the Gitano minority the Ancien Régime. Unfortunately, they have not been studied in depth. As a first outcome

  20. Prácticas sexuales de chicos y chicas españoles de 14-24 años de edad Sexual behavior in a Spanish sample aged 14 to 24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Faílde Garrido

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los comportamientos y prácticas sexuales de adolescentes y jóvenes españoles en función del género. Método: La información fue recogida mediante un cuestionario, realizado en el domicilio de los participantes y con presencia del entrevistador, aplicado a una muestra aleatoria integrada por 2.171 chicos y chicas de 14-24 años de edad, representativa de las comunidades de Galicia, Madrid y Andalucía. Resultados: Un total de 1.439 sujetos (66,3% refirieron haber tenido actividad sexual en los últimos 6 meses, sin apreciarse diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre chicos (66,4% y chicas (66,2%, excepto en las siguientes variables: haber practicado el coito anal (los chicos refieren haberlo practicado en mayor proporción; número de parejas sexuales (las chicas manifestaron tener menor número de parejas, y frecuencia de coitos vaginales (las chicas presentaron una frecuencia más elevada en esta práctica. También se encontraron diferencias en frecuencia de uso del condón en las prácticas coito-anales y en las bucogenitales, en las que los chicos refirieron utilizarlo más frecuentemente. Conclusiones: Los datos de este estudio indican que los chicos y las chicas mantienen comportamientos sexuales diferenciados. En este sentido, las chicas suelen tener menor número de parejas sexuales y utilizan el preservativo en mayor medida que los chicos en las prácticas coito-vaginales; sin embargo, hacen menor uso de éste en las prácticas bucogenitales y coito-anales. En función de estos datos consideramos necesario tener en cuenta la variable género a la hora de diseñar e implementar intervenciones preventivas.Objectives: To describe the sexual behaviors and practices of Spanish adolescents and young adults according to gender. Method: Information was gathered by means of a questionnaire administered in participants' homes in the presence of an interviewer. A random sample was used, consisting of 2

  1. Españoles ante la inmigración: el papel de los medios de comunicación Spaniards’ Perspective of Immigration. The Role of the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Checa Olmos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Con la transformación de España desde hace unas décadas en país de inmigración, la sociedad ha experimentado un importante cambio configurando un espacio social caracterizado, cada vez más, por la diversidad cultural, étnica y religiosa. En este escenario novedoso es de gran interés indagar sobre la valoración que de dicha diversidad tiene la sociedad española. El objetivo de este artículo es doble, por un lado, conocer la opinión que tienen los españoles sobre la inmigración entre 1996 y 2007. Por otro, comprobar el papel que juegan los medios de comunicación en la configuración de ese sentir. Para el primer objetivo se ha construido el índice de sentimiento anti-inmigrante, a partir de los datos ofrecidos por la encuesta nacional sobre opiniones y actitudes ante la inmigración, administrada, anualmente, por ASEP. Para el segundo, se analizan, utilizando la teoría de la «Agenda Setting», las noticias publicadas por los periódicos «El País» y «El Mundo» sobre inmigración. Los resultados muestran que el sentimiento negativo hacia el exogrupo se va incrementado con el paso del tiempo. Las principales variables que explican esa tendencia son: el sentimiento de amenaza –poblacional e identitaria–, competencia por los recursos y decisiones políticas en el proceso de integración –regularización–. Del análisis de los medios resultan seis encuadres, los principales hacen referencia a la irregularidad del fenómeno, a la vinculación inmigración y delincuencia y a las políticas de integración social. Por tanto, se pone de manifiesto el papel que juegan los medios de comunicación a la hora de crear opinión.With the transformation of Spain into an immigration country, society has become a major change by setting up a social space characterized, increasingly, by cultural, ethnic and religious diversity. In this new frame is interesting to investigate the overall value of diversity into the Spanish society. The

  2. Boganmeldelse af ”biologisk antropologi med human osteologi” Red. Niels Lynnerup, Pia Bennike og Elisabeth Iregren. Forlag Gyldendal 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2009-01-01

    Vi har i Norden længe savnet en samlet og moderne fremstilling af biologisk antropologi set fra en skandinavisk synsvinkel. Den nye lærebog i biologisk antropologi opfylder dette behov. Den er skrevet af førende forskere fra de skandinaviske lande samt enkelte andre. Bogens opbygning er logisk og...

  3. Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Niels Bohr and their impact on contemporary science: a glimpse of modern spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reviews developments in the atomic spectroscopy subsequent to Bohr's model. This follows a brief description of Bohr's model of hydrogen atom that accounts for sharp line spectra of hydrogen atom. The developments include the effects of electron and nuclear spins, spectroscopy of multi electron atom which involve electron-electron repulsion and different angular momentum coupling schemes. More recently, Bohr's atom model has found application to processes at nano dimensions of semiconducting materials. It has now become possible to create a hydrogen-like atom, an exciton, with its size comparable or even more than that of the particle it self. This brings in extra quantization and has profound effects on the motion of the particles involved viz electron and hole. (author)

  4. Ole kambas või oled jobu / Anders Härm ; intervjueerinud Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Härm, Anders, 1977-

    2009-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline näitus "Happy Together" Tallinna Kunstihoones. Osalevad kunstnikud Soomest, Rootsist, Islandilt, Horvaatiast, Norrast, Serbiast, Türgist. Eestit esindavad Villu Jaanisoo ja Kristina Norman. Pikemalt Igor Grubic'i (Horvaatia) videoinstallatsioonist

  5. Una aproximación a la historia de la escolarización de las gitanas y gitanos españoles (Parte 2: Siglos XX y XXI. An approach to the history of schooling of Spanish gypsies (Part 2: centuries XX--XXI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Salinas Catalá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES Si poca atención y publicaciones se han prestado al tema de la historia de los gitanos españoles, menos aún a la historia de su escolarización y educación en estos seis siglos de conciudadanía accidentada. Este es un trabajo que acota y ordena los pocos documentos y noticias que tenemos de esta escolarización reductora, excluyente, segregadora, integradora y aún sin una solución desde modelos de intervención inclusivos, interculturales y probadamente posibles. Es un principio de reflexión sobre las políticas educativas con la minoría étnica gitana española. (EN If history of Spanish gypsies has been barely studied and published, the history of their schooling and education during these 6 centuries of troubled shared citizenship has been even less studied. This article sets the limits and puts in order the few documents and news we have about this reducing, excluding, segregating, integrating and still with no solution from models of inclusion and interculturality checked as possible. It`s a start of reflection about educational policy with the ethnic gypsy minority in Spain.

  6. Una aproximación a la historia de la escolarización de las gitanas y gitanos españoles (1º parte: siglos XV-XIX. An approach to the history of schooling of Spanish gypsies (part 1: centuries XV-XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Salinas Catalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES Si poca atención y publicaciones se han prestado al tema de la historia de los gitanos españoles, menos aún a la historia de su escolarización y educación en estos seis siglos de conciudadanía accidentada. Este es un trabajo que acota y ordena los pocos documentos y noticias que tenemos de esta esco-larización reductora, excluyente, segregadora, integradora y aún sin una solución desde modelos de intervención inclusivos, interculturales y probadamente posibles. Es un principio de reflexión sobre las políticas educativas con la minoría étnica gitana española. (EN If history of Spanish gypsies has been barely studied and published, the history of their schooling and education during these 6 centuries of troubled shared citizenship has been even less studied. This article sets the limits and puts in order the few documents and news we have about this reducing, excluding, segregating, integrating and still with no solution from models of inclusion and interculturality checked as possible. It`s a start of reflection about educational policy with the ethnic gypsy minority in Spain.

  7. Análisis de las capacidades de sincronización con el mercado y selección de valores de los gestores de fondos de inversión españoles en condiciones económicas variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ferruz Agudo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo realiza una evaluación del desempeño de un amplio grupo de fondos de inversión españoles, tanto en términos globales como mediante una descomposición del mismo en sus dos componentes; capacidades de sincronización con el mercado y selección de valores. Ambos análisis se efectúan a partir de medidas tradicionales y de medidas que consideran la variación en el tiempo de la rentabilidad y riesgo mediante la incorporación de variables macroeconómicas representativas del ciclo económico en España. La incorporación de estas variables supone una mejora del desempeño global y un empeoramiento de la capacidad de selección de valores del gestor. En cuanto a la capacidad de sincronización con el mercado no es posible extraer conclusiones. Sin embargo, observamos una mejora del poder explicativo de los modelos como consecuencia de tal incorporación, lo que nos permite abogar por los modelos condicionales. Además, este trabajo corrige los problemas de multicolinealidad entre dichas variables mediante un análisis factorial.

  8. Alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes españoles y mexicanos y su relación con la actividad físico-deportiva y la familia Alcohol and tobacco consumption in Spanish and Mexican adolescents and its relation to physical and sports-related activity and to the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz-Risueño Abad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar la influencia del consumo de alcohol o tabaco junto a variables independientes (sexo y edad; tiempo y actividades de ocio; motivaciones, patrones, modalidades y finalidades físico-deportivas; y conductas del entorno familiar en la actividad físico-deportiva de alumnos de educación secundaria obligatoria en España y México. MÉTODOS: 3 249 alumnos españoles y 1 083 alumnos mexicanos de entre 12 y 16 años respondieron un cuestionario sobre hábitos físico-deportivos, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas o tabaco e influencia del entorno familiar. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y una regresión logística multinomial para averiguar la capacidad predictiva de las variables incluidas en el modelo. RESULTADOS: En ambos países el consumo aumenta con la edad. Comparativamente existe mayor prevalencia entre los estudiantes españoles a la hora de consumir sustancias adictivas. Los estudiantes españoles físicamente activos tienen menos probabilidades de consumir alcohol y tabaco; entre los mexicanos no se encuentran diferencias significativas al respecto. Los resultados reflejan que en España las mujeres consumen bebidas alcohólicas y fuman con mayor frecuencia. Los varones españoles, sin embargo, lo hacen de manera esporádica pero en mayores cantidades. En México, los adolescentes consumen alcohol más regularmente que las adolescentes, pero no existen diferencias en la cantidad. CONCLUSIONES: En España, la práctica de actividades físico-deportivas se relaciona claramente con un menor consumo. Ser físicamente activo actúa como agente protector ante hábitos no saludables. En los adolescentes mexicanos no se ha encontrado una relación significativa entre estos factores. Tanto en España como en México, los hermanos y los padres son los familiares que mayor influencia ejercen respecto del consumo de alcohol y tabaco. Además, se ha comprobado la tendencia a un consumo simultáneo de ambas sustancias

  9. Recovery of iron after Fenton-like secondary treatment of olive mill wastewater by nano-filtration and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes; Recuperación de hierro tras tratamiento secundario tipo Fenton de agua residual de la industria oleícola por membranas de nanofiltración y ósmosis inversa de baja presión

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Victor-Ortega, M.D.; Martinez-Ferez, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the performances of novel nano-filtration (NF) and low-pressure reverse osmosis (RO) polymeric membranes were examined with the aim of recovering the iron used as catalyst in former secondary treatment based on the Fenton-like advanced oxidation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Results highlight that both membranes exhibit a good performance towards the rejection of iron (99.1% for the NF membrane vs. 100% for the low-pressure RO membrane) in the secondary-treated OMW effluent, thus permitting the recovery of iron in the concentrate stream in order to recycle it back into the oxidation reactor to reduce catalyst consumption. Finally, the permeate streams could be re-used for irrigation. Major productivity was observed by the selected NF membrane, about 47.4 L/hm2 upon 9 bar, whereas 30.9 L/hm2 could be yielded with the RO membrane under an operating pressure of 8 bar. Moreover, a sensibly lower fouling index was measured on the NF membrane (0.0072 in contrast with 0.065), which ensures major steady-state performance on this membrane and a longer service lifetime. This also results in lower required membrane area and membrane plant over dimension (4 modules in case of RO operation whereas only 2 modules for NF). [Spanish] En este trabajo, se examinó el rendimiento de membranas modernas de nanofiltración (NF) y ósmosis inversa (OI) poliméricas con el objetivo de recuperar el hierro utilizado como catalizador en un tratamiento secundario previo de agua residual oleícola (OMW) basado en oxidación avanzada tipo Fenton. Los resultados ponen de relieven que ambas membranas exhiben buen rendimiento en cuanto al rechazo de hierro (99.1 % para la membrana de NF vs. 100 % para la membrana de OI de bajas presiones) en el efluente oleícola tras tratamiento secundario, permitiendo en consecuencia la recuperación de hierro en la corriente de concentrado para su recirculación de nuevo al reactor de oxidación para reducir el consumo de catalizador. Finalmente

  10. The burden and management of patients with IBS: results from a survey in Spanish gastroenterologists Manejo clínico de los pacientes con síndrome de intestino irritable: resultados de una encuesta entre gastroenterólogos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Almansa

    2011-11-01

    y específicas sobre la definición, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del SII. Resultados: el 55% de los gastroenterólogos encuestados estima que los pacientes con SII representan entre un 25-50% del volumen de sus consultas; la mayoría referidos desde primaria para diagnóstico. En general los gastroenterólogos españoles refieren conocer los criterios diagnósticos clínicos, aunque la mayoría no basa su diagnóstico en ellos y suele solicitar alguna prueba complementaria para descartar organicidad. Pese a ello, un 80% de especialistas suele comenzar tratamiento enfocado al control de los síntomas sin esperar al resultado de las pruebas. Conclusiones: el SII es uno de los problemas más prevalentes en las consultas de aparato digestivo. Los gastroenterólogos españoles, pese a tener un buen conocimiento teórico de la enfermedad, no siempre se basan en la evidencia científica a la hora de diagnosticar y tratar a estos pacientes.

  11. ¿La democracia es un sistema dependiente de valores como el conformismo y la obediencia? Un estudio comparado sobre las valoraciones que jóvenes y adultos españoles hacen de la democracia (Is democracy a dependent value such as conformity and obedience? A comparative study on the assestments that young and adult Spanish do of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberto Carratalá Puertas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones sobre la calidad de la democracia y la valoración que la ciudadanía realiza de ella han girado en torno a la influencia que el sistema económico o el político ejerce sobre las dimensiones que la componen. Los resultados han tenido un alcance explicativo limitado. Para superar este déficit se propone llevar a cabo un análisis de la cuestión desde una perspectiva que articule el nivel macro, la estructura política y económica, y micro, la subjetividad de la ciudadanía. Este trabajo abre una línea de investigación alternativa y complementaria a las ya existentes, con el objetivo de comprender cómo los valores humanos influyen en la valoración de la experiencia democrática de los jóvenes y adultos españoles. Los resultados, derivados del análisis de los datos con la técnica de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM, ponen de relieve la diferencia existente entre jóvenes y adultos en sus respectivas valoraciones de la democracia, aunque coinciden en que es insatisfactoria. | The researches on democracy’s quality and the assessment citizens make of it have usually turned around the influence of economic or political systems applied on its dimensions. The results have had a limited explanatory range. In order to get over this shortfall, the proposal is the analysis from a perspective that will articulate macro and micro levels. This work will open an alternative and complementary research line to existing ones with the aim to understand how human values have influence on the assessment of the democratic experience from young and adult Spanish people. The results derived from data analysed with Structural Equation Models (SEM underline the difference between young’s and adult’s values of democracy even though they agree it is unsatisfying.

  12. "Ma ei ole Soprano!" / Mihkel Kärmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärmas, Mihkel, 1974-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Estonija Mar/18 lk. 5. Kümme aastat Tallinna Keskkonnaametit juhtinud Aap Mumme tõi Eestisse Euroopa suurima jäätmekäitlusfirma SKP. Pärast riigitöölt lahkumist sai temast sama firma palgaline ja partner

  13. New Racism, Reformed Teacher Education, and the Same Ole' Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    This article builds on a case study about how teacher education students may actually learn racism through their program. It employs an analysis of how new racism is operationalized in today's sociopolitical contexts. Field placements and knowledge taught about various groups are critiqued as major teacher education reform efforts that…

  14. Ameerika Oscari-galal ei ole juhuslikke reklaame / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2004-01-01

    Telekanal TV3 kannab 1. märtsil otse Los Angelesest üle Oscarite jagamise tseremoonia. Programmidirektor Jüri Pihel Ameerika filmiakadeemia nõudmistest teleülekannete edastajatele. Lisatud Oscari nominentide nimekiri

  15. E-aruandluskeskkond ei ole tont, keda karta / Heilika Kutsch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kutsch, Heilika

    2010-01-01

    Alates 1. jaanuarist 2010 on kohustuslik esitada majandusaasta aruanne elektrooniliselt. Aruande sisestaja ja audiitori määramisest, aruande koostamisest, täiendamisest, allkirjastamisest ja esitamisest

  16. In the Bullring with a Foreign Language--Ole!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Ron

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid onset of globalization and increasing demand from business, government, and schools for fluency in another language, the author decided to learn Spanish. Driven by a desire to acquire functional language abilities in Spanish, he has embarked on this "better late than never" opportunity to learn the language, and in this…

  17. Vallo Reimaa : Kavas ei ole mingit omavalitsuse reformi / Vallo Reimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimaa, Vallo

    2007-01-01

    Regionaalminister Vallo Reimaa vastab online-intervjuus küsimustele, mitu maakonda on Eestis nelja aasta pärast, mida ta arvab ideest kaotada regionaalministri koht, kas on reaalne vähendada nii omavalitsusi kui ka ametnike arvu

  18. Euro on ohus ja euro ei ole ohus / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel teatas, et euro on ohus. Prantsuse majandusminister Christine Lagarde avaldas arvamust, et euro pole ohus, et euro on kindel ja usaldusväärne valuuta. Kreekas toimunud üldstreik halvas majanduse

  19. Riik ei ole kõiki vahendeid kasutanud / Mai Treial

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treial, Mai, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu sotsiaalkomisjoni esimehe sõnul moodustavad tervishoiukulud 2007. aasta eelarves 4,9% SKT-st, mis on tänavusest 0,3% rohkem. Probleem on arstiabi koondumine linnadesse. Summadest tervishoiule sotsiaalministeeriumi kaudu; haigekassa, kiirabi eelarve kasv, EL-i vahendid tervishoiule. Rahvaliidu peaeesmärgid tervishoius

  20. München ei ole ainult Oktoberfest / Albert Trapeezh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trapeež, Albert, pseud., 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti nüüdiskunsti näitusest Müncheni kunstikeskuses Aktionsforum. Osalesid Siim-Tanel Annus, Jaan Elken, Jüri Kass, Ülle Marks, Eve Kask, Lennart Mänd, Tiiu Kirsipuu, Leonhard Lapin, Raul Meel, Liina Siib, Andres Tolts ja Urmas Viik. Näituse kataloogi eestipoolsed tekstid kirjutas Harry Liivrand. Müncheni moodsaimast kunstikeskusest Pinakothek der Moderne'ist