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Sample records for nicotine patches quit

  1. Does the number of free nicotine patches given to smokers calling a quitline influence quit rates: results from a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The offer of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT can be a cost-effective marketing strategy to induce smokers to call a telephone quitline for quitting assistance. However, the most cost-effective supply of free NRT to provide to smokers who call a quitline remains unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that smokers who call a telephone quitline and are given more free nicotine patches would report higher quit rates upon follow-up 12 months later. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to assess nicotine patch usage patterns and quit rates among five groups of smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quitline (NYSSQL between April 2003 and May 2006 and were mailed 2-, 4-, 6- or 8-week supplies of free nicotine patches. The study population included 2,442 adult (aged 18 years or older current daily smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day, who were willing to make a quit attempt, and reported no contraindications for using the nicotine patch. Outcome variables assessed included the percentage of smokers who reported that they had not smoked for at least 7-days at the time of a 12 months telephone follow-up survey, sustained quitting, delayed quitting and nicotine patch use. Results Quit rates measured at 12 months were higher for smokers in the groups who received either 2, 6, or 8 weeks of free patches. The lowest quit rate was observed among the group of Medicaid/uninsured smokers who were eligible to receive up to six weeks of free patches. The quit rate for the 4-week supply group did not differ significantly from the 6-week or 8-week groups. These patterns remained similar in an intent-to-treat analysis of 12-month quit rates and in an analysis of sustained quitting. Conclusion No clear cut dose response relationship was observed between the number of free nicotine patches sent to smokers and smoking outcomes. Baseline diferences in the characteristics of the groups compared could account for the null

  2. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Two Nicotine Patches in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Scott; Horkan, Kathleen Halabuk; Kotler, Mitchell

    2018-02-02

    Smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of early mortality worldwide, and nicotine replacement therapy has been demonstrated to increase rates of abstinence among smokers attempting to quit. Nicotine transdermal systems (also known as nicotine patches) attach to the skin via an adhesive layer composed of a mixture of different-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes (PIBs) in a specific ratio. This randomized, single-dose, 2-treatment, crossover pharmacokinetic (PK) trial assessed the bioequivalence of nicotine patches including a replacement PIB adhesive (test) compared with the PIB adhesive historically used on marketed patches (reference). The test and reference patches were bioequivalent, as determined by the PK parameters of C max and AUC 0-t . In addition, the parameters T max and t 1/2 did not significantly differ between the 2 patches, supporting the bioequivalence finding from the primary analysis. The tolerability profiles of the patches containing the replacement and previously used PIB adhesives were similar; application-site adverse events did not significantly differ between test and reference patches. Overall, these data establish the bioequivalence of the nicotine patch with the replacement PIB adhesive formulation and the previously utilized PIB adhesive formulation. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  3. Nicotine patches in pregnant smokers: randomised, placebo controlled, multicentre trial of efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangé, Gilles; Jacob, Nelly; Tanguy, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of 16 hour nicotine patches among pregnant smokers, with the dose individually adjusted according to saliva cotinine levels (potential range 10-30 mg/day). Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group, multicentre trial (Study of Nicotine Patch in Pregnancy, SNIPP) between October 2007 and January 2013. Setting 23 maternity wards in France. Participants 476 pregnant smokers aged more than 18 years and between 12 and 20 weeks’ gestation, who smoked at least five cigarettes a day. After exclusions, 402 women were randomised: 203 to nicotine patches and 199 to placebo patches. Data were available on 192 live births in each group. Interventions Nicotine and identical placebo patches were administered from quit day up to the time of delivery. Doses were adjusted to saliva cotinine levels when smoking to yield a substitution rate of 100%. Participants were assessed monthly and received behavioural smoking cessation support. Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were complete abstinence (self report confirmed by carbon monoxide level in expired air ≤8 ppm) from quit date to delivery, and birth weight. The secondary outcomes were point prevalence of abstinence, time to lapse (a few puffs) or relapse, and delivery and birth characteristics. All data were analysed on an intention to treat basis. Results Complete abstinence was achieved by 5.5% (n=11) of women in the nicotine patch group and 5.1% (n=10) in the placebo patch group (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 2.60). The median time to the first cigarette smoked after target quit day was 15 days in both groups (interquartile range 13-18 in the nicotine patch group, 13-20 in the placebo patch group). The point prevalence abstinence ranged from 8% to 12.5% in the nicotine patch group and 8% to 9.5% in the placebo patch group without statistically significant differences. The nicotine substitution rate did not differ from 100%, and the self

  4. The effect of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking: an examination of the mechanism of action of two pre-quit pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenying; Chappell, Kate; Walters, Julia A E; Jacobson, Glenn A; Patel, Rahul; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing research interest in using nicotine replacement medications to aid smoking reduction prior to a quit attempt. Gaining a better understanding of how treatments influence smoking reduction may allow for better tailoring of treatments and, ultimately, better cessation outcomes. The objective of the current study was to test the effects of the pre-quit use of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. All participants were required to attend up to five study visit sections. Participants (n = 213) who were interested in quitting were randomised (open-label) to receive either pre-quit patch or varenicline (both treatments started 2 weeks prior to an assigned quit day, followed by 10 weeks post-quit) or standard patch (10 weeks starting from an assigned quit day). Participants used modified smartphones to monitor their smoking in real time for 4 weeks. Participants in the two pre-quit treatment groups reported significant reductions in both their satisfaction with smoking (p rate (p rate was associated with the satisfaction with smoking (p rate. Satisfaction was associated with changes in smoking rate, but the relationship was weak. As such, monitoring reductions in satisfaction do not appear to be a viable method of evaluating responsiveness to treatment.

  5. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  6. Using free patches to improve reach of the Oregon Quit Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprey, Mona; McAfee, Tim; Bush, Terry; McClure, Jennifer B; Zbikowski, Susan; Mahoney, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    For 2 1/2 months, the Oregon Tobacco Quit Line (ORQL) offered a free 2-week starter kit of nicotine patches to all callers. The promotional plan, utilizing Roger's Diffusion of Innovation theory, targeted health plans, local policy makers, media sources, and referral sources, such as healthcare providers. Word-of-mouth advertising was also encouraged using a free patch card, which could be handed out to tobacco users. Six weeks prior to the public launch, information about the initiative was disseminated by e-mailing and sending letters to public and private sector partners. Call volume to the ORQL was monitored 6 months prior to the Free Patch Initiative and immediately following the launch. Demographic characteristics of callers pre- and postinitiative were compared using ORQL data. A media firm tracked earned media generated by the initiative. The Initiative generated free "earned" media attention, increased calls to the ORQL by 12-fold, and reached 1.3% of the smoking population within a 3-month period. Offering a short course of free NRT is an effective way to promote the use of quitlines.

  7. The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, F; Coleman, G; Conduit, R

    2006-07-30

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of 24-h transdermal nicotine patches on sleep and dream mentation in 15 smokers aged 20 to 33. Utilising a repeated measures design, it was found that more time awake and more ASDA micro-arousals occurred while wearing the nicotine patch compared to placebo. Also, the percentage of REM sleep decreased, but REM latency and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep stages did not change significantly. Dream reports containing visual imagery, visual imagery ratings and the number of visualizable nouns were significantly greater from REM compared to Stage 2 awakenings, regardless of patch condition. However, a general interaction effect was observed. Stage 2 dream variables remained equivalent across nicotine and placebo conditions. Within REM sleep, more dream reports containing visual imagery occurred while wearing the nicotine patch, and these were rated as more vivid. The greater frequency of visual imagery reports and higher imagery ratings specifically from REM sleep suggests that previously reported dreaming side effects from 24-h nicotine patches may be specific to REM sleep. Combined with previous animal studies showing that transdermally delivered nicotine blocks PGO activity in REM sleep, the current results do no appear consistent with PGO-based hypotheses of dreaming, such as the Activation-Synthesis (AS) or Activation, Input and Modulation (AIM) models.

  8. Increasing access to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: effectiveness of a free nicotine patch program among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Nguyen, Nam; Peng, Cha-Hui; Chin, Margaret; Chang, Ming-der; Fahs, Marianne

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacotherapy substantially increases smoking cessation rates. However, programs to reduce barriers to this evidence-based treatment may not improve access among high risk immigrant non English speaking populations. This study estimates the effectiveness of a tailored free nicotine patch (NRT) program among Chinese American smokers living in New York City (NYC). Between July 2004 and May 2005 NRT was distributed to 375 smokers through two community-based organizations that serve the Asian American population in NYC. Participants completed an in person baseline survey and a 4-month follow-up telephone survey. Using an intention to treat analysis the abstinence rate at 4 months was 26.7% (100/375). Predictors of cessation included higher levels of self efficacy at baseline, not smoking while using the patch and concern about personal health risks. Distribution through easy to access, culturally competent local community organizations increased the reach of a free nicotine patch program and assisted smokers in quitting.

  9. Population pharmacokinetic model of transdermal nicotine delivered from a matrix-type patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linakis, Matthew W; Rower, Joseph E; Roberts, Jessica K; Miller, Eleanor I; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2017-12-01

    Nicotine addiction is an issue faced by millions of individuals worldwide. As a result, nicotine replacement therapies, such as transdermal nicotine patches, have become widely distributed and used. While the pharmacokinetics of transdermal nicotine have been extensively described using noncompartmental methods, there are few data available describing the between-subject variability in transdermal nicotine pharmacokinetics. The aim of this investigation was to use population pharmacokinetic techniques to describe this variability, particularly as it pertains to the absorption of nicotine from the transdermal patch. A population pharmacokinetic parent-metabolite model was developed using plasma concentrations from 25 participants treated with transdermal nicotine. Covariates tested in this model included: body weight, body mass index, body surface area (calculated using the Mosteller equation) and sex. Nicotine pharmacokinetics were best described with a one-compartment model with absorption based on a Weibull distribution and first-order elimination and a single compartment for the major metabolite, cotinine. Body weight was a significant covariate on apparent volume of distribution of nicotine (exponential scaling factor 1.42). After the inclusion of body weight in the model, no other covariates were significant. This is the first population pharmacokinetic model to describe the absorption and disposition of transdermal nicotine and its metabolism to cotinine and the pharmacokinetic variability between individuals who were administered the patch. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Real-time UV imaging of nicotin release from transdermal patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jesper; Meng-Lund, Emil; Larsen, Susan Weng

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to characterize UV imaging as a platform for performing in vitro release studies using Nicorette® nicotine patches as a model drug delivery system. METHODS: The rate of nicotine release from 2 mm diameter patch samples (Nicorette®) into 0.067 M phosphate buffer, p......H 7.40, was studied by UV imaging (Actipix SDI300 dissolution imaging system) at 254 nm. The release rates were compared to those obtained using the paddle-over-disk method. RESULTS: Calibration curves were successfully established which allowed temporally and spatially resolved quantification...... of nicotine. Release profiles obtained from UV imaging were in qualitative agreement with results from the paddle-over-disk release method. CONCLUSION: Visualization as well as quantification of nicotine concentration gradients was achieved by UV imaging in real time. UV imaging has the potential to become...

  11. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marjolein; van den Putte, Bas

    2008-10-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two separate waves from current cigarette smokers with varying levels of nicotine dependence (N=151). In the second wave, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In the first group, participants read a smoking cessation message which emphasized the benefits of quitting (positive frame). In the second group participants read a message which emphasized the costs of not quitting (negative frame). Results show that smokers' intentions to quit smoking and their level of nicotine dependence jointly influence the persuasiveness of positive and negative message frames. When nicotine dependence and quitting intention are both high, a negative frame works best. Conversely, a positive frame is preferable when nicotine dependence or quitting intention is low. Smokers' level of processing is proposed as the underlying mechanism explaining the different effects of message frames.

  12. [The evaluation of motivation and addiction to nicotine in smokers attempting to quit smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a factor which increases the risk of developing many diseases, especially of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Quitting smoking is an essential element of prophylaxis and therapy. The effectiveness of treating the syndrome of nicotine addiction mostly depends on the motivation to give up the habit. The study aimed at evaluating the motivation and the strength of nicotine addiction as well as the factor which motivates smokers for giving up the habit. Sixty-two smokers were included in the study. There were 31 males and 31 females. The mean age of the study subjects was 47.26 ± 14.45. The study was performed using the author-made survey (including for example questions regarding sociodemographic data and motives for quitting smoking), Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (for analyzing degree of nicotine addiction) and Schneider Motivation Test (to evaluate the degree of motivation to quit smoking). Thirty-seven subjects out of the total number of 62 were the least addicted to nicotine. They were highly motivated to give up the habit of smoking. The mean value of motivation depended on the level of education of the subjects and was 7.71-8.50 scores. Health concerns were the reasons to make a decision to quit smoking for the majority of the subjects. Health concern is the most common reason for giving up the habit of smoking. The relationship between the motivation to quit smoking and the sex of the subjects was not observed.

  13. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Nicotine Patches for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: A Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial (SNAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Holly N; Parrott, Steve; Wu, Qi; Li, Jinshuo; Cooper, Sue; Coleman, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the most important, preventable cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight with huge financial costs to the National Health Service. However, there are very few published economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy and previous studies are predominantly U.S.-based and do not present incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). A number of studies have demonstrated cost-effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the general population, but this has yet to be tested among pregnant smokers. A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside the smoking, nicotine, and pregnancy trial to compare NRT patches plus behavioral support to behavioral support alone, for pregnant women who smoked. At delivery, biochemically verified quit rates were slightly higher at 9.4% in the NRT group compared to 7.6% in the control group (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.96), at an increased cost of around £90 per participant. Higher costs in the NRT group were mainly attributable to the cost of NRT patches (mean = £46.07). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with NRT was £4,926 per quitter and a sensitivity analysis including only singleton births yielded an ICER of £4,156 per quitter. However, wide confidence intervals indicated a high level of uncertainty. Without a specific willingness to pay threshold, and due to high levels of statistical uncertainty, it is hard to determine the cost-effectiveness of NRT in this population. Furthermore, future research should address compliance issues, as these may dilute any potential effects of NRT, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The efficacy of nicotine patches to help adolescents quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Although the percentage adolescent smokers in the Netherlands has gradually decreased over the past years, the number of daily smokers is still increasing rapidly, from 12% of 16-year-olds to 27% of 19-year-olds. Adolescents often make quit attempts within a very short period after taking up

  16. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  17. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  18. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  19. Smokers making a quit attempt using e-cigarettes with or without nicotine or prescription nicotine replacement therapy: Impact on cardiovascular function (ISME-NRT) - a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonizakis, Markos; Crank, Helen; Gumber, Anil; Brose, Leonie S

    2017-04-04

    The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months. Electronic (or "e-") cigarettes use battery power to disperse a solution that usually contains propylene glycol or glycerine, water, flavouring and nicotine. E-cigarettes have become the most popular smoking cessation aid in England, however, information on their effects on cardiovascular function is limited and contradictory. As e-cigarettes are not solely nicotine-based products, existing research exploring the effects of nicotine on the cardio-vasculature provides only limited information, while their extensive uptake urges the need of evidence to inform the general public, smokers and policy-makers. This is a pragmatic, 3-group, randomised, assessor-blinded, single-centre trial exploring the cardiovascular physiological effects of the use of e-cigarettes (nicotine-free and nicotine-inclusive, assessed separately) combined with behavioural support as a smoking cessation method in comparison to the combination of NRT and behavioural support. The primary outcome will be macro-vascular function, determined by a Flow Mediated Dilatation ultrasound assessment, 6 months following participants' "quit date". Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 days following their self-determined "quit date", at intervention end (3 months) and 6 months following their "quite date". Findings are expected to give an indication of the cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes both in the short- and in the medium-term period

  20. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  1. Long-term effectiveness of mailed nicotine replacement therapy: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Zawertailo, Laurie; Tyndale, Rachel F; Leatherdale, Scott T; Cunningham, John A

    2017-07-18

    Our group recently completed a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of providing 5 weeks of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; in the form of the nicotine patch) by expedited postal mail without behavioral assistance to regular adult smokers interested in receiving it. The findings revealed that mailed provision of nicotine patches resulted in more than a doubling of quit rates at a six-month follow-up compared to a no intervention control group. While this trial provided evidence for the effectiveness of mailed nicotine patches in promoting cessation, the findings speak only to the short term effectiveness of this approach. As relapse to smoking is known to occur beyond the 6 month period, it is important to evaluate whether the net benefit of NRT in naturalistic settings can be maintained long-term. The present study aims to perform a 5-year follow-up survey of participants in the original trial to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of mailed NRT. Trained interviewers will contact participants in the randomized controlled trial 5 years post-enrollment. A total of 924 participants will be eligible to be contacted. Interviewers will first assess participants' smoking status and their level of nicotine dependence. Participants reporting not currently smoking will be asked whether they have smoked tobacco, even a puff, in the last 30 days (primary outcome measure: 30-day point prevalence abstinence), past 6 months (secondary outcome measure: prolonged 6-month abstinence), and since the 8-week follow-up survey (secondary outcome measure: > 4 year continuous abstinence). Interviewers will be blind to experimental condition at the time the primary outcome measure will be assessed. It is hypothesized that participants who received nicotine patches at baseline will display significantly higher quit rates at the 5-year follow-up as compared to participants who did not receive nicotine patches at baseline. If the study finds that the mailed

  2. Smokers making a quit attempt using e-cigarettes with or without nicotine or prescription nicotine replacement therapy: Impact on cardiovascular function (ISME-NRT - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Klonizakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months. Electronic (or “e-“ cigarettes use battery power to disperse a solution that usually contains propylene glycol or glycerine, water, flavouring and nicotine. E-cigarettes have become the most popular smoking cessation aid in England, however, information on their effects on cardiovascular function is limited and contradictory. As e-cigarettes are not solely nicotine-based products, existing research exploring the effects of nicotine on the cardio-vasculature provides only limited information, while their extensive uptake urges the need of evidence to inform the general public, smokers and policy-makers. Methods This is a pragmatic, 3-group, randomised, assessor-blinded, single-centre trial exploring the cardiovascular physiological effects of the use of e-cigarettes (nicotine-free and nicotine-inclusive, assessed separately combined with behavioural support as a smoking cessation method in comparison to the combination of NRT and behavioural support. The primary outcome will be macro-vascular function, determined by a Flow Mediated Dilatation ultrasound assessment, 6 months following participants’ “quit date”. Discussion Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 days following their self-determined “quit date”, at intervention end (3 months and 6 months following their “quite date”. Findings are expected to give an indication of the cardiovascular

  3. Weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors during smoking cessation with bupropion or nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella-Carretero, J I; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Martín, I; Valero, A M; Alvarez, F; García, G; Varela, C; Cantarero, M

    2004-03-01

    Weight gain is frequent after smoking cessation, and may limit patient's will to quit and long-term success. Nicotine and bupropion are effective drugs for smoking withdrawal. However, their influence on weight gain, insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, as well as possible differences in obese and lean subjects, have not been fully evaluated. We randomised 25 lean and 25 obese smokers to receive either bupropion or nicotine patches. Clinical evaluation and lipid profile were performed at baseline and after treatment. Insulin resistance was also assessed at the end. Weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and diastolic blood pressure increased (p < 0.005), whereas lipid profile improved (p < 0.001) after smoking cessation independently of obesity at baseline or drug used. Obese patients had higher insulin resistance at the end (p < 0.05) regardless of drug used. Weight gain was inversely related to age (beta= - 0.125, R = 0.38, p = 0.046), and insulin resistance was related to obesity at baseline (beta = 0.85, R = 0.46, p = 0.02). In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation is not dependent on obesity or drug taken. A beneficial lipid profile is achieved after quitting smoking with either bupropion or nicotine patch in both obese and lean subjects.

  4. The Effects of Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor Activation on Patch-Clamped Cells in the Optic Tectum of Rana Pipiens

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C.-J.; Debski, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 μM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in sponta...

  5. In vitro evaluation of transdermal nicotine delivery systems commercially available in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Morais Ruela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for evaluating the release and skin permeation from transdermal nicotine patches using the vertical diffusion cell (VDC. The VDC is an experimental apparatus employed in research, development, and the pharmaceutical field because it can simulate conditions closest to those established in clinical trials. Two transdermal nicotine delivery systems marketed in Brazil to release 14 mg over 24 hours were evaluated. Release studies were carried out using a regenerated cellulose dialysis membrane and permeation studies were carried out using excised porcine ear skin. The results indicated that nicotine release from both evaluated patches follows Higuchi's release kinetics, while skin permeation studies indicated zero-order release kinetics. Nicotine release rates were different between both evaluated patches, but drug permeation rates were not significantly different. According to validation studies, the method was appropriate for evaluating in vitro performance of nicotine patches. The proposed method can be applied to in vitro comparative studies between different commercial nicotine patches and may be used as an auxiliary tool in the design of new transdermal nicotine delivery systems.

  6. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Direct observation of Medicaid beneficiary attempts to fill prescriptions for nicotine replacement medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kimber P; Shergina, Elena; Grodie, Amanda; Massey, Justin K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Applegate, Amanda; Faseru, Babalola

    2018-04-21

    Although many states have expanded Medicaid coverage of cessation medications, utilization remains low. Anecdotal reports suggest that beneficiaries are at times denied coverage of cessation medications at the pharmacy counter. We conducted an observational community-wide case study of Medicaid beneficiary attempts to fill over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy at pharmacies. We recruited tobacco-using beneficiaries from a Federally Qualified Health Center, whose providers wrote paper prescriptions for nicotine patches. Study staff escorted beneficiaries to all eligible pharmacies (n = 18) in a Midwestern community to observe fill attempts. Study staff recorded encounters via smartphone into a secure database on a university server. Seven of 18 pharmacies (39%) did not fill the prescription on the day of the attempt. Of these, 6 offered to order the patch for pick-up at a later date. All (4/4) chain pharmacies filled the prescription; 2/3 mass merchant pharmacies failed to fill. Combining successful same-day fills with offers to order for pick-up, 17/18 (94%) would ultimately have been able to obtain patches. This pilot study found that many beneficiaries left pharmacies without a prescription in hand. Successful same-day fills varied markedly by store type. For people with low incomes, transportation presents a major barrier for delayed pick-up. In addition, delays can fuel ambivalence toward quitting. Future research based on this pilot study might address whether patients who fail to secure a same-day prescription ever fill the prescription and, if not, the degree to which this barrier contributes to success or failure in quitting. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecher, Victor J; Shiffman, Saul; West, Robert

    2005-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of World Wide Web-based tailored behavioral smoking cessation materials among nicotine patch users. Two-group randomized controlled trial. World Wide Web in England and Republic of Ireland. A total of 3971 subjects who purchased a particular brand of nicotine patch and logged-on to use a free web-based behavioral support program. Web-based tailored behavioral smoking cessation materials or web-based non-tailored materials. Twenty-eight-day continuous abstinence rates were assessed by internet-based survey at 6-week follow-up and 10-week continuous rates at 12-week follow-up. Using three approaches to the analyses of 6- and 12-week outcomes, participants in the tailored condition reported clinically and statistically significantly higher continuous abstinence rates than participants in the non-tailored condition. In our primary analyses using as a denominator all subjects who logged-on to the treatment site at least once, continuous abstinence rates at 6 weeks were 29.0% in the tailored condition versus 23.9% in the non-tailored condition (OR = 1.30; P = 0.0006); at 12 weeks continuous abstinence rates were 22.8% versus 18.1%, respectively (OR = 1.34; P = 0.0006). Moreover, satisfaction with the program was significantly higher in the tailored than in the non-tailored condition. The results of this study demonstrate a benefit of the web-based tailored behavioral support materials used in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. A web-based program that collects relevant information from users and tailors the intervention to their specific needs had significant advantages over a web-based non-tailored cessation program.

  9. The effects of nicotinic and muscarinic receptor activation on patch-clamped cells in the optic tectum of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-J; Debski, E A

    2003-01-01

    Both nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors are present in the optic tectum. To begin to understand how the activation of these receptors affects visual activity patterns, we have determined the types of physiological responses induced by their activation. Using tectal brain slices from the leopard frog, we found that application of nicotine (100 microM) evoked long-lasting responses in 60% of patch-clamped tectal cells. Thirty percent of these responses consisted of an increase in spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and had both a glutamatergic and GABAergic component as determined by the use of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 microM) and bicuculline (25 microM), respectively. Remaining response types consisted of an inward membrane current (16%) and an increase in sPSCs combined with an inward membrane current (14%). All responses could be elicited in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM). Muscarinic receptor-mediated responses, induced by carbachol (100 microM) application after nicotinic receptor desensitization, produced responses in 70% of tectal cells. In contrast to responses elicited by nicotine, carbachol-induced responses could be evoked multiple times without significant decrement. Responses consisted of either an outward current (57%), a decrease in sPSCs (5%) or an increase in sPSCs, with (almost 6%) or without (almost 3%) an outward current. The response elicited by carbachol was not predicted by the response of the cell to nicotine. Our results suggest that nicotinic receptors are found predominantly at presynaptic locations in the optic tectum while muscarinic receptors are most often present at postsynaptic sites. We conclude that both of these receptor types could substantially modulate visual activity by changing either the input to tectal neurons or the level of their response to that input.

  10. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  11. Genetic and pharmacokinetic determinants of response to transdermal nicotine in white, black, and Asian nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, D A; St Helen, G; Jacob, P; Tyndale, R F; Benowitz, N L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine genetic, pharmacokinetic, and demographic factors that influence sensitivity to nicotine in never-smokers. Sixty never-smokers, balanced for gender and race (white, black, and Asian), wore 7-mg nicotine skin patches for up to 8 h. Serial plasma nicotine concentrations and subjective and cardiovascular effects were measured, and genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, encoding the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine metabolism, was assessed. Nicotine toxicity requiring patch removal developed in nine subjects and was strongly associated with rate of increase and peak concentrations of plasma nicotine. Toxicity and subjective and cardiovascular effects of nicotine were associated with the presence of reduced-function CYP2A6 alleles, presumably reflecting slow nicotine metabolic inactivation. This study has implications for understanding individual differences in responses to nicotine medications, particularly when they are used for treating medical conditions in nonsmokers, and possibly in vulnerability to developing nicotine dependence.

  12. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation. Similar efficacy to other nicotine delivery devices, but many uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    E-cigarettes, marketed as an alternative to conventional cigarettes, are designed to transform a solution of variable composition, with or without nicotine, into an aerosol that the user inhales. How effective are e-cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation, and what are their known adverse effects? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. A randomised trial involving 657 individuals who wanted to stop smoking compared e-cigarettes (with or without nicotine) with nicotine patches. There was no difference between the groups after 6 months, with an overall quit rate of about 5%. A double-blind randomised trial including 300 smokers compared the impact of e-cigarettes with or without nicotine on tobacco consumption. After 3 months, 14% of those using e-cigarettes with nicotine had quit completely, compared to 4% of those using e-cigarettes without nicotine. Adverse events reported in these trials were mild and transient, and mainly included dry mouth, irritation of the mouth and throat, dizziness, and nausea. When the solution ("e-liquid") contains nicotine, the main adverse effects are those of nicotine. Bronchial disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders and ocular irritation have been reported with inhaled propylene glycol. The effects of propylene glycol and glycerol, when heated and inhaled over long periods, are not known. The addictive effect is difficult to determine. Long-term use of e-cigarettes has been observed in about one-third of people who stopped smoking. Toxic or carcinogenic substances have been found in some e-cigarette aerosols, but at lower concentrations than in tobacco smoke. The diversity in the composition of e-liquids and the lack of proper controls make it difficult to assess the associated dangers. In early 2015, e-cigarettes containing nicotine appear to have efficacy similar to that of other nicotine delivery systems as an aid to smoking cessation. Apart from the effects of

  14. Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeau, Amanda M; Burda, Jennifer; Siegel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar ...

  15. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl Aslani; Sahar Rafiei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid...

  16. Nicotinic activation of laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Leonard, Christopher S; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2009-01-01

    Identifying the neurological mechanisms underlying nicotine reinforcement is a healthcare imperative, if society is to effectively combat tobacco addiction. The majority of studies of the neurobiology of addiction have focused on dopamine (DA)-containing neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA......). However, recent data suggest that neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nucleus, which sends cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic-containing projections to DA-containing neurons of the VTA, are critical to gating normal functioning of this nucleus. The actions of nicotine on LDT neurons...... are unknown. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of nicotine on identified cholinergic and non-cholinergic LDT neurons using whole-cell patch clamp and Ca(2+)-imaging methods in brain slices from mice (P12-P45). Nicotine applied by puffer pipette or bath superfusion elicited membrane...

  17. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  18. [Evaluation of motivation to quit smoking in outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokłosa, Anna; Skoczylas, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Anna; Bednarek, Michał; Krzyzanowski, Krystian; Górecka, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The success in smoking cessation depends not only on a method of treatment but also on patient motivation. The aim of this study was to estimate the motivation and the main reason to quit smoking among outpatients attending smoking cessation clinic. One hundred and eleven patients (50 men and 61 women), mean age 58, filled in a motivation test, nicotine dependence test and a questionnaire of the clinic. The main motivation to quit was for the health reasons (83%). Mean motivation test result was 6.93; mean nicotine addiction evaluated in dependence test was 5.49. Eighty seven percent of patients were ready to quit smoking during one month (36% in 24 hours; 23% in one week; 28% in four weeks). There was no significant difference between men and women. The main motivation to quit smoking were the health reasons as well among men as women. There was no correlation between the readiness to quit smoking determined as time to quit attempt and the motivation test.

  19. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  1. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Holm; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael Linnemann

    2014-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved...... in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7–P15), nicotine induced larger...... intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15–P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells...

  2. Effects of nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette use on symptom relief during initial tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2017-08-01

    Because electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) containing nicotine may relieve smoking abstinence symptoms similar to nicotine replacement therapy medication, we used within-subjects designs to test these effects with a first-generation e-cig in nonquitting and quitting smokers. In Study 1, 28 nontreatment-seeking smokers abstained overnight prior to each of 3 sessions. Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) withdrawal (and craving item) relief was assessed following 4 exposures (each 10 puffs) over 2 hr to e-cigs that either did (36 mg/ml) or did not (i.e., placebo, 0 mg/ml) contain nicotine or after no e-cig. Relief was greater after nicotine versus placebo e-cig (p < .05) but not after placebo versus no e-cig, showing relief was due to nicotine per se and not simple e-cig use behavior. Using a crossover design in Study 2, smokers preparing to quit soon engaged in 2 experimental 4-day quit periods on separate weeks. In weeks 1 and 3, all received a nicotine or placebo e-cig on Monday to use ad libitum while trying to abstain from smoking on Tuesday through Friday. (Week 2 involved resumption of ad libitum smoking.) MNWS and Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU) craving were assessed at daily visits following 24-hr abstinence. Of 17 enrolled, 12 quit for ≥24 hr at least once, allowing test of relief because of e-cig use on quit days. Withdrawal and craving were reduced because of nicotine versus placebo e-cig use (both p < .05). In sum, compared with placebo e-cigs, nicotine e-cigs can relieve smoking abstinence symptoms, perhaps in a manner similar to Food and Drug Administration-approved nicotine replacement therapy products, although much more research with larger samples is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  4. The Role of Nicotine Dependence in E-Cigarettes' Potential for Smoking Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-07

    E-cigarettes (Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, or ENDS) are an increasingly popular tobacco product among youth. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective for harm reduction and smoking cessation, although these claims remain controversial. Little is known about how nicotine dependence may contribute to e-cigarettes' effectiveness in reducing or quitting conventional smoking. A cohort of young adults were surveyed over 4 years (approximately ages 19-23). Varying-coefficient models (VCMs) were used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and conventional smoking frequency, and how this relationship varies across users with different nicotine dependence levels. Lifetime, but not recent, e-cigarette use was associated with less frequent concurrent smoking of conventional cigarettes among those with high levels of nicotine dependence. However, nondependent e-cigarette users smoked conventional cigarettes slightly more frequently than those who had never used e-cigarettes. Nearly half of ever e-cigarette users reported using them to quit smoking at the last measurement wave. For those who used e-cigarettes in a cessation attempt, the frequency of e-cigarette use was not associated with reductions in future conventional smoking frequency. These findings offer possible support that e-cigarettes may act as a smoking reduction method among highly nicotine-dependent young adult cigarette smokers. However, the opposite was found in non-dependent smokers, suggesting that e-cigarette use should be discouraged among novice tobacco users. Additionally, although a substantial proportion of young adults used e-cigarettes to help them quit smoking, these self-initiated quit attempts with e-cigarettes were not associated with future smoking reduction or cessation. This study offers potential support for e-cigarettes as a smoking reduction tool among highly nicotine-dependent young adult conventional smokers, although the extent and nature of this

  5. Comparisons of three nicotine dependence scales in a multiethnic sample of young adult menthol and non-menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pohkrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Pagano, Ian; Vallone, Donna; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Sterling, Kymberle; Fryer, Craig S; Moolchan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers in a multiethnic sample of young adult daily cigarette smokers. This study examines differences in nicotine dependence among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers and the associations of nicotine dependence with quitting behaviors among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and White cigarette smokers aged 18-35. Craigslist.org, newspaper advertisements, and peer-to-peer referrals were used to recruit daily smokers (n = 186) into a lab-based study. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), and the brief Wisconsin Inventory for Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine differences in nicotine dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers and the relationship between each nicotine dependence scale with self-efficacy to quit, quit attempt in the past 12 months, and number of attempts. Menthol smokers were more likely to report difficulty refraining from smoking in places where forbidden (p = .04) and had higher scores on social/environmental goads subscale of the WISDM (p = .0005). Two-way interaction models of the FTND and menthol status showed that menthol smokers with higher levels of dependence were more likely to have tried to quit smoking in the past 12 months (p = .02), but were less likely to have had multiple quit attempts (p = .01). Components of the FTND and WISDM distinguish levels of dependence between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Higher FTND scores were associated with having a quit attempt, but fewer quit attempts among menthol smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

    2012-10-15

    Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  8. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    , concentration, and memory. Finally there are several strategies to deal with nicotine dependence, Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT), which are nicotine chewing-gum, transdermal nicotine patches, and nicotine inhalators device. Also some antidepressants like bupropion has shown to be effective in smoking cessation treatment. To know more about nicotine phenomenon would be important, because that will allow a more mature perspective about the damage and beneficial effects of that substance.

  9. Contrasting actions of philanthotoxin-343 and philanthotoxin-(12) on human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Tim J; Mellor, Ian R; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2003-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings and outside-out patch recordings from TE671 cells were made to investigate antagonism of human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) by the philanthotoxins, PhTX-343 and PhTX-(12). When coapplied with acetylcholine (ACh), PhTX-343 caused activation-dependent, nonc......Whole-cell recordings and outside-out patch recordings from TE671 cells were made to investigate antagonism of human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) by the philanthotoxins, PhTX-343 and PhTX-(12). When coapplied with acetylcholine (ACh), PhTX-343 caused activation...

  10. Nicotine Acutely Enhances Reinforcement from Non-Drug Rewards in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Perkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical research documents that, aside from the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine intake itself, nicotine also acutely enhances the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers (“rewards”. Study of these effects in humans has largely been overlooked, but very recent findings suggest they may have clinical implications for more fully understanding the persistence of tobacco dependence. This overview first outlines the topic and notes some recent human studies indirectly addressing nicotine effects on related responses (e.g., subjective ratings, explaining why those findings do not directly confirm enhancement of behavioral reinforcement per se due to nicotine. Then, the methodology used in the subsequently presented studies is described, demonstrating how those studies specifically did demonstrate enhancement of reinforced responding for non-drug rewards. The main section focuses on the limited controlled research to date directly assessing nicotine’s acute reinforcement-enhancing effects in humans, particularly as it relates to reinforced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards in non-human animal models. After detailing those few existing human studies, we address potential consequences of these effects for dependence and tobacco cessation efforts and then suggest directions for future research. This research indicates that nicotine per se increases responding in humans that is reinforced by some rewards (auditory stimuli via music, visual stimuli via video, but perhaps not by others (e.g., money. These reinforcement-enhancing effects in smokers are not due to dependence or withdrawal relief and can be restored by a small amount of nicotine (similar to a smoking lapse, including from e-cigarettes, a non-tobacco nicotine product. Future clinical research should examine factors determining which types of rewards are (or are not enhanced by nicotine, consequences of the loss of these nicotine effects after quitting

  11. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia-sugar-calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums' weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Most formulations released 79-83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F(19-SC) and F(20-SC), respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  12. Emerging nicotine delivery products. Implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2014-02-01

    The idea of clean nicotine delivery systems that would satisfy nicotine craving and promote smoking cessation has been considered as a possible public health tool for many years. Nicotine medications have been useful for smoking cessation but have not found widespread popularity among smokers, perhaps because of slow nicotine delivery and other sensory characteristics that differ from cigarettes. Traditional smokeless tobacco delivers as much nicotine as cigarettes and has been advocated for harm reduction but contains carcinogenic nitrosamines and has not been proven to promote cessation. Furthermore, there is concern that dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes may inhibit quitting smoking. Newer oral dissolvable tobacco products contain lower levels of toxicants than other smokeless tobacco but also deliver much less nicotine and have not been popular with consumers. Electronic cigarettes that aerosolize nicotine without generating toxic tobacco combustion products have become quite popular and hold promise as a way to attract smokers away from cigarettes, although efficacy in promoting smoking cessation has not yet been demonstrated. There are concerns about safety of long-term use, and there is evidence that youth, including nonsmokers, are taking up e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes are marketed for use when one cannot smoke conventional cigarettes, and such use might result in more persistent cigarette smoking. Although their benefits and risks are being vigorously debated, e-cigarettes or other clean nicotine delivery devices could play an important role as an adjunct to a U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory intervention to make cigarettes less addictive and in this context could contribute to the end of cigarette smoking and smoking-induced disease.

  13. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A

    2017-11-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone. Menthol also enhances nicotine-induced changes in DA neuron excitability. In a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay, we observed that menthol plus nicotine produces greater reward-related behavior than nicotine alone. Our results connect changes in midbrain DA neurons to menthol-induced enhancements of nicotine reward-related behavior and may help explain how smokers of menthol cigarettes exhibit reduced cessation rates.

  14. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cadmium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, I.M.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Cd(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activities against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cadmium(II) iodide was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine is quite effective against the rare pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi but comparatively less effective against Pathogenic fungi. Nicotine was found to be completely ineffective against the selected species of Occasional pathogenic fungi. Cadmium(II) iodide effectively inhibited Pathogenic and Non pathogenic fungi whereas relatively ineffective against the Occasional pathogenic and Rare pathogenic fungi. On the other hand, Cadmium(II) nicotine complex inhibited all the selected species of fungi except Fusarium solani. (author)

  15. E-cigarette versus nicotine inhaler: comparing the perceptions and experiences of inhaled nicotine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael B; Zimmermann, Mia Hanos; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane; Shukla, Parth; Coups, Elliot J; Foulds, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Novel nicotine delivery products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), have dramatically grown in popularity despite limited data on safety and benefit. In contrast, the similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nicotine inhaler is rarely utilized by smokers. Understanding this paradox could be helpful to determine the potential for e-cigarettes as an alternative to tobacco smoking. To compare the e-cigarette with the nicotine inhaler in terms of perceived benefits, harms, appeal, and role in assisting with smoking cessation. A cross-over trial was conducted from 2012 to 2013 PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Forty-one current smokers age 18 and older used the e-cigarette and nicotine inhaler each for 3 days, in random order, with a washout period in between. Thirty-eight participants provided data on product use, perceptions, and experiences. The Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) measured satisfaction, reward, and aversion. Subjects were also asked about each product's helpfulness, similarity to cigarettes, acceptability, image, and effectiveness in quitting smoking. Cigarette use was also recorded during the product-use periods. The e-cigarette had a higher total satisfaction score (13.9 vs. 6.8 [p e-cigarette received higher ratings for helpfulness, acceptability, and "coolness." More subjects would use the e-cigarette to make a quit attempt (76 %) than the inhaler (24 %) (p e-cigarette vs. 10 % (4/38) using the inhaler (p = 0.18). The e-cigarette was more acceptable, provided more satisfaction, and had higher perceived benefit than the inhaler during this trial. E-cigarettes have the potential to be important nicotine delivery products owing to their high acceptance and perceived benefit, but more data are needed to evaluate their actual efficacy and safety. Providers should be aware of these issues, as patients will increasingly inquire about them.

  16. Interest in an online smoking cessation program and effective recruitment strategies: results from Project Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah M; Wiese, Cheryl; Johnson, Karin E; Alexander, Gwen; Strecher, Victor

    2006-08-22

    The Internet is a promising venue for delivering smoking cessation treatment, either as a stand-alone program or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, there is little data to indicate what percent of smokers are interested in receiving online smoking cessation services or how best to recruit smokers to Internet-based programs. Using a defined recruitment sample, this study aimed to identify the percentage of smokers who expressed interest in or enrolled in Project Quit, a tailored, online, cognitive-behavioral support program offered with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy patches. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of several individual-level versus population-level recruitment strategies. Members from two large health care organizations in the United States were invited to participate in Project Quit. Recruitment efforts included proactive invitation letters mailed to 34533 likely smokers and reactive population-level study advertisements targeted to all health plan members (> 560000 adults, including an estimated 98000 smokers across both health care organizations). An estimated 1.6% and 2.5% of adult smokers from each health care organization enrolled in Project Quit. Among likely smokers who received proactive study invitations, 7% visited the Project Quit website (n = 2260) and 4% (n = 1273) were eligible and enrolled. Response rates were similar across sites, despite using different sources to assemble the invitation mailing list. Proactive individual-level recruitment was more effective than other forms of recruitment, accounting for 69% of website visitors and 68% of enrollees. Smokers were interested in receiving online smoking cessation support, even though they had access to other forms of treatment through their health insurance. Uptake rates for this program were comparable to those seen when smokers are advised to quit and are referred to other forms of smoking cessation treatment. In this sample, proactive mailings were the best

  17. Pros and Cons of Long-Term use of Nicotine Replacement Therapies: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Kaae, Susanne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2016-01-01

    , intrapersonal processes, the social environment of smoking vs. NRTs and finances. None of the ex-smokers feared to relapse to smoking, and few were motivated to quit NRTs. Non-nicotinic factors were found to have an important role in developing an addiction to NRTs. The use of NRTs yields some of the expected......, including perceived pros and cons of using NRTs, the risk of relapse to smoking and their motivation to quit using NRTs. The results identified five major themes that entailed pros and cons of the long-term use of NRTs. These were the non-nicotinic factors of NRTs, health risks of NRTs vs. smoking......In the last decade, harm reduction has been increasingly suggested as a method to reduce the harm caused by smoking in smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit all nicotine products. One of these methods includes long-term substitution of tobacco with nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs...

  18. Liquid crystalline systems containing Vitamin E TPGS for the controlled transdermal nicotine delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transdermal nicotine patches have been used in smoking cessation therapy, suggested for the treatment of skin disorders with eosinophilic infiltration and have been found to improve attention performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease and age-associated memory impairment. However, skin irritation with extended patch use is still a problem. The aim of this work was to develop a simple to prepare liquid crystalline system containing vitamin E TPGS that would be able to control nicotine delivery and reduce irritation and sensitization problems. The liquid crystalline phases were macroscopically characterized by visual analysis and examined microscopically under a polarized light microscope. Topical and transdermal delivery of nicotine were investigated in vitro using porcine ear skin mounted on a Franz diffusion cell. Nicotine skin permeation from the developed cubic phase followed zero-order kinetics (r = 0.993 and was significantly enhanced after 12 h when compared to the control formulation (nicotine solution (p < 0.05 (138.86 ± 20.44 and 64.91 ± 4.06 μg/cm2, respectively. Cubic phase was also able to target viable skin layers in comparison to control solution (8.18 ± 1.89 and 2.63 ± 2.51 μg/cm2, respectively. Further studies to evaluate skin sensitization and irritation are now necessary.

  19. Moderation of Nicotine Effects on Covert Orienting of Attention Tasks by Poor Placebo Performance and Cue Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G.; Rzetelny, Adam; Rabinovich, Norka E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Rationale Given baseline-dependent effects of nicotine on other forms of attention, there is reason to believe that inconsistent findings for the effects of nicotine on attentional orienting may be partly due to individual differences in baseline (abstinence state) functioning. Individuals with low baseline attention may benefit more from nicotine replacement. Method The effects of nicotine as a function of baseline performance (bottom, middle, and top third of mean reaction times during placebo) were assessed in 52 habitual abstinent smokers (26 females/26 males) utilizing an arrow-cued covert orienting of attention task. Results Compared to a placebo patch, a 14 mg nicotine patch produced faster overall reaction times (RTs). In addition, individuals with slower RTs during the placebo condition benefitted more from nicotine on cued trials than did those who had shorter (faster) RTs during placebo. Nicotine also enhanced the validity effect (shorter RTs to validly vs. invalidly cued targets), but this nicotine benefit did not differ as a function of overall placebo-baseline performance. Conclusions These findings support the view that nicotine enhances cued spatial attentional orienting in individuals who have slower RTs during placebo (nicotine-free) conditions; however, baseline-dependent effects may not generalize to all aspects of spatial attention. These findings are consistent with findings indicating that nicotine’s effects vary as a function of task parameters rather than simple RT speeding or cognitive enhancement. PMID:27461547

  20. Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Amanda M; Burda, Jennifer; Siegel, Michael

    2013-03-05

    Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence. Qualitative design using focus groups (N = 11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods. Five themes emerged that describe users' perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse. These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence.

  1. "I Smoke Like This to Suppress These Issues That Are Flaws of My Character": Challenges and Facilitators of Cessation Among Smokers With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Watson, Noreen L; McClure, Jennifer B; Anthenelli, Robert M; Hohl, Sarah; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2018-01-01

    Smokers with bipolar disorder (BD) have low rates of successful quitting, yet no prior studies have evaluated the process of quitting among these smokers in the context of a current quit attempt. To facilitate development of more effective interventions, we conducted a qualitative exploration of challenges and facilitators of quitting in an intervention study for smokers with BD. Participants were adult daily smokers with BD (n = 10) who completed a 10-week smoking cessation intervention consisting of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and nicotine patch. We administered semistructured interviews focused on the quitting process at the end of treatment and used inductive content analysis to extract themes. Emergent themes representing challenges of quitting included social impediments, lack of awareness, avoidance, maladaptive beliefs, ambivalence, benefits of smoking, and difficulties with nicotine replacement. Themes representing change facilitators included positive treatment effects (ACT-specific, nonspecific, and nicotine patch-related), coping behaviors, reasons to quit, changes in self-perception, and social benefits. Results suggest a need for assistance with obtaining social support and handling social impediments, interrupting the automaticity of smoking, expanding the behavioral repertoire to handle aversive internal states that tend to be avoided by smoking, preventing maladaptive beliefs from interfering with quitting, taking meaningful action toward change while experiencing ambivalence, either replacing the benefits of smoking or accepting their loss, and troubleshooting difficulties with nicotine replacement. Findings regarding facilitators of quitting supported previous quantitative findings that the ACT intervention impacted theory-based targets and highlighted the importance of the counseling relationship.

  2. Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucny, Jason; Olincy, Ann; Eichman, Lindsay S; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-06-01

    Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.

  3. Nicotine intake and problem solving strategies are modified during a cognitively demanding water maze task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye; Pogun, Sakire

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is the major addictive component in tobacco, and despite well-established adverse health effects of tobacco addiction, some smokers have difficulty quitting. The acute cognitive enhancement and/or the amelioration of the cognitive disruption during withdrawal that some smokers experience after smoking are among important factors that hinder quit attempts. The animal model presented in the current study is comparable to the human smoking condition although nicotine intake routes are different. Rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine starting at adolescence, and given a water maze (WM) task as adults. This design allowed us to see if rats alter their nicotine intake during the WM task and if nicotine preference and intake modify abilities and strategies rats use for problem solving. Male and female rats were exposed to a free choice of oral nicotine/water for 24weeks, starting at five weeks of age. After this period, they were selected based on their nicotine intake and, together with control animals that received only water, were subjected to a place-learning task in the WM. Free-choice nicotine exposure continued during WM testing. Following acquisition, the probe trial presented the rats with a choice between using two different strategies for problem solving. Nicotine supported acquisition and rats increased their nicotine intake during WM testing; this effect was more pronounced in male rats with minimum nicotine preference and intake. Furthermore, nicotine modified the "female type" strategy in solving the place-learning task and nicotine treated female rats, unlike control females, behaved like males. The increase in nicotine intake during mental engagement, and the sexually dimorphic effect of nicotine on problem solving strategies that we have observed in rats, may suggest that implementing sex-specific smoking cessation approaches, especially under stressful and cognitively demanding conditions, may be useful in helping smokers quit

  4. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  5. The Relationship of Childhood Trauma to Nicotine Dependence in Pregnant Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Blalock, Janice A.; Nayak, Nisha; Wetter, David W.; Schreindorfer, Lisa; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Canul, Jennifer; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women with high levels of nicotine dependence are the least likely to quit smoking spontaneously during pregnancy or to benefit from smoking cessation interventions. In the general population, there is increasing evidence of a relationship between smoking, nicotine dependence, and exposure to childhood trauma. We examined the relationship of childhood trauma to several measures of nicotine dependence and evaluated whether this relationship was mediated by major depressive disorder or...

  6. E-Cigarette Liquid Nicotine Ingestion in a Child: Case Report and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Natasha; Sangha, Gurinder; Poonai, Naveen; Lim, Rodrick

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine poisoning is well described in the pediatric population, and even small oral doses may result in toxic effects. The source of nicotine is usually tobacco products and nicotine replacement products such as gum and patches. With the more frequent use of novel products such as e-cigarettes, concern has arisen regarding liquid nicotine. As there are no regulations regarding childproof bottling and packaging, there may be increased potential for unintentional ingestion of these colorfully and appealingly packaged products by children. We present and discuss a case of this nature, as we feel emergency physicians should be aware of this new mode of poisoning, and public health efforts should be made to minimize such exposures.

  7. Status of nicotine dependence and some related factors among waterpipe consumer women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Saeed Firoozabadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, water pipe smoking has been spread among adults especially in Asian African communities in the Middle East and Arabic countries. The aim of this study is determination of the nicotine dependence status and some related factors among women consumer in Bushehr. Material and Methods: 430 water pipe smoker women were examined in this cross-sectional study. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to collect data. After data collection, data were analyzed by SPSS software with using appropriate statistical tests. Results: In this study, 43.4% (N= 186 of women had moderate nicotine dependency. The overall mean and standard deviation score for nicotine dependence were 40.71±12.63. In this study, consumer’s education (p=0.004 and job (p=0.015, husband’s education (p=0.003, and job (p=0.043, history of water pipe smoking (p=0.000, intention to quit (p=0.021, and type of tobacco (p=0.003, significantly associated with nicotine dependence. Logit regression results showed that husband 's education level, age at onset of water pipe consuming and intention to quit water pipe explain nicotine dependence. Conclusion: Nicotine dependence among almost half of the consumer women was in average level and it is essential to design educational interventions for low socio - economic individuals particularly in teens and young people that this behavior has not institutionalized yet. Also for people who have no intention of quit water pipe, at first, we provide the conditions for their quitting through empowerment process and then encourage them to quit water pipe.

  8. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns, Readiness to Quit, and Quit Attempts Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighting, Quentaxia; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; LeBlanc, Hannah; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2017-11-07

    Cigarette purchasing patterns may be linked with greater readiness to make a quit attempt and more quit attempts among domiciled samples. However, little is known about the cigarette purchasing patterns of homeless smokers or their potential relations to quitting intention and behaviors. This study redressed this gap among a convenience sample of homeless adult smokers from a large shelter in Dallas, Texas. Participants (N = 207; Mage = 43; 71.5% male) smoked ≥100 cigarettes over the lifetime and endorsed current daily smoking. Variables assessed included cigarette dependence (time to first cigarette of the day), monthly income, quantity of cigarettes most recently purchased, average money spent on cigarettes weekly, readiness/motivation to quit smoking, and the number intentional quit attempts lasting ≥24h in the past year. Regression analyses were conducted to characterize associations of cigarette purchasing patterns with readiness to quit and quit attempts controlling for sex, age, cigarette dependence, and income. Most participants purchased cigarettes by the pack (61.4%), and more than half the sample spent ≤$20 on cigarettes per week. Results indicated that spending less money per week on cigarettes was associated with greater readiness to quit (P = .016), even when controlling for income, cigarette dependence, and other covariates. Stratified analyses indicated that this association was significant only for homeless smokers reporting no regular monthly income. Homeless daily smokers with no reported income who spend little money on cigarettes may make particularly apt targets for cessation interventions due to potential associations with quitting motivation. Adults who are homeless smoke at greater rates and quit at lower rates than domiciled adults, leading to significant smoking-related health disparities among this group. Findings suggest that cigarette purchasing patterns are linked with readiness to quit smoking among smokers who are homeless

  9. The Effect of Social Anxiety on Urge and Craving among Smokers with and without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method Participants (N = 99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-hour nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Results Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. Conclusions These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. PMID:24331637

  10. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  11. Evaluating the effect of smoking cessation treatment on a complex dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroglu, Korkut; Russell, Michael A; Lagoa, Constantino M; Lanza, Stephanie T; Piper, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    To understand the dynamic relations among tobacco withdrawal symptoms to inform the development of effective smoking cessation treatments. Dynamical system models from control engineering are introduced and utilized to evaluate complex treatment effects. We demonstrate how dynamical models can be used to examine how distinct withdrawal-related processes are related over time and how treatment influences these relations. Intensive longitudinal data from a randomized placebo-controlled smoking cessation trial (N=1504) are used to estimate a dynamical model of withdrawal-related processes including momentary craving, negative affect, quitting self-efficacy, and cessation fatigue for each of six treatment conditions (nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, patch + lozenge, bupropion + lozenge, and placebo). Estimation and simulation results show that (1) withdrawal measurements are interrelated over time, (2) nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge showed reduced cessation fatigue and enhanced self-efficacy in the long-term while bupropion + nicotine lozenge was more effective at reducing negative affect and craving, and (3) although nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge had a better initial effect on cessation fatigue and self-efficacy, nicotine lozenge had a stronger effect on negative affect and nicotine patch had a stronger impact on craving. This approach can be used to provide new evidence illustrating (a) the total impact of treatment conditions (via steady state values) and (b) the total initial impact (via rate of initial change values) on smoking-related outcomes for separate treatment conditions, noting that the conditions that produce the largest change may be different than the conditions that produce the fastest change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Age-related changes in nicotine response of cholinergic and non-cholinergic laterodorsal tegmental neurons: implications for the heightened adolescent susceptibility to nicotine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark H.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Nielsen, Michael L.; Leonard, Christopher S.; Kohlmeier, Kristi A.

    2015-01-01

    The younger an individual starts smoking, the greater the likelihood that addiction to nicotine will develop, suggesting that neurobiological responses vary across age to the addictive component of cigarettes. Cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) are importantly involved in the development of addiction, however, the effects of nicotine on LDT neuronal excitability across ontogeny are unknown. Nicotinic effects on several parameters affecting LDT cells across different age groups were examined using calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamping. Within the youngest age group (P7-P15), nicotine was found to induce larger intracellular calcium transients and inward currents. Nicotine induced a greater number of excitatory synaptic currents in the youngest animals, whereas larger amplitude inhibitory synaptic events were induced in cells from the oldest animals (P15-P34). Nicotine increased neuronal firing of cholinergic cells to a greater degree in younger animals, possibly linked to development associated differences found in nicotinic effects on action potential shape and afterhyperpolarization. We conclude that in addition to age-associated alterations of several properties expected to affect resting cell excitability, parameters affecting cell excitability are altered by nicotine differentially across ontogeny. Taken together, our data suggest that nicotine induces a larger excitatory response in cholinergic LDT neurons from the youngest animals, which could result in a greater excitatory output from these cells to target regions involved in development of addiction. Such output would be expected to be promotive of addiction; therefore, ontogenetic differences in nicotine-mediated increases in the excitability of the LDT could contribute to the differential susceptibility to nicotine addiction seen across age. PMID:24863041

  13. [Interventions for smoking cessation in 2018].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kader, J; Airagnes, G; D'almeida, S; Limosin, F; Le Faou, A-L

    2018-06-01

    Smoking cessation treatments have been proved effective to stop smoking. For pharmacological treatments, nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as well as bupropion allow to increase 6 month-abstinence rates by more than 80% in comparison with placebo while varenicline prescription doubles success rates in the same conditions. These results mean that for 10 smokers who quit with placebo, 18 are expected to quit with NRT or bupropion and 28 are expected to quit with varenicline. Varenicline is 50% more effective than nicotine patch and 70% more effective than nicotine gum. Nevertheless, a combination including NRT patch and oral nicotine forms is as effective as varenicline, thus leading to encourage the prescription of a combination NRT when NRT are chosen. For these three pharmacological treatments, cardiovascular as well as neuropsychiatric tolerance were not found statistically different from placebo in randomized controlled trials. Yet, bupropion prescription leads to an increasing risk of seizure (1/1000 to 1/1500). For behavioral treatment, motivational interviewing as well as cognitive behavior therapies are been proven to be effective to stop smoking but few smokers have access to this treatment. Smoking cessation mobile application and smartphone application seem to be promising in terms of effectiveness and might be useful to reach more smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  15. Brain indices of nicotine's effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G; Sugai, Chihiro; Zuo, Yantao; Rabinovich, Norka E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett

    2007-03-01

    Aversive and smoking-related stimuli are related to smoking urges and relapse and can be potent distractors of selective attention. It has been suggested that the beneficial effect of nicotine replacement therapy may be mediated partly by the ability of nicotine to reduce distraction by such stimuli and thereby to facilitate attention to task-relevant stimuli. The present study tested the hypothesis that nicotine reduces distraction by aversive and smoking-related stimuli as indexed by the parietal P3b brain response to a task-relevant target digit. We assessed the effect of nicotine on distraction by emotionally negative, positive, neutral, and smoking-related pictures immediately preceding target digits during a rapid visual information processing task in 16 smokers in a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. The study included two experimental sessions. After overnight smoking deprivation (12+ hr), active nicotine patches were applied to participants during one of the sessions and placebo patches were applied during the other session. Nicotine enhanced P3b responses associated with target digits immediately subsequent to negative emotional pictures bilaterally and subsequent to smoking-related pictures only in the right hemisphere. No effects of nicotine were observed for P3bs subsequent to positive and neutral distractor pictures. Another measure of attention, contingent negative variation amplitude in anticipation of the target digits also was increased by nicotine, especially in the left hemisphere and at posterior sites. Together, these findings suggest that nicotine reduces the distraction by emotionally negative and smoking-related stimuli and promotes attention to task-related stimuli by modulating somewhat lateralized and task-specific neural networks.

  16. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  17. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  18. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  19. Socially anxious smokers experience greater negative affect and withdrawal during self-quit attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Langdon, Kirsten J; Jeffries, Emily R; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to post-quit nicotine withdrawal severity among 51 (33.3% female, Mage = 34.6) community-recruited smokers during the first two weeks following an unaided (i.e., no treatment) cessation attempt. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of withdrawal and negative mood states. Baseline social anxiety was related to increases in negative affect during the monitoring period and remained significantly related to post-quit withdrawal after controlling for negative affect, gender, lapses, and substance use. Persons with elevated social anxiety experience more severe post-quit withdrawal symptoms and increases in negative affect during a cessation attempt and may therefore benefit from intervention and treatment strategies geared toward helping them learn to cope with withdrawal and negative affect to improve cessation rates among these vulnerable smokers.

  20. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products come in kid-friendly flavors (including grape, chocolate, bubble gum, and gummy bear). E-cigarette advertising ... a tobacco telephone quit line), approved nicotine replacement therapies (eg, patch, gum, or inhaler), and oral nonnicotine ...

  1. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Persistence and amplitude of cigarette demand in relation to quit intentions and attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Heckman, Bryan W; Adkison, Sarah E; Rees, Vaughan W; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Bickel, Warren K; Cummings, K Michael

    2016-06-01

    The cigarette purchase task (CPT) is a method that can be used to assess the relative value of cigarettes. Based on cigarettes purchased across a price range, five derived metrics (Omax, Pmax, breakpoint, intensity, and elasticity) can assess cigarette demand. A study with adolescent smokers found that these could be reduced to two latent factors: persistence (price insensitivity) and amplitude (volumetric consumption). We sought to replicate this structure with adult smokers and examine how these variables relate to cessation efforts. Web-based survey conducted in 2014 among adult (18 years and above) current daily cigarette smokers (N = 1194). Participants completed the CPT, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), reported past-year quit attempts, and future quit intentions. We included published scales assessing perceived prevalence of smoking, social reactivity, smoker identity, and risk perception. Our analysis supported two latent variables, persistence and amplitude, which correlated positively with FTND. Persistence was correlated with several psychosocial factors and was higher among those intending to quit very soon, but did not vary by number of past-year quit attempts. Amplitude differed across quit attempts and intention (p intention (OR = 0.76, p = 0.001). Persistence and amplitude factors characterized CPT data in adults, discriminated known groups (e.g., smokers by intentions to quit), and were positively associated with nicotine dependence. Factor scores also appear to relate to certain psychosocial factors, such as smoker identity and perceptions of risk. Future research should examine the predictive validity of these constructs.

  3. Investigating the role of ion-pair strategy in regulating nicotine release from patch: Mechanistic insights based on intermolecular interaction and mobility of pressure sensitive adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoyun; Wan, Xiaocao; Liu, Chao; Fang, Liang

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare a drug-in-adhesive patch of nicotine (NIC) and use ion-pair strategy to regulate drug delivery rate. Moreover, the mechanism of how ion-pair strategy regulated drug release was elucidated at molecular level. Formulation factors including pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), drug loading and counter ions (C 4 , C 6 , C 8 , C 10 , and C 12 ) were screened. In vitro release experiment and in vitro transdermal experiment were conducted to determine the rate-limiting step in drug delivery process. FT-IR and molecular modeling were used to characterize the interaction between drug and PSA. Thermal analysis and rheology study were conducted to investigate the mobility variation of PSA. The optimized patch prepared with NIC-C 8 had the transdermal profile fairly close to that of the commercial product (p > 0.05). The release rate constants (k) of NIC, NIC-C 4 and NIC-C 10 were 21.1, 14.4 and 32.4, respectively. Different release rates of NIC ion-pair complexes were attributed to the dual effect of ion-pair strategy on drug release. On one hand, ion-pair strategy enhanced the interaction between drug and PSA, which inhibited drug release. On the other hand, using ion-pair strategy improved the mobility of PSA, which facilitated drug release. Drug release behavior was determined by combined effect of two aspects above. These conclusions provided a new idea for us to regulate drug release behavior from patch. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  5. Motivation to quit smoking among HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung Thi Phuong; Tran, Bach Xuan; Hwang, Lu Y; Markham, Christine M; Swartz, Michael D; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Vidrine, Damon J

    2015-04-03

    Smoking cessation is emerging as an important component in current HIV care to reduce smoking-related adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to examine motivation to quit and its associated factors in a sample of 409 HIV-positive smokers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to September 2013 in Hanoi (the capital) and Nam Dinh (a rural city). Motivation to quit was measured by a 4-point single item, and was dichotomized as having any motivation versus no motivation. Smoking history, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and other covariates were self-reported by participants. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify correlates of motivation to quit. The sample was mostly male (97%). Mean age was 36 years (SD = 5.8). Approximately 37% and 69% of the sample were hazardous drinkers and ever drug users, respectively. The mean duration of HIV infection and ART treatment were 6 years (SD = 3.6) and 5 years (SD = 2.2), respectively. Overall, 59% of the sample was motivated to quit. Factors significantly associated with motivation to quit were income, pain, currently taking Methadone, and the interaction between binge drinking and lifetime drug use. Individuals with the highest income level (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), moderate income level (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), and currently feeling pain (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0-2.5) were more likely to be motivated to quit. Conversely, taking Methadone was associated with a lower likelihood of motivation to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Also, those who reported binge drinking only (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.9), lifetime drug use only (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.7), or both substance uses (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2, 0.8) were less motivated to quit smoking. Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into HIV care in Vietnam, and should be tailored to meet specific needs for

  6. Neuronal mechanisms underlying development of nicotine dependence: implications for novel smoking-cessation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S; Markou, Athina

    2011-07-01

    Tobacco smoking causes high rates of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Despite the availability of smoking-cessation medications, maintenance of long-term abstinence is difficult, and most individuals who attempt to quit smoking relapse. Although tobacco smoke contains many substances, researchers and policymakers agree that nicotine is a major cause of tobacco dependence. Understanding the neural substrates of nicotine dependence is essential for the development of more effective antismoking medications than those currently available. This article focuses on the neural substrates, especially nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, that mediate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and the development of nicotine dependence. Neuroadaptations in the function of the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which have been shown to be critically involved in nicotine dependence, are also reviewed. Finally, the article discusses progress in the discovery and development of smoking-cessation medications.

  7. E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight-West O

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Knight-West, Christopher Bullen The National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: In this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs, a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6, case reports (n=4, and cohort studies (n=8. Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use. On this basis, we provide advice for health care providers on providing balanced information for patients who enquire about ECs. More research, specifically well-conducted large efficacy trials comparing ECs with standard smoking cessation management (eg, nicotine replacement therapy plus behavioral support and long-term prospective studies for adverse events, are urgently needed to fill critical knowledge gaps on these products. Keywords: tobacco, smoking, nicotine, electronic cigarettes, cessation, addiction

  8. Love conquers all but nicotine: Spousal peer effects on the decision to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is

  9. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  10. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim S. Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity.

  11. The Views and Experiences of Smokers Who Quit Smoking Unassisted. A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrea L.; Carter, Stacy M.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Unassisted cessation ? quitting without pharmacological or professional support ? is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. Method We systematically searched ...

  12. Cellular, Molecular, and Genetic Substrates Underlying the Impact of Nicotine on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Thomas J.; Leach, Prescott T.

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic disorder marked by long-lasting maladaptive changes in behavior and in reward system function. However, the factors that contribute to the behavioral and biological changes that occur with addiction are complex and go beyond reward. Addiction involves changes in cognitive control and the development of disruptive drug-stimuli associations that can drive behavior. A reason for the strong influence drugs of abuse can exert on cognition may be the striking overlap between the neurobiological substrates of addiction and of learning and memory, especially areas involved in declarative memory. Declarative memories are critically involved in the formation of autobiographical memories, and the ability of drugs of abuse to alter these memories could be particularly detrimental. A key structure in this memory system is the hippocampus, which is critically involved in binding multimodal stimuli together to form complex long-term memories. While all drugs of abuse can alter hippocampal function, this review focuses on nicotine. Addiction to tobacco products is insidious, with the majority of smokers wanting to quit; yet the majority of those that attempt to quit fail. Nicotine addiction is associated with the presence of drug-context and drug-cue associations that trigger drug seeking behavior and altered cognition during periods of abstinence, which contributes to relapse. This suggests that understanding the effects of nicotine on learning and memory will advance understanding and potentially facilitate treating nicotine addiction. The following sections examine: 1) how the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning change as nicotine administration transitions from acute to chronic and then to withdrawal from chronic treatment and the potential impact of these changes on addiction, 2) how nicotine usurps the cellular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, 3) the physiological changes in the hippocampus that may contribute to nicotine withdrawal

  13. Correlates of use of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy for help with smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Little, Melissa A; Fagan, Pebbles; Kawamoto, Crissy T; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-12-01

    Electronic- or e-cigarettes are nicotine-delivery devices commonly used by smokers to quit or reduce smoking. At present, not much is known about the characteristics of smokers who specifically try e-cigarettes to quit smoking compared to the nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Determining the characteristics of smokers who are likely to choose e-cigarettes as cessation aids would help develop strategies to impart valid information about e-cigarettes to such smokers as facts regarding the safety and utility of e-cigarettes emerge. This study is based on 834 daily smokers [mean age=45.8 (standard deviation=13)] from Hawaii. Demographic, smoking- and cessation-related variables were examined as correlates of ever use of e-cigarette only or any FDA-approved NRT product only or both as cessation aids. Results indicated that younger smokers, non-White smokers, and smokers reporting higher income, lower nicotine dependence, shorter smoking history, and higher lifetime quit attempts were more likely to have tried e-cigarettes but not NRT products for help with smoking cessation. Smokers who are attracted to use e-cigarettes but not FDA-approved NRT products may differ from smokers who are likely to have used NRT products but not e-cigarettes in terms of demographic (e.g., age, ethnicity) and smoking- or cessation-related characteristics (e.g., nicotine dependence, quit attempts). Given the lack of knowledge regarding the health effects of e-cigarettes and their efficacy as cessation aids, future research needs to continue characterizing smokers who are likely to use e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  15. For Nicotine, Dose Matters | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is frequently part of a person’s regimen for smoking cessation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved use of this approach for 12 weeks in supervised quitting programs. Unfortunately for some patients, though, this length of time is not long enough to break their addiction to tobacco. 

  16. Effects of transdermally administered nicotine on aspects of attention, task load, and mood in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Michael; Wittberger, Susanne

    2004-07-01

    This double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine nicotine effects on diverse types of attentional performance, task load, and mood considering sex effects as suggested by animal studies. Twelve smokers, 12 deprived smokers and 12 nonsmokers (6 females, 6 males in each group) were investigated. Participants were treated either by 5 mg/16 h nicotine patches (Nicorette) or placebo. Effects of treatment were examined by a computerized attention-test battery; mood was assessed by the Berliner-Alltagssprachliches-Stimmungs-Inventar and task load by the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Results showed that nicotine significantly increased the number of hits and decreased reaction time (RT) in the vigilance task. In the selective attention task combined with irrelevant speech as background noise, nicotine enhanced rate of hits. Although it was indicated that nicotine leads to a generally higher accuracy in attention tasks, response time of visual search was prolonged, contradicting a universal facilitation by nicotine. Participants experienced mental demand and temporal demand lower and rated alertness higher when in the nicotine condition. These effects were independent of smoking status, indicating "true" nicotine effects. Females took significant advantage of nicotine in the vigilance task, reaching the performance level of males, accompanied by a higher rated alertness. Results indicate task- and sex-dependent nicotine effects.

  17. Does cannabis use moderate smoking cessation outcomes in treatment-seeking tobacco smokers? Analysis from a large multi-center trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Ashare, Rebecca L; Schnoll, Robert A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; George, Tony P

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and cannabis are frequently used in combination and cannabis co-use may lead to poor tobacco cessation outcomes. Therefore, it is important to explore if cannabis co-use is associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving successful tobacco abstinence among treatment-seeking tobacco smokers. The present study examined whether current cannabis use moderated tobacco cessation outcomes after 12 weeks of pharmacological treatment (varenicline vs. nicotine patch vs. placebo) with adjunctive behavioral counseling. Treatment-seeking tobacco smokers (N = 1,246) were enrolled in an intent-to-treat study, of which 220 were current cannabis users. Individuals were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of placebo (placebo pill plus placebo patch), nicotine patch (active patch plus placebo pill), or varenicline (active pill plus placebo patch), plus behavioral counseling. The primary endpoint was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment. Controlling for rate of nicotine metabolism, treatment arm, age, sex, alcohol, and level of nicotine dependence, cannabis users were as successful at achieving biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence compared to tobacco-only smokers. Findings suggest that cannabis use does not hinder the ability to quit tobacco smoking. Future tobacco cessation studies should employ prospective, longitudinal designs investigating cannabis co-use over time and at different severity levels. (Am J Addict 2016;25:291-296). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Neuroscience of nicotine for addiction medicine: novel targets for smoking cessation medications.

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    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco smoking constitutes a significant burden on healthcare budgets all over the world. Therefore, promoting smoking cessation is an important goal of health professionals and policy makers throughout the world. Nicotine is a major psychoactive component in tobacco that is largely responsible for the widespread addiction to tobacco. A majority of the currently available FDA-approved smoking cessation medications act via neuronal nicotinic receptors. These medications are effective in approximately half of all the smokers, who want to quit and relapse among abstinent smokers continues to be high. In addition to relapse among abstinent smokers, unpleasant effects associated with nicotine withdrawal are a major motivational factor in continued tobacco smoking. Over the last two decades, animal studies have helped in identifying several neural substrates that are involved in nicotine-dependent behaviors including those associated with nicotine withdrawal and relapse to tobacco smoking. In this review, first the role of specific brain regions/circuits that are involved in nicotine dependence will be discussed. Next, the review will describe the role of specific nicotinic receptor subunits in nicotine dependence. Finally, the review will discuss the role of classical neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid) as well as endogenous opioid and endocannabinoid signaling in nicotine dependence. The nicotinic and nonnicotinic neural substrates involved in nicotine-dependent behaviors can serve as possible targets for future smoking cessation medications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  20. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco package labelling typically indicates "0.0% tar" and "0.05% or 0.5% nicotine". To determine the extent to which nicotine labeling is related to nicotine delivery. 110 waterpipe smokers engaged in a 45-minute waterpipe smoking session. Puff topography and plasma nicotine were measured. Three waterpipe tobacco brands were used: Nakhla (0.5% nicotine), Starbuzz (0.05% nicotine), and Al Fakher (0.05% nicotine). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Topography did not differ across brands. Peak plasma nicotine varied significantly across brands. Al Fakher had the highest nicotine delivery (11.4 ng/ml) followed by Nakhla (9.8 ng/ml) and Starbuzz (5.8 ng/ml). Nicotine labelling on waterpipe tobacco products does not reflect delivery; smoking a brand with a "0.05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers.

  1. Discontinuation of nicotine replacement therapy among smoking-cessation attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily K; Levinson, Arnold H

    2008-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles successful quitting, but more than half of NRT users do not comply with optimal treatment regimens. From the 2005 Colorado state tobacco survey, quit attempters who utilized NRT (N=366) were analyzed in spring 2007. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to examine reasons for discontinuing NRT, length of time on NRT, and quit intentions. The reasons for discontinuing NRT were resuming smoking (34%), side effects (17%), NRT not helping with quitting (14%), quitting smoking (10%), and cost (5%). Poverty, age, and non-Latino minority status were associated with reasons for discontinuation other than quitting smoking. Having side effects was associated with a short duration of NRT use and 95% lower odds of intending to quit in the next month. In the first population-level study examining reasons for discontinuing NRT, general-population smokers who initiate NRT use when attempting to quit are highly likely to discontinue NRT prematurely. Age and culturally-appropriate medication management interventions may increase NRT compliance and improve cessation outcomes.

  2. Countering Craving with Disgust Images: Examining Nicotine Withdrawn Smokers' Motivated Message Processing of Anti-Tobacco Public Service Announcements.

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    Clayton, Russell B; Leshner, Glenn; Tomko, Rachel L; Trull, Timothy J; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of research examining whether smoking cues in anti-tobacco advertisements elicit cravings, or whether this effect is moderated by countervailing message attributes, such as disgusting images. Furthermore, no research has examined how these types of messages influence nicotine withdrawn smokers' cognitive processing and associated behavioral intentions. At a laboratory session, participants (N = 50 nicotine-deprived adults) were tested for cognitive processing and recognition memory of 12 anti-tobacco advertisements varying in depictions of smoking cues and disgust content. Self-report smoking urges and intentions to quit smoking were measured after each message. The results from this experiment indicated that smoking cue messages activated appetitive/approach motivation resulting in enhanced attention and memory, but increased craving and reduced quit intentions. Disgust messages also enhanced attention and memory, but activated aversive/avoid motivation resulting in reduced craving and increased quit intentions. The combination of smoking cues and disgust content resulted in moderate amounts of craving and quit intentions, but also led to heart rate acceleration (indicating defensive processing) and poorer recognition of message content. These data suggest that in order to counter nicotine-deprived smokers' craving and prolong abstinence, anti-tobacco messages should omit smoking cues but include disgust. Theoretical implications are also discussed.

  3. Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use during smoking cessation: a qualitative study of 40 Oklahoma quitline callers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Beebe, Laura A; Schauer, Gillian L; Magnusson, Brooke; King, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 10% (40 000) of US quitline enrollees who smoke cigarettes report current use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); however, little is known about callers' ENDS use. Our aim was to describe why and how quitline callers use ENDS, their beliefs about ENDS and the impact of ENDS use on callers' quit processes and use of FDA-approved cessation medications. Qualitative interviews conducted 1-month postregistration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, double-coded and analysed to identify themes. Oklahoma Tobacco Helpline. 40 callers aged ≥18 who were seeking help to quit smoking were using ENDS at registration and completed ≥1 programme calls. At 1-month postregistration interview, 80% of callers had smoked cigarettes in the last 7 days, almost two-thirds were using ENDS, and half were using cessation medications. Nearly all believed ENDS helped them quit or cut down on smoking; however, participants were split on whether they would recommend cessation medications, ENDS or both together for quitting. Confusion and misinformation about potential harms of ENDS and cessation medications were reported. Participants reported using ENDS in potentially adaptive ways (eg, using ENDS to cut down and nicotine replacement therapy to quit, and stepping down nicotine in ENDS to wean off ENDS after quitting) and maladaptive ways (eg, frequent automatic ENDS use, using ENDS in situations they did not previously smoke, cutting down on smoking using ENDS without a schedule or plan to quit), which could impact the likelihood of quitting smoking or continuing ENDS use. These qualitative findings suggest quitline callers who use ENDS experience confusion and misinformation about ENDS and FDA-approved cessation medications. Callers also use ENDS in ways that may not facilitate quitting smoking. Opportunities exist for quitlines to educate ENDS users and help them create a coordinated plan most likely to result in completely quitting combustible tobacco

  4. Extended nicotine self-administration increases sensitivity to nicotine, motivation to seek nicotine and the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues.

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    Clemens, Kelly J; Lay, Belinda P P; Holmes, Nathan M

    2017-03-01

    An array of pharmacological and environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of tobacco addiction. The nature of these influences likely changes across the course of an extended smoking history, during which time drug seeking can become involuntary and uncontrolled. The present study used an animal model to examine the factors that drive nicotine-seeking behavior after either brief (10 days) or extended (40 days) self-administration training. In Experiment 1, extended training increased rats' sensitivity to nicotine, indicated by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve, and their motivation to work for nicotine, indicated by an increase in the break point achieved under a progressive ratio schedule. In Experiment 2, extended training imbued the nicotine-paired cue with the capacity to maintain responding to the same high level as nicotine itself. However, Experiment 3 showed that the mechanisms involved in responding for nicotine or a nicotine-paired cue are dissociable, as treatment with the partial nicotine receptor agonist, varenicline, suppressed responding for nicotine but potentiated responding for the nicotine-paired cue. Hence, across extended nicotine self-administration, pharmacological and environmental influences over nicotine seeking increase such that nicotine seeking is controlled by multiple sources, and therefore highly resistant to change. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  7. Time to first cigarette in the morning as an index of ability to quit smoking: Implications for nicotine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy B.; Piper, Megan E.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Smith, Stevens S.; Kim, Su-Young; Colby, Suzanne; Conti, David; Giovino, Gary A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hyland, Andrew; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Niaura, Raymond; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Toll, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smoking cessation outcome. This paper used data from four placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials and one international epidemiologic study to determine relations between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; Kozlowski et al., 1994), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS; Shiffman et al., 2004) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al. 2004) with cessation success. Results showed that much of the predictive validity of the FTND could be attributed to its first item, time to first cigarette in the morning, and this item had greater validity than any other single measure. Thus, the time to first cigarette item appears to tap a pattern of heavy, uninterrupted, and automatic smoking and may be a good single-item measure of nicotine dependence. PMID:18067032

  8. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  9. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

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    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  10. Performance effects of nicotine during selective attention, divided attention, and simple stimulus detection: an fMRI study.

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    Hahn, Britta; Ross, Thomas J; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stein, Elliot A

    2009-09-01

    Attention-enhancing effects of nicotine appear to depend on the nature of the attentional function. Underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms, too, may vary depending on the function modulated. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study recorded blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in minimally deprived smokers during tasks of simple stimulus detection, selective attention, or divided attention after single-blind application of a transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or placebo patch. Smokers' performance in the placebo condition was unimpaired as compared with matched nonsmokers. Nicotine reduced reaction time (RT) in the stimulus detection and selective attention but not divided attention condition. Across all task conditions, nicotine reduced activation in frontal, temporal, thalamic, and visual regions and enhanced deactivation in so-called "default" regions. Thalamic effects correlated with RT reduction selectively during stimulus detection. An interaction with task condition was observed in middle and superior frontal gyri, where nicotine reduced activation only during stimulus detection. A visuomotor control experiment provided evidence against nonspecific effects of nicotine. In conclusion, although prefrontal activity partly displayed differential modulation by nicotine, most BOLD effects were identical across tasks, despite differential performance effects, suggesting that common neuronal mechanisms can selectively benefit different attentional functions. Overall, the effects of nicotine may be explained by increased functional efficiency and downregulated task-independent "default" functions.

  11. Intolerance for smoking abstinence among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Lisa J; Baker, Nathaniel L; Saladin, Michael E

    2018-09-01

    The Intolerance for Smoking Abstinence Discomfort Questionnaire (IDQ-S) assesses distress tolerance specific to nicotine withdrawal. Though developed to assess withdrawal-related distress, the IDQ-S has not been validated among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers. The present study extended previous research by examining the predictive utility of the IDQ-S among abstinent, motivated-to-quit smokers. Abstinent, treatment-seeking smokers completed the IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance and Lack of Cognitive Coping scales, assessments of nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and smoking history at baseline. At baseline and at 24-h, 2-week, and 1-month follow-up, participants completed a smoking cue-reactivity task (collection of cue-elicited craving and negative affect), and assessments of cigarettes per day (CPD; daily diaries at follow-up), carbon monoxide (CO), and cotinine. Greater IDQ-S Withdrawal Intolerance was associated with younger age, higher nicotine dependence and reinforcement, and less smoking years (ps  .10). Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping did not predict smoking outcomes among nicotine-deprived, treatment-seeking smokers, but were associated with smoking characteristics, including nicotine dependence and reinforcement. Withdrawal intolerance and lack of cognitive coping may not be especially useful in predicting craving and smoking behavior, but future studies should replicate the present study's findings and assess the stability of the IDQ-S before forming firm conclusions about its predictive utility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of nicotine substitute prescribed at hourly plus ab libitum intake or ad libitum for heavy smokers willing to quit: a randomized controlled trial

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    Zellweger Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the impact of instructional guidance in the regular use of use nicotine nasal spray (NNS on the true use of NNS during the first three weeks of smoking cessation for heavy smokers who are willing to quit. Methods This randomized, open, controlled trial included 50 patients who were heavy smokers, were willing to quit, and attending an academic outpatient clinic in Western Switzerland. Patients were randomised to instruction on NNS use as "ad libitum" (administration whenever cravings appear; control group or to use NNS when craving appears and at least every hour when awake (intervention group. Intakes were monitored using an electronic device fixed in the spray unit (MDILog™ during the first three weeks of use. Self reported abstinence from smoking at six months was confirmed by expired-air carbon monoxide. Using intention-to-treat analysis, random-effect GLS regression was used to calculate the mean difference of daily doses between groups controlling for lack of independence between measures from the same individual. Results One patient was lost to follow-up. At baseline randomization, the group receiving instruction to use NNS hourly included more women, patients with previous desires to quit, and patients with more psychiatric comorbidities and less somatic complaints compared to the group instructed to use NNS with cravings (group imbalance. Both groups self-administered more than the daily recommended dosage of 8 uses. Mean daily usage was 13.6 dose/day and 11.1 dose/day for the group instructed to use NNS hourly and with cravings, respectively. Adjusting for baseline imbalance, the increased daily doses in the intervention group (hourly use remained nonsignificant compared to ad libitum use (-0.5 dose/day; CI 95% -6.2; 5.3, from day 1 to day 7; and 2.3 dose/day; CI 95% -5.4; 10.0, from day 8 to day 21. Instructing patients to use the NNS daily had no effect on smoking cessation at six months (RR = 0.69; CI

  13. The relationship of childhood trauma to nicotine dependence in pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Janice A; Nayak, Nisha; Wetter, David W; Schreindorfer, Lisa; Minnix, Jennifer A; Canul, Jennifer; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Pregnant women with high levels of nicotine dependence are the least likely to quit smoking spontaneously during pregnancy or to benefit from smoking cessation interventions. In the general population, there is increasing evidence of a relationship between smoking, nicotine dependence, and exposure to childhood trauma. We examined the relationship of childhood trauma to several measures of nicotine dependence and evaluated whether this relationship was mediated by major depressive disorder or depressive symptom severity in pregnant smokers. Moderate to extreme levels of childhood trauma were significantly related to smoking within 5 minutes or less of waking, and to the Behavioral Choice-Melioration, Negative Reinforcement, and Tolerance subscales of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) scale. The relationships between childhood emotional abuse and the WISDM-68 Total and Negative Reinforcement subscale were partially mediated by depressive symptoms. Results suggest that childhood trauma may be a risk factor underlying nicotine dependence in pregnant smokers. Increased understanding of the relationship of affect regulation to smoking in individuals with childhood trauma histories may aid in the development of more effective treatments of nicotine dependence for this population of smokers.

  14. Novel Wideband Metallic Patch Antennas with Low Profile

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    Zhong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two planar metallic patch (MP antennas with low profiles are investigated and compared in this paper. The MP of each antenna consists of metallic patch cells and it is centrally fed by a rectangular slot. Two modes with close resonance frequencies are excited, providing a quite wide bandwidth. The antenna principle is explained clearly through a parametric study. Simulated and measured results show that the MP antennas with profile of 0.06λ0 can obtain a 10 dB impedance bandwidth of ~32% and an average gain of ~10 dBi.

  15. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

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    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  16. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and withdrawal symptoms decrease. Overview Nicotine lozenges are tablets that contain a small amount of nicotine (2 ... Smoking hazards and cessation. In: Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders ...

  17. Nicotine dependence and cost-effectiveness of individualized support for smoking cessation: evidence from practice at a worksite in Japan.

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    Koshi Nakamura

    Full Text Available Given the lack of economic studies evaluating the outcomes of smoking cessation programs from the viewpoint of program sponsors, we conducted a case study to provide relevant information for worksites. The present study was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at a manufacturing factory in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan and included subjects who voluntarily entered a smoking cessation program. The program included face-to-face counselling followed by weekly contact to provide encouragement over six months using e-mail or inter-office mail. Nicotine patches were available if required. All 151 participants stopped smoking immediately. Over the 24-month study period, self-report showed 49.7% abstained continuously from smoking. The rate of 24-month consecutive abstinence was higher in participants with lower Fagerström Test scores for Nicotine Dependence at baseline than in those with higher scores (63.6% for 0-2 points vs. 46.5% for 3-6 points vs. 43.8% for 7-10 points; chi-square test p = 0.19. A logistic regression model showed a significant linear trend for the association between the score and abstinence status after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p = 0.03. The crude incremental cost for one individual to successfully quit smoking due to the support program was ¥46,379 (i.e., ¥100 = $1.28, £0.83, or €1.03 at foreign exchange rates. The corresponding costs for the three categories of the Fagerström Test score for Nicotine Dependence were ¥31,953, ¥47,450 and ¥64,956, respectively. When a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the 95% confidence interval of the success rate, the variance in the corresponding costs was ¥25,514-45,034 for 0-2 points, ¥38,344-61,824 for 3-6 points, and ¥45,698-108,260 for 7-10 points. The degree of nicotine dependence may therefore be an important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation programs.

  18. Nicotine dependence and cost-effectiveness of individualized support for smoking cessation: evidence from practice at a worksite in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Shin-ya; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Given the lack of economic studies evaluating the outcomes of smoking cessation programs from the viewpoint of program sponsors, we conducted a case study to provide relevant information for worksites. The present study was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at a manufacturing factory in the Toyama Prefecture of Japan and included subjects who voluntarily entered a smoking cessation program. The program included face-to-face counselling followed by weekly contact to provide encouragement over six months using e-mail or inter-office mail. Nicotine patches were available if required. All 151 participants stopped smoking immediately. Over the 24-month study period, self-report showed 49.7% abstained continuously from smoking. The rate of 24-month consecutive abstinence was higher in participants with lower Fagerström Test scores for Nicotine Dependence at baseline than in those with higher scores (63.6% for 0-2 points vs. 46.5% for 3-6 points vs. 43.8% for 7-10 points; chi-square test p = 0.19). A logistic regression model showed a significant linear trend for the association between the score and abstinence status after adjustment for possible confounding factors (p = 0.03). The crude incremental cost for one individual to successfully quit smoking due to the support program was ¥46,379 (i.e., ¥100 = $1.28, £0.83, or €1.03 at foreign exchange rates). The corresponding costs for the three categories of the Fagerström Test score for Nicotine Dependence were ¥31,953, ¥47,450 and ¥64,956, respectively. When a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the 95% confidence interval of the success rate, the variance in the corresponding costs was ¥25,514-45,034 for 0-2 points, ¥38,344-61,824 for 3-6 points, and ¥45,698-108,260 for 7-10 points. The degree of nicotine dependence may therefore be an important determinant of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation programs.

  19. Erythrina mulungu alkaloids are potent inhibitors of neuronal nicotinic receptor currents in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Setti-Perdigão

    Full Text Available Crude extracts and three isolated alkaloids from Erythrina mulungu plants have shown anxiolytic effects in different animal models. We investigated whether these alkaloids could affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and if they are selective for different central nervous system (CNS subtypes. Screening experiments were performed using a single concentration of the alkaloid co-applied with acetylcholine in whole cell patch-clamp recordings in three different cell models: (i PC12 cells natively expressing α3* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; (ii cultured hippocampal neurons natively expressing α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; and (iii HEK 293 cells heterologoulsy expressing α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. For all three receptors, the percent inhibition of acetylcholine-activated currents by (+-11á-hydroxyerysotrine was the lowest, whereas (+-erythravine and (+-11á-hydroxyerythravine inhibited the currents to a greater extent. For the latter two substances, we obtained concentration-response curves with a pre-application protocol for the α7* and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The IC50 obtained with (+-erythravine and (+-11á-hydroxyerythravine were 6 µM and 5 µM for the α7* receptors, and 13 nM and 4 nM for the α4β2 receptors, respectively. Our data suggest that these Erythrina alkaloids may exert their behavioral effects through inhibition of CNS nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the α4β2 subtype.

  20. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  1. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  2. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  5. Nicotine withdrawal and stress-induced changes in pain sensitivity: a cross-sectional investigation between abstinent smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Al'Absi, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    Chronic smoking has been linked with alterations in endogenous pain regulation. These alterations may be pronounced when individuals quit smoking because nicotine withdrawal produces a variety of psychological and physiological symptoms. Smokers interested in quitting (n = 98) and nonsmokers (n = 37) completed a laboratory session including cold pressor test (CPT) and heat thermal pain. Smokers set a quit date and completed the session after 48 h of abstinence. Participants completed the pain assessments once after rest and once after stress. Cardiovascular and nicotine withdrawal measures were collected. Smokers showed blunted cardiovascular responses to stress relative to nonsmokers. Only nonsmokers had greater pain tolerance to CPT after stress than after rest. Lower systolic blood pressure was related to lower pain tolerance. These findings suggest that smoking withdrawal is associated with blunted stress response and increased pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  7. Altered Amygdala Function in Nicotine Addiction: Insights from Human Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihov, Yoan; Hurlemann, Rene

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million deaths a year are attributable to tobacco smoking, making it the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. The primary addictive component in tobacco is nicotine. Its addictive power is exemplified by the fact that by far most attempts to quit smoking fail. It is therefore mandatory to understand the biological…

  8. Can initial perceptions about quitting predict smoking cessation among Malaysian smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking may be important factors in successful treatment. This study examined the association between initial perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and outcomes during a two month smoking cessation attempt. Participants (n = 185) were treatment-seeking smokers attending two smoking cessation clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia. They received structured behavioral therapy and free Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT). Prior to treatment, a 12 item Perceived Risks and Benefits Questionnaire (PRBQ) was administered. This was used to assess the smoker's initial perceptions during their quit attempt. Participants were re-contacted at the end of two months to determine their smoking status. The results show participants intending to quit demonstrated a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting smoking than the risks of quitting. Those with a higher education level had a greater understanding of the benefits of quitting (p = 0.02). PRBQ items, such as perceived risks of quitting (ie weight gain, negative affect, social ostracism, loss of enjoyment and craving) were not associated with abstinence at two months. However, those who perceived a benefit of higher physical attraction post-cessation were less likely to have stopped smoking at two months (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.08-0.45). Other perceived benefits at baseline, such as health, general well-being, self-esteem, finances and social approval, were not associated with smoking cessation at two months. The results suggest that in our study population, smokers' baseline perceptions of the benefits of cessation of smoking prior to therapy are not associated with quit results at two months. Counseling patients regarding the advantages and disadvantages of quitting may have changed their perceptions during quitting process and should be further explored in future studies.

  9. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2012-04-18

    Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist) and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist). The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist') in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialised register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up.The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs), using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. Two recent cytisine trials (937 people) found that more participants taking cytisine stopped smoking compared with placebo at longest follow-up, with a pooled RR of

  11. Socially Anxious Smokers Experience Greater Negative Affect and Withdrawal during Self-Quit Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...

  12. Oxime reactivators and their in vivo and in vitro effects on nicotinic receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, O.; Krůšek, Jan; Kaniaková, Martina; Kumar, U. K.; Oz, M.; Jun, D.; Fusek, J.; Kuča, K.; Tobin, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), s. 679-686 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0806; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : organophosphates * patch-clamp * nicotinic receptors * reactivator * isometric muscle contraction * TE671 cells Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  13. Sindrome confusional agudo por abstinencia aguda de nicotina Delirium due to acute nicotine withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Klein

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome confusional agudo (SCA o delirium en pacientes hospitalizados es un problema frecuente y grave. Se caracteriza por síntomas de comienzo agudo y curso fluctuante con inatención, pensamiento desorganizado, y con distintos niveles de alteración de la conciencia.En la bibliografía consultada, el SCA como manifestación de un síndrome de abstinencia aguda nicotínica fue descripto en solo ocho casos. Presentamos el caso de un tabaquista grave que, internado por una reagudización de su enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC, presentó un cuadro de SCA al tercer día de abstinencia tabacal, cediendo los síntomas tras la administración de un parche de nicotina. Lo descripto sugiere que en pacientes internados que presentan SCA y agitación, con fuertes antecedentes de tabaquismo, un simple ensayo con un parche de nicotina puede ofrecer en pocas horas una notable respuesta terapéutica y a su vez un test confirmatorio. El reconocimiento del SCA como forma de presentación de la abstinencia nicotínica permitirá identificar casos habitualmente complejos en los que se podrá implementar una sencilla y eficaz alternativa terapéutica.Delirium or acute confusional state among hospitalized patients is a frequent and serious problem. It is characterized by acute onset symptoms, fluctuating course, impaired attention, unorganized thinking, and altered level of conciousness. Delirium, as a manifestation of acute nicotine withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the reviewed literature only in eight cases. We report the case of a heavy smoker admitted because of a reagudization of his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. At the third day of nicotine abstinence, he developed delirium with a rapid improvement of his symptoms after treatment with a transdermal nicotine patch. This description suggests that in hospitalized heavy smokers who develop delirium with agitation, a simple trial with a nicotine patch can offer a dramatic

  14. Effect on adherence to nicotine replacement therapy of informing smokers their dose is determined by their genotype: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Marteau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The behavioural impact of pharmacogenomics is untested. We tested two hypotheses concerning the behavioural impact of informing smokers their oral dose of NRT is tailored to analysis of DNA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an RCT with smokers in smoking cessation clinics (N = 633. In combination with NRT patch, participants were informed that their doses of oral NRT were based either on their mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 genotype, or their nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype. The proportion of prescribed NRT consumed in the first 28 days following quitting was not significantly different between groups: (68.5% of prescribed NRT consumed in genotype vs 63.6%, phenotype group, difference = 5.0%, 95% CI -0.9,10.8, p = 0.098. Motivation to make another quit attempt among those (n = 331 not abstinent at six months was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.23. Abstinence at 28 days was not different between groups (p = 0.67; at six months was greater in genotype than phenotype group (13.7% vs 7.9%, difference = 5.8%, 95% CI 1.0,10.7, p = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS: Informing smokers their oral dose of NRT was tailored to genotype not phenotype had a small, statistically non-significant effect on 28-day adherence to NRT. Among those still smoking at six months, there was no evidence that saying NRT was tailored to genotype adversely affected motivation to make another quit attempt. Higher abstinence rate at six months in the genotype arm requires investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN14352545.

  15. Intervenção sobre tabagismo realizada por cardiologista em rotina ambulatorial Anti-smoking intervention performed by cardiologist during ambulatory care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da intervenção sobre o tabagismo, realizada por médico cardiologista em rotina de ambulatório, utilizando a prescrição de adesivos de nicotina. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, consecutivamente, 100 pacientes (50 homens e 50 mulheres, incluindo consulta médica, aplicação de escore para definição do grau de dependência à nicotina, determinação da concentração de monóxido de carbono expirado e peso corpóreo. Os adesivos foram utilizados entre 8 e 12 semanas, com redução progressiva da concentração até a suspensão (concentrações de 21, 14 e 7mg RESULTADOS: A taxa de abstinência um ano após o início do tratamento foi de 41%, confirmada pela concentração do monóxido de carbono. CONCLUSÃO: A intervenção sobre o tabagismo pode ser realizada em rotina de atendimento cardiológico com resultados satisfatórios. Os adesivos de nicotina são seguros, bem tolerados, e devem ser utilizados, mais freqüentemente, no auxílio aos fumantes, para deixarem de fumar.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine patches as a strategy to help patients quit smoking in the cardiovascular clinic. METHODS: The population studied was composed of 100 patients (50 women and 50 men. The strategy included medical consultation, Fangerstron escore application and prescription of nicotine patches. Nicotine patches were continuously used for 8 to 12 weeks, with progressive concentration reduction releasing 21, 14, and 7mg/day. RESULTS: The abstinence rate one year later was 41% confirmed by carbon monoxide exhaled air concentration. CONCLUSION: Nicotine patches are safe, and well tolerated and, for these reasons, should be more frenquently prescribed by cardiologists to help patients quit smoking.

  16. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  17. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  18. How do text-messaging smoking cessation interventions confer benefit? A multiple mediation analysis of Text2Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Abroms, Lorien C

    2017-04-01

    To determine the degree to which the observed benefit of Text2Quit was accounted for by psychosocial mechanisms derived from its quit smoking messaging versus from the use of extra-programmatic smoking cessation treatments and services. Prospective, multiple mediation model of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). United States nation-wide. A total of 409 adult daily smokers participated. Participants were, on average, 35 years of age, predominantly female (68%), white (79%), lacked a college degree (70%), had medium nicotine dependence (average Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Score score of 5.2) and more than half (62%) had made a previous quit attempt. Adult daily smokers browsing the web for smoking cessation support (n = 409; recruited 19 May2011-10 July 2012) were randomized to receive smoking cessation support via Text2Quit versus a smoking cessation material. Mediators (i.e. changes in psychosocial constructs of health behavior change, use of extra-programmatic treatment) were assessed at 1 month using single-item measures and outcome (i.e. self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence) at 6-month follow-up. Mediators accounted for 35% of the effect of Text2Quit on smoking cessation. Only psychosocial mechanisms had complete mediational paths, with increases in self-efficacy [b = 0.10 (0.06-0.15)], quitting know-how [b = 0.07 (0.03-0.11)] and the sense that someone cared [b = 0.06 (0.01-0.11)], partially explaining the conferred benefit of Text2Quit. Use of outside resources, including treatments promoted explicitly by Text2Quit, i.e. medication [b = 0.001 (-0.01 to 0.01), quitline [b = -0.002 (-0.01 to 0.04)], treatments and resources not promoted by Text2Quit, i.e. online forums [b = 0.01 (-0.01 to 0.04)] and self-help materials [b = -0.01 (-0.04 to 0.02)], did not have complete mediational paths. An interaction effect existed for medication use that suggested that for participants not using medication, Text2Quit conferred substantial

  19. Experimentation and correlates of electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarettes) among university students – A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    K.H. Awan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: E-cigarettes are becoming popular among youth as safe nicotine delivery systems. Many have expressed concern, however, that e-cigarettes may serve as a gateway to future smoking, given their low perceived risk, or that their use may prevent regular smokers from quitting by maintaining their nicotine addiction. The aim of this study was to assess experimentation with and correlates of e-cigarette use among university students. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was car...

  20. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nicotine during pregnancy: changes induced in neurotransmission, which could heighten proclivity to addict and induce maladaptive control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, K A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine, occurring either via maternal smoking or via use of transdermal nicotine patches to facilitate cigarette abstinence by pregnant women, is associated with ∼ 13% of pregnancies worldwide. Nicotine exposure during gestation has been correlated with several negative physiological and psychosocial outcomes, including heightened risk for aberrant behaviors involving alterations in processing of attention as well as an enhanced liability for development of drug dependency. Nicotine is a terotogen, altering neuronal development of various neurotransmitter systems, and it is likely these alterations participate in postnatal deficits in attention control and facilitate development of drug addiction. This review discusses the alterations in neuronal development within the brain's major neurotransmitter systems, with special emphasis placed on alterations within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, in light of the role this cholinergic nucleus plays in attention and addiction. Changes induced within this nucleus by gestational exposure to nicotine, in combination with changes induced in other brain regions, are likely to contribute to the transgenerational burden imposed by nicotine. Although neuroplastic changes induced by nicotine are not likely to act in isolation, and are expected to interact with epigenetic changes induced by preconception exposure to drugs of abuse, unraveling these changes within the developing brain will facilitate eventual development of targeted treatments for the unique vulnerability for arousal disorders and development of addiction within the population of individuals who have been prenatally exposed to nicotine.

  3. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  4. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Timing and risk factors associated with relapse among smokers attempting to quit in Malaysia.

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    Yasin, S M; Moy, F M; Retneswari, M; Isahak, M; Koh, D

    2012-07-01

    Many smokers attempt to quit smoking, but very few succeed. To identify the timing and risk factors involved in smoking relapse. We conducted a prospective cohort study among staff in two public universities in Malaysia. Behavioural therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy was given as treatment. Participants were followed up for 6 months. Relapse was defined as returning to smoking after having quit for at least 24 h. Of 185 smokers who volunteered to participate, 120 achieved at least 24-h abstinence, and 80% of these relapsed within 2 months. Compared to participants who attended a single smoking cessation session, participants who attended three sessions had a lower likelihood of relapse within 6 months of quitting. In contrast, smokers with a much longer exposure to cigarette smoking in the workplace (>3 h per week) had a greater chance of relapse compared to those with no exposure. Frequent attendance at clinic sessions and less exposure to other people smoking in the workplace can potentially reduce the likelihood of relapse among smokers who have recently quit.

  6. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  7. The effects of message framing, involvement, and nicotine dependence on anti-smoking public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Wan S; Villegas, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs) typically emphasize the negative consequences of failing to quit smoking (negative frame), as opposed to emphasizing the benefits of quitting (positive frame). However, stressing the benefits of quitting sometimes produces better communication outcomes. Previous research on message framing has tried to identify factors affecting the impact of positive framing and negative framing. Data were collected on 188 undergraduates attending a southeastern university in the United States who were assigned randomly to view either positive or negative messages. Our study found that involvement and nicotine dependence moderated the impact of framed smoking-cessation messages on attitude toward the ad.

  8. Nicotine response and nicotinic receptors in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C M; Medhurst, L J; Collins, A C

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine response and nicotinic receptor binding were characterized in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice which have been selectively bred for differential "sleep-time" following ethanol administration. LS mice are more sensitive than SS mice to nicotine as measured by a battery of behavioral and physiological tests and as measured by sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures. The greater sensitivity of the LS mice is not due to differences in binding of [3H]nicotine. Unlike inbred mouse strains which differ in sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures, these selected mouse lines do not differ in levels of binding of [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) in the hippocampus. Significant differences in BTX binding were found in the cerebellum and striatum. Although these two mouse lines do not differ in blood levels of nicotine following nicotine administration, they differ slightly in brain levels of nicotine indicating differential distribution of the drug. Since this distribution difference is much smaller than the observed behavioral differences, these mice probably differ in CNS sensitivity to nicotine; however, follow-up studies are necessary to test whether the differential response of these mice is due to subtle differences in distribution of nicotine to the brain.

  9. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

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    Kate Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialized register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Two recent cytisine trials (937 people

  10. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

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    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  11. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Switching to smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation method: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.

  13. Differential expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in subdivisions of medial habenula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Pei-Yu; Engle, Staci E; Oh, Gyeon; Deshpande, Purnima; Puskar, Nyssa L; Lester, Henry A; Drenan, Ryan M

    2014-07-16

    Neuronal nAChRs in the medial habenula (MHb) to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) pathway are key mediators of nicotine's aversive properties. In this paper, we report new details regarding nAChR anatomical localization and function in MHb and IPN. A new group of knock-in mice were created that each expresses a single nAChR subunit fused to GFP, allowing high-resolution mapping. We find that α3 and β4 nAChR subunit levels are strong throughout the ventral MHb (MHbV). In contrast, α6, β2, β3, and α4 subunits are selectively found in some, but not all, areas of MHbV. All subunits were found in both ChAT-positive and ChAT-negative cells in MHbV. Next, we examined functional properties of neurons in the lateral and central part of MHbV (MHbVL and MHbVC) using brain slice patch-clamp recordings. MHbVL neurons were more excitable than MHbVC neurons, and they also responded more strongly to puffs of nicotine. In addition, we studied firing responses of MHbVL and MHbVC neurons in response to bath-applied nicotine. Cells in MHbVL, but not those in MHbVC, increased their firing substantially in response to 1 μm nicotine. Additionally, MHbVL neurons from mice that underwent withdrawal from chronic nicotine were less responsive to nicotine application compared with mice withdrawn from chronic saline. Last, we characterized rostral and dorsomedial IPN neurons that receive input from MHbVL axons. Together, our data provide new details regarding neurophysiology and nAChR localization and function in cells within the MHbV. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349789-14$15.00/0.

  14. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  15. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  16. Agonist and antagonist effects of tobacco-related nitrosamines on human α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Simone eBrusco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the ‘neuronal’ nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs is implicated in both tobacco addiction and smoking-dependent tumor promotion. Some of these effects are caused by the tobacco-derived N-nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic compounds that avidly bind to nAChRs. However, the functional effects of these drugs on specific nAChR subtypes are largely unknown. By using patch-clamp methods, we tested 4-(methylnitrosamine-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN on human α4β2 nAChRs. These latter are widely distributed in the mammalian brain and are also frequently expressed outside the nervous system. NNK behaved as a partial agonist, with an apparent EC50 of 16.7 μM. At 100 μM, it activated 16 % of the maximal current activated by nicotine. When NNK was co-applied with nicotine, it potentiated the currents elicited by nicotine concentrations ≤ 100 nM. At higher concentrations of nicotine, NNK always inhibited the α4β2 nAChR. In contrast, NNN was a pure inhibitor of this nAChR subtype, with IC50 of approximately 1 nM in the presence of 10 μM nicotine. The effects of both NNK and NNN were mainly competitive and largely independent of Vm. The different actions of NNN and NNK must be taken into account when interpreting their biological effects in vitro and in vivo.

  17. The applicability of the theory of planned behavior to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S C; Lanese, R R

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces was conducted. Subjects were randomly selected from three workplaces in southern Taiwan. Those from a large public steel-manufacturing company were used for model building, and those from two private auto-parts-manufacturing companies served to cross-validate the model. Eligible subjects were divided into three study samples: a learning sample and two test samples. Three predictors--priority of quitting, past behavior (measured as previous quit attempt), and habit (measured as nicotine dependence)--were added to the TPB model. The results of this study show that TPB based on the learning sample fit well in another sample from the same workplace but poorly in other workplaces. When priority of quitting and past behavior were added to the TPB model, prediction to other workplaces significantly improved. Habit had no significant contribution to the intention to quit in the TPB model. Detailed discussions of the results are provided.

  18. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  19. Mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and dextromethorphan block conditioned responding evoked by the conditional stimulus effects of nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Amanda M.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    Current smokers express the desire to quit. However, the majority find it difficult to remain abstinent. As such, research efforts continually seek to develop more effective treatment. One such area of research involves the interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine as either a discriminative stimulus in an operant drug discrimination task, or more recently as a conditional stimulus (CS) in a discriminated goal-tracking task. The present work investigated the potential role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the CS effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) using antagonists with differential selectivity for β2*, α7*, α6β2*, and α3β4* receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA) had no effect on nicotine-evoked conditioned responding. Mecamylamine and dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) dose dependently blocked responding evoked by the nicotine CS. In a time-course assessment of mecamylamine and DHβE, each blocked conditioned responding when given 5 min before testing and still blocked conditioned responding when administered 200 min before testing. Two novel bis-picolinium analogs (N, N’-(3, 3′-(dodecan-1,12-diyl)-bis-picolinium dibromide [bPiDDB], and N, N’-(decan-1,10-diyl)-bis-picolinium diiodide [bPiDI]) did not block nicotine-evoked conditioned responding. Finally, pretreatment with low dose combinations of mecamylamine, dextromethorphan, and/or bupropion were used to target α3β4* receptors. No combination blocked conditioned responding evoked by the training dose of nicotine. However, a combination of mecamylamine and dextromethorphan partially blocked nicotine-evoked conditioned responding to a lower dose of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg). These results indicate that β2* and potentially α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a role in the CS effects of nicotine and are potential targets for the development of nicotine cessation aids. PMID:19778551

  20. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  1. Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Corcoran, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular among smokers worldwide. Commonly reported reasons for use include the following: to quit smoking, to avoid relapse, to reduce urge to smoke, or as a perceived lower-risk alternative to smoking. Few studies, however, have explored whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) deliver measurable levels of nicotine to the blood. This study aims to explore in experienced users the effect of using an 18-mg/ml nicotine first-generation e-cigarette on blood nicotine, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke. Fourteen regular e-cigarette users (three females), who are abstinent from smoking and e-cigarette use for 12 h, each completed a 2.5 h testing session. Blood was sampled, and questionnaires were completed (tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, positive and negative subjective effects) at four stages: baseline, 10 puffs, 60 min of ad lib use and a 60-min rest period. Complete sets of blood were obtained from seven participants. Plasma nicotine concentration rose significantly from a mean of 0.74 ng/ml at baseline to 6.77 ng/ml 10 min after 10 puffs, reaching a mean maximum of 13.91 ng/ml by the end of the ad lib puffing period. Tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were significantly reduced; direct positive effects were strongly endorsed, and there was very low reporting of adverse effects. These findings demonstrate reliable blood nicotine delivery after the acute use of this brand/model of e-cigarette in a sample of regular users. Future studies might usefully quantify nicotine delivery in relation to inhalation technique and the relationship with successful smoking cessation/harm reduction.

  2. A two-site, two-arm, 34-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes in smokers with mood and/or anxiety disorders: trial design and protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia I. Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations. This study evaluates the effect of progressive nicotine reduction in cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, and psychiatric symptoms in smokers with comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders using a two-site, two-arm, double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT in four phases over 34 weeks. Methods Adult smokers (N = 200 of 5 or more cigarettes per day will be randomized across two sites (Penn State and Massachusetts General. Participants must have not had a quit attempt in the prior month, nor be planning to quit in the next 6 months, meet criteria for a current or lifetime unipolar mood and/or anxiety disorder based on the structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and must not have an unstable medical or psychiatric condition. After a week of smoking their own cigarettes, participants receive two weeks of Spectrum research cigarettes with usual nicotine content (11.6 mg. After this baseline period, participants will be randomly assigned to continue smoking Spectrum research cigarettes that contain either (a Usual Nicotine Content (11.6 mg; or (b Reduced Nicotine Content: the nicotine content per cigarette is progressively reduced from approximately 11.6 mg to 0.2 mg in five steps over 18 weeks. At the end of the randomization phase, participants will be offered the choice to either (a quit smoking with assistance, (b continue smoking free research cigarettes, or (c return to purchasing their own cigarettes, for the final 12 weeks of the study. The primary outcome measure is blood cotinine; key secondary outcomes are: exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary total NNAL- 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanol and 1-hydroxypyrene, oxidative

  3. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  4. Direct and indirect associations between social anxiety and nicotine dependence and cessation problems: multiple mediator analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Little empirical work has evaluated why socially anxious smokers are especially vulnerable to more severe nicotine dependence and cessation failure. Presumably, these smokers rely on cigarettes to help them manage their chronically elevated negative affect elicited by a wide array of social contexts. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety cross-sectionally in regard to a range of smoking processes among 466 treatment-seeking smokers. Negative affect and negative affect reduction motives were examined as mediators of the relations of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. Social anxiety was directly and robustly associated with perceived barriers to smoking cessation and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Social anxiety was also associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking inflexibility indirectly through negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. Negative affect and smoking to reduce negative affect mediated these relations. These findings document the important role of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives in the relationships of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems.

  5. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; St Helen, Gideon; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-06-01

    African American (AA) smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden than Whites, despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD). Understanding factors that influence daily nicotine intake in AA smokers is an important step toward decreasing tobacco-related health disparities. One factor of interest is smoking topography, or the study of puffing behavior. (i) to create a model using puff characteristics, nicotine dependence, and nicotine metabolism to predict daily nicotine exposure, and (ii) to compare puff characteristics and nicotine intake from two cigarettes smoked at different times to ensure the reliability of the puff characteristics included in our model. Sixty AA smokers smoked their preferred brand of cigarette at two time points through a topography device. Plasma nicotine, expired CO, and changes in subjective measures were measured before and after each cigarette. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) was measured from 24-hour urine collected during ad libitum smoking. In a model predicting daily nicotine exposure, total puff volume, CPD, sex, and menthol status were significant predictors (R(2) = 0.44, P smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 936-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The ''in vivo'' distribution of carbon 11 labeled-nicotine in animals. A method suitable for use in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziere, M.; Berger, G.; Plummer, D.; Comar, D.; Masse, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described to label nicotine with carbon 11. A hundred millicuries can be obtained, in 45 minutes, with a high specific activity. This labeling of nicotine has allowed an ''in vivo'' study of the distribution of this very toxic drug in animals. Five minutes after injection in rabbits or monkeys, it was shown with a gamma camera or with a positron camera that the radioactivity was very rapidly distributed throughout the tissues especially in brain, lungs and kidneys. 11 C-nicotine readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and the brain radioactivity decreases very sharply with time. The eyes however retained activity, possibly in the retina. Unfortunately the monkey is not the ideal subject for 11 C-nicotine brain study because: the brain is small, considering the resolution of the cameras and the cerebral lobes are also quite overlaped in this animal; Japanese authors have shown that compared with dogs the nicotine brain uptake is lower, due to the high affinity of nicotine for skeletal muscle which occupies approximately forty to fifty % of the body weight of the monkey. Also in monkeys, the nicotine destruction is faster than in dogs because there is a higher enzyme nicotine metabolizing activity in the liver of this animal. The differences observed between various animals studies using nicotine indicate that we should not draw any firm conclusions about the behaviour of this drug in humans. In order to do so, examinations must be conducted in man and the method described in spite of its limitations provides a means for such a study

  8. Barriers to Quitting Smoking among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; Cassidy, Rachel; Murphy, Cara M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2016-01-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n = 184 and 340). Both components (General Barriers, Weight Concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General Barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; Weight Concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. PMID:26979552

  9. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eBiegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  11. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  12. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  13. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  14. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular genetics of nicotine dependence and abstinence: whole genome association using 520,000 SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Donna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical genetic studies indicate that nicotine dependence is a substantially heritable complex disorder. Genetic vulnerabilities to nicotine dependence largely overlap with genetic vulnerabilities to dependence on other addictive substances. Successful abstinence from nicotine displays substantial heritable components as well. Some of the heritability for the ability to quit smoking appears to overlap with the genetics of nicotine dependence and some does not. We now report genome wide association studies of nicotine dependent individuals who were successful in abstaining from cigarette smoking, nicotine dependent individuals who were not successful in abstaining and ethnically-matched control subjects free from substantial lifetime use of any addictive substance. Results These data, and their comparison with data that we have previously obtained from comparisons of four other substance dependent vs control samples support two main ideas: 1 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs whose allele frequencies distinguish nicotine-dependent from control individuals identify a set of genes that overlaps significantly with the set of genes that contain markers whose allelic frequencies distinguish the four other substance dependent vs control groups (p vs unsuccessful abstainers cluster in small genomic regions in ways that are highly unlikely to be due to chance (Monte Carlo p Conclusion These clustered SNPs nominate candidate genes for successful abstinence from smoking that are implicated in interesting functions: cell adhesion, enzymes, transcriptional regulators, neurotransmitters and receptors and regulation of DNA, RNA and proteins. As these observations are replicated, they will provide an increasingly-strong basis for understanding mechanisms of successful abstinence, for identifying individuals more or less likely to succeed in smoking cessation efforts and for tailoring therapies so that genotypes can help match smokers

  16. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  17. [Evaluation of changes in hemodynamic parameters after the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among regular cigarette smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogała, Jan; Cholewiński, Mateusz; Kutek, Agnieszka; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta

    2012-01-01

    A relatively new device, described by producers as a device to help smokers quit, nicotine inhaler is an electronic (e-cigarette). Its mission is to provide the body with small doses of nicotine behavior "ceremonial" burning product is not tested for efficacy and toxicity The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nicotine absorbed from cigarette conventional and electronic changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Because of the potential interaction of carbon monoxide contained in cigarette smoke and nicotine conventional to changes on the parameters is also going to examine changes in the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin after smoking cigarettes and using e-cigarettes. study group consisted of 42 people, including 21 women and 21 men aged from 18 to 62 years who declared daily cigarette smoking. In this study it was found that as a result of cigarette smoking are increasing all the analyzed conventional hemodynamic parameters, these increases probably normally associated with nicotine absorbed by the smoker with the smoke. It was also a clear increase in carboxyhemoglobin, which is associated with a high concentration of carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke. If you use the e-cigarettes tested were observed increases in diastolic blood pressure and pulse, but none of the parameters did not change significantly, indicating that either the use of e-cigarette by the respondents did not supply the body with absorbable nicotine or for the increase in haemodynamic parameters studied did not correspond only nicotine but also other smoke constituents that interact with nicotine to the smoker body as carbon monoxide.

  18. Supporting Aboriginal Women to Quit Smoking: Antenatal and Postnatal Care Providers' Confidence, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelepis, Flora; Daly, Justine; Dowe, Sarah; Bourke, Alex; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy is substantially higher among Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women in Australia. However, no studies have investigated the amount or type of smoking cessation care that staff from Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal services provide to clients who smoke or staff confidence to do so. This study examined Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal staff confidence, perceived role and delivery of smoking cessation care to Aboriginal women and characteristics associated with provision of such care. Staff from 11 Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Services and eight Aboriginal Child and Family Health services in the Hunter New England Local Health District in Australia completed a cross-sectional self-reported survey (n = 67, response rate = 97.1%). Most staff reported they assessed clients' smoking status most or all of the time (92.2%). However, only a minority reported they offered a quitline referral (42.2%), provided follow-up support (28.6%) or provided nicotine replacement therapy (4.7%) to most or all clients who smoked. Few staff felt confident in motivating clients to quit smoking (19.7%) and advising clients about using nicotine replacement therapy (15.6%). Staff confident with talking to clients about how smoking affected their health had significantly higher odds of offering a quitline referral [OR = 4.9 (1.7-14.5)] and quitting assistance [OR = 3.9 (1.3-11.6)] to clients who smoke. Antenatal and postnatal staff delivery of smoking cessation care to pregnant Aboriginal women or mothers with young Aboriginal children could be improved. Programs that support Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal providers to deliver smoking cessation care to clients are needed. Aboriginal antenatal and postnatal service staff have multiple opportunities to assist Aboriginal women to quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum. However, staff confidence and practices of offering various forms of smoking cessation support to pregnant Aboriginal

  19. Population-based survey of cessation aids used by Swedish smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutqvist Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most smokers who quit typically do so unassisted although pharmaceutical products are increasingly used by those who want a quitting aid. Previous Scandinavian surveys indicated that many smokers stopped smoking by switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco in the form of snus. However, usage of various cessation aids may have changed in Sweden during recent years due to factors such as the wider availability of pharmaceutical nicotine, the public debate about the health effects of different tobacco products, excise tax increases on snus relative to cigarettes, and the widespread public misconception that nicotine is the main cause of the adverse health effects associated with tobacco use. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional survey was done during November 2008 and September 2009 including 2,599 males and 3,409 females aged between 18 and 89 years. The sampling technique was random digit dialing. Data on tobacco habits and quit attempts were collected through structured telephone interviews. Results The proportion of ever smokers was similar among males (47% compared to females (44%. About two thirds of them reported having stopped smoking at the time of the survey. Among the former smokers, the proportion who reported unassisted quitting was slightly lower among males (68% compared to females (78%. Among ever smokers who reported having made assisted quit attempts, snus was the most frequently reported cessation aid among males (22%, whereas females more frequently reported counseling (8%, or pharmaceutical nicotine (gum 8%, patch 4%. Of those who reported using snus at their latest quit attempt, 81% of males and 72% of females were successful quitters compared to about 50-60% for pharmaceutical nicotine and counseling. Conclusions This survey confirms and extends previous reports in showing that, although most smokers who have quit did so unassisted, snus continues to be the most frequently reported cessation

  20. Barriers to Quitting Smoking Among Substance Dependent Patients Predict Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rosemarie A; Cassidy, Rachel N; Murphy, Cara M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2016-05-01

    For smokers with substance use disorders (SUD), perceived barriers to quitting smoking include concerns unique to effects on sobriety as well as usual concerns. We expanded our Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) scale, added importance ratings, validated it, and then used the importance scores to predict smoking treatment response in smokers with substance use disorders (SUD) undergoing smoking treatment in residential treatment programs in two studies (n=184 and 340). Both components (general barriers, weight concerns) were replicated with excellent internal consistency reliability. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations with pretreatment nicotine dependence, smoking variables, smoking self-efficacy, and expected effects of smoking. General barriers significantly predicted 1-month smoking abstinence, frequency and heaviness, and 3-month smoking frequency; weight concerns predicted 1-month smoking frequency. Implications involve addressing barriers with corrective information in smoking treatment for smokers with SUD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Impact and Duration of Brief Surgeon-Delivered Smoking Cessation Advice on Attitudes Regarding Nicotine Dependence and Tobacco Harms for Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhall, Karina; Suckow, Bjoern; Spangler, Emily; Brooke, Benjamin S; Schanzer, Andres; Tan, Tze-Woei; Burnette, Mary; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Farber, Alik; Goodney, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Despite the recognized benefits of smoking cessation, many clinicians question if a brief smoking cessation intervention can help dedicated smokers with peripheral arterial disease understand nicotine dependence and harms related to smoking. We investigated the impact and durability of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention on patient attitudes regarding nicotine dependence and the health effects of smoking. We conducted a pilot cluster-randomized trial of a brief smoking cessation intervention at 8 vascular surgery practices between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Compared with control sites, patients at intervention sites received protocolized brief cessation counseling, medications, and referrals to a quitline. After their clinic visit and again at 3 months, participants completed a brief survey about patient attitudes regarding nicotine dependence and the health effects of smoking. Responses to questions were analyzed using chi-squared test and Student's t-test. All trial participants (n = 156) complete the initial survey, and 75 (45%) participants completed the follow-up survey. Intervention and control patients both reported a greater than 30-pack-year history (80% vs. 90%, P = 0.07) and previous failed quit attempts (77% vs. 78%, P = 0.8). Compared with usual care, patients in the intervention group were more likely to describe hearing advice to quit from their surgeon (98% vs. 77%, P smoking (scaled score 56.6 vs. 50.6, P = 0.001). When resurveyed 3 months after intervention, patients in the intervention group had larger declines in nicotine dependence and health effect domains, suggesting durable impact of the intervention on patient attitudes regarding nicotine addiction and smoking harms. Brief smoking cessation counseling by a vascular surgeon increases patient interest in smoking cessation and awareness of smoking harms, and this effect was durable 3 months after intervention. This evidence suggests that even brief counseling

  3. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  4. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  5. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  6. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieminska, Alicja; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Jassem, Ewa; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Ucinska, Romana; Chelminska, Marta

    2008-08-04

    The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers) who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76%) used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001), mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%). The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%), personal health problems (32%) and social reasons (32%). However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3%) abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is a need for a broader professional help for them. There is

  7. Neural Signatures of Cognitive Flexibility and Reward Sensitivity Following Nicotinic Receptor Stimulation in Dependent Smokers: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Aronson, Sarah E; Sutherland, Matthew T; Ross, Thomas J; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Stein, Elliot A

    2017-06-01

    Withdrawal from nicotine is an important contributor to smoking relapse. Understanding how reward-based decision making is affected by abstinence and by pharmacotherapies such as nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline tartrate may aid cessation treatment. To independently assess the effects of nicotine dependence and stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on the ability to interpret valence information (reward sensitivity) and subsequently alter behavior as reward contingencies change (cognitive flexibility) in a probabilistic reversal learning task. Nicotine-dependent smokers and nonsmokers completed a probabilistic reversal learning task during acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a 2-drug, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design conducted from January 21, 2009, to September 29, 2011. Smokers were abstinent from cigarette smoking for 12 hours for all sessions. In a fully Latin square fashion, participants in both groups underwent MRI twice while receiving varenicline and twice while receiving a placebo pill, wearing either a nicotine or a placebo patch. Imaging analysis was performed from June 15, 2015, to August 10, 2016. A well-established computational model captured effects of smoking status and administration of nicotine and varenicline on probabilistic reversal learning choice behavior. Neural effects of smoking status, nicotine, and varenicline were tested for on MRI contrasts that captured reward sensitivity and cognitive flexibility. The study included 24 nicotine-dependent smokers (12 women and 12 men; mean [SD] age, 35.8 [9.9] years) and 20 nonsmokers (10 women and 10 men; mean [SD] age, 30.4 [7.2] years). Computational modeling indicated that abstinent smokers were biased toward response shifting and that their decisions were less sensitive to the available evidence, suggesting increased impulsivity during withdrawal. These behavioral impairments were mitigated with nicotine and varenicline

  8. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  9. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  10. Nicotine dependence and its correlates among the adult tobacco users in a slum of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Saha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco kills half of its users, with smoking and smokeless tobacco killing nearly 6 million people worldwide – one death every 6 s in each year. Use of tobacco over time causes a physical and psychological addiction due to the presence of nicotine. To find out the level of nicotine dependence among adult (18 years and above tobacco users and the factors responsible for it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 128 current tobacco users in an urban slum of Burdwan District, West Bengal, India. Study tools comprised of predesigned, pretested, semi-structured schedule, containing Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND questionnaire. Data were collected by interview after getting consent from the participants. Chi-square test, unpaired student t-test, ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression was calculated. SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Inc, Chicago, IL, USA. was used for analysis. Results: High level of nicotine dependence was maximally seen among increased in age group, prolonged duration of use and daily users. Age, duration of tobacco use and habit of tobacco use had a significant positive correlation with FTND score while starting age of tobacco had a significant negative correlation. Then in multivariable linear regression, starting age of tobacco use, habit of tobacco use and duration of tobacco use emerged as a significant predictor of FTND score and could explain 27.3% of total variation in FTND score. Conclusions: Suitable plan for quitting may be developed based on the FTND score of an individual, the most important determinant of quitting.

  11. Image quality assessment based on inter-patch and intra-patch similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhou

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a full-reference (FR image quality assessment (IQA scheme, which evaluates image fidelity from two aspects: the inter-patch similarity and the intra-patch similarity. The scheme is performed in a patch-wise fashion so that a quality map can be obtained. On one hand, we investigate the disparity between one image patch and its adjacent ones. This disparity is visually described by an inter-patch feature, where the hybrid effect of luminance masking and contrast masking is taken into account. The inter-patch similarity is further measured by modifying the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC. On the other hand, we also attach importance to the impact of image contents within one patch on the IQA problem. For the intra-patch feature, we consider image curvature as an important complement of image gradient. According to local image contents, the intra-patch similarity is measured by adaptively comparing image curvature and gradient. Besides, a nonlinear integration of the inter-patch and intra-patch similarity is presented to obtain an overall score of image quality. The experiments conducted on six publicly available image databases show that our scheme achieves better performance in comparison with several state-of-the-art schemes.

  12. Design and Development of Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nagendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel dual band microstrip patch antenna based on composite patch antenna and radiating part. By selecting a suitable offset feed position, it is feasible to provide 50Ω characteristic impedance and thus making better impedance matching. The proposed antenna has been improved broader bandwidth by using RT Duroid substrate. The radiating part is plays a important role in creating a lower operating band (2.45 GHz in addition to achieve miniaturization. The proposed antenna has to be fabricated with RT / Duroid substrate and dimensions of 19 × 22 × 0.8 mm. The measured -10 dB bandwidth of 200 MHz at 2.45 GHz and 990 MHz at 5.45 GHz, which is quite useful for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM and WLAN applications.

  13. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  14. Nicotinic receptor activation contrasts pathophysiological bursting and neurodegeneration evoked by glutamate uptake block on rat hypoglossal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Silvia; Tortora, Maria; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Impaired uptake of glutamate builds up the extracellular level of this excitatory transmitter to trigger rhythmic neuronal bursting and delayed cell death in the brainstem motor nucleus hypoglossus. This process is the expression of the excitotoxicity that underlies motoneuron degeneration in diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affecting bulbar motoneurons. In a model of motoneuron excitotoxicity produced by pharmacological block of glutamate uptake in vitro, rhythmic bursting is suppressed by activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors with their conventional agonist nicotine. Emergence of bursting is facilitated by nicotinic receptor antagonists. Following excitotoxicity, nicotinic receptor activity decreases mitochondrial energy dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and production of toxic radicals. Globally, these phenomena synergize to provide motoneuron protection. Nicotinic receptors may represent a novel target to contrast pathological overactivity of brainstem motoneurons and therefore to prevent their metabolic distress and death. Excitotoxicity is thought to be one of the early processes in the onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because high levels of glutamate have been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of such patients due to dysfunctional uptake of this transmitter that gradually damages brainstem and spinal motoneurons. To explore potential mechanisms to arrest ALS onset, we used an established in vitro model of rat brainstem slice preparation in which excitotoxicity is induced by the glutamate uptake blocker dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA). Because certain brain neurons may be neuroprotected via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine, we investigated if nicotine could arrest excitotoxic damage to highly ALS-vulnerable hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). On 50% of patch-clamped HMs, TBOA induced intense network bursts that were inhibited by 1-10 μm nicotine, whereas nAChR antagonists

  15. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E-Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M; Yang, Benjamin K; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-20

    Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each participant used an e-cigarette with nicotine, an e-cigarette without nicotine, or a sham control. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was determined by heart rate variability, and susceptibility to oxidative stress was determined by plasma paraoxonase activity. Following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine, but not to the e-cigarette without nicotine or the sham control, there was a significant and marked shift in cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. The decrease in high-frequency component and the increases in the low-frequency component and the low-frequency to high-frequency ratio were significantly greater following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine compared with exposure to the e-cigarette without nicotine or to sham control. Oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase, did not increase following any of the 3 exposures. The acute sympathomimetic effect of e-cigarettes is attributable to the inhaled nicotine, not to non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol, recapitulating the same heart rate variability pattern associated with increased cardiac risk in multiple populations with and without known cardiac disease. Evidence of oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase activity, was not uncovered following acute e-cigarette exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Patch use in time and space for a meso-predator in a risky world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shomen; Zelcer, Michal; Kotler, Burt P

    2009-03-01

    Predator-prey studies often assume a three trophic level system where predators forage free from any risk of predation. Since meso-predators themselves are also prospective prey, they too need to trade-off between food and safety. We applied foraging theory to study patch use and habitat selection by a meso-predator, the red fox. We present evidence that foxes use a quitting harvest rate rule when deciding whether or not to abandon a foraging patch, and experience diminishing returns when foraging from a depletable food patch. Furthermore, our data suggest that patch use decisions of red foxes are influenced not just by the availability of food, but also by their perceived risk of predation. Fox behavior was affected by moonlight, with foxes depleting food resources more thoroughly (lower giving-up density) on darker nights compared to moonlit nights. Foxes reduced risk from hyenas by being more active where and when hyena activity was low. While hyenas were least active during moon, and most active during full moon nights, the reverse was true for foxes. Foxes showed twice as much activity during new moon compared to full moon nights, suggesting different costs of predation. Interestingly, resources in patches with cues of another predator (scat of wolf) were depleted to significantly lower levels compared to patches without. Our results emphasize the need for considering risk of predation for intermediate predators, and also shows how patch use theory and experimental food patches can be used for a predator. Taken together, these results may help us better understand trophic interactions.

  17. Associations of Weight Concerns With Self-Efficacy and Motivation to Quit Smoking: A Population-Based Study Among Finnish Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuovinen, Eeva-Liisa; Saarni, Suoma E; Kinnunen, Taru H; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Patja, Kristiina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo

    2015-09-01

    Concerns about weight gain occurring after smoking cessation may affect motivation and self-efficacy towards quitting smoking. We examined associations of smoking-specific weight concerns with smoking cessation motivation and self-efficacy in a population-based cross-sectional sample of daily smokers. Six-hundred biochemically verified (blood cotinine) current daily smokers comprising 318 men and 282 women aged 25-74 years, were studied as part of the National FINRISK (Finnish Population Survey on Risk Factors on Chronic, Noncommunicable Diseases) study and its DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic factors in the development of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) sub-study that was conducted in Finland in 2007. Self-reported scales were used to assess weight concerns, motivation and self-efficacy regarding the cessation of smoking. Multiple regression analyses of concerns about weight in relation to motivation and self-efficacy were conducted with adjustments for sex, age (years), body mass index (BMI, [kg/m(2)]), physical activity (times per week), and further controlled for nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence). Higher levels of weight concerns were associated with lower self-efficacy (β = -0.07, p motivation for smoking cessation (β = 0.02, p = 0.16). These cross-sectional population-based data do not support earlier findings that suggest that smokers with high levels of weight concerns are less motivated to quit smoking. Our data suggest that daily smokers who are highly concerned about weight may have lower self-efficacy for cessation of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  19. 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Cox, Sharon; Goniewicz, Maciej; McRobbie, Hayden; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Kośmider, Leon

    2018-06-07

    To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. London and the South East, England. Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases

  20. Quit Smoking >

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    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  1. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  3. Designing a smoking cessation intervention for the unique needs of homeless persons: a community-based randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Thomas, Janet; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John; Des Jarlais, Don; Resnicow, Ken; Gelberg, Lillian; Owen, Greg; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2011-12-01

    Although smoking prevalence remains strikingly high in homeless populations (~70% and three times the US national average), smoking cessation studies usually exclude homeless persons. Novel evidence-based interventions are needed for this high-risk subpopulation of smokers. To describe the aims and design of a first-ever smoking cessation clinical trial in the homeless population. The study was a two-group randomized community-based trial that enrolled participants (n = 430) residing across eight homeless shelters and transitional housing units in Minnesota. The study objective was to test the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for enhancing adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; nicotine patch) and smoking cessation outcomes. Participants were randomized to one of the two groups: active (8 weeks of NRT + 6 sessions of MI) or control (NRT + standard care). Participants attended six in-person assessment sessions and eight retention visits at a location of their choice over 6 months. Nicotine patch in 2-week doses was administered at four visits over the first 8 weeks of the 26-week trial. The primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included adherence to nicotine patch assessed through direct observation and patch counts. Other outcomes included the mediating and/or moderating effects of comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Lessons learned from the community-based cessation randomized trial for improving recruitment and retention in a mobile and vulnerable population included: (1) the importance of engaging the perspectives of shelter leadership by forming and convening a Community Advisory Board; (2) locating the study at the shelters for more visibility and easier access for participants; (3) minimizing exclusion criteria to allow enrollment of participants with stable psychiatric comorbid conditions; (4) delaying the baseline visit from the eligibility visit by a week

  4. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  5. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  6. Predictors of the Nicotine Dependence Behavior Time to the First Cigarette in a Multiracial Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Steven A; Mercincavage, Melissa; Muscat, Joshua E

    2015-07-01

    The time to first cigarette of the day (TTFC) is a strong indicator of nicotine dependence behaviors such as nicotine uptake and quit success in young and older smokers. There are substantial differences in levels of nicotine dependence by race and ethnic group. Data from Wave III of the multiracial National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed for young smokers between the ages of 21 and 28 (N = 1,425). Time to first cigarette data was compared between Hispanic, White, Black, Native American, and Asian smokers. Black smokers were significantly more likely to smoke within 5min of waking than White, Hispanic, and Asian smokers. Lower personal income predicted smoking within 5min of waking for both White and Black smokers. For White smokers, increased number of cigarettes per day and increased years of smoking also predicted smoking within 5min of waking. The number of days smoked or number of cigarettes per day did not predict smoking within 5min of waking among smokers. The higher prevalence of early TTFC among Blacks indicates increased nicotine and carcinogen exposure, and may help explain the increased lung cancer rates and failed cessation attempts among Black smokers. TTFC may be an important screening item, independent of cigarettes per day, for clinicians and interventions to identify those at highest risk for cessation failure and disease risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Quit in General Practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwar Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study will test the uptake and effectiveness of a flexible package of smoking cessation support provided primarily by the practice nurse (PN and tailored to meet the needs of a diversity of patients. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised trial, with practices allocated to one of three groups 1 Quit with Practice Nurse 2 Quitline referral 3 GP usual care. PNs from practices randomised to the intervention group will receive a training course in smoking cessation followed by access to mentoring. GPs from practices randomised to the Quitline referral group will receive information about the study and the process of written referral and GPs in the usual care group will receive information about the study. Eligible patients are those aged 18 and over presenting to their GP who are daily or weekly smokers and who are able to give informed consent. Patients on low incomes in all three groups will be able to access free nicotine patches. Primary outcomes are sustained abstinence and point prevalence abstinence at the three month and 12 month follow-up points; and incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 12 months. Process evaluation on the reach and acceptability of the intervention approached will be collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI with patients and semi-structured interviews with PNs and GPs. The primary analysis will be by intention to treat. Cessation outcomes will be compared between the three arms at three months and 12 month follow-up using multiple logistic regression. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios will be estimated for the 12 month quit rate for the intervention groups compared to usual care and to each other. Analysis of qualitative data on process outcomes will be based on thematic analysis. Discussion High quality evidence on effectiveness of practice nurse interventions is needed to inform health policy on development of practice nurse roles. If effective

  8. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  9. Rapid relief of block by mecamylamine of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of rat chromaffin cells in vitro: an electrophysiological and modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giniatullin, R A; Sokolova, E M; Di Angelantonio, S; Skorinkin, A; Talantova, M V; Nistri, A

    2000-10-01

    The mechanism responsible for the blocking action of mecamylamine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was studied on rat isolated chromaffin cells recorded under whole-cell patch clamp. Mecamylamine strongly depressed (IC(50) = 0.34 microM) inward currents elicited by short pulses of nicotine, an effect slowly reversible on wash. The mecamylamine block was voltage-dependent and promptly relieved by a protocol combining membrane depolarization with a nicotine pulse. Either depolarization or nicotine pulses were insufficient per se to elicit block relief. Block relief was transient; response depression returned in a use-dependent manner. Exposure to mecamylamine failed to block nAChRs if they were not activated by nicotine or if they were activated at positive membrane potentials. These data suggest that mecamylamine could not interact with receptors either at rest or at depolarized level. Other nicotinic antagonists like dihydro-beta-erythroidine or tubocurarine did not share this action of mecamylamine although proadifen partly mimicked it. Mecamylamine is suggested to penetrate and block open nAChRs that would subsequently close and trap this antagonist. Computer modeling indicated that the mechanism of mecamylamine blocking action could be described by assuming that 1) mecamylamine-blocked receptors possessed a much slower, voltage-dependent isomerization rate, 2) the rate constant for mecamylamine unbinding was large and poorly voltage dependent. Hence, channel reopening plus depolarization allowed mecamylamine escape and block relief. In the presence of mecamylamine, therefore, nAChRs acquire the new property of operating as coincidence detectors for concomitant changes in membrane potential and receptor occupancy.

  10. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  11. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  12. A systematic review of consumer preference for e-cigarette attributes: Flavor, nicotine strength, and type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Objective Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. Method A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. Results 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Conclusion Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol

  13. A systematic review of consumer preference for e-cigarette attributes: Flavor, nicotine strength, and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Samane; Nemati, Mehdi; Zheng, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Systematic review of research examining consumer preference for the main electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) attributes namely flavor, nicotine strength, and type. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles resulted in a pool of 12,933 articles. We included only articles that meet all the selection criteria: (1) peer-reviewed, (2) written in English, and (3) addressed consumer preference for one or more of the e-cigarette attributes including flavor, strength, and type. 66 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Consumers preferred flavored e-cigarettes, and such preference varied with age groups and smoking status. We also found that several flavors were associated with decreased harm perception while tobacco flavor was associated with increased harm perception. In addition, some flavor chemicals and sweeteners used in e-cigarettes could be of toxicological concern. Finally, consumer preference for nicotine strength and types depended on smoking status, e-cigarette use history, and gender. Adolescents could consider flavor the most important factor trying e-cigarettes and were more likely to initiate vaping through flavored e-cigarettes. Young adults overall preferred sweet, menthol, and cherry flavors, while non-smokers in particular preferred coffee and menthol flavors. Adults in general also preferred sweet flavors (though smokers like tobacco flavor the most) and disliked flavors that elicit bitterness or harshness. In terms of whether flavored e-cigarettes assisted quitting smoking, we found inconclusive evidence. E-cigarette users likely initiated use with a cigarette like product and transitioned to an advanced system with more features. Non-smokers and inexperienced e-cigarettes users tended to prefer no nicotine or low nicotine e-cigarettes while smokers and experienced e-cigarettes users preferred medium and high nicotine e-cigarettes. Weak evidence exists regarding a positive interaction between menthol flavor and nicotine strength.

  14. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  15. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  16. Brief psycho-education affects circadian variability in nicotine craving during cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2013-09-01

    Nicotine cravings are a key target of smoking cessation interventions. Cravings demonstrate circadian variation during abstinence, often peaking during the morning and evening hours. Although some research has also shown diurnal variation in the efficacy of nicotine replacement medications, little research has examined how brief psychosocial interventions affect temporal patterns of craving during abstinence. The present study examined the impact of two brief psycho-education interventions on circadian variations in cravings during a 24-h period. 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions. During the first session, participants received (a) mindfulness psycho-education that encouraged acceptance of cravings as a normal, tolerable part of quitting that people should not expect to perfectly control, (b) standard cessation psycho-education, or (c) no psycho-education. Half the sample initiated a cessation attempt the following day. Dependent variables were assessed using ecological momentary assessment (24-h of monitoring, immediately after first lab session) and questionnaires four days later. Partially consistent with hypotheses, both forms of psycho-education were associated with differential diurnal variation in cravings during cessation. Relative to those receiving no psycho-education, standard smoking cessation psycho-education decreased morning cravings. Psycho-education encouraging acceptance of cravings was associated with lower craving in both the morning and evening, albeit only among successfully abstinent smokers. Results demonstrate that brief non-pharmacological interventions can affect circadian craving patterns during smoking cessation. Further investigation of mechanisms of change and of the impact of psycho-education on cessation outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial “Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military”. Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services. PMID:22561390

  18. Trial Protocol: Using genotype to tailor prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy: a randomised controlled trial assessing impact of communication upon adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prevost A Toby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behavioural impact of pharmacogenomics is untested; informing smokers of genetic test results for responsiveness to smoking cessation medication may increase adherence to this medication. The objective of this trial is to estimate the impact upon adherence to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT of informing smokers that their oral dose of NRT has been tailored to a DNA analysis. Hypotheses to be tested are as follows: IAdherence to NRT is greater among smokers informed that their oral dose of NRT is tailored to an analysis of DNA (genotype, compared to one tailored to nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype. II Amongst smokers who fail to quit at six months, motivation to make another quit attempt is lower when informed that their oral dose of NRT was tailored to genotype rather than phenotype. Methods/Design An open label, parallel groups randomised trial in which 630 adult smokers (smoking 10 or more cigarettes daily using National Health Service (NHS stop smoking services in primary care are randomly allocated to one of two groups: i. NRT oral dose tailored by DNA analysis (OPRM1 gene (genotype, or ii. NRT oral dose tailored by nicotine dependence questionnaire score (phenotype The primary outcome is proportion of prescribed NRT consumed in the first 28 days following an initial quit attempt, with the secondary outcome being motivation to make another quit attempt, amongst smokers not abstinent at six months. Other outcomes include adherence to NRT in the first seven days and biochemically validated smoking abstinence at six months. The primary outcome will be collected on 630 smokers allowing sufficient power to detect a 7.5% difference in mean proportion of NRT consumed using a two-tailed test at the 5% level of significance between groups. The proportion of all NRT consumed in the first four weeks of quitting will be compared between arms using an independent samples t-test and by estimating the 95

  19. Nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes used by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and "I don't know"). We first examined whether age, sex, smoking status, e-cigarette use frequency, and/or e-cigarette acquisition source were associated with using nicotine-free e-liquid, nicotine e-liquid, or not knowing the e-liquid nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users (n=185), we then examined whether the aforementioned variables were associated with using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using nicotine-free e-liquid (28.5%), nicotine e-liquid (37.4%), or not knowing their e-liquid nicotine concentration (34.1%). Nicotine users comprised more smokers and heavier e-cigarette users compared to nicotine-free e-liquid users and those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Nicotine users also comprised more males and were more likely to purchase e-cigarettes online or from tobacco shops compared to those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users, cigarette smoking, male sex, and purchasing e-cigarettes from tobacco shops predicted using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using e-liquids with variable nicotine concentrations. Smokers, males, and those who purchased their own e-cigarettes reported using the highest nicotine levels. Of concern, many adolescents were unaware of the nicotine concentration in their e-liquid, raising concerns about inadvertent nicotine exposure among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Addiction Potential of Cigarettes With Reduced Nicotine Content in Populations With Psychiatric Disorders and Other Vulnerabilities to Tobacco Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Gaalema, Diann E; Hughes, John R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Durand, Hanna; Bunn, Janice Y; Priest, Jeff S; Arger, Christopher A; Miller, Mollie E; Bergeria, Cecilia L; Davis, Danielle R; Streck, Joanna M; Reed, Derek D; Skelly, Joan M; Tursi, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    A national policy is under consideration to reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes to lower nicotine addiction potential in the United States. To examine how smokers with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction respond to cigarettes with reduced nicotine content. A multisite, double-blind, within-participant assessment of acute response to research cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from levels below a hypothesized addiction threshold to those representative of commercial cigarettes (0.4, 2.3, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco) at 3 academic sites included 169 daily smokers from the following 3 vulnerable populations: individuals with affective disorders (n = 56) or opioid dependence (n = 60) and socioeconomically disadvantaged women (n = 53). Data were collected from March 23, 2015, through April 25, 2016. After a brief smoking abstinence, participants were exposed to the cigarettes with varying nicotine doses across fourteen 2- to 4-hour outpatient sessions. Addiction potential of the cigarettes was assessed using concurrent choice testing, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), and validated measures of subjective effects, such as the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Among the 169 daily smokers included in the analysis (120 women [71.0%] and 49 men [29.0%]; mean [SD] age, 35.6 [11.4] years), reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes decreased the relative reinforcing effects of smoking in all 3 populations. Across populations, the 0.4-mg/g dose was chosen significantly less than the 15.8-mg/g dose in concurrent choice testing (mean [SEM] 30% [0.04%] vs 70% [0.04%]; Cohen d = 0.40; P vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Smokers with psychiatric conditions and socioeconomic disadvantage are more addicted and less likely to quit and experience greater adverse health impacts. Policies to reduce these disparities are needed; reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes should be a policy focus.

  1. Coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigang, Helene C

    2017-08-07

    The three phases of dispersal - emigration, transfer and immigration - are affecting each other and the former and latter decisions may depend on patch types. Despite the inevitable fact of the complexity of the dispersal process, patch-type dependencies of dispersal decisions modelled as emigration and immigration are usually missing in theoretical dispersal models. Here, I investigate the coevolution of patch-type dependent emigration and patch-type dependent immigration in an extended Hamilton-May model. The dispersing population inhabits a landscape structured into many patches of two types and disperses during a continuous-time season. The trait under consideration is a four dimensional vector consisting of two values for emigration probability from the patches and two values for immigration probability into the patches of each type. Using the adaptive dynamics approach I show that four qualitatively different dispersal strategies may evolve in different parameter regions, including a counterintuitive strategy, where patches of one type are fully dispersed from (emigration probability is one) but individuals nevertheless always immigrate into them during the dispersal season (immigration probability is one). I present examples of evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range, when the patches with high local death rate during the dispersal season guarantee a high expected disperser output. I find that two dispersal strategies can coexist after evolutionary branching: a strategy with full immigration only into the patches with high expected disperser output coexists with a strategy that immigrates into any patch. Stochastic simulations agree with the numerical predictions. Since evolutionary branching is also found when immigration evolves alone, the present study is adding coevolutionary constraints on the emigration traits and hence finds that the coevolution of a higher dimensional trait sometimes hinders evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2017

  2. Motivation and readiness for tobacco cessation among nicotine dependent postmenopausal females: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, MacKenzie R; Roys, Melanie R; Waters, Aaron F; Vinci, Christine; Waldo, Krystal M; Stewart, Shelby A; Toups, Robert C; Jones, Louis; Copeland, Amy L

    2018-04-01

    Despite considerable health risks due to lower levels of estrogen production and the compounding antiestrogenic effects of nicotine, postmenopausal females continue to smoke. These females face significant barriers to cessation, including negative affect, weight concerns, and menopausal symptom severity. The current pilot study explored the effect of negative affect, weight concerns, and menopausal symptom severity on motivation and readiness to quit smoking. Eighteen postmenopausal smokers were randomized to receive brief motivational interviewing (B-MI; n = 8) or control treatment (i.e., a 1-hour video, n = 10). Participants completed measures of negative affect, weight concerns, and menopausal symptoms, as well as measures of motivation and readiness to quit. Motivation and readiness to quit were reassessed one week following treatment. At baseline, weight concerns, specifically surrounding smoking to prevent overeating, were identified as related to increased motivation to quit smoking. Menopausal symptom severity, specifically somatic symptoms, assessed at baseline, was associated with increased readiness for cessation. B-MI did not increase motivation or readiness to quit; however, results indicate that cigarettes per day decreased from baseline to follow-up by approximately 20-30%. These results provide valuable insight into enhancing engagement in a cessation treatment among this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Anterior temporal face patches: A meta-analysis and empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Von Der Heide

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of nonhuman primates have reported face sensitive patches in the ventral anterior temporal lobes (ATL. In humans, ATL resection or damage causes an associative prosopagnosia in which face perception is intact but face memory is compromised. Some fMRI studies have extended these findings using famous and familiar faces. However, it is unclear whether these regions in the human ATL are in locations comparable to those reported in non-human primates, typically using unfamiliar faces. We present the results of two studies of person memory: a meta-analysis of existing fMRI studies and an empirical fMRI study using optimized imaging parameters. Both studies showed left-lateralized ATL activations to familiar individuals while novel faces activated the right ATL. Activations to famous faces were quite ventral, similar to what has been reported in monkeys. These findings suggest that face memory-sensitive patches in the human ATL are in the ventral/polar ATL.

  4. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  5. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  6. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  7. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data

  8. The impact of advertising on nicotine replacement therapy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Emery, Sherry

    2005-05-01

    While much is known about the economic determinants of tobacco use, very little is known about the economic determinants of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. This paper is the first econometric study to examine the impact of advertising on NRT demand. Pooled cross-sectional time-series scanner-based data for 50 major metropolitan markets in the USA covering the period between the second quarter of 1996 and the second quarter of 2002 are used in the analysis. Fixed-effects modeling is employed to estimate the NRT demand equation. The estimates indicate that increased advertising of Nicoderm CQ transdermal patches and Nicotrol transdermal patches increases per-capita sales of established Nicoderm CQ and Nicotrol products, respectively. However, increased advertising of Nicorette polacrilex (gum) was found not to significantly increase sales of established Nicorette products. Moreover, decreases in the price of NRT and increases in the price of cigarettes were found to increase per-capita sales of NRT products. Given the documented efficacy of NRT, measures to increase peoples' awareness of NRT products through advertising, measures to decrease the price of NRT, and measures to increase the price of cigarettes would be effective means to increase the use of NRT, likely leading to decreased cigarette smoking and reductions in the future public health burden caused by tobacco use.

  9. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzy M. Hendrickson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. As many as 80-95% of alcoholics are also smokers, suggesting that ethanol and nicotine, the primary addictive component of tobacco smoke, may functionally interact in the central nervous system and/or share a common mechanism of action. While nicotine initiates dependence by binding to and activating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, ligand-gated cation channels normally activated by endogenous acetylcholine (ACh, ethanol is much less specific with the ability to modulate multiple gene products including those encoding voltage-gated ion channels, and excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. However, emerging data indicate that ethanol interacts with nAChRs, both directly and indirectly, in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic reward circuitry to affect brain reward systems. Like nicotine, ethanol activates DAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Blockade of VTA nAChRs reduces ethanol-mediated activation of DAergic neurons, NAc DA release, consumption, and operant responding for ethanol in rodents. Thus, ethanol may increase ACh release into the VTA driving activation of DAergic neurons through nAChRs. In addition, ethanol potentiates distinct nAChR subtype responses to ACh and nicotine in vitro and in DAergic neurons. The smoking cessation therapeutic and nAChR partial agonist, varenicline, reduces alcohol consumption in heavy drinking smokers and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms in nAChR subunit genes are associated with alcohol dependence phenotypes and smoking behaviors in human populations. Together, results from preclinical, clinical, and genetic studies indicate that nAChRs may have an inherent role in the abusive properties of ethanol, as well as in nicotine and alcohol co-dependence.

  10. Genotoxicity study on nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.S.; Wang, H.F.; Shi, J.Y.; Wang, X.Y.; Liu, Y.F.; Li, K.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Liu, K.X.; Guo, Z.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied DNA adduction with 14 C-labelled nicotine and nicotine-derived nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in mouse liver at doses equivalent to low-level exposure of humans. The dose ranges of nicotine and NNK administered were from 0.4 μg to 4.0 x 10 2 μg·kg -1 , and from 0.1 μg to 2.0 x 10 4 μg·kg -1 , respectively. In the exposure of mice to either nicotine or NNK, the number of DNA adducts increased linearly with increasing dose. The detection limit of DNA adducts was 1 adduct per 10 11 nucleotide molecules. This limit is 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than that of other techniques used for quantification of DNA adducts. The results of the animal experiments enabled us to speculate that nicotine is a potential carcinogen. According to the procedure for 14 C-labelled-NNK synthesis, the authors discuss the ultimate chemical speciation of NNK bound to DNA. From the animal tests the authors derived a directly perceivable relation between tobacco consumption and DNA adduction as the carcinogenic risk assessment

  11. Pathogenesis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Role of Nicotine and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Zhuang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and angiogenesis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, although the well-defined initiating mechanism is not fully understood. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs such as MMP-2 and -9 and other proteinases degrading elastin and extracellular matrix are the critical pathogenesis of AAAs. Among the risk factors of AAAs, cigarette smoking is an irrefutable one. Cigarette smoke is practically involved in various aspects of the AAA pathogenesis. Nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco leaves and a primary component in cigarette smoke, can stimulate the MMPs expression by vascular SMCs, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells in vascular wall and induce angiogenesis in the aneurysmal tissues. However, for the inflammatory and apoptotic processes in the pathogenesis of AAAs, nicotine seems to be moving in just the opposite direction. Additionally, the effects of nicotine are probably dose dependent or associated with the exposure duration and may be partly exerted by its receptors—nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. In this paper, we will mainly discuss the pathogenesis of AAAs involving inflammation, proteolysis, smooth muscle cell apoptosis and angiogenesis, and the roles of nicotine and nAChRs.

  12. Habenular expression of rare missense variants of the β4 nicotinic receptor subunit alters nicotine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A Ślimak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, encoding the α5, α3 and β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subunits, has been linked to nicotine dependence. The habenulo-interpeduncular (Hb-IPN tract is particularly enriched in α3β4 nAChRs. We recently showed that modulation of these receptors in the medial habenula (MHb in mice altered nicotine consumption. Given that β4 is rate-limiting for receptor activity and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CHRNB4 have been linked to altered risk of nicotine dependence in humans, we were interested in determining the contribution of allelic variants of β4 to nicotine receptor activity in the MHb. We screened for missense SNPs with allele frequencies > 0.0005 and introduced the corresponding substitutions in Chrnb4. Fourteen variants were analyzed by co-expression with α3. We found that β4A90I and β4T374I variants, previously shown to associate with reduced risk of smoking, and an additional variant β4D447Y, significantly increased nicotine-evoked current amplitudes, while β4R348C, the mutation most frequently encountered in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS, showed reduced nicotine currents. We employed lentiviruses to express β4 or β4 variants in the MHb. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that β4 lentiviral-mediated expression leads to specific upregulation of α3β4 but not β2 nAChRs in the Mhb. Mice injected with the β4-containing virus showed pronounced aversion to nicotine as previously observed in transgenic Tabac mice overexpressing Chrnb4 at endogenous sites including the MHb. Habenular expression of the β4 gain-of-function allele T374I also resulted in strong aversion, while transduction with the β4 loss-of function allele R348C failed to induce nicotine aversion. Altogether, these data confirm the critical role of habenular β4 in nicotine consumption, and identify specific SNPs in CHRNB4 that modify nicotine-elicited currents and alter nicotine

  13. Pharmacological treatments for tobacco dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Fagerström

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are currently three licensed therapies for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement (NR, bupropion and varenicline. NR can be indicated for: 1 aid in abrupt cessation; 2 gradual reduction in order to quit smoking; 3 temporary abstinence; and 4 smoking reduction maintenance. A meta-analysis has found that the relative risk of abstinence for any form of NR relative to control was 1.6. It has been found that starting NR treatment 1–3 weeks before smoking cessation and combining NR products, usually patch and gum, increases efficacy. Recently some new nicotine administration forms, i.e. lozenge, mouth spray and a pouch, have been developed. They seem to have the potential to relieve cravings faster than the current high-dose gum, and also be more preferred. Varenicline is a selective partial agonist at the 4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR. It decreases cravings and alleviates the symptoms of withdrawal. It can also reduce the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Trials have shown varenicline to have increased efficacy relative to bupropion. Varenicline has also been compared with NR (21 mg transdermal patch in one randomised study. Abstinence at the end of treatment at 12 weeks was significantly increased for varenicline (56% compared with for nicotine patch (43%. Some post-marketing reports have expressed concern about psychiatric adverse effects, such as aggression, depression and suicides. The European Medicines Agency and the Food and Drug Administration of the USA are monitoring reported side-effects, but so far no confirmed casual relationship between these adverse effects and varenicline has been established. Bupropion inhibits neuronal re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and is an antagonist on the nAChR. Its efficacy, compared with placebo, has been proved in several meta-analyses. A recent study suggests that longer pre-cessation use of bupropion, e.g. for 4 weeks, can improve efficacy results. Under

  14. One year effectiveness of an individualised smoking cessation intervention at the workplace: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Lafuente Urdinguio, P; Guallar-Castillón, P; Garteizaurrekoa Dublang, P; Sáinz Martínez, O; Díez Azcárate, J I; Foj Alemán, M; Banegas, J R

    2003-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers' tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5-8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2-3 minutes) over a three month period. Open randomised trial with two groups: the intervention group, and the control group which was subjected to standard clinical practice, consisting of short (30 seconds to one minute) sporadic sessions of unstructured medical antismoking advice. The trial was carried out among 217 smokers of both sexes, aged 20-63 years, motivated to quit smoking and without contraindications for nicotine patches, who were employees at a public transport company and at two worksites of an electric company. The main outcome measure was self reported tobacco abstinence confirmed by carbon monoxide in expired air workplace is effective to achieve long term smoking cessation. In a setting similar to ours, nine subjects would have to be treated for three months for one to achieve continuous abstinence for 12 months.

  15. Trait hostility and hostile interpretation biases in daily smokers: associations with reasons for smoking, motivation to quit, and early smoking lapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hawkins, Kirsten A; Macatee, Richard J; Zvolensky, Michael J; Sarawgi, Shivali

    2014-09-01

    Hostility has emerged as an important predictor of smoking cessation difficulties, though the mechanisms underlying the hostility and smoking relationship are poorly understood. Further, research has yet to explore relations between hostile interpretation biases and different aspects of smoking behavior. In the present study, current daily smokers (N = 106) were administered measures of smoking characteristics, smoking motivation, reasons for quitting, hostility, and hostile interpretation bias. Neither trait hostility nor hostile interpretation bias were uniquely associated with motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, nicotine dependence, or problematic symptoms following past cessation attempts. However, hostility and hostile interpretation biases were uniquely associated with different reasons for smoking. Additionally, greater hostile interpretation bias (but not hostility) was uniquely associated with early relapse following past cessation attempts. The current findings add uniquely to the growing, but still relatively small, literature on hostility and smoking and implicate hostile interpretation bias as a potential treatment target in smoking cessation interventions.

  16. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies in the literature have shown that exposure of mice and rats to nicotine early in development alters its effects when the rodents are subsequently challenged with nicotine. Anatoxin-a is a nicotinic agonist produced by several genera of cyanobacteria, and has caus...

  17. Assessment of nicotine concentration in electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) liquids and precision of dosing to aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Skórka, Agnieszka; Abdulafeez, Oluyadi; Koszowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Global use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also called electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) has increased dramatically in recent years. However, due to the limited safety studies and growing concerns on the potential toxicity from long term use of ENDS, many national and international governments have employed regulatory measures to curtail its use. One of the most significant challenges regulators of ENDS encounter is the lack of quality standards to assess ENDS, e-liquid (solution used with ENDS which contain nicotine--a highly toxic and addictive substance), and amount of nicotine delivery to aerosol during ENDS use. Aims of the study were to (1) measure and compare nicotine concentration in e-liquids to values reported by manufacturers on packaging labels; (2) assess the precision of nicotine delivery from tank during aerosol formation. Methods: Nine popular Polish e-liquids (based on the market share data from October 2014) were purchased for the study. The labelled nicotine concentration for the selected e-liquids ranged between 11-25 mg/mL. All e-liquids were aerosolized in the laboratory using a smoking simulation machine (Palaczbot). Each e-liquid was aerosolized in a series of 6 consecutive bouts. A single bout consisted of 15 puffs with the following puff topography: 65 mL puff volume, 2.8 sec. puff duration, and 19 sec. interpuff interval. A total of 90 puffs were generated from each e-liquid. Nicotine content in the e-liquids and the aerosol generated were determined by gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). For seven of nine analyzed e-liquids, the difference between measured and manufacturer labeled nicotine concentration was less than 10%. Nicotine dose in aerosol per bout ranged between 0.77-1.49 mg (equivalent to one-half the nicotine a smoker inhales from a single combustible cigarette). Our analysis showed the high consistency between the labeled and measured nicotine concentration for popular on the

  18. A Two-Day Continuous Nicotine Infusion Is Sufficient to Demonstrate Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats as Measured Using Intracranial Self-Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelken, Peter; Schmidt, Clare E.; Shelley, David; Tally, Laura; Harris, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance of the negative affective (emotional) symptoms of nicotine withdrawal (e.g., anhedonia, anxiety) contributes to tobacco addiction. Establishing the minimal nicotine exposure conditions required to demonstrate negative affective withdrawal signs in animals, as well as understanding moderators of these conditions, could inform tobacco addiction-related research, treatment, and policy. The goal of this study was to determine the minimal duration of continuous nicotine infusion required to demonstrate nicotine withdrawal in rats as measured by elevations in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds (anhedonia-like behavior). Administration of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist mecamylamine (3.0 mg/kg, s.c.) on alternate test days throughout the course of a 2-week continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day via osmotic minipump) elicited elevations in ICSS thresholds beginning on the second day of infusion. Magnitude of antagonist-precipitated withdrawal did not change with further nicotine exposure and mecamylamine injections, and was similar to that observed in a positive control group receiving mecamylamine following a 14-day nicotine infusion. Expression of a significant withdrawal effect was delayed in nicotine-infused rats receiving mecamylamine on all test days rather than on alternate test days. In a separate study, rats exhibited a transient increase in ICSS thresholds following cessation of a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day). Magnitude of this spontaneous withdrawal effect was similar to that observed in rats receiving a 9-day nicotine infusion. Our findings demonstrate that rats exhibit antagonist-precipitated and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal following a 2-day continuous nicotine infusion, at least under the experimental conditions studied here. Magnitude of these effects were similar to those observed in traditional models involving more prolonged nicotine exposure. Further development of these models

  19. Nicotine Impairs Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D

    2017-09-01

    Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.

  20. Measurement of nicotine in household dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungroul; Aung, Ther; Berkeley, Emily; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical method of measuring nicotine in house dust was optimized and associations among three secondhand smoking exposure markers were evaluated, i.e., nicotine concentrations of both house dust and indoor air, and the self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily in a household. We obtained seven house dust samples from self-reported nonsmoking homes and 30 samples from smoking homes along with the information on indoor air nicotine concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked daily from an asthma cohort study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment. House dust nicotine was analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Using our optimized method, the median concentration of nicotine in the dust of self-reported nonsmoking homes was 11.7 ng/mg while that of smoking homes was 43.4 ng/mg. We found a substantially positive association (r=0.67, P<0.0001) between house dust nicotine concentrations and the numbers of cigarettes smoked daily. Optimized analytical methods showed a feasibility to detect nicotine in house dust. Our results indicated that the measurement of nicotine in house dust can be used potentially as a marker of longer term SHS exposure

  1. Rationalization of a nanoparticle-based nicotine nanovaccine as an effective next-generation nicotine vaccine: A focus on hapten localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zongmin; Hu, Yun; Harmon, Theresa; Pentel, Paul; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2017-09-01

    A lipid-polymeric hybrid nanoparticle-based next-generation nicotine nanovaccine was rationalized in this study to combat nicotine addiction. A series of nanovaccines, which had nicotine-haptens localized on carrier protein (LPKN), nanoparticle surface (LPNK), or both (LPNKN), were designed to study the impact of hapten localization on their immunological efficacy. All three nanovaccines were efficiently taken up and processed by dendritic cells. LPNKN induced a significantly higher immunogenicity against nicotine and a significantly lower anti-carrier protein antibody level compared to LPKN and LPNK. Meanwhile, it was found that the anti-nicotine antibodies elicited by LPKN and LPNKN bind nicotine stronger than those elicited by LPKN, and LPNK and LPNKN resulted in a more balanced Th1-Th2 immunity than LPKN. Moreover, LPNKN exhibited the best ability to block nicotine from entering the brain of mice. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the immunological efficacy of the hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine could be enhanced by modulating hapten localization, providing a promising strategy to combatting nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  3. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  4. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zago, A.; Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E.; Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats

  5. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  6. E-cigarette- specific symptoms of nicotine dependence among Texas adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R; Mantey, Dale S; Creamer, MeLisa R; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-09-01

    The potential of e-cigarettes to elicit symptoms of nicotine dependence has not been adequately studied, particularly in adolescent populations. The present study examined the prevalence of e-cigarette-specific symptoms of nicotine dependence ("symptoms of e-cigarette dependence") and the associations between these symptoms, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation-related items among Texas adolescents. This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of adolescents from Wave 4 of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) (n = 2891/N = 461,069). Chi-Square analyses examined differences in the prevalence of symptoms of dependence by e-cigarette usage group (exclusive versus dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products) and demographic characteristics. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the associations between symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation items. Exclusive e-cigarette users experienced symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, although the prevalence of most of the symptoms was higher for dual users. Adolescents who reported more symptoms of dependence were less likely to report both wanting to quit e-cigarettes and a past-year quit attempt for e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio "AOR" = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41, 0.92) and AOR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.30, 0.92), respectively). This study is the first to demonstrate that adolescent e-cigarette users are experiencing symptoms of dependence specific to e-cigarettes. In addition, symptoms of dependence may be barriers to e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine if characteristics of e-cigarette use (e.g. frequency and intensity) are associated with dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. High-affinity α4β2 nicotinic receptors mediate the impairing effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Previously, studies from our lab have shown that while acute nicotine administered prior to training and testing enhances contextual fear conditioning, acute nicotine injections prior to extinction sessions impair extinction of contextual fear. Although there is also strong evidence showing that the acute nicotine's enhancing effects on contextual fear conditioning require high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), it is unknown which nAChR subtypes are involved in the acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute nicotine administration on contextual fear extinction in knock-out (KO) mice lacking α4, β2 or α7 subtypes of nAChRs and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Both KO and WT mice were first trained and tested for contextual fear conditioning and received a daily contextual extinction session for 4 days. Subjects received intraperitoneal injections of nicotine (0.18 mg/kg) or saline 2-4 min prior to each extinction session. Our results showed that the mice that lack α4 and β2 subtypes of nAChRs showed normal contextual fear extinction but not the acute nicotine-induced impairment while the mice that lack the α7 subtype showed both normal contextual extinction and nicotine-induced impairment of contextual extinction. In addition, control experiments showed that acute nicotine-induced impairment of contextual fear extinction persisted when nicotine administration was ceased and repeated acute nicotine administrations alone did not induce freezing behavior in the absence of context-shock learning. These results clearly demonstrate that high-affinity α4β2 nAChRs are necessary for the effects of acute nicotine on contextual fear extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nicotine addiction management following surgery: a quality improvement approach in the post anesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Barry A; Roblin, Daniel; Hammal, Fadi

    2018-03-14

    For smokers, hospital admission is accompanied by forced involuntary nicotine abstinence due to smoke-free site/grounds policies. An audit of patients admitted to our surgical wards revealed that identification of smoking status was inadequate and that nicotine addiction management (NAM) was infrequently offered. The project aimed to enhance both these metrics by initiating NAM in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). Out of 744 patients admitted to our PACU in August 2015, 54% had their smoking status documented. The 200 patients (27%) out of the 744 were smokers and only 50% were offered NAM before discharge. PACU unit staff to determine the smoking status of every patient before discharge from the PACU (later changed to OR nursing staff) and, if a patient was identified as a smoker, to offer NRT (patch and mouth spray only) and initiate therapy prior to transfer of the patient to the ward. Data about number of patients admitted, presence of documented smoking status, number of identified smokers, and number offered/accepted nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were collected at baseline and thereafter quarterly. Engaging video education sessions addressed the education gaps highlighted in a needs assessment. Identification of smoking status was made part of preoperative checklist and NRT was made available in post-operative recovery room. These interventions resulted in an increase in screening for tobacco use from 54% at baseline to 95% and the offer of NRT to smokers from 50 to 89%.

  9. Renal transport and metabolism of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, S.; Rose, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Renal metabolism and brush-border transport of nicotinic acid were studied in renal cortical slices and brush-border membrane vesicles exposed to a physiological concentration of vitamin (2.2-3.5 microM). Vesicle transport of [ 3 H]nicotinic acid was found to be Na+ dependent and concentrative. The presence of a Na+ gradient resulted in a fivefold increase in the rate of nicotinic acid uptake over that observed with mannitol and caused a transient nicotinic acid accumulation two- to fourfold above the equilibrium value. The effects of membrane potential, pH, and elimination of Na+-H+ exchange were also studied. Cortical slices and isolated tubules exposed to 2.2 microM [ 14 C]nicotinic acid took up vitamin and rapidly metabolized most of it to intermediates in the Preiss-Handler pathway for NAD biosynthesis; little free nicotinic acid was detectable intracellularly. The replacement of Na+ with Li+ in the bathing medium reduced total accumulation of 14 C label primarily as a result of reduced nicotinic acid uptake. Cortical tissue concentrated free nicotinic acid only when the involved metabolic pathways were saturated by levels of nicotinic acid far in excess of what occurs in vivo

  10. Attenuated nicotine‐like effects of varenicline but not other nicotinic ACh receptor agonists in monkeys receiving nicotine daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin S; Moerke, Megan J; Javors, Martin A; Carroll, F Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic treatment can differentially impact the effects of pharmacologically related drugs that differ in receptor selectivity and efficacy. Experimental Approach The impact of daily nicotine treatment on the effects of nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) agonists was examined in two groups of rhesus monkeys discriminating nicotine (1.78 mg·kg−1 base weight) from saline. One group received additional nicotine treatment post‐session (1.78 mg·kg−1 administered five times daily, each dose 2 h apart; i.e. Daily group), and the second group did not (Intermittent group). Key Results Daily repeated nicotine treatment produced a time‐related increase in saliva cotinine. There was no significant difference in the ED50 values of the nicotine discriminative stimulus between the Daily and Intermittent group. Mecamylamine antagonized the effects of nicotine, whereas dihydro‐β‐erythroidine did not. Midazolam produced 0% nicotine‐lever responding. The nAChR agonists epibatidine, RTI‐36, cytisine and varenicline produced >96% nicotine‐lever responding in the Intermittent group. The respective maximum effects in the Daily group were 100, 72, 59 and 28%, which shows that the ability of varenicline to produce nicotine‐like responding was selectively decreased in the Daily as compared with the Intermittent group. When combined with nicotine, both varenicline and cytisine increased the potency of nicotine to produce discriminative stimulus effects. Conclusion and Implications Nicotine treatment has a greater impact on the sensitivity to the effects of varenicline as compared with some other nAChR agonists. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that varenicline differs from nicotine in its selectivity for multiple nAChR subtypes. PMID:27667659

  11. Effects of Framing Proximal Benefits of Quitting and Motivation to Quit as a Query on Communications About Tobacco Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-10-01

    ). Additionally, including an interrogative cue ("Ready to be tobacco free?") may make messages more effective, whereas the self-efficacy manipulation designed to increase confidence about quitting had no effect. While messages were universally impactful across smoker subpopulations, everyday smokers and smokers with less trust in the government may be less receptive to communication campaigns. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency in presence of sub-patch geometric complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that faults are not planar surfaces. Instead they exhibit self-similar or self-affine properties that span a wide range of spatial (sub-micrometer to tens-of-kilometer). This geometric fault roughness has a distinct impact on amount and distribution of stresses/strains induced in the medium and on other portions of the fault. However, when numerically simulated (for example in multi-cycle EQ rupture simulations or Coulomb failure stress calculations) this roughness is largely ignored: individual fault patches --the incremental elements that build the fault surface in the respective computer models-- are planar and fault roughness at this and lower spatial scales is not considered. As a result, the fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency may be systematically too large in those numerical simulations with respect to the "actual" efficiency level. Here, we investigate the effect of sub-patch geometric complexity on fault-patch stress-transfer efficiency. For that, we sub-divide a fault patch (e.g., 1x1km) into a large number of sub-patches (e.g., 20x20m) and determine amount of induced stresses at selected positions around that patch for different levels and realizations of fault roughness. For each fault roughness level, we compute mean and standard deviation of the induced stresses, enabling us to compute the coefficient of variation. We normalize those values with stresses from the corresponding single (planar) fault patch, providing scaling factors and their variability for stress transfer efficiency. Given a certain fault roughness that is assumed for a fault, this work provides the means to implement the sub-patch fault roughness into investigations based on fault-patch interaction schemes.

  13. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1303±2676 μg/m2; pe-cigarette users and non-users (p>0.05). Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents' understanding and use of nicotine in e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Farrelly, Matthew C; Watson, Kimberly A

    2018-07-01

    Nicotine harms adolescent brain development and contributes to addiction. Some adolescents report using nicotine-free e-cigarettes, but the accuracy of their reporting is unclear. We explored adolescents' use of nicotine-free e-cigarettes and understanding of chemicals in e-cigarettes, including nicotine. Using social media, we recruited 1589 US adolescents (aged 15-17) who reported past 30-day use of e-cigarettes in 2016. We assessed perceptions of the nicotine source in e-liquid and whether e-cigarette aerosol is just "water vapor." We explored differences among adolescents who usually used e-cigarettes with nicotine (n = 473) and without nicotine (n = 452). We used weights to calibrate our sample to the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Twenty-nine percent usually used e-cigarettes without nicotine, 28% with nicotine, 39% with "both," and 5% were "not sure." Few participants (17% of non-nicotine users vs. 34% of nicotine users, p e-cigarette aerosol was just water vapor were more likely to usually use without nicotine. Older adolescents and current tobacco users were less likely to usually use without nicotine. The adolescents who reported usually using e-cigarettes without nicotine had poorer knowledge of e-cigarettes. This lack of understanding could contribute to inaccurate reporting of nicotine use. Most youth thought the nicotine in e-cigarettes was artificial, potentially indicating a belief that this nicotine is "safer." The US Food & Drug Administration will require nicotine warnings on e-cigarettes in 2018; a complementary educational campaign could address youths' misperceptions about nicotine and other chemicals in e-cigarette aerosol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  17. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  18. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo studies, and molecular modeling of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Kozak, Joanna; Ligeza, Agnieszka; Szacon, Elzbieta; Wrobel, Tomasz M; Budzynska, Barbara; Biala, Grazyna; Fornal, Emilia; Poso, Antti; Wainer, Irving W; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2014-12-15

    9 N-alkylated derivatives of dextromethorphan are synthesized and studied as non-competitive inhibitors of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In vitro activity towards α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is determined using a patch-clamp technique and is in the micromolar range. Homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics of ligand-receptor complexes in POPC membrane are used to find the mode of interactions of N-alkylated dextromethorphan derivatives with α3β4 nAChR. The compounds, similarly as dextromethorphan, interact with the middle portion of α3β4 nAChR ion channel. Finally, behavioral tests confirmed potential application of the studied compounds for the treatment of addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the nicotinic agonist varenicline, nicotinic antagonist r-bPiDI, and DAT inhibitor (R)-modafinil on co-use of ethanol and nicotine in female P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Sarah E; Saunders, Meredith A; Baxter, Thomas A; Nixon, Kimberly; Prendergast, Mark A; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Slack, Rachel D; Newman, Amy H; Bell, Richard L; Bardo, Michael T

    2018-05-01

    Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs. 15%, two-bottle choice), (2) nicotine alone (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, active vs. inactive lever), and (3) concurrent access to both EtOH and nicotine. Using this model, we examined the effects of (1) varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with high affinity for the α4β2* subtype; (2) r-bPiDI, a subtype-selective antagonist at α6β2* nAChRs; and (3) (R)-modafinil, an atypical inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT). In phases 1 and 2, pharmacologically relevant intake of EtOH and nicotine was achieved. In the concurrent access phase (phase 3), EtOH consumption decreased while nicotine intake increased relative to phases 1 and 2. For drug pretreatments, in the EtOH access phase (phase 1), (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased EtOH consumption, with no effect on water consumption. In the concurrent access phase, varenicline (3 mg/kg), r-bPiDI (20 mg/kg), and (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased nicotine self-administration but did not alter EtOH consumption, water consumption, or inactive lever pressing. These results indicate that therapeutics which may be useful for smoking cessation via selective inhibition of α4β2* or α6β2* nAChRs, or DAT inhibition, may not be sufficient to treat EtOH and nicotine co-use.

  20. Tying up Nicotine: New Selective Competitive Antagonist of the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A

    2015-01-01

    Conformational restriction of the pyrrolidine nitrogen in nicotine by the introduction of an ethylene bridge provided a potent and selective antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Resolution by chiral SFC, pharmacological characterization of the two enantiomers...

  1. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  2. Association of nicotine metabolism and sex with relapse following varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatard, Anaïs; Dobrinas, Maria; Gholamrezaee, Mehdi; Lubomirov, Rubin; Cornuz, Jacques; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine is metabolized into cotinine and then into trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6. Recent studies reported better effectiveness of varenicline in women and in nicotine normal metabolizers phenotypically determined by nicotine-metabolite ratio. Our objective was to study the influence of nicotine-metabolite ratio, CYP2A6 genotype and sex on the response to nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study which included smokers participating in a smoking cessation program. Response to treatment was defined by the absence of relapse when a set threshold of reduction in cigarettes per day relative to the week before the study was no more reached. The analysis considered total and partial reduction defined by a diminution of 100% and of 90% in cigarettes per day, respectively. The hazard ratio of relapsing was estimated in multivariate Cox regression models including the sex and the nicotine metabolism determined by the phenotype or by CYP2A6 genotyping (rs1801272 and rs28399433). In the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping and in women, the hazard ratio for relapsing was significantly lower with varenicline for a partial decrease (HR = 0.33, 95% CI [0.12, 0.89] and HR = 0.20, 95% CI [0.04, 0.91], respectively) and nonsignificantly lower for a total cessation (HR = 0.45, 95% CI [0.20, 1.0] and HR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.14, 1.0]). When compared with the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping, the hazard ratio for a partial decrease was similar in the normal metabolizers determined by genotyping (HR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.18, 0.94]) while it was significantly lower with varenicline for a total cessation (HR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.26, 0.98]). Women and normal nicotine metabolizers may benefit more from varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Patterns, Perception and Behavior of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Use and Multiple Product Use Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; Bowersock, Amy; Wheldon, Christopher W

    2018-03-27

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are battery-operated devices used to inhale vaporized or aerosolized nicotine. There is increasing research uncovering negative health effects of these devices. Less is known about the social and behavioral aspects among college students. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a mid-sized private university in Florida. The survey was sent via e-mail to the student body of undergraduates. A final sample size of 989 students was analyzed to understand demographic differences between users and nonusers, initiation factors, and influencers, as well as multiple product behaviors. Approximately 51.4% ( n = 508) of participants reported ever using an ENDS and other tobacco consumption. Males were significantly more likely to be users of ENDS. Polytobacco use, or the use of multiple tobacco products, was also more common among participants who have tried ENDS ( P influencer for initial use. A 4-class latent variable model differentiated between usage patterns characterized as abstainers (70%), hookah users only (14%), ENDS only (11%), and polytobacco users (4%). ENDS are not commonly used as a quit tool among college students, but rather as a secondary source of nicotine, most commonly in current smokers. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  5. Fetal Nicotine Exposure Increases Preference for Nicotine Odor in Early Postnatal and Adolescent, but Not Adult, Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Kent, Paul F.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies demonstrate a four-fold increased possibility of smoking in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Nicotine is the active addictive component in tobacco-related products, crossing the placenta and contaminating the amniotic fluid. It is known that chemosensory experience in the womb can influence postnatal odor-guided preference behaviors for an exposure stimulus. By means of behavioral and neurophysiologic approaches, we examined whether fetal nicotine exposure, using mini-osmotic pumps, altered the response to nicotine odor in early postnatal (P17), adolescent (P35) and adult (P90) progeny. Compared with controls, fetal exposed rats displayed an altered innate response to nicotine odor that was evident at P17, declined in magnitude by P35 and was absent at P90 - these effects were specific to nicotine odor. The behavioral effect in P17 rats occurred in conjunction with a tuned olfactory mucosal response to nicotine odor along with an untoward consequence on the epithelial response to other stimuli – these P17 neural effects were absent in P35 and P90 animals. The absence of an altered neural effect at P35 suggests that central mechanisms, such as nicotine-induced modifications of the olfactory bulb, bring about the altered behavioral response to nicotine odor. Together, these findings provide insights into how fetal nicotine exposure influences the behavioral preference and responsiveness to the drug later in life. Moreover, they add to a growing literature demonstrating chemosensory mechanisms by which patterns of maternal drug use can be conveyed to offspring, thereby enhancing postnatal vulnerability for subsequent use and abuse. PMID:24358374

  6. YouTube as a source of quit smoking information for people living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Lucas, Maya; Ford, Pauline; Meurk, Carla; Gartner, Coral E

    2016-11-01

    YouTube is the most popular video sharing website, and is increasingly used to broadcast health information including smoking cessation advice. This study examines the quality and quantity of YouTube quit smoking videos targeted at people living with mental illness (MI). We systematically searched YouTube using selected relevant search terms. The first 50 videos obtained for each search term were screened for relevance and further videos screened through snowball sampling. Forty unique, English language videos focussing on people with MI were included in the assessment and evaluated for general video characteristics, themes, format, targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction information. Most videos either discussed the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI (n=12) or smoking cessation programmes and policies at an institutional level (n=13). Only nine videos were aimed at providing quit smoking advice to this population. One video recommended higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for people with MI while six videos referred to possible changes in medication dosage on quitting smoking. Four videos suggested cutting down smoking for harm reduction. Very few YouTube videos specifically focus on the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI and even fewer provide targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction advice for this priority population. There is a need to develop comprehensive, evidence based, quit smoking video resources for smokers with a MI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Effect of a nicotine vaccine on nicotine binding to the beta2-nAChRs in vivo in human tobacco smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterlis, Irina; Hannestad, Jonas O.; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; D’Souza, D. Cyril; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Seibyl, John P.; Hatsukami, Dorothy M.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Nicotine acts in the brain to promote smoking in part by binding to the beta2-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (β2*-nAChRs) and acting in the mesolimbic reward pathway. The effects of nicotine from smoking one tobacco cigarette are significant (80% of β2*-nAChRs occupied for >6h). This likely contributes to the maintenance of smoking dependence and low cessation outcomes. Development of nicotine vaccines provides potential for alternative treatments. We used [123I]5IA-85380 SPECT to evaluate the effect of 3′-AmNic-rEPA on the amount of nicotine that binds to the β2*-nAChRs in the cortical and subcortical regions in smokers. Method Eleven smokers (36years (SD=13); 19cig/day (SD=11) for 10years (SD=7) who were dependent on nicotine (Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence score =5.5 (SD=3); plasma nicotine 9.1 ng/mL (SD=5)) participated in 2 SPECT scan days: before and after immunization with 4–400μg doses of 3′-AmNic-rEPA. On SPECT scan days, 3 30-min baseline emission scans were obtained, followed by administration of IV nicotine (1.5mg/70kg) and up to 9 30-min emission scans. Results β2*-nAChR availability was quantified as VT/fP and nicotine binding was derived using the Lassen plot approach. Immunization led to a 12.5% reduction in nicotine binding (F=5.19, df=1,10, p=0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between nicotine bound to β2*-nAChRs and nicotine injected before but not after vaccination (p=0.05 vs. p=0.98). There was a significant reduction in the daily number of cigarettes and desire for a cigarette (p=.01 and p=.04, respectively). Conclusions This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that immunization with nicotine vaccine can reduce the amount of nicotine binding to β2*-nAChRs and disrupt the relationship between nicotine administered vs. nicotine available to occupy β2*-nAChRs. PMID:23429725

  8. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Sarbit, Gayl; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Currie, Leanne M; Schmid, Jonathan; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-04-20

    /64, 72%). Participants reported using an average of 8.76 (SD 4.08) of the 15 resources available on the website. At 6-month follow-up, 16 of the 67 participants (24%) had quit, 27 (40%) had reduced their smoking and 24 (36%) had not changed their smoking habits. Repeated measures general linear model showed a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked between the 3-month and 6-month follow-up (F1,63=6.41, P=.01, eta squared=0.09). Number of resources used on the website, quit confidence, nicotine dependence and age significantly predicted number of quit attempts by those still smoking at 6 months (F4,45=2.73, P=.04), with number of resources used being the strongest predictor (P=.02). The results of this research support efforts to integrate gender-sensitive approaches in smoking cessation interventions and indicate that this novel Web-based resource has potential in supporting men's smoking cessation efforts.

  9. Effects of a selective cannabinoid CB2 agonist and antagonist on intravenous nicotine self administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Gamaleddin

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been significant advances in the discovery and understanding of the cannabinoid system along with the development of pharmacologic tools that modulate its function. Characterization of the crosstalk between nicotine addiction and the cannabinoid system may have significant implications on our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. Two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 have been identified. CB1 receptors are expressed in the brain and modulate drug taking and drug seeking for various drugs of abuse, including nicotine. CB2 receptors have been recently identified in the brain and have been proposed to play a functional role in mental disorders and drug addiction. Our objective was to explore the role of CB2 receptors on intravenous nicotine self administration under two schedules of reinforcement (fixed and progressive ratio and on nicotine seeking induced by nicotine priming or by nicotine associated cues. For this, we evaluated the effects of various doses of the selective CB2 antagonist AM630 (1.25 to 5 mg/kg and CB2 agonist AM1241 (1 to 10 mg/kg on these behavioral responses in rats. Different groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to lever press for nicotine at a unit dose of 30 µg/kg/infusion. Subsequently, animals were randomized using a Latin-square design and injected with either AM1241 or AM630 using a counterbalanced within subject design. Administration of the CB2 ligands did not affect either nicotine-taking nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results do not support the involvement of CB2 receptors in nicotine-taking or nicotine-seeking behavior.

  10. Smoking and environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and associations with quitting behaviour and motivation; a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metse, Alexandra P; Wiggers, John; Wye, Paula; Moore, Lyndell; Clancy, Richard; Wolfenden, Luke; Freund, Megan; Van Zeist, Tara; Stockings, Emily; Bowman, Jenny A

    2016-04-14

    Persons with a mental illness are less likely to be successful in attempts to quit smoking. A number of smoking and environmental characteristics have been shown to be related to quitting behaviour and motivation of smokers generally, however have been less studied among smokers with a mental illness. This study aimed to report the prevalence of smoking characteristics and a variety of physical and social environmental characteristics of smokers with a mental illness, and explore their association with quitting behaviour and motivation. A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken of 754 smokers admitted to four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to explore the association between smoking and environmental characteristics and recent quitting behaviour and motivation. Participants were primarily daily smokers (93 %), consumed >10 cigarettes per day (74 %), and highly nicotine dependent (51 %). A third (32 %) lived in a house in which smoking was permitted, and 44 % lived with other smokers. The majority of participants believed that significant others (68-82 %) and health care providers (80-91 %) would be supportive of their quitting smoking. Reflecting previous research, the smoking characteristics examined were variously associated with quitting behaviour and motivation. Additionally, participants not living with other smokers were more likely to have quit for a longer duration (OR 2.02), and those perceiving their psychiatrist to be supportive of a quit attempt were more likely to have had more quit attempts in the past six months (OR 2.83). Modifiable characteristics of the physical and social environment, and of smoking, should be considered in smoking cessation interventions for persons with a mental illness.

  11. In vivo interactions between α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α: Implication for nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Asti; Bagdas, Deniz; Muldoon, Pretal P; Lichtman, Aron H; Carroll, F Ivy; Greenwald, Mark; Miles, Michael F; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-05-15

    Chronic tobacco use dramatically increases health burdens and financial costs. Limitations of current smoking cessation therapies indicate the need for improved molecular targets. The main addictive component of tobacco, nicotine, exerts its dependency effects via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Activation of the homomeric α7 nAChR reduces nicotine's rewarding properties in conditioned place preference (CPP) test and i.v. self-administration models, but the mechanism underlying these effects is unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type-α (PPARα) has been implicated as a downstream signaling target of the α7 nAChR in ventral tegmental area dopamine cells. The present study investigated PPARα as a possible mediator of the effect of α7 nAChR activation in nicotine dependence. Our results demonstrate the PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocks actions of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU282987 on nicotine reward in an unbiased CPP test in male ICR adult mice. These findings suggests that α7 nAChR activation attenuates nicotine CPP in a PPARα-dependent manner. To evaluate PPARα activation in nicotine dependence we used the selective and potent PPARα agonist, WY-14643 and the clinically used PPARα activator, fenofibrate, in nicotine CPP and we observed attenuation of nicotine preference, but fenofibrate was less potent. We also studied PPARα in nicotine dependence by evaluating its activation in nicotine withdrawal. WY-14643 reversed nicotine withdrawal signs whereas fenofibrate had modest efficacy. This suggests that PPARα plays a role in nicotine reward and withdrawal and that further studies are warranted to elucidate its function in mediating the effects of α7 nAChRs in nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise counseling to enhance smoking cessation outcomes: the Fit2Quit randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Ralph; Roberts, Vaughan; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Christopher; Prapavessis, Harry; Glover, Marewa; Jiang, Yannan; Brown, Paul; Leung, William; Taylor, Sue; Tsai, Midi

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise has been proposed as a potential smoking cessation aid. This study aimed to determine the effects of an exercise counseling program on cigarette smoking abstinence at 24 weeks. A parallel, two-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adult cigarette smokers (n = 906) who were insufficiently active and interested in quitting were randomized to receive the Fit2Quit intervention (10 exercise telephone counseling sessions over 6 months) plus usual care (behavioral counseling and nicotine replacement therapy) or usual care alone. There were no significant group differences in 7-day point-prevalence and continuous abstinence at 6 months. The more intervention calls successfully delivered, the lower the probability of smoking (OR, 0.88; 95 % CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01) in the intervention group. A significant difference was observed for leisure time physical activity (difference = 219.11 MET-minutes/week; 95 % CI 52.65-385.58; p = 0.01). Telephone-delivered exercise counseling may not be sufficient to improve smoking abstinence rates over and above existing smoking cessation services. (Australasian Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12609000637246.).

  13. Tobacco Industry Research on Nicotine Replacement Therapy: "If Anyone Is Going to Take Away Our Business It Should Be Us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended for tobacco cessation on the basis of pharmaceutical industry research showing its effectiveness when combined with counseling. The tobacco industry opposed NRT when it first appeared in the 1980s but by 2016 was marketing its own NRT products. We used internal tobacco industry documents dated 1960 through 2010 to identify the industry's perceptions of NRT. As early as the 1950s, tobacco companies developed nonsmoked nicotine replacements for cigarettes, but they stopped out of concern that marketing such products would trigger Food and Drug Administration regulation of cigarettes. In the 1990s, after pharmaceutical companies began selling prescription NRT, tobacco companies found that many smokers used NRT to supplement smoking rather than to quit. In 2009, once the Food and Drug Administration began regulating tobacco, tobacco companies restarted their plans to capture the nicotine market. Although the tobacco industry initially viewed NRT as a threat, it found that smokers often combined NRT with smoking rather than using it as a replacement and began marketing their own NRT products.

  14. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch Return Policy in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fentanyl is prescribed to patients suffering from severe chronic pain. Transdermal patches are the best mode of delivery for patients who have developed tolerance for opioids. However, used patches still contain fentanyl that can be extracted and misused, with potentially severe consequences. To address this issue, patients who are prescribed fentanyl patches in Ontario are now required to return previously dispensed patches to receive new patches under the Safeguarding Our Communities Act: Patch for Patch (P4P Return Policy. The problem is significant in Ontario because the province has the largest annual dispense rate of high-dose prescription fentanyl (112 units per 1,000 population in Canada even though the prevalence rate of chronic pain is lower than the national reported range (16.6% in Ontario versus 19.6 to 21.9% in other provinces, according to Gomes et al. 2014. The primary goal of this reform is to instill responsible use of fentanyl patches, and to improve safety for patients and the public by having a central disposal process. The reform was modeled after a community initiative that was pioneered in North Bay after receiving great support from health professional colleges and communities that voluntarily integrated the program prior to the introduction of Bill 33. Preliminary data suggest that the P4P policy is positively received by health professionals, although ongoing evaluation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the policy in reducing misuse and abuse of prescribed fentanyl patches.

  16. The effects of nicotine in the neonatal quinpirole rodent model of psychosis: Neural plasticity mechanisms and nicotinic receptor changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Daniel J; Gill, W Drew; Dose, John M; Hoover, Donald B; Pauly, James R; Cummins, Elizabeth D; Burgess, Katherine C; Brown, Russell W

    2017-05-15

    Neonatal quinpirole (NQ) treatment to rats increases dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity persistent throughout the animal's lifetime. In Experiment 1, we analyzed the role of α7 and α4β2 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine behavioral sensitization and on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) response to nicotine in NQ- and neonatally saline (NS)-treated rats. In Experiment 2, we analyzed changes in α7 and α4β2 nAChR density in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsal striatum in NQ and NS animals sensitized to nicotine. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated with quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal days (P)1-21. Animals were given ip injections of either saline or nicotine (0.5mg/kg free base) every second day from P33 to P49 and tested on behavioral sensitization. Before each injection, animals were ip administered the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA; 2 or 4mg/kg) or the α4β2 nAChR antagonist dihydro beta erythroidine (DhβE; 1 or 3mg/kg). Results revealed NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization that was blocked by DhβE. MLA blocked the enhanced nicotine sensitization in NQ animals, but did not block nicotine sensitization. NQ enhanced the NAcc BDNF response to nicotine which was blocked by both antagonists. In Experiment 2, NQ enhanced nicotine sensitization and enhanced α4β2, but not α7, nAChR upregulation in the NAcc. These results suggest a relationship between accumbal BDNF and α4β2 nAChRs and their role in the behavioral response to nicotine in the NQ model which has relevance to schizophrenia, a behavioral disorder with high rates of tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Compound list: nicotinic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nicotinic acid NIC 00081 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Hum...an/in_vitro/nicotinic_acid.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/R...at/in_vitro/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat.../in_vivo/Liver/Single/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosc

  18. Discriminating nicotine and non-nicotine containing e-liquids using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Barhdadi, S; Courselle, P

    2016-02-20

    In a few countries, including Belgium, nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquids are considered medicines, and therefore cannot freely be sold, but should be distributed in a pharmacy. The fact that in the neighbouring countries these products are freely available, poses a problem for custom personnel, the more the nicotine content of the products is not always labelled, especially when they are bought through internet. Therefore there is a need for easy-to-use equipment and methods to perform a first on site screening of intercepted samples, both for border control as to check label compliance of the sample. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with chemometrics was evaluated for the discrimination between nicotine containing and non-nicotine containing samples. It could be concluded that both ATR-IR and NIR could be used for the discrimination when combined with the appropriate chemometric techniques. The presented techniques do not need sample preparation and result in models with a minimum of false negative samples. If a large enough training set can be established the interpretation can be fully automated, making the presented approach suitable for on-site screening of e-liquid samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes"): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul Truman; Simmons, Vani Nath; Correa, John Bernard; Padhya, Tapan Ashvin; Brandon, Thomas Henry

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and additional sources for published empirical data on safety and use of electronic cigarettes as an aid to quit smoking. We conducted a structured search of the current literature up to and including November 2013. E-cigarettes currently vary widely in their contents and are sometimes inconsistent with labeling. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are often substantially lower in toxic content, cytotoxicity, associated adverse effects, and secondhand toxicity exposure. Data on the use of e-cigarettes for quitting smoking are suggestive but ultimately inconclusive. Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly. These devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking. In the absence of further data or regulation, oncologists are advised to discuss the known and unknown safety and efficacy information on e-cigarettes with interested patients and to encourage patients to first try FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. In vivo imaging of nicotinic receptor upregulation following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment in baboon using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiou, Michael; Eberl, Stefan; Meikle, Steven R.; Birrell, Alex; Constable, Chris; Fulham, Michael J.; Wong, Dean F.; Musachio, John L.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify changes in neuronal nAChR binding in vivo, quantitative dynamic SPECT studies were performed with 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 in baboons pre and post chronic treatment with (-)-nicotine or saline control. Infusion of (-)-nicotine at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg/24h for 14 days resulted in plasma (-)-nicotine levels of 27.3 ng/mL. This is equivalent to that found in an average human smoker (20 cigarettes a day). In the baboon brain the regional distribution of 5-[ 123 I]-iodo-A-85380 was consistent with the known densities of nAChRs (thalamus > frontal cortex > cerebellum). Changes in nAChR binding were estimated from the volume of distribution (V d ) and binding potential (BP) derived from 3-compartment model fits. In the (-)-nicotine treated animal V d was significantly increased in the thalamus (52%) and cerebellum (50%) seven days post cessation of (-)-nicotine treatment, suggesting upregulation of nAChRs. The observed 33% increase in the frontal cortex failed to reach significance. A significant increase in BP was seen in the thalamus. In the saline control animal no changes were observed in V d or BP under any experimental conditions. In this preliminary study, we have demonstrated for the first time in vivo upregulation of neuronal nAChR binding following chronic (-)-nicotine treatment

  1. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to examine the in vivo buccal pH-dependent permeability of nicotine in humans and furthermore compare the in vivo permeability of nicotine to previous in vitro permeability data. The buccal permeability of nicotine was examined in a three-way cross-over study in eight healthy non......-smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine....... The disappearance rate of nicotine increased significantly as the pH increased, which resulted in P(app) values of 0.57+/-0.55 x 10(-4), 2.10+/-0.23 x 10(-4), and 3.96+/-0.54 x 10(-4)cms(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively. A linear relationship (R(2)=0.993) was obtained between the P...

  2. Bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine using enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Nakayama, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Midori; Saito, Hirokazu; Otsuka, Kimio; Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-28

    A novel bioelectronic sniffer for nicotine in the gas phase was developed with enzyme inhibition principle to butyrylcholinesterase activity. The bioelectronic devices for nicotine in the gas and liquid phases were constructed using a Clark-type dissolved oxygen electrode and a membrane immobilized butyrylcholinesterase and choline oxidase. After the assessment of the sensor performances to choline and butyrylcholine as pre-examinations, the characteristics of the biosensor and bio-sniffer for nicotine were evaluated in the liquid and gas phases, respectively. The sensor signal of the bio-devices with 300 micromol l(-1) of butyrylcholine decreased quickly following application of nicotine and reached to the steady-state current, thus relating the concentration of nicotine in the liquid and gas phases. The biosensor was used to measure nicotine solution from 10 to 300 micromol l(-1). In the gas-phase experiment, the current signal of the bio-sniffer was also found to be linearly to the nicotine concentration over the range of 10.0-1000 ppb including 75.0 ppb as threshold limit value (TLV) by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  3. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  4. Use of E-Cigarettes Among Current Smokers: Associations Among Reasons for Use, Quit Intentions, and Current Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly D; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Grana, Rachel A; Wilson, Patrick M; Ebbert, Jon O; Okamoto, Janet; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-10-01

    Research has documented growing availability and use of e-cigarettes in the United States over the last decade. We conducted a national panel survey of current adult cigarette smokers to assess attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relating to e-cigarette use in the United States (N = 2,254). Among current cigarette smokers, 20.4% reported current use of e-cigarettes on some days and 3.7% reported daily use. Reported reasons for e-cigarette use included: quit smoking (58.4%), reduce smoking (57.9%), and reduce health risks (51.9%). No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between e-cigarette users and nonusers were observed. Prior quit attempts were reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (82.8%) than nonusers (74.0%). Intention to quit was reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (64.7%) than nonusers (46.8%). Smokers intending to quit were more likely to be e-cigarette users than those not intending to quit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, CI =1.36-2.65). Those who used e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.25-4.05), reduce stress (OR = 3.66, CI = 1.11-12.09), or because they cost less (OR = 3.42, CI = 1.64-7.13) were more likely to report decreases in cigarette smoking than those who did not indicate these reasons. Smokers who reported using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 16.25, CI = 8.32-31.74) or reduce stress (OR = 4.30, CI = 1.32-14.09) were significantly more likely to report an intention to quit than those who did not indicate those reasons for using e-cigarettes. Nearly a quarter of smokers in our study reported e-cigarettes use, primarily motivated by intentions to quit or reduce smoking. These findings identify a clinical and public health opportunity to re-engage smokers in cessation efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of Electronic Cigarette Liquid Nicotine Concentration on Plasma Nicotine and Puff Topography in Tobacco Cigarette Smokers: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Hiler, Marzena M; Soule, Eric K; Ramôa, Carolina P; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Lipato, Thokozeni; Breland, Alison B; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) aerosolize a liquid that usually contains propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and the dependence-producing drug nicotine in various concentrations. This study examined the extent to which ECIG liquid nicotine concentration is related to user plasma nicotine concentration in ECIG-naïve tobacco cigarette smokers. Sixteen ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed four laboratory sessions that differed by the nicotine concentration of the liquid (0, 8, 18, or 36 mg/ml) that was placed into a 1.5 Ohm, dual coil "cartomizer" powered by a 3.3V battery. In each session, participants completed two, 10-puff ECIG use bouts with a 30-second inter-puff interval; bouts were separated by 60 minutes. Venous blood was sampled before and after bouts for later analysis of plasma nicotine concentration; puff duration, volume, and average flow rate were measured during each bout. In bout 1, relative to the 0mg/ml nicotine condition (mean = 3.8 ng/ml, SD = 3.3), plasma nicotine concentration increased significantly immediately after the bout for the 8 (mean = 8.8 ng/ml, SD = 6.3), 18 (mean = 13.2 ng/ml, SD = 13.2), and 36 mg/ml (mean = 17.0 ng/ml, SD = 17.9) liquid concentration. A similar pattern was observed after bout 2. Average puff duration in the 36 mg/ml condition was significantly shorter compared to the 0mg/ml nicotine condition. Puff volume increased during the second bout for 8 and 18 mg/ml conditions. For a given ECIG device, nicotine delivery may be directly related to liquid concentration. ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers can, from their first use bout, attain cigarette-like nicotine delivery profiles with some currently available ECIG products. Liquid nicotine concentration can influence plasma nicotine concentration in ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers, and, at some concentrations, the nicotine delivery profile of a 3.3V ECIG with a dual coil, 1.5-Ohm cartomizer approaches that of a combustible tobacco cigarette in this

  6. Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Denaro, C.; Jenkins, R.

    1991-01-01

    The stable isotope-labeled compound 3',3'-dideuteronicotine was used to investigate the disposition kinetics of nicotine in smokers, the systemic absorption of nicotine from cigarette smoke, and the bioavailability of nicotine ingested as oral capsules. Blood levels of labeled nicotine could be measured for 9 hours after a 30-minute intravenous infusion. Analysis of disposition kinetics in 10 healthy men revealed a multiexponential decline after the end of an infusion, with an elimination half-life averaging 203 minutes. This half-life was longer than that previously reported, indicating the presence of a shallow elimination phase. Plasma clearance averaged 14.6 ml/min/kg. The average intake of nicotine per cigarette was 2.29 mg. A cigarette smoke-monitoring system that directly measured particulate matter in smoke was evaluated in these subjects. Total particulate matter, number of puffs on the cigarette, total puff volume, and time of puffing correlated with the intake of nicotine from smoking. The oral bioavailability of nicotine averaged 44%. This bioavailability is higher than expected based on the systemic clearance of nicotine and suggests that there may be significant extrahepatic metabolism of nicotine

  7. Characterization and Genome Analysis of a Nicotine and Nicotinic Acid-Degrading Strain Pseudomonas putida JQ581 Isolated from Marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiwen; Qiu, Jiguo; Chen, Dongzhi; Ye, Jiexu; Wang, Yuhong; Tong, Lu; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Jianmeng

    2017-05-31

    The presence of nicotine and nicotinic acid (NA) in the marine environment has caused great harm to human health and the natural environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to use efficient and economical methods to remove such pollutants from the environment. In this study, a nicotine and NA-degrading bacterium-strain JQ581-was isolated from sediment from the East China Sea and identified as a member of Pseudomonas putida based on morphology, physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene analysis. The relationship between growth and nicotine/NA degradation suggested that strain JQ581 was a good candidate for applications in the bioaugmentation treatment of nicotine/NA contamination. The degradation intermediates of nicotine are pseudooxynicotine (PN) and 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP) based on UV, high performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. However, 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP) was not detected. NA degradation intermediates were identified as 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6HNA). The whole genome of strain JQ581 was sequenced and analyzed. Genome sequence analysis revealed that strain JQ581 contained the gene clusters for nicotine and NA degradation. This is the first report where a marine-derived Pseudomonas strain had the ability to degrade nicotine and NA simultaneously.

  8. Factors Affecting the Decision to Quit Smoking of the Participants of a Hospital-Based Smoking Cessation Program in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Georgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect people who are in the process of quitting smoking. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 110 participants in a smoking cessation program (SCP of a hospital in Thessaloniki Greece. Instruments of data collection were: i the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and ii the Fragerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. ANOVA tests between the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire relating to the smokers’ determination to quit smoking applied. Results: Work satisfaction was related to whether the participants had difficulty to smoke in places that prohibited smoking and to how many cigarettes they smoked per day. If a non-smoker partner was urging the participant to quit smoking, it affected the hours of the day when the respondents smoked more cigarettes. Pressure from a non-smoking spouse was a deterrent from smoking many cigarettes during morning hours. Those participants who consumed alcohol smoked cigarettes containing higher levels of nicotine. Conclusion: Smoking cessation is a difficult process which is influenced by many factors such as educational level, work satisfaction and the presence of a partner.

  9. Inside-out neuropharmacology of nicotinic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Lester, Henry A

    2015-09-01

    Upregulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is a venerable result of chronic exposure to nicotine; but it is one of several consequences of pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and by some other nicotinic ligands, especially agonists. Nicotinic ligands permeate through cell membranes, bind to immature AChR oligomers, elicit incompletely understood conformational reorganizations, increase the interaction between adjacent AChR subunits, and enhance the maturation process toward stable AChR pentamers. These changes and stabilizations in turn lead to increases in both anterograde and retrograde traffic within the early secretory pathway. In addition to the eventual upregulation of AChRs at the plasma membrane, other effects of pharmacological chaperoning include modifications to endoplasmic reticulum stress and to the unfolded protein response. Because these processes depend on pharmacological chaperoning within intracellular organelles, we group them as "inside-out pharmacology". This term contrasts with the better-known, acute, "outside-in" effects of activating and desensitizing plasma membrane AChRs. We review current knowledge concerning the mechanisms and consequences of inside-out pharmacology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  11. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Passini, Valter; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2016-02-01

    The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0.1 μg/mL). Nicotine was detectable in receiving solution 2 h after the start of exposure and increased progressively. The medium flux calculated was 4.82 ± 1.05 μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 3.9 ± 0.1 h. After 24 h, the nicotine concentration in the receiving compartment was 101.02 ± 22.35 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 3.04 mg of absorbed nicotine after contamination of a skin surface of 100 cm(2). Skin contamination with e-liquid can cause nicotine skin absorption: caution must be paid when handling refill e-liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data sources We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases ‘electronic cigarette’, ‘e-cigarette’ and ‘electronic nicotine delivery’. Study selection Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. Data extraction Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. Data synthesis 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as ‘gateways’ to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. Conclusions ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts’ concerns about safety, dual use and possible ‘gateway’ effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS. PMID:24259045

  13. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, Kyle, E-mail: saylor@vt.edu; Zhang, Chenming, E-mail: chzhang2@vt.edu

    2016-09-15

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  14. A simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluating the effect of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, Kyle; Zhang, Chenming

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was applied to investigate the effects of anti-nicotine antibodies on nicotine disposition in the brains of rats and humans. Successful construction of both rat and human models was achieved by fitting model outputs to published nicotine concentration time course data in the blood and in the brain. Key parameters presumed to have the most effect on the ability of these antibodies to prevent nicotine from entering the brain were selected for investigation using the human model. These parameters, which included antibody affinity for nicotine, antibody cross-reactivity with cotinine, and antibody concentration, were broken down into different, clinically-derived in silico treatment levels and fed into the human PBPK model. Model predictions suggested that all three parameters, in addition to smoking status, have a sizable impact on anti-nicotine antibodies' ability to prevent nicotine from entering the brain and that the antibodies elicited by current human vaccines do not have sufficient binding characteristics to reduce brain nicotine concentrations. If the antibody binding characteristics achieved in animal studies can similarly be achieved in human studies, however, nicotine vaccine efficacy in terms of brain nicotine concentration reduction is predicted to meet threshold values for alleviating nicotine dependence. - Highlights: • Modelling of nicotine disposition in the presence of anti-nicotine antibodies • Key vaccine efficacy factors are evaluated in silico in rats and in humans. • Model predicts insufficient antibody binding in past human nicotine vaccines. • Improving immunogenicity and antibody specificity may lead to vaccine success.

  15. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Patch KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Patch What's ...

  16. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  17. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  19. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  20. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing quadrupled our engaged smokers and enriched the sample with not-ready-to-quit and African American smokers. Peer recruitment is promising, and our study uncovered several important challenges for future research. This study demonstrates the successful recruitment of smokers to a TATI using a Facebook-based peer marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  1. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  2. Effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the provision of nicotine dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatric facilities: an implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Paula M; Stockings, Emily A; Bowman, Jenny A; Oldmeadow, Chris; Wiggers, John H

    2017-02-07

    Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending the routine provision of nicotine dependence treatment to smokers in inpatient psychiatric facilities, the prevalence of such treatment provision is low. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment to patients in inpatient psychiatric facilities. We undertook an interrupted time series analysis of nicotine dependence treatment provision before, during and after a clinical practice change intervention to increase clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment for all hospital discharges (aged >18 years, N = 4175) over a 19 month period in two inpatient adult psychiatric facilities in New South Wales, Australia. The clinical practice change intervention comprised six key strategies: leadership and consensus, enabling systems and procedures, training and education, information and resources, audit and feedback and an on-site practice change support officer. Systematic medical record audit and segmented logistic regression was used to determine differences in proportions for each nicotine dependence treatment outcome measure between the 'pre', 'during' and 'post-intervention' periods. The prevalence of all five outcome measures increased significantly between the pre and post-intervention periods, including clinician recorded: assessment of patient smoking status (36.43 to 51.95%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.39, 99% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.23 to 4.66); assessment of patient nicotine dependence status (4.74 to 11.04%; AOR = 109.67, 99% CI: 35.35 to 340.22); provision of brief advice to quit (0.85 to 8.81%; AOR = 97.43, 99% CI: 31.03 to 306.30); provision of nicotine replacement therapy (8.06 to 26.25%; AOR = 19.59, 99% CI: 8.17 to 46.94); and provision of nicotine dependence treatment on discharge (8.82 to 13.45%, AOR = 12.36; 99% CI: 6.08 to 25

  3. Nicotine pharmacokinetics and its application to intake from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C; Ings, R M; Russel, M A

    1985-01-01

    Five subjects were given 25 micrograms/kg nicotine intravenously over 1 min, before and after a loading period involving the smoking of six cigarettes. Plasma nicotine concentrations declined in a biphasic manner, the half-lives of the initial and terminal phases averaging 9 min and 133 min respectively. Terminal half-lives before and after the loading period were essentially the same suggesting the absence of saturation kinetics at nicotine concentrations that build up during smoking. The plasma clearance of nicotine and the volume of distribution were very high averaging 915 ml/min and 1731, respectively. Two approaches were used to calculate the nicotine intake from smoking. The average dose of nicotine absorbed from one cigarette was 1.06 mg which was 82% of the standard machine-smoked yield of 1.3 mg. To illustrate their potential use in 'nicotine titration' studies, these approaches were used to compare nicotine intake from smoking a high (2.4 mg) and low (0.6 mg) nicotine cigarette. The dose of nicotine absorbed averaged 1.14 mg and 0.86 mg per cigarette respectively, being 48% and 143% of the machine-smoked yields. PMID:3986082

  4. Granisetron Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron transdermal patches are used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Granisetron is in a class of medications called 5HT3 ... Granisetron transdermal comes as a patch to apply to the skin. It is usually applied 24 to ...

  5. Non-standard patch test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Adelia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In managing contact dermatitis, identification of the causative agent is essential to prevent recurrent complaints. Patch test is the gold standard to identify the causative agent. Nowadays, there are many patch test standard materials available in the market, but do not include all the materials that potentially cause contact dermatitis. Patch test using patient’s own products or later we refer to as non-standard materials, is very helpful in identifying the causative agents of contact dermatitis. Guidance is needed in producing non-standard patch test materials in order to avoid test results discrepancy.

  6. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (“E-Cigarettes”): Review of Safety and Smoking Cessation Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul Truman; Simmons, Vani Nath; Correa, John Bernard; Padhya, Tapan Ashvin; Brandon, Thomas Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (“e-cigarettes”) are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. Data Sources The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and additional sources for published empirical data on safety and use of electronic cigarettes as an aid to quit smoking. Review Methods We conducted a structured search of the current literature up to and including November 2013. Results E-cigarettes currently vary widely in their contents and are sometimes inconsistent with labeling. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are often substantially lower in toxic content, cytotoxicity, associated adverse effects, and secondhand toxicity exposure. Data on the use of e-cigarettes for quitting smoking is suggestive, but ultimately inconclusive. Conclusions Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly. These devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking. Implications for Practice In the absence of further data or regulation, oncologists are advised to discuss the known and unknown safety and efficacy information on e-cigarettes with interested patients, and to encourage patients to first try FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. PMID:24898072

  7. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK CLOSE SMOKEFREE.GOV HOME Create My Quit Plan Quitting starts now. Make a plan . Step 1 of 7 mark Step 2 of ... boosts your chances of success. Build a quit plan to get ready and find out what to ...

  8. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  9. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  10. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  11. Chronic Underactivity of Medial Frontal Cortical β2-Containing Nicotinic Receptors Increases Clozapine-Induced Working Memory Impairment in Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D.; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N. Channelle

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of β2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-β-erythrodine (DHβE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical α7 and β2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHβE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHβE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHβE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously the memory

  12. Chronic underactivity of medial frontal cortical beta2-containing nicotinic receptors increases clozapine-induced working memory impairment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Perkins, Abigail; Brotherton, Terrell; Qazi, Melissa; Berez, Chantal; Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza; Davis, Kasey; Williams, Paul; Christopher, N Channelle

    2009-03-17

    Nicotinic receptor decreases in the frontal cortex and hippocampus are important mediators of cognitive impairment in both schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Drug treatments for these diseases should take into account the impacts of compromised brain function on drug response. This study investigated the impact of compromised nicotinic receptor activity in the frontal cortex in rats on memory function. Since both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can involve psychosis, antipsychotic drugs are often given. The impacts of antipsychotic drugs on cognitive function have been found to be quite variable. It is the hypothesis of this and previous studies that the cognitive effects of antispychotic drugs on cognitive function depend on the integrity of brain systems involved in cognition. Previously in studies of the hippocampus, we found that chronic inhibition of beta2-containing nicotinic receptors with dihydro-beta-erythrodine (DHbetaE) impaired working memory and that this effect was attenuated by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. In contrast, chronic hippocampal alpha7 nicotinic receptor blockade with methyllycaconitine (MLA) potentiated the clozapine-induced memory impairment which is seen in rats without compromised nicotinic receptor activity. The current study determined medial frontal cortical alpha7 and beta2-containing nicotinic receptor involvement in memory and the interactions with antipsychotic drug therapy with clozapine. Chronic DHbetaE and MLA infusion effects and interactions with systemic clozapine were assessed in female rats tested for memory on the radial-arm maze. Antipsychotic drug interactions with chronic systemic nicotine were investigated because nicotinic procognitive treatment has been proposed. The same local infusion DHbetaE dose that impaired memory with hippocampal infusion did not impair memory when infused in the medial frontal cortex. Frontal DHbetaE infusion potentiated clozapine-induced memory impairment, whereas previously

  13. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [ 125 I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([ 125 I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh differ from that of [ 125 I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [ 3 H]nicotine, [ 3 H]ACh, and [ 125 I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [ 125 I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [ 125 I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  14. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  15. Nicotine and endogenous opioids: neurochemical and pharmacological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiconstantinou, Maria; Neff, Norton H

    2011-06-01

    Although the mesolimbic dopamine hypothesis is the most influential theory of nicotine reward and reinforcement, there has been a consensus that other neurotransmitter systems contribute to the addictive properties of nicotine as well. In this regard, the brain opioidergic system is of interest. Striatum is rich in opioid peptides and opioid receptors, and striatal opioidergic neurons are engaged in a bidirectional communication with midbrain dopaminergic neurons, closely regulating each other's activity. Enkephalins and dynorphins exert opposing actions on dopaminergic neurons, increasing and decreasing dopamine release respectively, and are components of circuits promoting positive or negative motivational and affective states. Moreover, dopamine controls the synthesis of striatal enkephalins and dynorphins. Evidence suggests that opioidergic function is altered after nicotine and endogenous opioids are involved in nicotine's behavioral effects. 1) The synthesis and release of β-endorphin, met-enkephalin and dynorphin in brain, especially nucleus accumbens (NAc), are altered after acute or chronic nicotine treatment and during nicotine withdrawal. 2) Although opioid receptor binding and mRNA do not appear to change in the striatum during nicotine withdrawal, the activity of κ-opioid (KOPr) and δ-opioid (DOPr) receptors is attenuated in NAc. 3) The nicotine withdrawal syndrome reminisces that of opiates, and naloxone precipitates some of its somatic, motivational, and affective signs. 4) Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that μ-opioid (MOPr) receptors are mainly involved in nicotine reward, while DOPrs contribute to the emotional and KOPrs to the aversive responses of nicotine. 5) Finally, MOPrs and enkephalin, but not β-endorphin or dynorphin, are necessary for the physical manifestations of nicotine withdrawal. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier

  16. Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Serban C.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d3-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d3-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016 54-59

  17. Nicotine-selective radiation-induced poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraydin, D.; Karadag, E.; Caldiran, Y.; Gueven, O.

    2001-01-01

    Nicotine-selective poly(acrylamide/maleic acid) (AAm/MA) hydrogels prepared by γ-irradiation were used in experiments on swelling, diffusion, and interactions of the pharmaceuticals nicotine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nikethamide. For AAm/MA hydrogel containing 60 mg maleic acid and irradiated at 5.2 kGy, the studies indicated that swelling increased in the following order; nicotine>nicotinamide>nikethamide>nicotinic acid>water. Diffusions of water and the pharmaceuticals within the hydrogels were found to be non-Fickian in character. AAm/MA hydrogel sorbed only nicotine and did not sorb nicotinamide, nikethamide and nicotinic acid in the binding experiments. S-type adsorption in Giles's classification system was observed. Some binding and thermodynamic parameters for AAm/MA hydrogel-nicotine system were calculated using the Scatchard method. The values of adsorption heat and free energy of this system were found to be negative whereas adsorption entropy was found to be positive. (author)

  18. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  19. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  20. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  1. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  2. Treating nicotine dependence by targeting attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with OROS methylphenidate: the role of baseline ADHD severity and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Edward V; Covey, Lirio S; Brigham, Gregory; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R; Somoza, Eugene C; Winhusen, Theresa M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate promotes abstinence from smoking among smokers with ADHD who have greater severity of ADHD symptoms at baseline or greater improvement in ADHD during treatment. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind, 11-week trial conducted between December 2005 and January 2008 at 6 clinical sites; the original trial was sponsored by the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Adult cigarette smokers (aged 18-55 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD were randomly assigned to OROS methylphenidate (72 mg/d) (n = 127) or matching placebo (n = 128). All participants received nicotine patches (21 mg/d) and weekly individual smoking cessation counseling. Logistic regression was used to model prolonged abstinence from smoking (ascertained by self-report and breath carbon monoxide testing) as a function of treatment, baseline ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) score, change in ADHD-RS score during treatment, and their interactions. Treatment interacted with both ADHD-RS score at baseline (P = .01) and change in ADHD-RS score during treatment (P = .008). Among patients with higher ADHD-RS scores (> 36) at baseline and the most improvement in ADHD during treatment (ADHD-RS change score ≥ 24), 70.0% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 36.8% of those who took placebo (P = .02). In contrast, among patients with the lowest ADHD-RS baseline scores (≤ 30), 30.3% of those who took OROS methylphenidate achieved abstinence from smoking compared to 60.7% of those who took placebo (P = .02). OROS methylphenidate, in combination with nicotine patch, may be an effective treatment for nicotine dependence among smokers with more severe ADHD and more robust response of ADHD symptoms to medication. OROS methylphenidate may be counterproductive among smokers with lower severity of ADHD

  3. The metabolic fate of nectar nicotine in worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W; Apostolides, Zeno

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are generalist pollinators that forage for nectar and pollen of a very large variety of plant species, exposing them to a diverse range of secondary metabolites produced as chemical defences against herbivory. Honey bees can tolerate high levels of many of these toxic compounds, including the alkaloid nicotine, in their diet without incurring apparent fitness costs. Very little is known about the underlying detoxification processes mediating this tolerance. We examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in newly emerged worker bees using radiolabeled nicotine and LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the kinetic distribution profile of nicotine as well as the absence or presence and identity of any nicotine-derived metabolites. Nicotine metabolism was extensive; virtually no unmetabolised nicotine were recovered from the rectum. The major metabolite found was 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid, the end product of 2'C-oxidation of nicotine. It is the first time that 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid has been identified in an insect as a catabolite of nicotine. Lower levels of cotinine, cotinine N-oxide, 3'hydroxy-cotinine, nicotine N-oxide and norcotinine were also detected. Our results demonstrated that formation of 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid is quantitatively the most significant pathway of nicotine metabolism in honey bees and that the rapid excretion of unmetabolised nicotine does not contribute significantly to nicotine tolerance in honey bees. In nicotine-tolerant insects that do not rely on the rapid excretion of nicotine like the Lepidoptera, it is possible that the 2'C-oxidation of nicotine is the conserved metabolic pathway instead of the generally assumed 5'C-oxidation pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of cytisine versus nicotine replacement therapy in people motivated to stop smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Natalie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers need effective support to maximise the chances of successful quit attempts. Current smoking cessation medications, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline, have been shown to be effective in clinical trials but are underused by smokers attempting to quit due to adverse effects, contraindications, low acceptability and/or high cost. Cytisine is a low-cost, plant-based alkaloid that has been sold as a smoking cessation aid in Eastern Europe for 50 years. A systematic review of trial evidence suggests that cytisine has a positive impact on both short- and long-term abstinence rates compared to placebo. However, the quality of the evidence is poor and insufficient for licensing purposes in many Western countries. A large, well-conducted placebo-controlled trial (n = 740 of cytisine for smoking cessation has recently been published and confirms the findings of earlier studies, with 12-month continuous abstinence rates of 8.4% in the cytisine group compared to 2.4% in the placebo group (Relative risk = 3.4, 95% confidence intervals 1.7-7.1. No research has yet been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of cytisine relative to that of NRT. Methods/design A single-blind, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial has been designed to determine whether cytisine is at least as effective as NRT in assisting smokers to remain abstinent for at least one month. Participants (n = 1,310 will be recruited through the national telephone-based Quitline service in New Zealand and randomised to receive a standard 25-day course of cytisine tablets (Tabex® or usual care (eight weeks of NRT patch and/or gum or lozenge. Participants in both study arms will also receive a behavioural support programme comprising an average of three follow-up telephone calls delivered over an eight-week period by Quitline. The primary outcome is continuous abstinence from smoking at one month, defined as not

  5. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  6. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4 degree C using a mixture of 3 H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between 3 H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37 degree C after treating cells with 3 H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours

  7. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Facts / Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Street names: Chew, Dip, Snuff Print Expand All Revised July 2017 What are tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarette products? ©Shutterstock/ CatherineL-Prod Also known as: Cigarettes: ...

  8. Counterfeit Electronic Cigarette Products with Mislabeled Nicotine Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaiye, Esther E; Cordova, Iliana; Davis, Barbara; Talbot, Prue

    2017-07-01

    We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products. Whereas nicotine was in 51.7% (15/29) of the Nigerian, 3.7% (1/27) of the Chinese and 1.6% (1/61) of the American refill fluids (range = 0.4 - 20.4 mg/mL), 8 British products did not contain nicotine. Products from China, the US, and Nigeria with trace amounts of nicotine (0.4 to 0.6 mg/mL) were authentic; however, all products from Nigeria with more than 3.7 mg/mL were counterfeit. We introduce 2 novel issues in the e-cigarette industry, the production of counterfeit refill fluids under a brandjacked label and inclusion of nicotine in 81.3% of the counterfeit products labeled 0 mg/mL. This study emphasizes the need for better control and monitoring of nicotine containing products and sales outlets.

  9. α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphisms exhibit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Nicotine is the major addictive substance in cigarettes. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are thought to play an important role in nicotine addiction of smokers. One of the genes, α-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ...

  10. Estimating Demand and Cross-Price Elasticity for Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) Cigarettes Using a Simulated Demand Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-03-03

    Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes, using simulated demand tasks. 40 New Zealand smokers sampled a VLNC cigarette and completed Cigarette Purchase Tasks to indicate their demand for regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes at a range of prices, and a cross-price task indicating how many regular cigarettes and VLNC cigarettes they would purchase at 0.5x, 1x, and 2x the current market price for regular cigarettes, assuming the price of VLNC cigarettes remained constant. They also rated the subjective effects of the VLNC cigarette and their usual-brand regular cigarettes. Cross-price elasticity for VLNC cigarettes was estimated as 0.24 and was significantly positive, indicating that VLNC cigarettes are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNC cigarettes were rated as less satisfying and psychologically rewarding than regular cigarettes, but this was unrelated to demand or substitutability. VLNC cigarettes are potentially substitutable for regular cigarettes. Their availability may reduce tobacco consumption, nicotine intake and addiction; making it easier for smokers to quit. VLNC cigarettes share the behavioural and sensory components of smoking whilst delivering negligible levels of nicotine. Although smokers rated VLNCs as less satisfying than regular cigarettes, smokers said they would increase their consumption of VLNCs as the price of regular cigarettes increased, if VLNCs were available at a lower price. This suggests that VLNCs are partially substitutable for regular cigarettes. VLNCs can be part of an effective tobacco control strategy, by reducing nicotine dependence and improving health and financial outcomes for smokers

  11. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  12. Opname van nicotine door kippen en overdracht naar eieren bij toepassing van nicotine tegen bloedluis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Rijk, de T.C.; Zomer, P.; Vos Van Avezathe, A.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Uit onderzoek van de AID blijkt nicotine gebruikt te worden voor de bestrijding van bloedluis bij kippen. Dit levert mogelijk gezondheidsrisico's op voor de consument van het kippenvlees of de eieren. Omdat niet duidelijk is of het nicotine na de bestrijding van bloedluis in het vlees of eieren

  13. Anxiety and depressed mood decline following smoking abstinence in adult smokers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Lirio S.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Winhusen, Theresa; Lima, Jennifer; Berlin, Ivan; Nunes, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A preponderance of relevant research has indicated reduction in anxiety and depressive symptoms following smoking abstinence. This secondary analysis investigated whether the phenomenon extends to smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods The study setting was an 11-Week double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) as a cessation aid when added to nicotine patch and counseling. Participants were 255 adult smokers with ADHD. The study outcomes are: anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) and depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI)) measured one Week and six Weeks after a target quit day (TQD). The main predictor is point - prevalence abstinence measured at Weeks 1 and 6 after TQD. Covariates are treatment (OROS-MPH vs placebo), past major depression, past anxiety disorder, number of cigarettes smoked daily, demographics (age, gender, education, marital status) and baseline scores on the BAI, BDI, and the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale. Results Abstinence was significantly associated with lower anxiety ratings throughout the post-quit period (p<0.001). Depressed mood was lower for abstainers than non-abstainers at Week 1 (p<0.05), but no longer at Week 6 (p=0.83). Treatment with OROS-MPH relative to placebo showed significant reductions at Week 6 after TQD for both anxiety (p<0.05) and depressed mood (p<0.001), but not at Week 1. Differential abstinence effects of gender were observed. Anxiety and depression ratings at baseline predicted increased ratings of corresponding measures during the post-quit period. Conclusion Stopping smoking yielded reductions in anxiety and depressed mood in smokers with ADHD treated with nicotine patch and counseling. Treatment with OROS-MPH yielded mood reductions in delayed manner. PMID:26272693

  14. A behavioral economic analysis of the value-enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline and the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Scott T; Geary, Trevor N; Steiner, Amy N; Bevins, Rick A

    2018-04-09

    Reinforcement value enhancement by nicotine of non-nicotine rewards is believed to partially motivate smoking behavior. Recently, we showed that the value-enhancing effects of nicotine are well characterized by reinforcer demand models and that the value-enhancing effects of the smoking-cessation aid bupropion (Zyban) are distinct from those of nicotine and differ between the sexes. The present study evaluated potential sex differences in the enhancement effects of nicotine and varenicline (Chantix) using a reinforcer demand methodology. The role of α4β2* and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the enhancing effects of nicotine and varenicline is also evaluated. Male and female rats (n=12/sex) were trained to lever press maintained by sensory reinforcement by visual stimulus (VS) presentations. Changes in the VS value following nicotine and varenicline administration were assessed using an established reinforcer demand approach. Subsequently, the effects of antagonism of α4β2* and α7 nAChRs on varenicline and nicotine-induced enhancement active lever-pressing were assessed using a progressive ratio schedule. Nicotine and varenicline enhanced VS demand equivalently between the sexes as evaluated by reinforcer demand. However, α4β2* receptor antagonism attenuated value enhancement by nicotine and varenicline in females, but only of nicotine in males.

  15. Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-09-01

    We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette' and 'electronic nicotine delivery'. Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as 'gateways' to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts' concerns about safety, dual use and possible 'gateway' effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Nicotine Withdrawal Induces Neural Deficits in Reward Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Evans, David E; Addicott, Merideth A; Potts, Geoffrey F; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2017-06-01

    Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to nonsmoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0.6 mg yield; satiation) or very low nicotine (0.05 mg yield; withdrawal) cigarettes. Electrophysiological recordings of neural activity were obtained while participants completed a reward prediction task that involved viewing four combinations of predictive and reward-determining stimuli: (1) Unexpected Reward; (2) Predicted Reward; (3) Predicted Punishment; (4) Unexpected Punishment. The task evokes a medial frontal negativity that mimics the phasic pattern of dopaminergic firing in ventral tegmental regions associated with reward prediction errors. Nicotine withdrawal decreased the amplitude of the medial frontal negativity equally across all trial types (p nicotine dependence (p Nicotine withdrawal had equivocal impact across trial types, suggesting reward processing deficits are unlikely to stem from changes in phasic dopaminergic activity during prediction errors. Effects on tonic activity may be more pronounced. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the dopamine system and behavioral interventions designed to increase reward motivation and responsiveness (eg, behavioral activation) may aid in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and potentially improving smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this study indicate nicotine withdrawal impacts reward processing signals that are observable in smokers' neural activity. This may play a role in the subjective aversive experience of nicotine withdrawal and potentially contribute to smoking relapse. Interventions that address abnormal responding to both pleasant and

  17. New trends in the treatment of nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Zieleń, Iwona; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the therapeutic substances used to treat nicotine addiction, not registered in Poland. This paper presents the results of the latest clinical trials and the possibility of their use in the treatment of nicotine addiction. The first two discussed drugs clonidine and nortriptyline are recommended by clinical practice guidelines AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) as the substance of the second line in the fight against addiction. Nortriptyline belongs to tricyclic antidepressants. Its mechanism of action is the inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine. It is suggested as the antagonist of activity of nicotinic receptors. The results confirm its efficacy in the treatment of nicotine addiction, but many side effects limit its use. Clonidine acts presumably by inhibition of sympathetic hyperactivity characteristic of symptoms associated with nicotine rehab. The remaining compounds under discussion, such as: venlafaxine, fluoxetine, moclobemide and rimonabant, are not registered in any country with an indication to use in the treatment of nicotine addiction, however, due to the mechanism in which they act, the possibility of their use in the treatment of this disease is considered. The possibility of using anxiolytics such as: buspirone, diazepam, meprobamate and beta-blockers: metoprolol and oxprenolol is also considered in order to treat the anxiety appearing as one of the symptoms of abstinence. An interesting proposal to combat nicotine addiction are vaccines--NicVAX, CYT002-NicQb and TA-NIC. Currently, they are in clinical phase I and II of their development. Their operation would be based on the induction of specific antibodies that bind nicotine in the plasma, thus prevent it reaching the nicotinic receptors. Preliminary results confirm the possible positive effects in the prevention and treatment of nicotine addiction.

  18. NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Paul J; Chartoff, Elena; Roberto, Marisa; Carlezon, William A; Markou, Athina

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine is considered an important component of tobacco responsible for the smoking habit in humans. Nicotine increases glutamate-mediated transmission throughout brain reward circuitries. This action of nicotine could potentially contribute to its intrinsic rewarding and reward-enhancing properties, which motivate consumption of the drug. Here we show that the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist LY235959 (0.5-2.5 mg per kg) abolished nicotine-enhanced brain reward function, reflected in blockade of the lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds usually observed after experimenter-administered (0.25 mg per kg) or intravenously self-administered (0.03 mg per kg per infusion) nicotine injections. The highest LY235959 dose (5 mg per kg) tested reversed the hedonic valence of nicotine from positive to negative, reflected in nicotine-induced elevations of ICSS thresholds. LY235959 doses that reversed nicotine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds also markedly decreased nicotine self-administration without altering responding for food reinforcement, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist NBQX had no effects on nicotine intake. In addition, nicotine self-administration upregulated NMDA receptor subunit expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), suggesting important interactions between nicotine and the NMDA receptor. Furthermore, nicotine (1 microM) increased NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in rat CeA slices, similar to its previously described effects in the VTA. Finally, infusion of LY235959 (0.1-10 ng per side) into the CeA or VTA decreased nicotine self-administration. Taken together, these data suggest that NMDA receptors, including those in the CeA and VTA, gate the magnitude and valence of the effects of nicotine on brain reward systems, thereby regulating motivation to consume the drug.

  19. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  20. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes.

  1. Neurotensin Agonist Attenuates Nicotine Potentiation to Cocaine Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a “gateway drug”. Neurotensin (NT is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13 analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  2. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  3. Nicotinic and iso nicotinic acids: interactions with gamma radiation and acid-base equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The values of pKa 1 and pKa 2 for nicotinic and iso nicotinic acids in aqueous medium were determined. The effects of gamma radiation about these acids by infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry and thermal gravimetric analysis were also studied. It was verified that the radiolysis of acids occurred by the two process of first order, determining the degradation constant and the degradation factors for each one of the solutions. (C.G.C.)

  4. Age-related changes in functional postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, a nucleus important in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark H; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2016-03-01

    The earlier an individual initiates cigarette smoking, the higher the likelihood of development of dependency to nicotine, the addictive ingredient in cigarettes. One possible mechanism underlying this higher addiction liability is an ontogenetically differential cellular response induced by nicotine in neurons mediating the reinforcing or euphoric effects of this drug, which could arise from age-related differences in the composition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits. In the current study, we examined whether the subunit composition of nAChRs differed between neurons within the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT), a nucleus importantly involved in drug addiction associated behaviours, across two periods of ontogeny in which nicotine-mediated excitatory responses were shown to depend on age. To this end, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices from identified LDT neurons, in combination with nAChR subunit-specific receptor antagonists, were conducted. Comparison of the contribution of different nAChR subunits to acetylcholine (ACh)-induced inward currents indicated that the contributions of the β2 and/or β4 and α7 nAChR subunits alter across age. Taken together, we conclude that across a limited ontogenetic period, there is plasticity in the subunit composition of nAChRs in LDT neurons. In addition, our data indicate, for the first time, functional presence of α6 nAChR subunits in LDT neurons within the age ranges studied. Changes in subunit composition of nAChRs across ontogeny could contribute to the age-related differential excitability induced by nicotine. Differences in the subunit composition of nAChRs within the LDT would be expected to contribute to ontogenetic-dependent outflow from the LDT to target regions, which include reward-related circuitry. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Patch-augmented rotator cuff repair: influence of the patch fixation technique on primary biomechanical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christian; Spreiter, Gregor; Audigé, Laurent; Ferguson, Stephen J; Flury, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the potential of patch augmentation to improve biomechanical stability and healing associated with rotator cuff repair. The biomechanical properties of three different patch-augmented rotator cuff repair techniques were assessed in vitro and compared with a standard repair. Dermal collagen patch augmentation may increase the primary stability and strength of the repaired tendon in vitro, depending on the technique used for patch application. Forty cadaveric sheep shoulders with dissected infraspinatus tendons were randomized into four groups (n = 10/group) for tendon repair using a knotless double-row suture anchor technique. A xenologous dermal extracellular matrix patch was used for augmentation in the three test groups using an "integrated", "cover", or "hybrid" technique. Tendons were preconditioned, cyclically loaded from 10 to 30 N at 1 Hz, and then loaded monotonically to failure. Biomechanical properties and the mode of failure were evaluated. Patch augmentation significantly increased the maximum load at failure by 61 % in the "cover" technique test group (225.8 N) and 51 % in the "hybrid" technique test group (211.4 N) compared with the non-augmented control group (140.2 N) (P ≤ 0.015). For the test group with "integrated" patch augmentation, the load at failure was 28 % lower (101.6 N) compared with the control group (P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in initial and linear stiffness among the four experimental groups. The most common mode of failure was tendon pullout. No anchor dislocation, patch disruption or knot breakage was observed. Additional patch augmentation with a collagen patch influences the biomechanical properties of a rotator cuff repair in a cadaveric sheep model. Primary repair stability can be significantly improved depending on the augmentation technique.

  6. Reduced Nicotine Content Expectancies Affect Initial Responses to Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Smyth, Joshua M; Strasser, Andrew A; Branstetter, Steven A

    2016-10-01

    We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial. During each session, participants smoked their preferred brand cigarette - blinded and described as containing "usual," "low," and "very low" nicotine content - through a topography device and completed CO and subjective response assessments. Although nicotine content was identical, compared to the "usual" content cigarette, participants experienced less craving reduction after smoking the "very low" nicotine cigarette, and rated its smoke as weaker (p marketing and labeling are likely important considerations if a federal nicotine reduction policy is initiated.

  7. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  8. Serotonergic modulation of nicotine-induced kinetic tremor in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Kunisawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT, significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT1A antagonist. In addition, the cerebral 5-HT depletion by repeated treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine did not reduce, but rather potentiated the facilitatory effects of 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI, significantly attenuated nicotine tremor, which was antagonized by ritanserin (5-HT2 antagonist. The 5-HT3 agonist SR-57227 did not affect nicotine-induced tremor. Furthermore, when testing the direct actions of 5-HT antagonists, nicotine tremor was inhibited by WAY-100135, but was unaffected by ritanserin, ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist or SB-258585 (5-HT6 antagonist. These results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors are involved in induction of nicotine tremor mediated by α7 nACh receptors. In addition, 5-HT2 receptors have an inhibitory modulatory role in induction of nicotine tremor.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Membranes for use in the Transdermal Treatment of Nicotine Addiction and Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L. Strasinger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal systems are attractive methods of drug administration specifically when treating patients for drug addiction. Current systems however are deficient in therapies that allow variable flux values of drug, such as nicotine for smoking cessation or complex dosing regimens using clonidine when treating opioid withdrawal symptoms. Through the use of functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT membranes, drug delivery to the skin can be controlled by applying a small electrical bias to create a programmable drug delivery system. Clearly, a transdermal patch system that can be tailored to an individual's needs will increase patient compliance as well as provide much more efficient therapy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of using carbon nanotube membranes in transdermal systems for treatment of drug abuse.

  10. Development of Culturally Appropriate Support Strategies to Increase Uptake of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Among Russian- and Chinese-Speaking Smokers in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Erin C; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M; Thihalolipavan, Sayone

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 80,000 New York City smokers are Chinese or Russian speakers. To increase utilization of smoking cessation services among these populations, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed linguistically and culturally tailored outreach strategies to promote and enhance its annual Nicotine Patch and Gum Program. In 2010, online web applications in Chinese and Russian were introduced. In 2011, input was sought from the community to develop Russian-language radio and newspaper ads, and a Russian-speaking liaison provided phone-assisted online enrollment support. In 2012, Chinese newspaper ads were introduced, and a Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking liaison was hired to provide enrollment support. In 2010, 51 Russian speakers and 40 Chinese speakers enrolled in the program via web application. In 2011, 510 Russian speakers applied via the web application, with 463 assisted by the Russian-speaking liaison; forty-four Chinese speakers applied online. In 2012, 394 Russian speakers applied via the web application; 363 were assisted by the Russian-speaking liaison. Eighty-five Chinese smokers applied online via the web application; seventy were assisted by the Chinese-speaking liaison. Following the implementation of culturally tailored cessation support interventions, ethnic Russian smokers' uptake of cessation support increased tenfold, while Chinese smokers' uptake doubled. Although linguistically appropriate resources are an essential foundation for reaching immigrant communities with high smoking rates, devising culturally tailored strategies to increase quit rates is critical to programmatic success.

  11. Varenicline: a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist approved for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sum; Patel, Priti N

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a significant health problem in the United States. It has been associated with staggering morbidity and mortality, specifically due to malignancies and cardiovascular disease. Smoking cessation can be difficult and frequently requires pharmacologic interventions in addition to nonpharmacologic measures. Previously available agents are nicotine replacement products and bupropion, which increased quit rates by about 2-fold compared with placebo. Varenicline is the first drug in a new class known as the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists. In several randomized, double-blind, 52-week clinical trials involving healthy chronic smokers, varenicline demonstrated superiority to placebo and bupropion in terms of efficacy measures. Additionally, it improved tobacco withdrawal symptoms and reinforcing effects of smoking in relapsed patients. Patients should start therapy in combination with tobacco cessation counseling 1 week before quit date and continue the regimen for 12 weeks. The dose of varenicline should be titrated to minimize nausea. The recommended dosage is 0.5 mg once daily (QD) on days 1-3; titrate to 0.5 mg twice daily (BID) on days 4-7; and 1 mg BID starting on day 8. An additional 12-week maintenance therapy may be considered for those who achieve abstinence. The most common side effects are nausea (30%), insomnia (18%), headache (15%), abnormal dreams (13%), constipation (8%), and abdominal pain (7%). Overall, varenicline is a breakthrough in the management of tobacco addiction and has demonstrated good efficacy in motivated quitters. It also provides an option for smokers who cannot tolerate other pharmacologic interventions.

  12. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zuo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4. These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  13. Feasibility of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems in Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Margaret; Leischow, Scott; Croghan, Ivana; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Hanson, Andrew; Schroeder, Darrell; Warner, David O

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for postoperative complications. Quitting or cutting down on cigarettes around the time of surgery may reduce these risks. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to help patients achieve this goal, regardless of their intent to attempt long-term abstinence. An open-label observational study was performed of cigarette smoking adults scheduled for elective surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester and seen in the pre-operative evaluation clinic between December 2014 and June 2015. Subjects were given a supply of ENDS to use prior to and 2 weeks after surgery. They were encouraged to use them whenever they craved a cigarette. Daily use of ENDS was recorded, and patients were asked about smoking behavior and ENDS use at baseline, 14 days and 30 days. Of the 105 patients approached, 80 (76%) agreed to participate; five of these were later excluded. Among the 75, 67 (87%) tried ENDS during the study period. At 30-day follow-up, 34 (51%) who had used ENDS planned to continue using them. Average cigarette consumption decreased from 15.6 per person/d to 7.6 over the study period (P < .001). At 30 days, 11/67 (17%) reported abstinence from cigarettes. ENDS use is feasible in adult smokers scheduled for elective surgery and is associated with a reduction in perioperative cigarette consumption. These results support further exploration of ENDS as a means to help surgical patients reduce or eliminate their cigarette consumption around the time of surgery. Smoking in the perioperative period increases patients' risk for surgical complications and healing difficulties, but new strategies are needed to help patients quit or cut down during this stressful time. These pilot data suggest that ENDS use is feasible and well-accepted in surgical patients, and worthy of exploration as a harm reduction strategy in these patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  14. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats (a) attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and (b) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4×7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  15. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  16. Animal Research on Nicotine Reduction: Current Evidence and Research Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Rupprecht, Laura E; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Weeks, Jillian J; Panas, Rachel S; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-09-01

    A mandated reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes may improve public health by reducing the prevalence of smoking. Animal self-administration research is an important complement to clinical research on nicotine reduction. It can fill research gaps that may be difficult to address with clinical research, guide clinical researchers about variables that are likely to be important in their own research, and provide policy makers with converging evidence between clinical and preclinical studies about the potential impact of a nicotine reduction policy. Convergence between clinical and preclinical research is important, given the ease with which clinical trial participants can access nonstudy tobacco products in the current marketplace. Herein, we review contributions of preclinical animal research, with a focus on rodent self-administration, to the science of nicotine reduction. Throughout this review, we highlight areas where clinical and preclinical research converge and areas where the two differ. Preclinical research has provided data on many important topics such as the threshold for nicotine reinforcement, the likelihood of compensation, moderators of the impact of nicotine reduction, the impact of environmental stimuli on nicotine reduction, the impact of nonnicotine cigarette smoke constituents on nicotine reduction, and the impact of nicotine reduction on vulnerable populations. Special attention is paid to current research gaps including the dramatic rise in alternative tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ie, e-cigarettes). The evidence reviewed here will be critical for policy makers as well as clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction. This review will provide policy makers and clinical researchers interested in nicotine reduction with an overview of the preclinical animal research conducted on nicotine reduction and the regulatory implications of that research. The review also highlights the utility of

  17. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.I.; Gul, A.

    2005-01-01

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  18. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Li, Ruisheng [Institute of Infectious Diseases, 302 Military Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Dang, Ningning [Department of Dermatology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China); Wang, Yunshan [Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013 (China)

    2014-07-15

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  19. Alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates nicotine-induced HIF-1α and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoli; Jia, Yanfei; Zu, Shanshan; Li, Ruisheng; Jia, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Xiao, Dongjie; Dang, Ningning; Wang, Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. However, the mechanisms through which α5-nAChRs may influence lung carcinogenesis are far from clear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of α5-nAChR in the nicotine-induced expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α in 60 specimens of lung cancer and para-carcinoma tissue. The correlations between the expression levels of α5-nAChR and HIF-1α and other clinicopathological data were analyzed. In a cell line that highly expressed α5-nAChR, the loss of α5-nAChR function by siRNA was used to study whether α5-nAChR is involved in the nicotine-induced expression of HIF-1α and VEGF through the activation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cell growth was detected using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). α5-nAChR (78.3%) and HIF-1α (88.3%) were both overexpressed in NSCLC, and their expression levels were found to be correlated with each other (P < 0.05). In the A549 cell line, α5-nAChR and HIF-1α were found to be expressed under normal conditions, and their expression levels were significantly increased in response to nicotine treatment. The silencing of α5-nAChR significantly inhibited the nicotine-induced cell proliferation compared with the control group and attenuated the nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF, and these effects required the cooperation of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results show that the α5-nAChR/HIF-1α/VEGF axis is involved in nicotine-induced tumor cell proliferation, which suggests that α5-nAChR may serve as a potential anticancer target in nicotine-associated lung cancer. - Highlights

  20. Lipid-drug-conjugate (LDC) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for the delivery of nicotine to the oral cavity - optimization of nicotine loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Nielsen, Kent A; Nielsen, Bruno P; Bøje, Niels W; Müller, Rainer H; Pyo, Sung Min

    2018-03-12

    Nicotine, obtained from tobacco leaves, has been used to promote the cessation of smoking and reduce the risk of COPD and lung cancer. Incorporating the active in lipid nanoparticles is an effective tool to minimize its irritation potential and to use the particles as intermediate to produce final products. However, as a hydrophilic active, it is a challenge to prepare nicotine loaded lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading. In this study, lipid-drug-conjugates (LDC) were formed by nicotine and different fatty acids to enable the production of sufficiently loaded nicotine lipid nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of nicotine in LDC-containing SLN was about 50%, which increased at least fourfold compared to the non-LDC formulations (around 10%) due to the increased lipophilicity of nicotine by strong interactions between positively charged nicotine and negatively charged fatty acids (formation of LDCs). The z-average of all formulations (150 to 350 nm) proved to be in the required submicron size range with a narrow size distribution. In summary, nicotine loaded LDC lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading were successfully developed with Kolliwax® S and stearic acid as counter-ion forming the LDC and hydrogenated sunflower oil (HSO) as lipid particle matrix. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Expectancies for the effectiveness of different tobacco interventions account for racial and gender differences in motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Leventhal, Adam M; Stevens, Erin N; Trent, Lindsay R; Clark, C Brendan; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2014-09-01

    Racial and gender disparities for smoking cessation might be accounted for by differences in expectancies for tobacco interventions, but few studies have investigated such differences or their relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. In this cross-sectional study, 673 smokers (African American: n = 443, 65.8%; women: n = 222, 33.0%) under criminal justice supervision who enrolled in a clinical smoking cessation trial in which all received bupropion and half received counseling. All participants completed pretreatment measures of expectancies for different tobacco interventions, motivation to quit, and abstinence self-efficacy. The indirect effects of race and gender on motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy through expectancies for different tobacco interventions were evaluated. African Americans' stronger expectancies that behavioral interventions would be effective accounted for their greater motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Women's stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy accounted for their greater motivation to quit, whereas their stronger expectancies for the effectiveness of behavioral treatments accounted for their greater abstinence self-efficacy. Findings point to the mediating role of expectancies for treatment effectiveness and suggest the importance of exploring expectancies among African Americans and women as a way to augment motivation and self-efficacy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Incremental validity of anxiety sensitivity in terms of motivation to quit, reasons for quitting, and barriers to quitting among community-recruited daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Miller, Marcel O Bonn; Bernstein, Amit; Yartz, Andrew R; Gregor, Kristin L; McLeish, Alison C; Marshall, Erin C; Gibson, Laura E

    2007-09-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and motivation to quit smoking, barriers to smoking cessation, and reasons for quitting smoking among 329 adult daily smokers (160 females; M (age) = 26.08 years, SD = 10.92). As expected, after covarying for the theoretically relevant variables of negative affectivity, gender, Axis I psychopathology, nonclinical panic attack history, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and current levels of alcohol consumption, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly incrementally related to level of motivation to quit smoking as well as current barriers to quitting smoking. Partially consistent with the hypotheses, after accounting for the variance explained by other theoretically relevant variables, we found that anxiety sensitivity was significantly associated with self-control reasons for quitting smoking (intrinsic factors) as well as immediate reinforcement and social influence reasons for quitting (extrinsic factors). Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of anxiety sensitivity in psychological processes associated with smoking cessation.

  3. Transdermal patches: history, development and pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Michael N; Kalia, Yogeshvar N; Horstmann, Michael; Roberts, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. This review begins with the earliest topical therapies and traces topical delivery to the present-day transdermal patches, describing along the way the initial trials, devices and drug delivery systems that underpin current transdermal patches and their actives. This is followed by consideration of the evolution in the various patch designs and their limitations as well as requirements for actives to be used for transdermal delivery. The properties of and issues associated with the use of currently marketed products, such as variability, safety and regulatory aspects, are then described. The review concludes by examining future prospects for transdermal patches and drug delivery systems, such as the combination of active delivery systems with patches, minimally invasive microneedle patches and cutaneous solutions, including metered-dose systems. PMID:25560046

  4. Epidemiology, radiology, and genetics of nicotine dependence in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokanson John E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the principal environmental risk factor for developing COPD, and nicotine dependence strongly influences smoking behavior. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between nicotine dependence, genetic susceptibility to nicotine dependence, and volumetric CT findings in smokers. Methods Current smokers with COPD (GOLD stage ≥ 2 or normal spirometry were analyzed from the COPDGene Study, a prospective observational study. Nicotine dependence was determined by the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND. Volumetric CT acquisitions measuring the percent of emphysema on inspiratory CT (% of lung Results Among 842 currently smoking subjects (335 COPD cases and 507 controls, 329 subjects (39.1% showed high nicotine dependence. Subjects with high nicotine dependence had greater cumulative and current amounts of smoking. However, emphysema severity was negatively correlated with the FTND score in controls (ρ = -0.19, p Conclusions Nicotine dependence was a negative predictor for emphysema on CT in COPD and control smokers. Increased inflammation in more highly addicted current smokers could influence the CT lung density distribution, which may influence genetic association studies of emphysema phenotypes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT00608764

  5. Method optimization of ocular patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Upreti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.

  6. Nasal nicotine solution: a potential aid to giving up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Feyerabend, C; Fernö, O

    1983-01-01

    A nasal solution was developed containing 2 mg nicotine for use as a kind of liquid snuff. Its absorption was studied in three subjects. An average peak of plasma nicotine concentrations of 86.9 nmol/l (14.1 ng/ml) was reached seven and a half minutes after taking the solution. This compared with an average peak of 158.4 nmol/l (25.7 ng/ml) one and a half minutes after completing (but seven and a half minutes after starting) a middle tar cigarette (1.4 mg nicotine) and an average peak of 52.4 nmol/l (8.5 ng/ml) after chewing nicotine gum (2 mg nicotine) for 30 minutes. The more rapid and efficient absorption of nicotine from the nasal nicotine solution than from nicotine chewing gum suggests that it might prove a useful aid to giving up smoking. Nasal nicotine solution might be particularly useful in smokers for whom the gum is less suitable on account of dentures or peptic ulcers or who experience nausea and dyspeptic symptoms from the gum. PMID:6402202

  7. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation and induces resistance to cisplatin by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor‑mediated activation in Raw264.7 and El4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Yan; Liu, Yao; Ni, Xiao Yan; Bai, Zhen Huan; Chen, Qiong Yun; Zhang, Ye; Gao, Feng Guang

    2014-03-01

    Although nicotine is a risk factor for carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis, epidemiological data indicate that nicotine has therapeutic benefits in treating Alzheimer's disease. Our previous studies also showed that nicotine-treated dendritic cells have potential antitumor effects. Hence, the precise effects of nicotine on the biological characterizations of cells are controversial. The aim of the present study was to assess the roles of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Erk1/2-p38-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathway in nicotine-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptosis effects. The results firstly showed that nicotine treatment clearly augmented cell viability and upregulated PCNA expression in both Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Meanwhile, nicotine afforded protection against cisplatin-induced toxicity through inhibiting caspase-3 activation and upregulating anti-apoptotic protein expression. Further exploration demonstrated that nicotine efficiently abolished cisplatin-promoted mitochondria translocation of Bax and the release of cytochrome c. The pretreatment of α-bungarotoxin and tubocurarine chloride significantly attenuated nicotine-augmented cell viability, abolished caspase-3 activation and α7 nAChR upregulation. Both Erk-JNK-p38 and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways could be activated by nicotine treatment in Raw264.7 and El4 cells. Notably, when Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt activities were inhibited, nicotine-augmented cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects were abolished accordingly. The results presented here indicate that nicotine could achieve α7 nAChR-mediated proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects by activating Erk-JNK and PI3K-Akt pathways respectively, providing potential therapeutic molecules to deal with smoking-associated human diseases.

  8. Serotonergic modulation of nicotine-induced kinetic tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Nomura, Yuji; Onishi, Misaki; Matsubara, Nami; Shimizu, Saki; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT 1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT 1A antagonist). In addition, the cerebral 5-HT depletion by repeated treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine did not reduce, but rather potentiated the facilitatory effects of 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT 2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), significantly attenuated nicotine tremor, which was antagonized by ritanserin (5-HT 2 antagonist). The 5-HT 3 agonist SR-57227 did not affect nicotine-induced tremor. Furthermore, when testing the direct actions of 5-HT antagonists, nicotine tremor was inhibited by WAY-100135, but was unaffected by ritanserin, ondansetron (5-HT 3 antagonist) or SB-258585 (5-HT 6 antagonist). These results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT 1A receptors are involved in induction of nicotine tremor mediated by α7 nACh receptors. In addition, 5-HT 2 receptors have an inhibitory modulatory role in induction of nicotine tremor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L.; King, Christopher P.; Meyer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli (“cues”), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. Objectives To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food predictive cue (“sign-trackers”) or a reward-delivery location (“goal-trackers”). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Methods Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Results Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue, and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs. PMID:27282365

  10. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L; King, Christopher P; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers"). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs.

  11. GLP-1 acts on habenular avoidance circuits to control nicotine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuesta, Luis M; Chen, Zuxin; Duncan, Alexander; Fowler, Christie D; Ishikawa, Masago; Lee, Brian R; Liu, Xin-An; Lu, Qun; Cameron, Michael; Hayes, Matthew R; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Pletcher, Matthew; Kenny, Paul J

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco smokers titrate their nicotine intake to avoid its noxious effects, sensitivity to which may influence vulnerability to tobacco dependence, yet mechanisms of nicotine avoidance are poorly understood. Here we show that nicotine activates glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The antidiabetic drugs sitagliptin and exenatide, which inhibit GLP-1 breakdown and stimulate GLP-1 receptors, respectively, decreased nicotine intake in mice. Chemogenetic activation of GLP-1 neurons in NTS similarly decreased nicotine intake. Conversely, Glp1r knockout mice consumed greater quantities of nicotine than wild-type mice. Using optogenetic stimulation, we show that GLP-1 excites medial habenular (MHb) projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Activation of GLP-1 receptors in the MHb-IPN circuit abolished nicotine reward and decreased nicotine intake, whereas their knockdown or pharmacological blockade increased intake. GLP-1 neurons may therefore serve as 'satiety sensors' for nicotine that stimulate habenular systems to promote nicotine avoidance before its aversive effects are encountered.

  12. The effect of coniine on presynaptic nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkent, Ulkem; Iskit, Alper B; Onur, Rustu; Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is manifested by characteristic nicotinic clinical signs including excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos via postsynaptic nicotinic receptors. There is limited knowledge about the role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine in the literature. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on the pharmacological and toxicological effects of coniine. For this purpose, the rat anococcygeus muscle and guinea-pig atria were used in vitro. Nicotine (100 μM) elicited a biphasic response composed of a relaxation followed by contraction through the activation of nitrergic and noradrenergic nerve terminals in the phenylephrine-contracted rat anococcygeus muscle. Coniine inhibited both the nitrergic and noradrenergic response in the muscle (-logIC(50) = 3.79 ± 0.11 and -logIC(50) = 4.57 ± 0.12 M, respectively). The effect of coniine on nicotinic receptor-mediated noradrenergic transmission was also evaluated in the guinea-pig atrium (-logIC(50) = 4.47 ± 0.12 M) and did not differ from the -logIC(50) value obtained in the rat anococcygeus muscle. This study demonstrated that coniine exerts inhibitory effects on nicotinic receptor-mediated nitrergic and noradrenergic transmitter response.

  13. Patch photopatch test at Manipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panja Arindrajit

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch and photopatch testing was performed on 55 patients with history of photosensitivity using Scandanavian photo patch test antigens obtained from Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB Sweden. The commonest reactions were seen to perfume mix 4 (21.0%, PABA 3 (15.78%, promethazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, chlorpromazine hydrochloride 3 (15.78%, balsam of peru 2 (10.52%, usnic acid, hexachlorophane, musk ambrette and 6 methyl coumarin showed 1 positive reaction each (5.26% suggesting either phototoxicity or photo sensitization. Patch and photo patch test positive reaction suggesting allergic sensitisation was seen to balsam of peru 3 (23.0% perfume mix 3 (23.0% promethazine hydrochloride 2 (15.3% and PABA, 6 methyl coumarin, tribromosalicylanilide, atranorin and wood mix showed positive reaction in one case each (7.69%. We conclude that photoxic or photo allergic reaction is a problem in India and patch photo patch test should be performed in all cases of idiopathic light eruptions to rule out photo sensitisation and in cases where photo sensitivity of exogenous origin is suspected.

  14. The effects of Nicotinic Acid and Xanthinol Nicotinate on human memory in different categories of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loriaux, S.M.; Deijen, J.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; de Swart, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The treatment effect of nicotinic acid and xanthinol nicotinate on human memory was compared with placebo in 96 healthy subjects. Forty-three subjects were young (35-45 years), 30 subjects middle aged (55-65 years) and 23 subjects were old aged (75-85 years). Pre- and post-treatment scores were

  15. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  16. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    determination of nicotine in two brands of commercial cigarettes and ... to disruption of arteries and cardiovascular risk factors [8, 9]. Smoking .... e d. Figure 2. Cyclic voltammetric response (scan rate of 100 mV/s) of 1.0 mM nicotine at AGCE in.

  17. Chronic oral nicotine increases brain [3H]epibatidine binding and responsiveness to antidepressant drugs, but not nicotine, in the mouse forced swim test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among depressed individuals is higher than among healthy subjects, and nicotine alleviates depressive symptoms. Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. In mice, acute nicotine administration enhances...... the activity of antidepressants in the mouse forced swim (mFST) and tail suspension tests. Here, we investigated if this action of nicotine is also reflected in a chronic treatment regimen....

  18. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  19. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magata, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using 3 H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of 125 I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions

  20. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J., E-mail: caires.flavio@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L){sub 2}·nH{sub 2}O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds.

  1. Thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid, sodium nicotinate and its compounds with some bivalent transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, A.L.C.S. do; Caires, F.J.; Gomes, D.J.C.; Gigante, A.C.; Ionashiro, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The transition metal ion nicotinates were synthesized. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behaviour. • The gaseous products released were detected by TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. - Abstract: Solid-state M(L) 2 ·nH 2 O compounds, where M stands for bivalent transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn), L is nicotinate and n = 0–4.5, have been synthesized. Characterization and thermal behaviour of these compounds were investigated employing elemental analysis based on the mass losses observed in the TG–DTA curves, complexometry, X-ray diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) and TG–DSC coupled to FTIR. The thermal behaviour of nicotinic acid and its sodium salt was also investigated. For the hydrated transition metal compounds, the dehydration and thermal decomposition of the anhydrous compounds occur in a single step. For the sodium nicotinate, the final residue up to 765 °C is sodium carbonate and for the transition metal nicotinates, the final residues are Mn 3 O 4 , Fe 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO and ZnO. The results also provided information concerning the thermal stability, thermal decomposition and identification of the gaseous products evolved during the thermal decomposition of the compounds

  2. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  3. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  4. Ethanol-nicotine interactions in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J; Collins, A C

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that common genetic factors regulate initial sensitivities to ethanol and nicotine as well as the development of cross-tolerance between these agents was explored using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice. The LS mice proved to be more sensitive to an acute challenge with nicotine than were the SS mice. Segregation analysis (F1, F2, backcross) indicated that ethanol sensitivity and nicotine sensitivity segregate together. Acute pretreatment with nicotine did not significantly affect sensitivity to ethanol, but ethanol pretreatment altered nicotine responsiveness. The LS mice develop more tolerance to nicotine and ethanol than do the SS and they also develop more cross-tolerance. These genetically determined differences in initial sensitivities, and tolerance and cross-tolerance development are not readily explained by differences in brain nicotinic receptor numbers.

  5. Ethanol-nicotine interactions in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Fiebre, C.M.; Marks, M.J.; Collins, A.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The possibility that common genetic factors regulate initial sensitivities to ethanol and nicotine as well as the development of cross-tolerance between these agents was explored using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice. The LS mice proved to be more sensitive to an acute challenge with nicotine than were the SS mice. Segregation analysis (F1, F2, backcross) indicated that ethanol sensitivity and nicotine sensitivity segregate together. Acute pretreatment with nicotine did not significantly affect sensitivity to ethanol, but ethanol pretreatment altered nicotine responsiveness. The LS mice develop more tolerance to nicotine and ethanol than do the SS and they also develop more cross-tolerance. These genetically determined differences in initial sensitivities, and tolerance and cross-tolerance development are not readily explained by differences in brain nicotinic receptor numbers.

  6. Use of pharmacy data to evaluate smoking regulations' impact on sales of nicotine replacement therapies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2005-06-01

    Recently, New York City and New York State increased cigarette excise taxes and New York City implemented a smoke-free workplace law. To assess the impact of these policies on smoking cessation in New York City, we examined over-the-counter sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Pharmacy sales data were collected in real time as part of nontraditional surveillance activities. We used Poisson generalized estimating equations to analyze the effect of smoking-related policies on pharmacy-specific weekly sales of nicotine patches and gum. We assessed effect modification by pharmacy location. We observed increases in NRT product sales during the weeks of the cigarette tax increases and the smoke-free workplace law. Pharmacies in low-income areas generally had larger and more persistent increases in response to tax increases than those in higher-income areas. Real-time monitoring of existing nontraditional surveillance data, such as pharmacy sales of NRT products, can help assess the effects of public policies on cessation attempts. Cigarette tax increases and smoke-free workplace regulations were associated with increased smoking cessation attempts in New York City, particularly in low-income areas.

  7. Sex differences in nicotine intravenous self-administration: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rodolfo J; Uribe, Kevin P; Swalve, Natashia; O'Dell, Laura E

    2017-11-21

    This report reflects a meta-analysis that systematically reviewed the literature on intravenous self-administration (IVSA) of nicotine in female and male rats. The goal was to determine if sex differences in nicotine IVSA exist, estimate the magnitude of the effect, and identify potential moderators of the relationship between sex differences and nicotine consumption. Extensive search procedures identified 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria of employing both female and male rats in nicotine IVSA procedures. The meta-analysis was conducted on effect size values that were calculated from mean total intake or nicotine deliveries using the Hedges' unbiased g u statistic. A random effects analysis revealed that overall females self-administered more nicotine than males (weighted g u =0.18, 95% CI [0.003, 0.34]). Subsequent moderator variable analyses revealed that certain procedural conditions influenced the magnitude of sex differences in nicotine IVSA. Specifically, higher reinforcement requirements (>FR1) and extended-access sessions (23h) were associated with greater nicotine IVSA in females versus males. Females also displayed higher nicotine intake than males when the experiment included a light cue that signaled nicotine delivery. Sex differences were not influenced by the diurnal phase of testing, dose of nicotine, or prior operant training. Overall, the results revealed that female rats display higher levels of nicotine IVSA than males, suggesting that the strong reinforcing effects of nicotine promote tobacco use in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  9. Large-scale binding ligand prediction by improved patch-based method Patch-Surfer2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Xiong, Yi; Kihara, Daisuke

    2015-03-01

    Ligand binding is a key aspect of the function of many proteins. Thus, binding ligand prediction provides important insight in understanding the biological function of proteins. Binding ligand prediction is also useful for drug design and examining potential drug side effects. We present a computational method named Patch-Surfer2.0, which predicts binding ligands for a protein pocket. By representing and comparing pockets at the level of small local surface patches that characterize physicochemical properties of the local regions, the method can identify binding pockets of the same ligand even if they do not share globally similar shapes. Properties of local patches are represented by an efficient mathematical representation, 3D Zernike Descriptor. Patch-Surfer2.0 has significant technical improvements over our previous prototype, which includes a new feature that captures approximate patch position with a geodesic distance histogram. Moreover, we constructed a large comprehensive database of ligand binding pockets that will be searched against by a query. The benchmark shows better performance of Patch-Surfer2.0 over existing methods. http://kiharalab.org/patchsurfer2.0/ CONTACT: dkihara@purdue.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Quit history, intentions to quit, and reasons for considering quitting among tobacco users in India: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, G G; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Sansone, G C; Quah, A C K; Bansal-Travers, M; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010 revealed that more than one-third (35%) of adults in India use tobacco in some form: 21% use smokeless tobacco, 9% smoke, and 5% are mixed users (they smoke and use smokeless tobacco), and the quit rate is very low. In an effort to decrease prevalence of tobacco use, it is thus important to understand the factors that are related to intention to quit among Indian tobacco users. Research has shown consistently that intention to quit is a strong predictor of future quitting. The present study reports the factors encouraging quitting tobacco products in India. Cross-sectional data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation India Survey conducted in four cities and surrounding rural areas (i.e. Mumbai [Maharashtra], Patna [Bihar], Indore [Madhya Pradesh], and Kolkata [West Bengal]) between August 2010 and December 2011 were analyzed. A total of 8051 tobacco users (15+ years) were randomly sampled from 8586 households: 1255 smokers, 5991 smokeless users, and 805 mixed (smoke and smokeless) users. Validated, standardized questions were asked about current tobacco use, intention to quit, and factors encouraging quitting. Overall, 19.6% of tobacco users intended to quit. Smokers had less intention to quit as compared to smokeless tobacco users whereas mixed users had more intention to quit (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.12-1.97) compared to smokeless tobacco users. Highly educated people were more likely to report intention to quit (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.09-3.02) compared to less educated. Advice by doctors to quit tobacco had a strong impact on intention to quit (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.29-2.15). Tobacco users who were exposed to antitobacco messages at work places (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.23-2.46), at restaurants (OR = 1.65, CI = 1.12-2.43), bars (OR = 1.81, CI = 1.07-3.06), on public transportation (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.49-3.08) and on tobacco packages (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.29-2.14) also

  11. Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette use in a Group of “Vapers” Who Had Achieved Complete Substitution of Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic cigarettes (ECs are alternative-to-smoking nicotine delivery devices; consumers (commonly called vapers use them in order to reduce or completely substitute smoking. The European Commission has released a proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive that might reduce availability of nicotine-containing products, including ECs. In this study, the EC use patterns in subjects who have completely substituted smoking with EC use were examined by personal interviews. The study focused on nicotine levels used in order to achieve smoking cessation, reported benefits, associated side effects, and estimation of EC dependence compared with smoking. Methods Participants were 111 subjects who had completely substituted smoking with EC use for at least 1 month. Smoking abstinence was validated by measuring blood carboxyhemoglobin levels. Nicotine levels at initiation of EC use, at time of smoking cessation, and at time of interview were recorded. Dependence potential was assessed by asking the first question of the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (time until smoking the first cigarette and until first use of EC in the morning and questions about perceived past dependence on tobacco cigarettes and present dependence on EC. Results Forty-two percent of participants reported quitting smoking during the first month of EC use. Liquids with nicotine concentration >15 mg/mL were used by 74% of users at initiation of EC use, while 16.2% had to increase the initial nicotine levels in order to achieve complete smoking abstinence. Seventy-two participants (64.9% reported that from the time of smoking cessation to the time of the interview (8 months median duration of EC use they reduced the nicotine concentration they were consuming; however, only 12% of the total sample was using ≤5 mg/mL nicotine concentration at the time of the interview. Side effects were mild and temporary. The vast majority of participants reported better exercise

  12. Nicotine facilitates nicotinic acetylcholine receptor targeting to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to selective ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenska, Kateryna; Lykhmus, Olena; Gergalova, Galyna; Chernyshov, Volodymyr; Arias, Hugo R; Komisarenko, Sergiy; Skok, Maryna

    2017-08-24

    Several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are expressed in mitochondria to regulate the internal pathway of apoptosis in ion channel-independent manner. However, the mechanisms of nAChR activation in mitochondria and targeting to mitochondria are still unknown. Nicotine has been shown to favor nAChR pentamer assembly, folding, and maturation on the way of biosynthesis. The idea of the present work was to determine whether nicotine affects the content, glycosylation, and function of mitochondrial nAChRs. Experiments were performed in isolated liver mitochondria from mice, that either consumed or not nicotine with the drinking water (200μL/L) for 7days. Mitochondria detergent lysates were studied by sandwich or lectin ELISA for the presence and carbohydrate composition of different nAChR subunits. Intact mitochondria were examined by flow cytometry for the binding of fluorescently labeled α-cobratoxin and were tested in functional assay of cytochrome c release under the effect of either Ca 2+ or wortmannin in the presence or absence of nAChR-selective ligands, including PNU-282987 (1nM), dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE, 1μM), PNU-120596 (0.3, 3, or 10μM) and desformylflustrabromine hydrochloride (dFBr, 0.001, 0.3, or 1μM). It was found that nicotine consumption increased the ratio of mitochondrial vs non-mitochondrial nAChRs in the liver, enhanced fucosylation of mitochondrial nAChRs, but prevented the binding of α-cobratoxin and the cytochrome c release-attenuating effects of nAChR-specific agonists, antagonists, or positive allosteric modulators. It is concluded that nicotine consumption in vivo favors nAChR glycosylation and trafficking to mitochondria but makes them less susceptible to the effects of specific ligands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  14. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús; Hernández-Martinez, Ricardo; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colín, René; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs) in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA) such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non-specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  15. Multiband Patch Antenna for Femtocell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna for multiple LTE (long term evaluation frequency bands for femtocell application is proposed in this paper. Distributed antenna solution (DAS has been introduced in cellular network to achieve homogenous indoor coverage. Femtocell is the latest extension to these solutions. It is a smart solution to both coverage and capacity scales. Femtocell operation in LTE band is occupied by higher frequency bands. For multiband femtocell application, miniature antenna design is quite essential. The antenna proposed here is composed of basic monopole structure with two parasitic elements at both sides of the active element. A rectangular slot is introduced at the ground plane of the proposed antenna. The antenna is designed using ElnoS HK light CCL substrate material of relative permittivity of 9.4, dielectric loss-tangent of 0.003 and thickness of 3 mm. The S11 response of the antenna is shown to have a bandwidth of 1.01 GHz starting from 1.79 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The characteristics of the antenna are analysed using Ansoft HFSS software.

  16. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... of male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  17. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolite types, from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Dušan K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant alkaloid, nicotine, is a strongly toxic heterocyclic compound: the lethal dose for an adult human being (40-60 mg is importantly lower in comparison with the other known poisons such as arsenic or strychni­ne. Cigarettes represent "the most toxic and addictive form of nicotine". Besides the negative effects of nicotine on public health produced by self-administration, recently another potentially very dangerous effect has been recognized: because of its miscibility with water, nicotine can be found in industrial wastewaters, and consequently, in groundwater. Therefore, the problem of nicotine removal from aqueous solutions has became an interesting topic. In this work, the removal of nicotine has been probed by adsorption on solid materials. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolites (clinoptilolite, ZSM-5 and β zeolite and on activated carbon was investigated from aqueous solutions, at 298 K. The obtained results are presented as adsorption isotherms: the amount of adsorbed nicotine as a function of equilibrium concentration. These data were obtained from the residual amount of nicotine in the aqueous phase, by the use of UV spectroscopy. The highest amounts of adsorbed nicotine was found for activated carbon and p zeolite (~ mmol·g-1. The attempt to modify the adsorption properties of ZSM-5 zeolite has been also done: ZSM-5 was modified by ion-exchange with VIII group metal (Cu2+ and Fe3+. In addition, the adsorption of nicotine on ZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios has been done. It has been noticed that ion-exchange did not improve the adsorption possibilities, while the adsorption was importantly lower in the case of higher silicon content in ZMS-5 structure. 13C NMR spectra were collected for suspensions formed of solid adsorbent and aqueous solution of nicotine; in this way, the part of nicotine molecule which is most probably connected with the adsorbent was recognized.

  18. Collection of analytes from microneedle patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, Andrey V; Zvezdin, Vasiliy N; Samant, Pradnya; Grenader, Mark I; Zemlyanova, Marina; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2014-11-04

    Clinical medicine and public health would benefit from simplified acquisition of biological samples from patients that can be easily obtained at point of care, in the field, and by patients themselves. Microneedle patches are designed to serve this need by collecting dermal interstitial fluid containing biomarkers without the dangers, pain, or expertise needed to collect blood. This study presents novel methods to collect biomarker analytes from microneedle patches for analysis by integration into conventional analytical laboratory microtubes and microplates. Microneedle patches were made out of cross-linked hydrogel composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) prepared by micromolding. Microneedle patches were shown to swell with water up to 50-fold in volume, depending on degree of polymer cross-linking, and to collect interstitial fluid from the skin of rats. To collect analytes from microneedle patches, the patches were mounted within the cap of microcentrifuge tubes or formed the top of V-bottom multiwell microplates, and fluid was collected in the bottom of the tubes under gentle centrifugation. In another method, microneedle patches were attached to form the bottom of multiwell microplates, thereby enabling in situ analysis. The simplicity of biological sample acquisition using microneedle patches coupled with the simplicity of analyte collection from microneedles patches integrated into conventional analytical equipment could broaden the reach of future screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of biomarkers in healthcare and environmental/workplace settings.

  19. Which Behavior Change Techniques May Help Waterpipe Smokers to Quit? An Expert Consensus Using a Modified Delphi Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Nancy; Dogar, Omara; Jawad, Mohammed; Kellar, Ian; Kanaan, Mona; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2018-01-05

    Waterpipe smoking is addictive and harmful. The determinants of waterpipe smoking may differ from those of cigarette smoking; therefore, behavioral approaches to support quitting may also differ between these two tobacco products. While some evidence exists on effective behavioral change techniques (BCTs) to facilitate cigarette smoking cessation, there is little research on waterpipe smoking cessation. Twenty-four experts were selected from the author lists of peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials on waterpipe smoking cessation. They were invited to two rounds of a consensus development exercise using modified Delphi technique. Experts ranked 55 BCTs categorized further into those that promote; "awareness of harms of waterpipe smoking and advantages of quitting" (14), "preparation and planning to quit" (29), and "relapse prevention and sustaining an ex-smoker identity" (12) on their potential effectiveness. Kendall's W statistics was used to assess agreement. Fifteen experts responded in round 1 and 14 completed both rounds. A strong consensus was achieved for BCTs that help in "relapse prevention and sustaining ex-smoker identity" (w = 0.7; p consequences of waterpipe smoking and its cessation, assessing readiness and ability to quit, and making people aware of the withdrawal symptoms, were the three highest-ranking BCTs. Based on expert consensus, an inventory of BCTs ordered for their potential effectiveness can be useful for health professionals offering cessation support to waterpipe smokers. Waterpipe smoking is addictive, harmful, and gaining global popularity, particularly among youth. An expert consensus on behavior change techniques, likely to be effective in supporting waterpipe smokers to quit, has practice and research implications. Smoking cessation advisors can use these techniques to counsel waterpipe smokers who wish to quit. Behavioral and public health scientists can also use these to develop and evaluate behavioral support interventions

  20. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  1. Pharmacokinetic characterization of three novel 4-mg nicotine lozenges
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhija, Manpreet; Srivastava, Reena; Kaushik, Aditya

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increases the probability of smoking cessation. This study was conducted to determine if three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges produced locally in India were bioequivalent to a globally marketed reference product, Nicorette® 4-mg nicotine lozenge. Healthy adult smokers (N = 39) were treated with three prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenges in comparison with a reference 4-mg lozenge in this single-center, randomized, open-label, single-dose, 4-way crossover study. Pharmacokinetic sampling was obtained to test for bioequivalence using maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) and extent of absorption (AUC0-t). Secondarily, AUC;0-∞, time to maximal plasma concentration (tmax), half-life (T1/2), elimination rate constant (Kel), and safety of the prototype lozenges versus the reference lozenge were compared. Each prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenge was found to be bioequivalent to the reference 4-mg nicotine lozenge based on the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence intervals for Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC;0-∞. Although tmax; was significantly longer for prototype III, all four lozenges achieved maximum plasma nicotine concentrations at a median of 1.5 hours. The safety profiles of the three prototype 4-mg lozenges did not differ from that of the 4-mg reference product. Each prototype 4-mg nicotine lozenge was bioequivalent to the reference 4-mg nicotine lozenge and was well tolerated. Furthermore, as these bioequivalent prototypes differed in in-vitro dissolution profiles, these data suggest that performance from the in -vitro method deployed is not a firm predictor of pharmacokinetic behavior.
.

  2. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nicotine use is higher among patients with schizophrenia (50–98%) than in general population (25–30%). This association can reflect a non-specific liability to substance use or specific effects of tobacco on symptoms severity or side effects. Studies about nicotine use and schizophrenia symptoms dimensions are controversial. Some of them showed a relation between severe nicotine use and higher positive symptoms and others presented a correlation between lower negative symptoms and nicotine use. That is why we aimed to verify whether nicotine use is associated with symptoms dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred and seven outpatients were enrolled from the Programa de Esquizofrenia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (PROESQ/UNIFESP). Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Dimensional psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. The PANSS items were grouped in five dimensions: positive, negative, disorganized/cognitive, mood/depression and excitement/hostility. The total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was the index used for severity in nicotine dependence. We used Wilcoxon-mann- whitney test to compare the means of PANSS dimensions between nicotine users versus non nicotine use. Results The patients mean age was 36.75 (SD 10.648), 69.1% were male, 48.3% reported lifetime tobacco use and 34.3% reported current tobacco use. Lower scores on negative dimension were associated with nicotine use (W = 5642.5, p-value = 0.046, effect size = 0.446). All p-values were corrected by Bonferroni test. Tests that evaluated the relationship between nicotine use and the total PANSS score or other dimensions were not statistically significant. Discussion This study shows that nicotine use impacts negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Increase in hepatic metabolism leading

  3. Nicotine affects protein complex rearrangement in Caenorhabditis elegans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowiak, Robert; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Lesicki, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Nicotine may affect cell function by rearranging protein complexes. We aimed to determine nicotine-induced alterations of protein complexes in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and protein complex modulation. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by low and high nicotine concentrations (0.01 mM and 1 mM) with the control (no nicotine) in vivo by using mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques, specifically the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) discontinuous gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and spectral counting. As a result, we identified dozens of C. elegans proteins that are present exclusively or in higher abundance in either nicotine-treated or untreated worms. Based on these results, we report a possible network that captures the key protein components of nicotine-induced protein complexes and speculate how the different protein modules relate to their distinct physiological roles. Using functional annotation of detected proteins, we hypothesize that the identified complexes can modulate the energy metabolism and level of oxidative stress. These proteins can also be involved in modulation of gene expression and may be crucial in Alzheimer's disease. The findings reported in our study reveal putative intracellular interactions of many proteins with the cytoskeleton and may contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling and trafficking in cells.

  4. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  5. Electronic cigarettes are a source of thirdhand exposure to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Lee, Lily

    2015-02-01

    Substances remaining on the surfaces in areas where people have smoked contribute to thirdhand exposure. Nicotine from tobacco smoke has been shown to react with oxidizing chemicals in the air to form secondary pollutants, such as carcinogenic nitrosamines. While previous studies have demonstrated thirdhand exposure to nicotine from tobacco smoke, none have investigated whether nicotine from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can also be deposited on various surfaces. Three brands of e-cigarettes were refilled with varying nicotine concentrations. We released 100 puffs from each product directly into an exposure chamber. Surface wipe samples were taken from 5 indoor 100 cm(2) surfaces (window, walls, floor, wood, and metal) pre- and post-release of vapors. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and was analyzed using gas chromatography. Three of the 4 experiments showed significant increases in the amount of nicotine on all five surfaces. The floor and glass windows had the greatest increases in nicotine, on average by a factor of 47 and 6, respectively (p risk for thirdhand exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Thirdhand exposure levels differ depending on the surface and the e-cigarette brand. Future research should explore the potential risks of thirdhand exposure to carcinogens formed from the nicotine that is released from e-cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Membranes for use in the Transdermal Treatment of Nicotine Addiction and Opioid Withdrawal Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra L. Stinchcomb

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal systems are attractive methods of drug administration specifically when treating patients for drug addiction. Current systems however are deficient in therapies that allow variable flux values of drug, such as nicotine for smoking cessation or complex dosing regimens using clonidine when treating opioid withdrawal symptoms. Through the use of functionalized carbon nanotube (CNT membranes, drug delivery to the skin can be controlled by applying a small electrical bias to create a programmable drug delivery system. Clearly, a transdermal patch system that can be tailored to an individual’s needs will increase patient compliance as well as provide much more efficient therapy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the applicability of using carbon nanotube membranes in transdermal systems for treatment of drug abuse.

  7. Community-based participatory research to decrease smoking prevalence in a high-risk young adult population: an evaluation of the Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction (SANTA) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Tai J; Harper, Peter G; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D; Schoeller, Bill P

    2014-03-01

    Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction is a community-based participatory research project that engages local medical and mental health providers in partnership with students, teachers, and administrators at the Minnesota-based Job Corps. This intervention contains multiple and synchronous elements designed to allay the stress that students attribute to smoking, including physical activities, nonphysical activities, purposeful modifications to the campus's environment and rules/policies, and on-site smoking cessation education and peer support. The intent of the present investigation was to evaluate (a) the types of stress most predictive of smoking behavior and/or nicotine dependence, (b) which activities students are participating in, and (c) which activities are most predictive of behavior change (or readiness to change). Quantitative data were collected through 5 campus-wide surveys. Response rates for each survey exceeded 85%. Stressors most commonly cited included struggles to find a job, financial problems, family conflict, lack of privacy or freedom, missing family or being homesick, dealing with Job Corps rules, and other-unspecified. The most popular activities in which students took part were physically active ones. However, activities most predictive of beneficent change were nonphysical. Approximately one third of respondents were nicotine dependent at baseline. Nearly half intended to quit within 1 month and 74% intended to quit within 6 months. Interventions perceived as most helpful toward reducing smoking were nonphysical in nature. Future efforts with this and comparable populations should engage youth in advancing such activities within a broader range of activity choices, alongside conventional education and support.

  8. Adverse effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on reproductive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael K; Barra, Nicole G; Alfaidy, Nadia; Hardy, Daniel B; Holloway, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy through cigarette smoking, nicotine replacement therapies or e-cigarette use continues to be a widespread public health problem, impacting both fetal and postnatal health. Yet, at this time, there remains limited data regarding the safety and efficacy in using these nicotine products during pregnancy. Notably, reports assessing the effect of nicotine exposure on postnatal health outcomes in humans, including reproductive health, are severely lacking. Our current understanding regarding the consequences of nicotine exposure during pregnancy is limited to a few animal studies, which do not comprehensively address the underlying cellular mechanisms involved. This paper aims to critically review the current knowledge from human and animal studies regarding the direct and indirect effects (e.g. obesity) of maternal nicotine exposure, regardless of its source, on reproductive outcomes in pregnancy and postnatal life. Furthermore, this review highlights several key cellular mechanisms involved in these adverse reproductive deficits including oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. By understanding the interplay of the cellular mechanisms involved, further strategies could be developed to prevent the reproductive abnormalities resulting from exposure to nicotine in utero and influence informed clinical guidelines for pregnant women. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  10. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC 50 was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress

  11. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa, E-mail: ebuszman@sum.edu.pl

    2014-10-15

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC{sub 50} was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress.

  12. The effect of intensive care unit admission on smokers' attitudes and their likelihood of quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polmear, C M; Nathan, H; Bates, S; French, C; Odisho, J; Skinner, E; Karahalios, A; McGain, F

    2017-11-01

    We sought to estimate the proportion of patients admitted to a metropolitan intensive care unit (ICU) who were current smokers, and the relationships between ICU survivors who smoked and smoking cessation and/or reduction six months post-ICU discharge. We conducted a prospective cohort study at a metropolitan level III ICU in Melbourne, Victoria. One hundred consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who were smokers at time of ICU admission, had an ICU length of stay greater than one day, survived to ICU discharge, and provided written informed consent. A purpose-designed questionnaire which included the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence and evaluation of patients' attitude towards smoking cessation was completed by participants following ICU discharge and prior to hospital discharge. Participants were re-interviewed over the phone at six months post-ICU discharge. Of the 1,062 patients admitted to ICU, 253 (23%) were current smokers and 100 were enrolled. Six months post-ICU discharge, 28 (33%) of the 86 participants who were alive and contactable had quit smoking and 35 (41%) had reduced smoking. The median number of reported cigarettes smoked per day reduced by 40%. Participants who initially believed their ICU admission was smoking-related were more likely to have quit six months post-ICU discharge (odds ratio 2.98; 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 8.26; P=0.036). Six months post-ICU discharge, 63/86 (74%) of participants had quit or reduced their smoking. Further research into targeted smoking cessation counselling for ICU survivors is indicated.

  13. Nicotine promotes cell proliferation via α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes-mediated pathway in human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Helen Pui Shan; Yu Le; Lam, Emily Kai Yee; Tai, Emily Kin Ki; Wu, William Ka Kei; Cho, Chi Hin

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a β 1 - and β 2 -selective antagonist, respectively, suggesting the role of β-adrenoceptors in mediating the action. Nicotine also significantly upregulated the expression of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes [tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase]. Inhibitor of TH, a rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine-biosynthesis pathway, reduced the actions of nicotine on cell proliferation and adrenaline production. Expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) was demonstrated in HT-29 cells. Methyllycaconitine, an α7-nAChR antagonist, reversed the stimulatory actions of nicotine on cell proliferation, TH and DβH expression as well as adrenaline production. Taken together, through the action on α7-nAChR nicotine stimulates HT-29 cell proliferation via the upregulation of the catecholamine-synthesis pathway and ultimately adrenaline production and β-adrenergic activation. These data reveal the contributory role α7-nAChR and β-adrenoceptors in the tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and partly elucidate the carcinogenic action of cigarette smoke on colon cancer

  14. Validation of a LC-MS/MS method for quantifying urinary nicotine, six nicotine metabolites and the minor tobacco alkaloids--anatabine and anabasine--in smokers' urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E McGuffey

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is a major contributor to premature morbidity and mortality. The measurement of nicotine and its metabolites in urine is a valuable tool for evaluating nicotine exposure and for nicotine metabolic profiling--i.e., metabolite ratios. In addition, the minor tobacco alkaloids--anabasine and anatabine--can be useful for monitoring compliance in smoking cessation programs that use nicotine replacement therapy. Because of an increasing demand for the measurement of urinary nicotine metabolites, we developed a rapid, low-cost method that uses isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS for simultaneously quantifying nicotine, six nicotine metabolites, and two minor tobacco alkaloids in smokers' urine. This method enzymatically hydrolyzes conjugated nicotine (primarily glucuronides and its metabolites. We then use acetone pretreatment to precipitate matrix components (endogenous proteins, salts, phospholipids, and exogenous enzyme that may interfere with LC-MS/MS analysis. Subsequently, analytes (nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine, norcotinine, nornicotine, cotinine N-oxide, nicotine 1'-N-oxide, anatabine, and anabasine are chromatographically resolved within a cycle time of 13.5 minutes. The optimized assay produces linear responses across the analyte concentrations typically found in urine collected from daily smokers. Because matrix ion suppression may influence accuracy, we include a discussion of conventions employed in this procedure to minimize matrix interferences. Simplicity, low cost, low maintenance combined with high mean metabolite recovery (76-99%, specificity, accuracy (0-10% bias and reproducibility (2-9% C.V. make this method ideal for large high through-put studies.

  15. Nicotine pharmacokinetic profiles of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2, cigarettes and nicotine gum in Japanese smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf; Poux, Valerie; Lama, Nicola; Haziza, Christelle; Picavet, Patrick; Baker, Gizelle; Lüdicke, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Two open-label randomized cross-over studies in Japanese smokers investigated the single-use nicotine pharmacokinetic profile of the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, cigarettes (CC) and nicotine replacement therapy (Gum). In each study, one on the regular and one on the menthol variants of the THS and CC, both using Gum as reference, 62 subjects were randomized to four sequences: Sequence 1: THS - CC (n = 22); Sequence 2: CC - THS (n = 22); Sequence 3: THS - Gum (n = 9); Sequence 4: Gum - THS (n = 9). Plasma nicotine concentrations were measured in 16 blood samples collected over 24 h after single use. Maximal nicotine concentration (C max ) and area under the curve from start of product use to time of last quantifiable concentration (AUC 0-last ) were similar between THS and CC in both studies, with ratios varying from 88 to 104% for C max and from 96 to 98% for AUC 0-last . Urge-to-smoke total scores were comparable between THS and CC. The THS nicotine pharmacokinetic profile was close to CC, with similar levels of urge-to-smoke. This suggests that THS can satisfy smokers and be a viable alternative to cigarettes for adult smokers who want to continue using tobacco. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reinforcement of a plate weakened by multiple holes with several patches for different types of plate-patch attachment

    KAUST Repository

    Zemlyanova, A.

    2014-01-24

    The most general situation of the reinforcement of a plate with multiple holes by several patches is considered. There is no restriction on the number and the location of the patches. Two types of patch attachment are considered: only along the boundary of the patch or both along the boundary of the patch and the boundaries of the holes which this patch covers. The unattached boundaries of the holes may be loaded with given in-plane stresses. The mechanical problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations which can be further reduced to a system of Fredholm equations. A new numerical procedure for the solution of the system of singular integral equations is proposed in this paper. It is demonstrated on numerical examples that this procedure has advantages in the case of multiple patches and holes and allows achievement of better numerical convergence with less computational effort.

  17. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  18. Nicotine Receptor Subtype-Specific Effects on Auditory Evoked Oscillations and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Robert E.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Thieu, Tony; Ehrlichman, Richard S.; Halene, Tobias B.; Leiser, Steven C.; Christian, Edward; Johnson, Edwin; Lerman, Caryn; Siegel, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with schizophrenia show increased smoking rates which may be due to a beneficial effect of nicotine on cognition and information processing. Decreased amplitude of the P50 and N100 auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) is observed in patients. Both measures show normalization following administration of nicotine. Recent studies identified an association between deficits in auditory evoked gamma oscillations and impaired information processing in schizophrenia, and there is evidence that nicotine normalizes gamma oscillations. Although the role of nicotine receptor subtypes in augmentation of ERPs has received some attention, less is known about how these receptor subtypes regulate the effect of nicotine on evoked gamma activity. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of nicotine, the α7 nicotine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) the α4β4/α4β2 nicotine receptor antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHβE), and the α4β2 agonist AZD3480 on P20 and N40 amplitude as well as baseline and event-related gamma oscillations in mice, using electrodes in hippocampal CA3. Nicotine increased P20 amplitude, while DHβE blocked nicotine-induced enhancements in P20 amplitude. Conversely, MLA did not alter P20 amplitude either when presented alone or with nicotine. Administration of the α4β2 specific agonist AZD3480 did not alter any aspect of P20 response, suggesting that DHβE blocks the effects of nicotine through a non-α4β2 receptor specific mechanism. Nicotine and AZD3480 reduced N40 amplitude, which was blocked by both DHβE and MLA. Finally, nicotine significantly increased event-related gamma, as did AZD3480, while DHβE but not MLA blocked the effect of nicotine on event-related gamma. Conclusions/Significance These results support findings showing that nicotine-induced augmentation of P20 amplitude occurs via a DHβE sensitive mechanism, but suggests that this does not occur through activation of α4β2

  19. The Activity and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Nicotine from Tobacco at Moderate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.Charles F. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vapor pressure of nicotine has been reported for unprotonated nicotine and for nicotine-water solutions. Yet no published values exist for nicotine in any commercially relevant matrix or for protonated forms (e.g., tobacco, smoke, electronic cigarette solutions, nicotine replacement products, nicotine salts. Therefore a methodology was developed to measure nicotine activity (defined as the vapor pressure from a matrix divided by the vapor pressure of pure nicotine. The headspace concentration of nicotine was measured for pure nicotine and tobacco stored at 23, 30, and 40 °C which allowed for conversion to vapor pressure and nicotine activity and for the estimation of enthalpy of vaporization. Burley, Flue-cured, Oriental, and cigarette blends were tested. Experiments were conducted with pure nicotine initially until the storage and sampling techniques were validated by comparison with previously published values. We found that the nicotine activity from tobacco was less than 1% with Burley > Flue-cured > Oriental. At 23 °C the nicotine vapor pressure averaged by tobacco type was 0.45 mPa for Oriental tobacco, 1.8 mPa for Flue-cured, 13 mPa for Burley while pure nicotine was 2.95 Pa. In general, the nicotine activity increased as the (calculated unprotonated nicotine concentration increased. The nicotine enthalpy of vaporization from tobacco ranged from 77 kJ/mol to 92 kJ/mol with no obvious trends with regard to tobacco origin, type, stalk position or even the wide range of nicotine activity. The mean value for all tobacco types was 86.7 kJ/mol with a relative standard deviation of 6.5% indicating that this was an intrinsic property of the nicotine form in tobacco rather than the specific tobacco properties. This value was about 30 kJ/mol greater than that of pure nicotine and is similar to the energy needed to remove a proton from monoprotonated nicotine.

  20. Patching. Restitching business portfolios in dynamic markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Brown, S L

    1999-01-01

    In turbulent markets, businesses and opportunities are constantly falling out of alignment. New technologies and emerging markets create fresh opportunities. Converging markets produce more. And of course, some markets fade. In this landscape of continuous flux, it's more important to build corporate-level strategic processes that enable dynamic repositioning than it is to build any particular defensible position. That's why smart corporate strategists use patching, a process of mapping and remapping business units to create a shifting mix of highly focused, tightly aligned businesses that can respond to changing market opportunities. Patching is not just another name for reorganizing; patchers have a distinctive mindset. Traditional managers see structure as stable; patching managers believe structure is inherently temporary. Traditional managers set corporate strategy first, but patching managers keep the organization focused on the right set of business opportunities and let strategy emerge from individual businesses. Although the focus of patching is flexibility, the process itself follows a pattern. Patching changes are usually small in scale and made frequently. Patching should be done quickly; the emphasis is on getting the patch about right and fixing problems later. Patches should have a test drive before they're formalized but then be tightly scripted after they've been announced. And patching won't work without the right infrastructure: modular business units, fine-grained and complete unit-level metrics, and companywide compensation parity. The authors illustrate how patching works and point out some common stumbling blocks.

  1. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E Plata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question to solve in the present work is: what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  2. Tobacco and cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients: the design of the COGNICO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabí, Susana; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Flórez, Gerardo; Martínez-Santamaría, Emilia; Arrojo, Manuel; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    People with schizophrenia constitute a substantial part of the people who still smoke. Regarding cognitive performance, the self-medication hypothesis states that patients smoke to improve their cognitive deficits based on the stimulating effects of nicotine. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail the methodology used in the COGNICO study. A quasi-experimental, observational, prospective, multicenter study with follow-ups over 18 months was conducted in three cities in northern Spain (Oviedo, Ourense and Santiago de Compostela). A total of 81 outpatient smokers with schizophrenia were recruited with a mean age 43.35 years (SD = 8.83), 72.8% of them male. They were assigned to 3 groups: a) control group (smokers); b) patients who quit smoking using nicotine patches; c) patients who quit smoking with Varenicline. The MATRICS neuropsychological battery was applied as a primary measure. In addition, a comprehensive assessment of patients was performed, including the number of cigarettes per day, physical and psychological dependence on nicotine and CO expired. Clinical evaluation (PANSS, HDRS, CGI, C-SSRS), anthropometric measurements and vital signs assessment was also performed. The aim is to identify the relationship between the pattern of tobacco use and cognitive performance by comparing scores on the neuropsychological battery MATRICS during the follow-up periods (3, 6, 12 and 18months). The importance of this study lies in addressing a topical issue often ignored by clinicians: the unacceptably high rates of tobacco use in patients with severe mental disorders.

  3. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  4. Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Haw, Sally; Pell, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. Methods We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed in Scotland in 2003–2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. Results NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001) higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001). Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July–September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001) more than expected from the underlying trend. Conclusions Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support. PMID:22110585

  5. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... and the control group. CONCLUSION: Nicotine exposure in a short period of time did not have a significant impact on bone healing or implant osseointegration in rabbits....

  6. Sales of Nicotine-Containing Electronic Cigarette Products: United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Gammon, Doris G; Rogers, Todd; Coats, Ellen M; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian A

    2017-05-01

    To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources. Nicotine content was assessed by product type (disposables, rechargeables, and refills), region, and flavor status based on nicotine strength listed in the Universal Product Codes. For the 36.7% of entries lacking nicotine content information, we conducted Internet searches by brand, product, and flavor. In 2015, 99.0% of e-cigarette products sold contained nicotine, including 99.0% of disposables, 99.7% of rechargeables, and 98.8% of refills. Overall, 98.7% of flavored e-cigarette products and 99.4% of nonflavored e-cigarette products contained nicotine. In 2015, almost all e-cigarette products sold in US convenience stores and other assessed channels contained nicotine. Public Health Implications. Findings reinforce the importance of warning labels for nicotine-containing products, ingredient reporting, and restrictions on sales to minors.

  7. Nicotine Dependence, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior among Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-03-01

    Research has previously demonstrated an inverse association between smoking status and physical activity; however, few studies have examined the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity or sedentary behavior. This study examined the association between nicotine dependence and accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. A total of 851 adult (≥20 years) smokers wore an accelerometer for ≥4 days and completed the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence scale. Regression models were used to examine the association between nicotine dependence and physical activity/sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, poverty level, hypertension, emphysema, bronchitis, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, and accelerometer wear time, smokers 50 + years of age with greater nicotine dependence engaged in more sedentary behavior (β = 11.4, P = 0.02) and less light-intensity physical activity (β = -9.6, P = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; β = -0.14, P = 0.003) than their less nicotine dependent counterparts. Older adults who are more nicotine dependent engage in less physical activity (both MVPA and light-intensity) and more sedentary behavior than their less nicotine dependent counterparts.

  8. Increased hepatic nicotine elimination after phenobarbital induction in the conscious rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foth, H.; Walther, U.I.; Kahl, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Elimination parameters of [14C]nicotine in conscious rats receiving nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) either intravenously or orally were studied. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine, derived by comparison of the respective areas under the concentration vs time curves (AUC), was 89%, indicating low hepatic extraction ratios of about 10%. Pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital (PB) markedly increased hepatic first-pass extraction of nicotine. The oral availability of unchanged nicotine in plasma dropped to 1.4% of the corresponding values obtained from PB-treated rats receiving nicotine iv. After PB pretreatment, the clearance of iv nicotine was increased approximately twofold over controls, much less than the observed more than ninefold increase of hepatic first-pass extraction. It is assumed that extrahepatic metabolism contributed significantly to the rapid removal of nicotine from the plasma. The elimination of cotinine, originating from nicotine administered either po or iv, was significantly increased by PB pretreatment, as determined b