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Sample records for nicotine alcohol caffeine

  1. Alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine use and symptom distress in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamera, E; Schneider, J K; Deviney, S

    1995-09-01

    The high prevalence of substance use, e.g., alcohol and illegal and nonprescribed drugs, in schizophrenia is widely recognized. One explanation for this high prevalence is that substance use may be a self-initiated method for managing symptoms. To test whether the intake of four substances--alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and caffeine--would increase with increases in symptom distress, daily self-reports of symptom distress and substance intake over 12 weeks were analyzed with pooled time series analyses. Compliance with neuroleptic medication was added to the analyses to control for any changes in prescribed medication compliance while using nonprescribed drugs or alcohol. Of the four substances studied, only nicotine was significantly related to symptom distress. Higher distress with prodromal symptoms was related to decreases in nicotine use. Analysis of caffeine did not meet the criteria for significance but does provide direction for further research. Higher distress, with neurotic symptoms, was related to increases in caffeine use. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between nicotine and symptoms.

  2. Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Eichhammer, Peter; Busch, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20) was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms.

  3. Is dependence on one drug associated with dependence on other drugs? The cases of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Oliveto, A H; MacLaughlin, M

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have correlated the use of one drug with that of another drug; however, whether dependence on one drug is associated with dependence on another drug, independent of any use/use association, is unclear. We asked 196 randomly-selected subjects the DSM-IV criteria for dependence as applied to alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Among ever users, the severity of alcohol vs nicotine dependence and alcohol vs caffeine dependence was related, but this relationship was weak (r = .22 & .31). Nicotine and caffeine dependence were not correlated. These results fail to confirm theories of commonality that hypothesize dependence on one drug predisposes to dependence on another drug.

  4. Sleep quality during exam stress: the role of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zunhammer

    Full Text Available Academic exam stress is known to compromise sleep quality and alter drug consumption in university students. Here we evaluated if sleeping problems and changes in legal drug consumption during exam stress are interrelated. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI to survey sleep quality before, during, and after an academic exam period in 150 university students in a longitudinal questionnaire study. Self-reports of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine consumption were obtained. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20 was used as a measure of stress. Sleep quality and alcohol consumption significantly decreased, while perceived stress and caffeine consumption significantly increased during the exam period. No significant change in nicotine consumption was observed. In particular, students shortened their time in bed and showed symptoms of insomnia. Mixed model analysis indicated that sex, age, health status, as well as the amounts of alcohol and caffeine consumed had no significant influence on global sleep quality. The amount of nicotine consumed and perceived stress were identified as significant predictors of diminished sleep quality. Nicotine consumption had a small-to-very-small effect on sleep quality; perceived stress had a small-to-moderate effect. In conclusion, diminished sleep quality during exam periods was mainly predicted by perceived stress, while legal drug consumption played a minor role. Exam periods may pose an interesting model for the study of stress-induced sleeping problems and their mechanisms.

  5. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Prescott, Carol A

    2007-11-01

    Although genetic risk factors have been found to contribute to dependence on both licit and illicit psychoactive substances, we know little of how these risk factors interrelate. To clarify the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine in males and females. Lifetime history by structured clinical interview. General community. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-five members of male-male and female-female pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Lifetime symptoms of abuse of and dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Controlling for greater symptom prevalence in males, genetic and environmental parameters could be equated across sexes. Two models explained the data well. The best-fit exploratory model contained 2 genetic factors and 1 individual environmental factor contributing to all substances. The first genetic factor loaded strongly on cocaine and cannabis dependence; the second, on alcohol and nicotine dependence. Nicotine and caffeine had high substance-specific genetic effects. A confirmatory model, which also fit well, contained 1 illicit drug genetic factor--loading only on cannabis and cocaine--and 1 licit drug genetic factor loading on alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. However, these factors were highly intercorrelated (r = + 0.82). Large substance-specific genetic effects remained for nicotine and caffeine. The pattern of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychoactive substance dependence was similar in males and females. Genetic risk factors for dependence on common psychoactive substances cannot be explained by a single factor. Rather, 2 genetic factors-one predisposing largely to illicit drug dependence, the other primarily to licit drug dependence-are needed. Furthermore, a large proportion of the genetic influences on nicotine and particularly caffeine dependence

  6. Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. In this exploratory study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causality of well-established associations between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. Two-sample MR was employed to estimate bidirectional causal effects between four addictive substances: nicotine (smoking initiation and cigarettes smoked per day), caffeine (cups of coffee per day), alcohol (units per week) and cannabis (initiation). Based on existing genome-wide association results we selected genetic variants associated with the exposure measure as an instrument to estimate causal effects. Where possible we applied sensitivity analyses (MR-Egger and weighted median) more robust to horizontal pleiotropy. Most MR tests did not reveal causal associations. There was some weak evidence for a causal positive effect of genetically instrumented alcohol use on smoking initiation and of cigarettes per day on caffeine use, but these were not supported by the sensitivity analyses. There was also some suggestive evidence for a positive effect of alcohol use on caffeine use (only with MR-Egger) and smoking initiation on cannabis initiation (only with weighted median). None of the suggestive causal associations survived corrections for multiple testing. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Schmitt, Eric; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A

    2008-06-01

    While both environmental and genetic factors are important in the etiology of psychoactive substance use (PSU), we know little of how these influences differ through development. To clarify the changing role of genes and environment in PSU from early adolescence through middle adulthood. Retrospective assessment by life history calendar, with univariate and bivariate structural modeling. General community. A total of 1796 members of male-male pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Levels of use of alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine recorded for every year of the respondent's life. For nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, familial environmental factors were critical in influencing use in early adolescence and gradually declined in importance through young adulthood. Genetic factors, by contrast, had little or no influence on PSU in early adolescence and gradually increased in their effect with increasing age. The sources of individual differences in caffeine use changed much more modestly over time. Substantial correlations were seen among levels of cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol use and specifically between caffeine and nicotine. In adolescence, those correlations were strongly influenced by shared effects from the familial environment. However, as individuals aged, more and more of the correlation in PSU resulted from genetic factors that influenced use of both substances. These results support an etiologic model for individual differences in PSU in which initiation and early patterns of use are strongly influenced by social and familial environmental factors while later levels of use are strongly influenced by genetic factors. The substantial correlations seen in levels of PSU across substances are largely the result of social environmental factors in adolescence, with genetic factors becoming progressively more important through early and middle adulthood.

  8. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-12-13

    Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only common in the general population, but have also made their way into elite sports because of their purported performance-altering potential. Only one of the drugs (i.e., caffeine) has enough scientific evidence indicating an ergogenic effect. There is some preliminary evidence for nicotine as an ergogenic aid, but further study is required; cannabis and alcohol can exhibit ergogenic potential under specific circumstances but are in general believed to be ergolytic for sports performance. These drugs are currently (THC, ethanol) or have been (caffeine) on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency or are being monitored (nicotine) due to their potential ergogenic or ergolytic effects. The aim of this brief review is to evaluate the effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and THC by: 1) examining evidence supporting the ergogenic or ergolytic effects; 2) providing an overview of the mechanism(s) of action and physiological effects; and 3) where appropriate, reviewing their impact as performance-altering aids used in recreational and elite sports.

  9. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma

    2016-01-01

    for the comparison. RESULTS: High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources...

  10. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  11. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard; Castiglioni, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Hernandez, Felix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; van Nuijs, Alexander; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Ramin, Pedram; Reid, Malcolm; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Ryu, Yeonsuk; de Voogt, Pim; Bramness, Jorgen; Thomas, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  12. Identifying experimental methods to determine the effect of pain on attention: a review of pain, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine studies.

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    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    To review published studies of the effects that pain and common psychopharmacological substances have on the attentional performance of healthy adults. To identify which attentional tasks have the greatest potential to investigate the effect of pain on attention and provide recommendations for future research. A search was conducted for reports of experimental studies of attention in the context of pain. This was supplemented with studies on attention and caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Studies were included if they used a healthy adult sample, used experimental or quasi-experimental methods, were relevant to the study of attention or interruption of pain and/or examined the acute effects of a substance on attention. Thirty-two papers, with 49 different experimental studies were identified (12 pain, 21 nicotine, 7 caffeine, 9 alcohol). Fourteen different tasks were reviewed across six domains of attention. The most promising measures of attention were the continuous performance task, flanker task, endogenous pre-cuing task, n-back task, inhibition task and dual task. There are reliable tasks that could be used to determine the effects of pain on attention. Future research is required that develops the utility of these tasks to improve our understanding of the effects pain and analgesia have on attentional performance. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. Method This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. Results High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. Conclusions This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  14. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

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    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year ( n =167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful.

  15. Consumption and foraging behaviors for common stimulants (nicotine, caffeine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Currie, Jonathan; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-01-01

    Models are needed to understand the emerging capability to track consumers' movements. Therefore, we examined the use of legal and readily available stimulants that vary in their addictive potential (nicotine, caffeine). One hundred sixty-six participants answered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Severity of Dependence Scale for nicotine and caffeine, and reported the number of times and locations stimulants were purchased and used. On average, nicotine dependent individuals made their purchases from 2 locations, while caffeine dependent individuals consumed caffeine at 2 locations, but some people exhibited a greater range and intensity of use. Stimulant foraging behavior could be described by power laws, and is exacerbated by dependency. The finding has implications for attempts to control substance use.

  16. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only com...

  17. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  18. Nicotine dependence, use of illegal drugs and psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Jurado, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of smoking and nicotine dependence with psychiatric morbidity, controlling for the potential confounding effect of smoking on the relationship between the use of other substances and psychiatric morbidity. A sample of 290 adults were interviewed at a primary health centre (patients, 58%; patients' relatives, 34%; staff, 8%) to inquire about their tobacco, caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug consumption. Psychiatric morbidity, defined by a score >6 on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), showed a strong direct association with nicotine dependence. The use of illegal drugs, but not of alcohol, was also strongly associated with psychiatric morbidity, after controlling for smoking. Both smoking and high nicotine dependence were also associated with use of caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. High nicotine dependence may be considered as an expression of individual psychopathologic vulnerability. Tobacco may have a central facilitating role in the use of caffeine, alcohol, and illegal drug.

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  20. A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth.

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    Fried, P A; O'Connell, C M

    1987-01-01

    Maternal use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine was established for four time periods; prepregnancy, first trimester, third trimester and average use over pregnancy. The relationship between such usage and growth parameters of offspring followed up from birth to 12 and 24 months of age were examined. Of the soft drugs used, nicotine had the most pronounced effect. After adjustment for other relevant variables, nicotine use prior to and during pregnancy was negatively related to weight and head circumference at birth. Furthermore, third trimester nicotine use was a stronger predictor of decreased weight and head circumference at birth than was first trimester use. The results obtained are consistent with ponderal index (PI) literature suggesting a recovery of growth retardation in infants with a lowered PI. Average consumption of greater than one ounce of absolute alcohol per day was negatively related to birth weight and length. Neither cannabis nor caffeine use had a significant negative effect on any growth parameter.

  1. Nicotine and caffeine modulate haloperidol-induced changes in postsynaptic density transcripts expression: Translational insights in psychosis therapy and treatment resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Iasevoli, Felice; Marmo, Federica; Buonaguro, Elisabetta Filomena; Avvisati, Livia; Latte, Gianmarco; Tomasetti, Carmine

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine and nicotine are widely used by schizophrenia patients and may worsen psychosis and affect antipsychotic therapies. However, they have also been accounted as augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite both substances are known to modulate dopamine and glutamate transmission, little is known about the molecular changes induced by these compounds in association to antipsychotics, mostly at the level of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a site of dopamine-glutamate interplay. Here we investigated whether caffeine and nicotine, alone or combined with haloperidol, elicited significant changes in the levels of both transcripts and proteins of the PSD members Homer1 and Arc, which have been implicated in synaptic plasticity, schizophrenia pathophysiology, and antipsychotics molecular action. Homer1a mRNA expression was significantly reduced by caffeine and nicotine, alone or combined with haloperidol, compared to haloperidol. Haloperidol induced significantly higher Arc mRNA levels than both caffeine and caffeine plus haloperidol in the striatum. Arc mRNA expression was significantly higher by nicotine plus haloperidol vs. haloperidol in the cortex, while in striatum gene expression by nicotine was significantly lower than that by both haloperidol and nicotine plus haloperidol. Both Homer1a and Arc protein levels were significantly increased by caffeine, nicotine, and nicotine plus haloperidol. Homer1b mRNA expression was significantly increased by nicotine and nicotine plus haloperidol, while protein levels were unaffected. Locomotor activity was not significantly affected by caffeine, while it was reduced by nicotine. These data indicate that both caffeine and nicotine trigger relevant molecular changes in PSD sites when given in association with haloperidol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and caffeine and other drug use in two drug abusing populations.

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    Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A

    1993-01-01

    Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.

  3. Decision-making style, nicotine and caffeine use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2015-11-01

    As therapeutic interventions are being developed utilising telehealth and mobile phones, it is important to understand how substance-dependent individuals will respond to offers of online assistance. The present paper considered the following: (1) how decision-making style is associated with use and dependence upon commonly used stimulants and (2) how it influences behavioural responses to electronic offers of further information about these drugs. An online survey examined patterns of nicotine and caffeine use, administered Severity of Dependence Scales for caffeine and nicotine and assessed decision-making style using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and mood using the Kessler Distress Scale. Upon completing these scales, the 181 participants with a mean age of 28.14 years were offered further information online. Stimulant dependence was associated with psychological distress. Caffeine dependence was linked to hypervigilance (panic). Decisional self-esteem varied with stimulant dependence and Kessler Distress Scale score. Participants with high decisional self-esteem declined electronic offers of further information. Confidence rather than defensive avoidance was a factor in reducing information-seeking behaviours on the Internet. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  5. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  6. Nicotine and caffeine alter the effects of the LPS- primed mesenchymal stem cells on the co-cultured neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ardeshir; Kukia, Nasim Rahmani; Froushani, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2018-04-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express some of the nicotinic receptor subunits and adenosine receptors. The communication between tissue MSCs with neutrophils has been shown in previous studies. The aim of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine or caffeine on MSCs and its effects on neutrophils. After the isolation, MSCs were pulsed with LPS (10 ng/ml) for 1 h. Then, MSCs were incubated with different concentrations of caffeine (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mM) and or with different concentrations of nicotine (0.1, 0.5, and 1 μM) for 48 h. Afterwards, the medium was aspirated and the cells were used for co-culture experiment with neutrophil. The obtained data showed that LPS primed MSCs could decrease neutrophil vitality, whereas the treatment of MSCs with nicotine and/or especially a treatment with caffeine reverse this effect. Obtained data showed that when the LPS-primed MSCs were treated with nicotine or caffeine, the vitality of co-cultured neutrophils was significantly increased. The rate of the respiratory burst of neutrophils after co-culture by LPS-primed MSCs was decreased compared to the respiratory burst of neutrophil alone. Nicotine and/or caffeine treatment could reverse this reduction. Generally, these findings provide a new insight into understanding the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of nicotine and caffeine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of caffeine on alcohol-related changes in behavioural control and perceived intoxication in light caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Rogers, Peter J; Ataya, Alia F; Adams, Sally; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverages have been associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harms. However, few studies have examined these combined effects on behavioural control, which is believed to underlie many of the negative effects of alcohol consumption. In addition, studies have often omitted subjective measures, and none have directly assessed the role of caffeine consumer history. To examine the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine on measures of behavioural control and perceived intoxication in abstinent, light caffeine consumers. Participants (n = 28; 50% male) attended four sessions at which they consumed one of the following beverages in a randomised order: placebo, alcohol alone (0.6 g/kg), caffeine alone (2.0 mg/kg), and alcohol/caffeine. They completed measures of mood, intoxication, anxiety and alcohol craving before and after a task battery comprising measures of behavioural control and reaction time performance. Caffeine attenuated alcohol-related performance deficits on stop-signal accuracy, had no effect on go-no-go performance deficits, and worsened accuracy on the Stroop task. Caffeine did not influence absolute changes in perceived intoxication but there was suggestion that caffeine may have changed the nature of intoxication with increases in stimulation. Caffeine appears to have mixed effects on alcohol intoxication that are task-dependent. We found increased stimulation in the alcohol/caffeine condition, supporting the contention that caffeinated alcoholic beverages enable an individual to drink for longer. Future research should model real world drinking behaviour by examining how these effects change across multiple drink administrations.

  8. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  9. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R B; Gray, R H; Zacur, H

    1998-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on conception. Prospective observational study. Healthy volunteers in two manufacturing facilities. One hundred twenty-four women who provided daily urine samples for measurement of steroid hormones and hCG, and prospective information about alcohol and caffeine consumption. Probability of conception per 100 menstrual cycles. There was >50% reduction in the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle during which participants consumed alcohol. Caffeine consumption did not independently affect the probability of conception but may enhance alcohol's negative effect. Women who abstained from alcohol and consumed less than one cup of coffee or its equivalent per day conceived 26.9 pregnancies per 100 menstrual cycles compared with 10.5 per 100 menstrual cycles among those who consumed any alcohol and more than one cup of coffee per day. This study revealed an independent dose-related negative effect of alcohol consumption on the ability to conceive. Our results suggest that women who are attempting to conceive should abstain from consuming alcohol.

  10. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  11. Caffeine dependence in combination with a family history of alcoholism as a predictor of continued use of caffeine during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svikis, Dace S; Berger, Nathan; Haug, Nancy A; Griffiths, Roland R

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism are associated with continued use of caffeine during pregnancy. Forty-four women seeking obstetrical care in an office-based practice completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples at three prenatal visits occurring 2-3, 3-4, and 7 months postconception. On visit 1, the patients received the physician's instructions to stop using caffeine. Structured interviews were used to assign a diagnosis of caffeine dependence (lifetime) and to identify family history of alcoholism. Outcome measures included self-reported levels of caffeine use and saliva caffeine levels at the three prenatal visits. Although most women eliminated or substantially reduced their caffeine consumption between pregnancy awareness and prenatal visit 1, those with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism had higher levels of caffeine use and lower rates of abstinence throughout pregnancy. Saliva caffeine levels confirmed these effects. Withdrawal symptoms, functional impairment, and craving were cited as reasons they failed to eliminate or cut back on caffeine use. Fifty percent of the women with both a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism continued to use caffeine in amounts (>300 mg/day) greater than those considered safe during pregnancy, compared to none of the women without caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism. Women with a lifetime diagnosis of caffeine dependence and a family history of alcoholism also reported higher rates of past cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol use. Caffeine-dependent women with a family history of alcoholism were not able to follow their physician's advice to reduce or eliminate caffeine consumption during pregnancy, despite their wanting to do so. This subgroup may require more intensive intervention to ensure caffeine abstinence and may be at greater risk for

  12. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: Beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Meredith, Steven E.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. Objectives This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., Beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., Beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., Beverage A or B). Effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. Results A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings, and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Conclusions Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. PMID:28108773

  13. Polysomnographic sleep disturbances in nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cocaine, opioid, and cannabis use: A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexandra N; Salloum, Ihsan M

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, approximately 60 million Americans suffer from sleep disorders and about 22 million Americans report substance dependence or use disorders annually. Sleep disturbances are common consequences of substance use disorders and are likely found in primary care as well as in specialty practices. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of the most frequently used substances-nicotine, alcohol, opioids, cocaine, caffeine, and cannabis-have on sleep parameters measured by polysomnography (PSG) and related clinical manifestations. We used electronic databases such as PubMED and PsycINFO to search for relevant articles. We only included studies that assessed sleep disturbances using polysomnography and reviewed the effects of these substances on six clinically relevant sleep parameters: Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, rapid-eye movement, REM latency, wake after sleep onset, and slow wave sleep. Our review indicates that these substances have significant impact on sleep and that their effects differ during intoxication, withdrawal, and chronic use. Many of the substance-induced sleep disturbances overlap with those encountered in sleep disorders, medical, and psychiatric conditions. Sleep difficulties also increase the likelihood of substance use disorder relapse, further emphasizing the need for optimizing treatment interventions in these patients. Our review highlights the importance of systematically screening for substance use in patients with sleep disturbances and highlights the need for further research to understand mechanisms underlying substances-induced sleep disturbances and on effective interventions addressing these conditions. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Caffeine plus nicotine improves motor function, spatial and non-spatial working memory and functional indices in BALB/c male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, P A; Omatsuli, E P; Akinyemi, A J; Ishola, A O

    2016-12-01

    There is a greater prevalence of cigarette smoking among caffeine dependent individuals. This study therefore sought to assess the effect of nicotine and/or caffeine on some key biochemical indices and neurobehavioural parameters associated with brain function in male mice. Forty male BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals each; Group A serve as the control and received normal saline (s.c), Group B received 2mg/kg body weight of nicotine (s.c), Group C received 2mg/kg body weight of caffeine (s.c) and Group D received 2mg/kg of nicotine and 2mg/kg of caffeine (s.c). The experiment lasted for 21 days, and then the animals were subjected to behavioral test. Thereafter the animals were sacrificed and their brain isolated for the determination of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) level, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), arginase (Arg) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities; as well as some antioxidant indices. Administration of nicotine or caffeine caused a significant (Pcaffeine cognitive properties through a significant increase in non-spatial working memory whereas; it was otherwise on the spatial working memory and motor coordination. Therefore, we can suggest from our present study that caffeine enhances the effect of nicotine either synergistically or additively on memory and motor function and some key biochemical indices associated with brain function in male mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Artificial sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L

    2011-10-01

    Previous laboratory research on alcohol absorption has found that substitution of artificially sweetened alcohol mixers for sucrose-based mixers has a marked effect on the rate of gastric emptying, resulting in elevated blood alcohol concentrations. Studies conducted in natural drinking settings, such as bars, have indicated that caffeine ingestion while drinking is associated with higher levels of intoxication. To our knowledge, research has not examined the effects of alcohol mixers that contain both an artificial sweetener and caffeine, that is, diet cola. Therefore, we assessed the event-specific association between diet cola consumption and alcohol intoxication in bar patrons. We sought to determine whether putative increases in blood alcohol, produced by accelerated gastric emptying following diet cola consumption, as identified in the laboratory, also appear in a natural setting associated with impaired driving. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 2 nighttime field studies that collected anonymous information from 413 randomly selected bar patrons in 2008 and 2010. Data sets were merged and recoded to distinguish between energy drink, regular cola, diet cola, and noncaffeinated alcohol mixers. Caffeinated alcohol mixers were consumed by 33.9% of the patrons. Cola-caffeinated mixed drinks were much more popular than those mixed with energy drinks. A large majority of regular cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were men (75%), whereas diet cola-caffeinated mixed drink consumers were more likely to be women (57%). After adjusting for the number of drinks consumed and other potential confounders, number of diet cola mixed drinks had a significant association with patron intoxication (β = 0.233, p 0.05). Caffeine's effect on intoxication may be most pronounced when mixers are artificially sweetened, that is, lack sucrose which slows the rate of gastric emptying of alcohol. Risks associated with on-premise drinking may be reduced by greater

  16. Separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; Amlung, Michael T; Morris, David H; Price, Mason H; Von Gunten, Curtis; McCarthy, Denis M; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine is commonly believed to offset the acute effects of alcohol, but some evidence suggests that cognitive processes remain impaired when caffeine and alcohol are coadministered. No previous study has investigated the separate and joint effects of alcohol and caffeine on conflict monitoring and adaptation, processes thought to be critical for self-regulation. This was the purpose of the current study. Healthy, young adult social drinkers recruited from the community completed a flanker task after consuming one of four beverages in a 2 × 2 experimental design: Alcohol + caffeine, alcohol + placebo caffeine, placebo alcohol + caffeine, or placebo alcohol + placebo caffeine. Accuracy, response time, and the amplitude of the N2 component of the event-related potential (ERP), a neural index of conflict monitoring, were examined as a function of whether or not conflict was present (i.e., whether or not flankers were compatible with the target) on both the previous trial and the current trial. Alcohol did not abolish conflict monitoring or adaptation. Caffeine eliminated conflict adaptation in sequential trials but also enhanced neural conflict monitoring. The combined effect of alcohol and caffeine was apparent only in how previous conflict affected the neural conflict monitoring response. Together, the findings suggest that caffeine leads to exaggeration of attentional resource utilization, which could provide short-term benefits but lead to problems conserving resources for when they are most needed.

  17. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor availability in cigarette smokers: effect of heavy caffeine or marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Hubert, Robert; Mamoun, Michael S; Enoki, Ryutaro; Garcia, Lizette Y; Abraham, Paul; Young, Paulina; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Upregulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is one of the most well-established effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain. Prior research by our group gave a preliminary indication that cigarette smokers with concomitant use of caffeine or marijuana have altered nAChR availability. We sought to determine if smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have different levels of α4β2* nAChRs than smokers without these drug usages. One hundred and one positron emission tomography (PET) scans, using the radiotracer 2-FA (a ligand for β2*-containing nAChRs), were obtained from four groups of males: non-smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers without heavy caffeine or marijuana use, smokers with heavy caffeine use (mean four coffee cups per day), and smokers with heavy marijuana use (mean 22 days of use per month). Total distribution volume (Vt/fp) was determined for the brainstem, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as a measure of nAChR availability. A significant between-group effect was found, resulting from the heavy caffeine and marijuana groups having the highest Vt/fp values (especially for the brainstem and prefrontal cortex), followed by smokers without such use, followed by non-smokers. Direct between-group comparisons revealed significant differences for Vt/fp values between the smoker groups with and without heavy caffeine or marijuana use. Smokers with heavy caffeine or marijuana use have higher α4β2* nAChR availability than smokers without these drug usages. These findings are likely due to increased nicotine exposure but could also be due to an interaction on a cellular/molecular level.

  18. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Common molecular substrates of nicotine and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linzy M. Hendrickson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused. As many as 80-95% of alcoholics are also smokers, suggesting that ethanol and nicotine, the primary addictive component of tobacco smoke, may functionally interact in the central nervous system and/or share a common mechanism of action. While nicotine initiates dependence by binding to and activating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, ligand-gated cation channels normally activated by endogenous acetylcholine (ACh, ethanol is much less specific with the ability to modulate multiple gene products including those encoding voltage-gated ion channels, and excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. However, emerging data indicate that ethanol interacts with nAChRs, both directly and indirectly, in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic reward circuitry to affect brain reward systems. Like nicotine, ethanol activates DAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc. Blockade of VTA nAChRs reduces ethanol-mediated activation of DAergic neurons, NAc DA release, consumption, and operant responding for ethanol in rodents. Thus, ethanol may increase ACh release into the VTA driving activation of DAergic neurons through nAChRs. In addition, ethanol potentiates distinct nAChR subtype responses to ACh and nicotine in vitro and in DAergic neurons. The smoking cessation therapeutic and nAChR partial agonist, varenicline, reduces alcohol consumption in heavy drinking smokers and rodent models of alcohol consumption. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms in nAChR subunit genes are associated with alcohol dependence phenotypes and smoking behaviors in human populations. Together, results from preclinical, clinical, and genetic studies indicate that nAChRs may have an inherent role in the abusive properties of ethanol, as well as in nicotine and alcohol co-dependence.

  19. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  20. Evaluation of the rewarding properties of nicotine and caffeine by implementation of a five-choice conditioned place preference task in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, M P; Pisera-Fuster, A; Bernabeu, R

    2018-06-08

    The rewarding properties of drugs in zebrafish can be studied using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Most devices that have been used for CPP consist of two-half tanks with or without a central chamber. Here we evaluated the rewarding effects of nicotine and caffeine using a tank with five arms distributed radially from a central chamber that we have denoted Fish Tank Radial Maze (FTRM). Zebrafish were trained to associate nicotine or caffeine with a coloured arm. In testing sessions to assess CPP induction, between two and five different arms were available to explore. We found that when offering the two arms, one of them associated to the drug mediating conditioning for 14 days, zebrafish showed nicotine-induced CPP but not caffeine-induced CPP. When zebrafish had the option to explore drug-paired arms together with new coloured arms as putative distractors, the nicotine-CPP strength was maintained for at least three days. The presence of novel environments induced caffeine-CPP, which was still positive after three days of testing sessions. Complementary behavioural data supported these findings. Nicotine-CPP was prevented by the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate administered during conditioning; however, there were no effects on caffeine-CPP. The specific acetylation of lysine 9 in histone 3 (H3-K9) was increased in nicotine-conditioned zebrafish brains. This study suggests that novel environmental cues facilitate drug-environment associations, and hence, the use of drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  2. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. © 2013.

  3. Fewer but heavier caffeine consumers in schizophrenia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Aguilar, M Carmen; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Jurado, Dolores; Diaz, Francisco J; Quintana, Hernando M; de Leon, Jose

    2006-09-01

    According to the literature, there is an association between schizophrenia and caffeine consumption, but it is not clear whether schizophrenia is associated with either higher prevalence of daily caffeine intake or the amount consumed. In this study we compared our previously published schizophrenia patients (n=250) with a control sample (n=290) after controlling for demographic variables and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Current caffeine intake was less frequent in schizophrenia patients (59%, 147/250) than in controls (70%, 204/290). In the multivariate analyses, caffeine intake was less frequent at an older age and in schizophrenia patients, and more frequent in smokers and alcohol users. Among caffeine consumers, heavy caffeine intake (> or =200 mg/day) was significantly associated with schizophrenia (64%, 94/147 in schizophrenia versus 36%, 73/204 in controls), as well as older age and smoking. Daily amount of caffeine intake and smoked cigarettes correlated significantly in the schizophrenia group but not in the control group; the correlation of caffeine intake with nicotine dependence was low and non-significant in both groups. The association between current smoking and heavy caffeine intake may be partly explained by a pharmacokinetic effect: tobacco smoke compounds induce caffeine metabolism by the cytochrome P450 1A2. Although schizophrenia by itself may be associated with heavy caffeine intake in caffeine users, part of this association was explained by the association between schizophrenia and smoking. The relationship between caffeine and alcohol intake appeared to be more complex; alcohol and caffeine use were significantly associated, but within caffeine users alcohol was associated with less frequent heavy caffeine consumption among smokers. In future studies, the measurement of plasma caffeine levels will help both to better define heavy caffeine intake and to control for smoking pharmacokinetic effects.

  4. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. "Wired," yet intoxicated: modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-08-01

    The combination of highly caffeinated "energy drinks" with alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues; however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and EtOH co-consumption employing the limited access "Drinking-in-the-Dark" (DID) paradigm. Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant blood EtOH concentrations (BECs), nor did it alter alcohol's anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive-interfering effects in a novel object-recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially identified "wide awake drunk" state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally valid explorations of the

  6. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of caffeine and alcohol on mood and performance changes following consumption of lager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined whether caffeine would modify the behavioural effects of alcohol. The aim of the study was to determine whether caffeine modifies the effects of alcohol on mood and psychomotor performance and to identify possible dose-response and temporal relationships. A double-blind study examined the effects of three successive lager drinks (330 ml each) in the early afternoon on mood and psychomotor performance assessed at 30-min intervals over a 2-h period. Participants carried out a baseline session and were then randomly assigned to one of six conditions formed by combining three different doses of caffeine (0, 62.5 and 125 mg per drink) with either no alcohol or 4.3 % alcohol. One hundred and forty-six young adults (65 male, 81 female; age range 18-30 years) participated in the study. Mood (alertness, hedonic tone and anxiety) was assessed before and after performing simple reaction time and choice reaction time tasks. Alcohol was associated with higher hedonic tone (p Caffeine had no modifying effect on hedonic tone or anxiety. However, the highest dose of caffeine did remove the effect of alcohol on alertness (p caffeine were found on the performance tasks (all p values caffeine does not remove the negative effects of alcohol on performance although high doses counteract the drop in subjective alertness produced by alcohol.

  8. Cue Reactivity in Nicotine and Alcohol Addiction: A Cross-Cultural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wanwan; Wu, Qichao; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Ying; Song, Hongwen; Yang, Lizhuang; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research indicates that cue reactivity is critical to understanding the neurobiology of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing treatments. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalograph (EEG) studies have shown abnormal cue reactivity in various conditions between nicotine or alcohol addicts and the healthy. Although the causes of these abnormalities are still unclear, cultural effect can not be ignored. We conduct an review of fMRI and EEG studies about the cue reactivity in nicotine and alcohol addiction and highlight the cultural perspective. We suggest that cultural cue reactivity is a field worth of exploring which may has an effect on addictive behavior through emotion and attention. The cultural role of nicotine and alcohol addiction would provide new insight into understanding the mechanisms of nicotine and alcohol addiction and developing culture-specific therapies. We consider that culture as a context may be a factor that causes confusing outcomes in exploring nicotine and alcohol addiction which makes it possible to control the cultural influences and further contribute to the more consistent results. PMID:27635123

  9. Breast Milk and Hair Testing to Detect Illegal Drugs, Nicotine, and Caffeine in Donors to a Human Milk Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The use of illegal drugs and tobacco is an exclusion criteria for accepting a nursing mother as a milk donor. The detection window for human milk testing is typically a few hours. Hair testing has been considered the gold standard to assess chronic exposure to these toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of illegal drugs, nicotine, and caffeine in breast milk and hair samples from donors to assess whether these substances were being used during the donation period and the months leading up to it. Thirty-six samples of hair and breast milk were obtained from 36 donors. The tests performed identified nicotine, caffeine, morphine, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, codeine, methadone, and other substances derived therefrom. No illegal drugs were found in any of the samples analyzed. Nicotine and cotinine were found in 33.3% (12/36) of all hair samples. Among these 12 samples, 10 had cotinine concentrations consistent with cutoff values for unexposed nonsmokers, 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for passive smokers, and 1 had concentrations consistent with cutoff values for active smokers. Caffeine was found in 77.7% of the hair samples and in 50% of the donor milk samples. The correlation for caffeine between donor milk and hair samples was r = 0.288, P = .0881. Donors do not use illegal drugs during either the donation period or the months leading up to it. They are occasionally exposed to tobacco smoke and almost all of them consume caffeine. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Fast simultaneous analysis of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana

    2008-10-15

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSDcoffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  13. Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that Burn®, XL energy drink® and Red Bull® had the highest amount of caffeine. It was however noted that though most of the non-alcoholic beverages had high caffeine content they had no label claim. Key Words: Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC), Ultra violet visible (UV/VIS), ...

  14. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  15. The selectively bred high alcohol sensitivity (HAS) and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats differ in sensitivity to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, NancyEllen C; Dawson, Ralph; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2002-06-01

    Studies in rodents selectively bred to differ in alcohol sensitivity have suggested that nicotine and ethanol sensitivities may cosegregate during selective breeding. This suggests that ethanol and nicotine sensitivities may in part be genetically correlated. Male and female high alcohol sensitivity (HAS), control alcohol sensitivity, and low alcohol sensitivity (LAS) rats were tested for nicotine-induced alterations in locomotor activity, body temperature, and seizure activity. Plasma and brain levels of nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, were measured in these animals, as was the binding of [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin in eight brain regions. Both replicate HAS lines were more sensitive to nicotine-induced locomotor activity depression than the replicate LAS lines. No consistent HAS/LAS differences were seen on other measures of nicotine sensitivity; however, females were more susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than males. No HAS/LAS differences in nicotine or cotinine levels were seen, nor were differences seen in the binding of nicotinic ligands. Females had higher levels of plasma cotinine and brain nicotine than males but had lower brain cotinine levels than males. Sensitivity to a specific action of nicotine cosegregates during selective breeding for differential sensitivity to a specific action of ethanol. The differential sensitivity of the HAS/LAS rats is due to differences in central nervous system sensitivity and not to pharmacokinetic differences. The differential central nervous system sensitivity cannot be explained by differences in the numbers of nicotinic receptors labeled in ligand-binding experiments. The apparent genetic correlation between ethanol and nicotine sensitivities suggests that common genes modulate, in part, the actions of both ethanol and nicotine and may explain the frequent coabuse of these agents.

  16. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population.......72 (1.00-2.96) for a pre-pregnancy intake on 75-300, 301-500, 501-900 and >900 mg caffeine per day respectively (P = 0.05 for trend). A pre-pregnancy intake of alcohol was not a predictor for spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of caffeine prior to pregnancy seems to be associated......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...

  17. The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Goodwin, Renee D; Skodol, Andrew E; Krueger, Robert F; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over 3 years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n = 1172) and nicotine dependence (n = 4017). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g. parental divorce). Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual and emotional abuse and physical neglect predicted 3-year persistence of alcohol dependence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.50-2.99; 95% CI = 1.04-4.68] and nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.37-1.74; 95% CI = 1.13-2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AOR = 1.53-3.02; 95% CI = 1.07-4.71) and nicotine persistence (AOR = 1.35-1.72; 95% CI = 1.11-2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AOR = 1.19-1.36; 95% CI = 1.11-1.56). A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of dependence. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Acute impact of caffeinated alcoholic beverages on cognition: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Laurence; Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Paille, François

    2017-06-02

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that are supposed to counteract sleepiness, increase energy, maintain alertness and reduce symptoms of hangover. Cognitive enhancing seems to be related to many compounds such as caffeine, taurine and vitamins. Currently, users mostly combine psychostimulant effects of energy drinks to counteract sedative effects of alcohol. However, recent literature suggests that this combination conducts to feel less intoxicated but still impaired. The goal of the present article is to review cognitive impact and subjective awareness in case of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) intoxication. PubMed (January 1960 to March 2016) database was searched using the following terms: cognitive impairments, alcohol, energy drinks; cognition, alcohol, caffeine. 99 papers were found but only 12 randomized controlled studies which explored cognitive disorders and subjective awareness associated with acute CAB or AED (alcohol associated with energy drinks) intoxication were included. The present literature review confirmed that energy drinks might counteract some cognitive deficits and adverse effects of alcohol i.e. dry mouth, fatigue, headache, weakness, and perception of intoxication due to alcohol alone. This effect depends on alcohol limb but disappears when the complexity of the task increases, when driving for example. Moreover, studies clearly showed that CAB/AEDs increase impulsivity which conducts to an overconsumption of alcohol and enhanced motivation to drink compared to alcohol alone, potentiating the risk of developing addictive behaviors. This is a huge problem in adolescents with high impulsivity and immature decision making processes. Although energy drinks counteract some cognitive deficits due to alcohol alone, their association promotes the risk of developing alcohol addiction. As a consequence, it is necessary to better understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these interactions in order to better prevent the development

  19. Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, L; Patel, S; Murtagh, C; Stolerman, I P

    2004-05-01

    Nicotine can improve attentional performance in the rat as assessed by a modified five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), but it is not known if the effect is shared with other psychomotor stimulants. This study compared the effects of nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on performance in the 5-CSRTT and determined whether presenting stimuli at unpredictable times by using variable inter-trial intervals (ITI) influenced the sensitivity of the task to the drugs. One group of male hooded rats was trained to obtain food reinforcers by nose-poking in response to 1 s light stimuli presented randomly in one of five apertures, with fixed ITI; for a second group of rats, ITI varied randomly (n=12 per group). As observed previously, nicotine (tested in doses of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg) produced dose-related improvements in accuracy, reduced omission errors and response latencies, but increased anticipatory responding. Amphetamine (0.1-0.8 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (2.5-10 mg/kg) increased accuracy and reduced response latency, and decreased anticipatory responding. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg) did not improve performance except at a small dose that decreased omission errors only. Training at different levels of stimulus predictability influenced performance in the undrugged state but had little impact on profiles of responses to the drugs. The findings with methylphenidate support the potential value of the 5-CSRTT for testing drugs that may be useful in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Making the Most of the "Daphnia" Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corotto, Frank; Ceballos, Darrel; Lee, Adam; Vinson, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Students commonly test the effects of chemical agents on the heart rate of the crustacean "Daphnia" magna, but the procedure has never been optimized. We determined the effects of three concentrations of ethanol, nicotine, and caffeine and of a control solution on heart rate in "Daphnia." Ethanol at 5% and 10% (v/v) reduced mean heart rate to…

  1. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  2. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  3. Tobacco Metabolites and Caffeine in Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Sheela R; McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J; Rogers, Lynette; Klebanoff, Mark A; Augustine, Molly; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-11-01

    Chemicals inhaled or ingested by mothers can be present in their milk. Our objective was to determine levels of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine in human milk purchased via the Internet. We purchased human milk (n=102) via the Internet and abstracted seller advertisements for information volunteered about tobacco and caffeine use. Nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine levels in the milk were quantified by mass spectrometry according to published protocols. No sellers indicated smoking in their advertisement. Many of the milk samples (58%) had detectable nicotine or cotinine; four (4%) of the samples had nicotine or cotinine levels high enough to indicate active smoking. Twelve (12%) sellers said in their advertisements that they specifically limit (4%) or avoid (8%) caffeine entirely. Five (5%) of the samples had caffeine levels consistent with consuming at least 1 cup of coffee 2 hours prior to milk expression. Detectable amounts of caffeine were found in almost all of the samples (97%). In 102 milk samples, we detected evidence of active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, and almost ubiquitous caffeine consumption. Buyers of human milk on the Internet should be aware that advertisements do not always include accurate information as to what substances may be present. Sellers may misrepresent their health behaviors or be unaware of lifestyle factors that can lead to exposure to nicotine and caffeine.

  4. Measuring spatial and temporal trends of nicotine and alcohol consumption in Australia using wastewater-based epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Gartner, Coral; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Steve; O'Brien, Jake; Tscharke, Benjamin J; Been, Frederic; Gerber, Cobus; White, Jason; Thai, Phong; Bruno, Raimondo; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2018-06-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain priority public health issues world-wide. As participation in population-based surveys has fallen, it is increasingly challenging to estimate accurately the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach for estimating substance use at the population level that does not rely upon survey participation. This study examined spatio-temporal patterns in nicotine (a proxy for tobacco) and alcohol consumption in the Australian population via WBE. Daily wastewater samples (n = 164) were collected at 18 selected wastewater treatment plants across Australia, covering approximately 45% of the total population. Nicotine and alcohol metabolites in the samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily consumption of nicotine and alcohol and its associated uncertainty were computed using Monte Carlo simulations. Nation-wide daily average and weekly consumption of these two substances were extrapolated using ordinary least squares and mixed-effect models. Nicotine and alcohol consumption was observed in all communities. Consumption of these substances in rural towns was three to four times higher than in urban communities. The spatial consumption pattern of these substances was consistent across the monitoring periods in 2014-15. Nicotine metabolites significantly reduced by 14-25% (P = 0.001-0.008) (2014-15) in some catchments. Alcohol consumption remained constant over the studied periods. Strong weekly consumption patterns were observed for alcohol but not nicotine. Nation-wide, the daily average consumption per person (aged 15-79 years) was estimated at approximately 2.5 cigarettes and 1.3-2.0 standard drinks (weekday-weekend) of alcohol. These estimates were close to the sale figure and apparent consumption, respectively. Wastewater-based epidemiology is a feasible method for objectively evaluating the geographic, temporal and weekly profiles of

  5. Childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and 3-year persistence of adult alcohol and nicotine dependence in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer C; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Skodol, Andrew E; Eaton, Nicholas R; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Goodwin, Renee D; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-05-01

    Persistent cases of alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, and are predicted by childhood maltreatment and personality disorders. Our aim was to test whether personality disorders (individually or conjointly) mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the persistence of dependence. Personality disorders, modeled dimensionally, were tested as mediators of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence in participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had current alcohol and nicotine dependence in their baseline interview. Individual personality disorders were assessed in separate models. Then, those that were significant were examined jointly in multiple mediator models to determine their total and unique effects. A large, nationally representative US survey. Participants ≥ 18 years who completed baseline and 3-year follow-up NESARC interviews who had baseline alcohol dependence (n = 1172; 68% male) or nicotine dependence (n = 4017; 52.9% male). Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS-IV) measures of childhood maltreatment, personality disorders and alcohol/nicotine dependence. Individual models indicated that many personality disorders mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and the 3-year persistence of alcohol and nicotine dependence (each explaining 6-46% of the total effect, Ps Personality disorder symptoms (especially borderline and antisocial) help explain the association between childhood maltreatment and persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Combined effects of alcohol and caffeine on the late components of the event-related potential and on reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frances Heritage; Garfield, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The effects of .7 ml/kg alcohol and 200 mg caffeine on the P200, N200, P300 and N500 difference wave components of the event-related potential and on reaction time (RT) were examined in 16 females who performed both simple and choice RT tasks. Alcohol slowed the decision time (DT) component of reaction time, lengthened the latency of the P200 and P300 components, reduced N200 amplitude, increased P300 amplitude at parietal sites, and modified the effect of sagittal site on N500 difference wave peak amplitude. Caffeine shortened DT in the choice RT task, shortened N200 latency at right hemisphere sites, and shortened N200 latency in the choice RT task in combination with alcohol compared to when alcohol was administered alone. Caffeine also increased P300 amplitude in the choice RT task and reduced the integral of the N500 difference wave at most sites when combined with alcohol. It was concluded that whereas alcohol slows attention allocation and impairs working memory, caffeine accelerated response-related decisions and enhanced cortical arousal.

  7. In alcohol-dependent drinkers, what does the presence of nicotine dependence tell us about psychiatric and addictive disorders comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2010-01-01

    To examine the pattern of psychiatric comorbidity associated with nicotine dependence among alcohol-dependent respondents in the general population. Drawn from a US national survey of 43,000 adults The (National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) who took part in a face-to-face interview, data were examined on the 4782 subjects with lifetime alcohol dependence, and comparisons were made between those with and those without nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence was reported by 48% of the alcohol-dependent respondents. They reported higher lifetime rates of panic disorder, specific and social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, manic disorder, suicide attempt, antisocial personality disorder and all addictive disorders than those without nicotine dependence. After controlling for the effects of any psychiatric and addictive disorder, alcohol-dependent subjects with nicotine dependence were more than twice as likely as non-nicotine-dependent, alcohol-dependent subjects to have at least one other lifetime addiction diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 2.07-2.68). Nicotine dependence represents a general marker of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly of addictive comorbidity. It may be used as a screening measure for psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice as well as in future trials.

  8. Dissociation between wanting and liking for alcohol and caffeine: A test of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkadacham, Lilani J; Richardson, Ben; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; O'Donnell, Renée L; Ling, Mathew

    2017-07-01

    Limited human studies have directly tested the dissociation between wanting and liking with human substance users, a core tenet of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory (IST). The aim of this study is to test the dissociation between wanting and liking in humans across two commonly used licit substances, alcohol and caffeine. The STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire was administered to 285 alcohol users (mean age=33.30, SD= 8.83) and 134 coffee users (mean age=33.05, SD=8.10) ranging in their levels of substance use to assess wanting and liking. Findings showed that in high risk alcohol users wanting may drive alcohol consumption more so than liking, compared with low risk alcohol users. However, wanting and liking did not significantly dissociate as alcohol consumption increased. These findings partially support IST. Additionally, IST was not supported in coffee users. It is possible that caffeine functions differently at the neurological level compared with alcohol, perhaps explaining the lack of dissociation emerging in coffee users as caffeine use increased. Nevertheless, the current study makes several contributions to IST research. Future studies should focus on utilising the STRAP-R with a clinically dependent sample to test the dissociation between wanting and liking.

  9. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  10. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Fitzgerald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  11. Caffeine attenuates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, W; Hogervorst, E; Leboux, R; Verhey, F; van Praag, H; Jolles, J

    1995-11-01

    Caffeine consumption can be beneficial for cognitive functioning. Although caffeine is widely recognized as a mild CNS stimulant drug, the most important consequence of its adenosine antagonism is cholinergic stimulation, which might lead to improvement of higher cognitive functions, particularly memory. In this study, the scopolamine model of amnesia was used to test the cholinergic effects of caffeine, administered as three cups of coffee. Subjects were 16 healthy volunteers who received 250 mg caffeine and 2 mg nicotine separately, in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over design. Compared to placebo, nicotine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of storage in short-term memory and attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of speed of short-term memory scanning. Nicotine also attenuated the scopolamine-induced slowing of reaction time in a response competition task. Caffeine attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of free recall from short- and long-term memory, quality and speed of retrieval from long-term memory in a word learning task, and other cognitive and non-cognitive measures, such as perceptual sensitivity in visual search, reading speed, and rate of finger-tapping. On the basis of these results it was concluded that caffeine possesses cholinergic cognition enhancing properties. Caffeine could be used as a control drug in studies using the scopolamine paradigm and possibly also in other experimental studies of cognitive enhancers, as the effects of a newly developed cognition enhancing drug should at least be superior to the effects of three cups of coffee.

  12. Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Kogan, Steven M; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Juliano, Laura M; Lilly, Christa L; James, Jack E

    2018-04-30

    Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. We hypothesized that caffeine use at baseline would be positively associated with increased alcohol use, drunkenness, smoking, and e-cigarette use. Prospective cohort study with 12 months separating baseline from follow-up. West Virginia, USA. Middle school students (6 th and 7 th grades; N = 3,932) in three West Virginia (WV) counties provided data at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. Youth self-reported their use of caffeine from multiple sources (e.g., soda, energy drinks, coffee and tea), cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness. Cross-lagged path models for individual substance use categories provided good fit to the data. Controlling for demographic variables and other substance use at baseline, caffeine at T1 was positively associated with T2 cigarette smoking (β = .27, p = .001), e-cigarette use (β = .21, p = .001), alcohol use (β = .17, p = .001), and drunkenness (β = .15, p = .001). Conversely, non-significant relations emerged between three of four substances at T1 and caffeine at T2. Positive relations were found between e-cigarette use at T1 and caffeine use at T2 (β = .07, p = .006). These findings were supported by an omnibus model with all substances included. Specifically, significant relations were observed between caffeine at T1 and all substance use outcomes at T2, whereas no significant relations were observed between substance use and caffeine over time. Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. The neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate neutralized the learning impairment induced by intrahippocampal nicotine in alcohol-drinking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, E; Pallarès, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of intrahippocampal administration of nicotine and the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and allopregnanolone on acquiring the lever-press response and extinction in a Skinner box were examined using voluntary alcohol-drinking rats. A free-choice drinking procedure that implies early availability of the alcoholic solution (10% ethanol v/v+3% glucose w/v in distilled water) was used. Alcohol and control rats were deprived of food and assigned at random to six groups. Each group received two consecutive intrahippocampal (dorsal CA1) injections immediately after 1-h of drinking ethanol and before the free lever-press response shaping and extinction session. The groups were: saline-saline; saline-pregnenolone sulfate (5 ng, 24 microM); saline-allopregnanolone (0.2 microg, 1.26 microM); nicotine (4.6 microg, 20 mM)-saline; nicotine-pregnenolone sulfate; nicotine-allopregnanolone. Blood alcohol concentrations were assessed the day before conditioning. The combination of the oral self-administration of ethanol and the intrahippocampal injection of nicotine deteriorated the ability to acquire the lever-press response. This effect was neutralized by intrahippocampal pregnenolone sulfate (negative modulator of the GABA(A) receptor complex), and it was not affected by intrahippocampal allopregnanolone (positive GABA receptor complex A modulator). Pregnenolone sulfate and allopregnanolone had no effects per se on lever-press acquisition, neither in alcohol-drinking rats nor in controls. Alcohol consumption facilitated operant extinction just as anxiolytics that act as positive modulators of the GABA receptor complex A receptors do, possibly reducing the anxiety or aversion related to non-reinforcement. This effect was increased by intrahippocampal nicotine.

  14. The nicotine + alcohol interoceptive drug state: contribution of the components and effects of varenicline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A; Cannady, Reginald; Besheer, Joyce

    2016-08-01

    Nicotine and alcohol co-use is highly prevalent, and as such, individuals experience the interoceptive effects of both substances together. Therefore, examining sensitivity to a compound nicotine and alcohol (N + A) interoceptive cue is critical to broaden our understanding of mechanisms that may contribute to nicotine and alcohol co-use. This work assessed the ability of a N + A interoceptive cue to gain control over goal-tracking behavior and determined the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic partial agonist and smoking cessation compound varenicline on sensitivity to N + A. Two groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to discriminate N + A (0.4 mg/kg nicotine + 1 g/kg alcohol, intragastric gavage (IG)) from water under two different training conditions using a Pavlovian drug discrimination task. The effects of varenicline (0, 1, 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (IP)) administered alone and on sensitivity to N + A and the components were determined. Under both training conditions, N + A rapidly gained control over behavior, with a greater contribution of nicotine to the N + A compound cue. Varenicline fully substituted for the N + A training dose, and varenicline (1 mg/kg) enhanced sensitivity to the lowest N + A dose (0.1 N + 0.1 A). Given the high selectivity of varenicline for the α4β2 receptor, this finding suggests a functional role for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in modulating sensitivity to N + A. The N + A compound cue is a unique cue that is modulated, in part, by activity at the α4β2 nAChR. These findings advance understanding of the interoceptive effects of nicotine and alcohol in combination and may have implications in relation to their co-use.

  15. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  17. Evidence of the Impact of Diet, Fluid Intake, Caffeine, Alcohol and Tobacco on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Catherine S; Erickson, Bradley A; Messersmith, Emily E; Pelletier-Cameron, Anne; Lai, H Henry; Kreder, Karl J; Yang, Claire C; Merion, Robert M; Bavendam, Tamara G; Kirkali, Ziya

    2017-11-01

    Diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use may have effects on lower urinary tract symptoms. Constructive changes in these modifiable nonurological factors are suggested to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. To better understand the relationship between nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms, we performed a systematic literature review to examine, grade and summarize reported associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use. We performed PubMed® searches for eligible articles providing evidence on associations between 1 or more nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. A modified Oxford scale was used to grade the evidence. We reviewed 111 articles addressing diet (28 studies), fluid intake (21) and caffeine (21), alcohol (26) and tobacco use (44). The evidence grade was generally low (6% level 1, 24% level 2, 11% level 3 and 59% level 4). Fluid intake and caffeine use were associated with urinary frequency and urgency in men and women. Modest alcohol use was associated with decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and reduced lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and ingestion of certain foods and tobacco were inconsistent. Evidence of associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use is sparse and mostly observational. However, there is evidence of associations between increased fluid and caffeine intake and urinary frequency/urgency, and between modest alcohol intake and decreased benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and lower urinary tract symptoms. Given the importance of these nonurological factors in daily life, and their perceived impact on lower urinary tract symptoms, higher quality evidence is needed. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.

  19. Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction co-occur with exercise addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users and severity (level of problem in users among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i asymptomatic, (ii symptomatic, and (iii at-risk. Methods: A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv Exercise Addition Inventory. Results: A large proportion (n=59; 10.97% of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking. Keywords: Alcohol drinking, Cigarette smoking, Exercise dependence, Illicit substance use, Physical activity, Sport

  20. Study of Personality Factors in Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors

  1. Association between sleep bruxism and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drug abuse: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  3. The association between pre-treatment maternal alcohol and caffeine intake and outcomes of assisted reproduction in a prospectively followed cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, L; Chiu, Y-H; Williams, P L; Toth, T L; Souter, I; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E; Gaskins, A J

    2017-09-01

    Is pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intake associated with infertility treatment outcomes among women undergoing ART? Low to moderate alcohol and caffeine intakes in the year prior to infertility treatment were not related to ART outcomes. Alcohol and caffeine intake have been found to be associated with infertility in some studies. Nevertheless, data on their relation with outcomes of infertility treatments are scarce and inconsistent. We included 300 women (493 ART cycles) from the Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing cohort study (2006-2016). Pre-treatment intakes of alcohol and caffeine were assessed retrospectively using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Intermediate and clinical endpoints of ART were abstracted from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to account for multiple ART cycles per woman were used to evaluate the association with ART outcomes adjusting for age, BMI, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, protocol type, race, dietary patterns, and calories, vitamin B12 and folate intake. Median (range) pre-treatment alcohol and caffeine intakes were 5.6 (0.0-85.8) g/day and 124.9 (0.3-642.2) mg/day, respectively. The adjusted percentage of initiated cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of pre-treatment alcohol intake was 34% (20, 52%) for non-consumers, 46% (36, 57%) for 0.1-6 g/day, 41% (29, 53%) for 6.1-12 g/day, 42% (31, 55%) for 12.1-24 g/day, and 41% (22, 63%) for >24 g/day (P, trend = 0.87). The adjusted percentage of cycles resulting in live birth (95% CI) for women in increasing categories of caffeine intake was 46% (36-57%) for 300 mg/day (P, trend = 0.34). When specific types of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages were evaluated, no relations with ART treatment outcomes were observed. Residual confounding by other diet and lifestyle factors cannot be ruled out owing to the observational nature of this study. It is also unclear how

  4. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, Harvey; Powers, Karen; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D

    2002-04-15

    A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

  5. Mechanisms and genetic factors underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or other drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M

    2017-03-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.

  6. Modulation of Intestinal Barrier and Bacterial Endotoxin Production Contributes to the Beneficial Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Hepatic Inflammation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption causes nicotinic acid deficiency. The present study was undertaken to determine whether dietary nicotinic acid supplementation provides beneficial effects on alcohol-induced endotoxin signaling and the possible mechanisms at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets containing ethanol or isocaloric maltose dextrin for eight weeks, with or without dietary supplementation with 750 mg/liter nicotinic acid. Chronic alcohol feeding elevated the plasma endotoxin level and activated hepatic endotoxin signaling cascade, which were attenuated by nicotinic acid supplementation. Alcohol consumption remarkably decreased the mRNA levels of claudin-1, claudin-5, and ZO-1 in the distal intestine, whereas nicotinic acid significantly up-regulated these genes. The concentrations of endotoxin, ethanol, and acetaldehyde in the intestinal contents were increased by alcohol exposure, and niacin supplementation reduced the intestinal endotoxin and acetaldehyde levels. Nicotinic acid supplementation upregulated the intestinal genes involved in aldehyde detoxification via transcriptional regulation. These results demonstrate that modulation of the intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin production accounts for the inhibitory effects of nicotinic acid on alcohol-induced endotoxemia and hepatic inflammation.

  7. Separate and combined effects of the social drugs on psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N; Hindmarch, I

    1991-01-01

    Ten female subjects (five smokers and five non-smokers) performed a choice reaction time task (CRT), a compensatory tracking task (CTT), a short-term memory task (STM) and were tested for their critical flicker fusion threshold (CFF) at set points over 4 h after the administration of each possible combination of nicotine (2 mg gum or placebo), caffeine (250 mg capsule or placebo) and alcohol (30 g or placebo). Memory and motor function were shown to be facilitated by nicotine or caffeine, and the debilitating effects of alcohol were frequently antagonised by either drug. In spite of the differences in their neuropharmacological actions, combinations of nicotine, caffeine and alcohol may be compared through their effects on common information processing mechanisms involved in psychomotor performance.

  8. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Alcohol-induced retrograde memory impairment in rats: prevention by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Michael J; Woodlee, Martin T; Feinberg, Leila M; Stroud, Chris; Schallert, Kellan; Cormack, Lawrence K; Schallert, Timothy

    2008-12-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, often used in the same setting. Animal models may help to understand the conditions under which incidental memories formed just before ethanol intoxication might be lost or become difficult to retrieve. Ethanol-induced retrograde amnesia was investigated using a new odor-recognition test. Rats thoroughly explored a wood bead taken from the cage of another rat, and habituated to this novel odor (N1) over three trials. Immediately following habituation, rats received saline, 25 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (a seizure-producing agent known to cause retrograde amnesia) to validate the test, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol. The next day, they were presented again with N1 and also a bead from a new rat's cage (N2). Rats receiving saline or the lower dose of ethanol showed overnight memory for N1, indicated by preferential exploration of N2 over N1. Rats receiving pentylenetetrazol or the higher dose of ethanol appeared not to remember N1, in that they showed equal exploration of N1 and N2. Caffeine (5 mg/kg), delivered either 1 h after the higher dose of ethanol or 20 min prior to habituation to N1, negated ethanol-induced impairment of memory for N1. A combination of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, mimicking two major mechanisms of action of caffeine, likewise prevented the memory impairment, though either drug alone had no such effect. Binge alcohol can induce retrograde, caffeine-reversible disruption of social odor memory storage or recall.

  10. Caffeine and Alcohol Intakes and Overall Nutrient Adequacy Are Associated with Longitudinal Cognitive Performance among U.S. Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Beydoun, Hind A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L.; Talegawkar, Sameera A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628–1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

  11. Effects of mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages on subjective intoxication : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Sarah; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Alford, Chris; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter the awareness of (or 'mask') intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous

  12. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  14. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.

  15. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  16. Caffeine as a Gelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonappa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (a stimulant and ethanol (a depressant may have opposite effects in our body, but under in vitro conditions they can “gel” together. Caffeine, being one of the widely used stimulants, continued to surprise the scientific community with its unprecedented biological, medicinal and physicochemical properties. Here, we disclose the supramolecular self-assembly of anhydrous caffeine in a series of alcoholic and aromatic solvents, rendering a highly entangled microcrystalline network facilitating the encapsulation of the solvents as illustrated using direct imaging, microscopy analysis and NMR studies.

  17. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  18. Changes in the α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine system during chronic controlled alcohol exposure in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T

    2014-05-01

    The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  20. Alcohol-Induced Impairment of Balance is Antagonized by Energy Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-01

    The acute administration of alcohol reliably impairs balance and motor coordination. While it is common for consumers to ingest alcohol with other stimulant drugs (e.g., caffeine, nicotine), little is known whether prototypical alcohol-induced balance impairments are altered by stimulant drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the coadministration of a high-caffeine energy drink with alcohol can antagonize expected alcohol-induced increases in body sway. Sixteen social drinkers (of equal gender) participated in 4 separate double-blind dose administration sessions that involved consumption of alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. Following dose administration, participants completed automated assessments of balance stability (both eyes open and eyes closed) measured using the Biosway Portable Balance System. Participants completed several subjective measures including self-reported ratings of sedation, stimulation, fatigue, and impairment. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded repeatedly. The acute administration of alcohol increased body sway, and the coadministration of energy drinks antagonized this impairment. When participants closed their eyes, alcohol-induced body sway was similar whether or not energy drinks were ingested. While alcohol administration increased ratings of sedation and fatigue, energy drink administration increased ratings of stimulation and reduced ratings of fatigue. Modest increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure following energy drink administration were also observed. Visual assessment of balance impairment is frequently used to indicate that an individual has consumed too much alcohol (e.g., as part of police-standardized field sobriety testing or by a bartender assessing when someone should no longer be served more alcohol). The current findings suggest that energy drinks can antagonize alcohol-induced increases in body sway, indicating that future work is needed to determine whether this

  1. Personality Disorders and the 3-Year Course of Alcohol, Drug, and Nicotine Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah; Fenton, Miriam C.; Skodol, Andrew; Krueger, Robert; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Greenstein, Eliana; Blanco, Carlos; Grant, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context Little is known about the role of a broad range of personality disorders in the course of substance use disorder (SUD), and whether these differ by substance. The existing literature focuses mostly on antisocial personality disorder and does not come to clear conclusions. Objective To determine the association between the ten DSM-IV personality disorders and the persistence of common SUDs in a 3-year prospective study of a national sample. Design Data were drawn from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who had alcohol dependence (N=1,172), cannabis use disorder (N=454) or nicotine dependence (N=4,017) at baseline and who were re-interviewed three years later. Control variables included demographic characteristics, family history of substance disorders, baseline Axis I disorders and treatment status, and prior SUD duration. Main outcome measure Persistent SUD, defined as meeting full criteria for the relevant SUD throughout the 3-year follow-up period. Results Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with alcohol dependence, 30.8% with cannabis use disorder, and 56.6% with nicotine dependence at baseline. Axis I disorders did not have strong or consistent associations with persistent SUD. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder was significantly associated with persistent alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use disorders (adjusted odds ratios: 2.46-3.51), as was borderline personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 2.04-2.78) and schizotypal personality disorder (adjusted odds ratios: 1.65-5.90). Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders were less consistently associated with SUD persistence. Conclusions The consistent findings on the association of antisocial, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders with persistent SUD indicates the importance of these personality disorders in understanding the course of SUD. Future studies should examine dimensional

  2. Recommendations regarding dietary intake and caffeine and alcohol consumption in patients with cardiac arrhythmias: what do you tell your patients to do or not to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatter, Kathryn A; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2012-10-01

    The etiology of arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation is multifactorial. Most arrhythmias are associated with comorbid illnesses like hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, or advanced age. Although it is tempting to blame a stimulant like caffeine as a trigger for arrhythmias, the literature does not support this idea. There is no real benefit to having patients with arrhythmias limit their caffeine intake. Caffeine is a vasoactive substance that also may promote the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, acute ingestion of caffeine (as coffee or tea) does not cause atrial fibrillation. Even patients suffering a myocardial infarction do not have an increased incidence of ventricular or other arrhythmias after ingesting several cups of coffee. Large epidemiologic studies have also failed to find a connection between the amount of coffee/caffeine used and the development of arrhythmias. As such, it does not make sense to suggest that patients with palpitations, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, or supraventricular tachycardia, abstain from caffeine use. Energy drinks are a new phenomenon on the beverage market, with 30-50 % of young adults and teens using them regularly. Energy drinks are loaded with caffeine, sugar, and other chemicals that can stimulate the cardiac system. There is an increasing body of mainly anecdotal case reports describing arrhythmias or even sudden death triggered by exercise plus using energy drinks. Clearly, there must be more study in this area, but it is wise to either limit or avoid their use in patients with arrhythmias. Moderate to heavy alcohol use seems to be associated with the development of atrial fibrillation. The term "holiday heart" was coined back in 1978, to describe patients who had atrial fibrillation following binge alcohol use. Thus, it is reasonable to recommend to patients with arrhythmias that they limit their alcohol use, although unfortunately this treatment will likely not completely resolve their

  3. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Caffeine Concentrations in Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and Energy Drink Flavored E-liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Lee, Grace E; Kimbrell, J Brett; Rybak, Michael E; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-04-01

    Most electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) contain a solution of propylene glycol/glycerin and nicotine, as well as flavors. E-cigarettes and their associated e-liquids are available in numerous flavor varieties. A subset of the flavor varieties include coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink, which, in beverage form, are commonly recognized sources of caffeine. Recently, some manufacturers have begun marketing e-liquid products as energy enhancers that contain caffeine as an additive. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of caffeine in e-liquids was developed, optimized and validated. The method was then applied to assess caffeine concentrations in 44 flavored e-liquids from cartridges, disposables, and refill solutions. Products chosen were flavors traditionally associated with caffeine (ie, coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink), marketed as energy boosters, or labeled as caffeine-containing by the manufacturer. Caffeine was detected in 42% of coffee-flavored products, 66% of tea-flavored products, and 50% of chocolate-flavored e-liquids (limit of detection [LOD] - 0.04 µg/g). Detectable caffeine concentrations ranged from 3.3 µg/g to 703 µg/g. Energy drink-flavored products did not contain detectable concentrations of caffeine. Eleven of 12 products marketed as energy enhancers contained caffeine, though in widely varying concentrations (31.7 µg/g to 9290 µg/g). E-liquid flavors commonly associated with caffeine content like coffee, tea, chocolate, and energy drink often contained caffeine, but at concentrations significantly lower than their dietary counterparts. Estimated daily exposures from all e-cigarette products containing caffeine were much less than ingestion of traditional caffeinated beverages like coffee. This study presents an optimized and validated method for the measurement of caffeine in e-liquids. The method is applicable to all e-liquid matrices and could potentially be used to ensure regulatory

  5. Concordance between DSM-5 and DSM-IV nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder diagnoses among pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sharon M; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O'Grady, Kevin E; Schwartz, Robert P

    2014-07-01

    The recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) includes several major revisions to substance use diagnoses. Studies have evaluated the impact of these changes among adult samples but research with adolescent samples is lacking. 525 adolescents (93% African American) awaiting primary care appointments in Baltimore, Maryland were recruited for a study evaluating a substance use screening instrument. Participants were assessed for DSM-5 nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorder, DSM-IV alcohol and cannabis abuse, and DSM-IV dependence for all three substances during the past year using the modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2, Substance Abuse Module. Contingency tables examining DSM-5 vs. DSM-IV joint frequency distributions were examined for each substance. Diagnoses were more prevalent using DSM-5 criteria compared with DSM-IV for nicotine (4.0% vs. 2.7%), alcohol (4.6% vs. 3.8%), and cannabis (10.7% vs. 8.2%). Cohen's κ, Somers' d, and Cramer's V ranged from 0.70 to 0.99 for all three substances. Of the adolescents categorized as "diagnostic orphans" under DSM-IV, 7/16 (43.8%), 9/29 (31.0%), and 13/36 (36.1%) met criteria for DSM-5 disorder for nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, respectively. Additionally, 5/17 (29.4%) and 1/21 (4.8%) adolescents who met criteria for DSM-IV abuse did not meet criteria for a DSM-5 diagnosis for alcohol and cannabis, respectively. Categorizing adolescents using DSM-5 criteria may result in diagnostic net widening-particularly for cannabis use disorders-by capturing adolescents who were considered diagnostic orphans using DSM-IV criteria. Future research examining the validity of DSM-5 substance use disorders with larger and more diverse adolescent samples is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. (Univ. of Southern Colorado, Pueblo (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  7. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Kouichi; Matsuzaki, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Shiho; Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Kato, Misako

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl- 14 C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or with

  8. Conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase belonged to motif B′ methyltransferase family in Coffea arabica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Kouichi, E-mail: koumno@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Masahiro [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kanazawa, Shiho [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan); Tokiwano, Tetsuo; Yoshizawa, Yuko [Faculty of Bioresource Sciences, Akita Prefectural University, Akita City, Akita 010-0195 (Japan); Kato, Misako [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: Trigonelline synthase catalyzes the conversion of nicotinic acid to trigonelline. We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene(s) from Coffea arabica. - Highlights: • Trigonelline is a major compound in coffee been same as caffeine is. • We isolated and characterized trigonelline synthase gene. • Coffee trigonelline synthases are highly homologous with coffee caffeine synthases. • This study contributes the fully understanding of pyridine alkaloid metabolism. - Abstract: Trigonelline (N-methylnicotinate), a member of the pyridine alkaloids, accumulates in coffee beans along with caffeine. The biosynthetic pathway of trigonelline is not fully elucidated. While it is quite likely that the production of trigonelline from nicotinate is catalyzed by N-methyltransferase, as is caffeine synthase (CS), the enzyme(s) and gene(s) involved in N-methylation have not yet been characterized. It should be noted that, similar to caffeine, trigonelline accumulation is initiated during the development of coffee fruits. Interestingly, the expression profiles for two genes homologous to caffeine synthases were similar to the accumulation profile of trigonelline. We presumed that these two CS-homologous genes encoded trigonelline synthases. These genes were then expressed in Escherichiacoli, and the resulting recombinant enzymes that were obtained were characterized. Consequently, using the N-methyltransferase assay with S-adenosyl[methyl-{sup 14}C]methionine, it was confirmed that these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of nicotinate to trigonelline, coffee trigonelline synthases (termed CTgS1 and CTgS2) were highly identical (over 95% identity) to each other. The sequence homology between the CTgSs and coffee CCS1 was 82%. The pH-dependent activity curve of CTgS1 and CTgS2 revealed optimum activity at pH 7.5. Nicotinate was the specific methyl acceptor for CTgSs, and no activity was detected with any other nicotinate derivatives, or

  9. Prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation, alcohol intake and nicotine consumption in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of depression, suicidal ideations, alcohol and nicotine consumption in adults in an agrarian society mostly unchanged by the effects of urbanization.The Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study in rural Central India close to the tribal belt and included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD, suicidal ideation by six standardized questions, nicotine use by the Fagerstroem Nicotine Tolerance Questionnaire (FTNQ, and alcohol consumption by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT.Mild to moderate depression (CESD sum score: 15-21 was detected in 1862 (39.6% individuals (33.5% of men, 44.8 of women, and major depression (CESD sum score >21 in 613 (13.0% individuals (8.1 of men, 17.3% of women. Suicide attempt was reported by 199 (4.2% participants and suicidal thoughts during the last 6 months by 238 (5.1% individuals. There were 887 (18.9% smokers and smokeless tobacco was consumed by 1968 (41.8% subjects. Alcohol consumption was reported by 1081 (23.0% participants; 283 (6.0% subjects had an AUDIT score ≥ 8 (hazardous drinking, and 108 (4.63% subjects a score ≥ 13 (women or ≥ 15 (men (alcohol dependence.In rural Central India, prevalence of major depression was comparable to figures reported from other developing countries. Prevalence of smoking and hazardous alcohol consumption was higher than as reported from urban regions. Measures should be taken to address the relatively high prevalence of suicide attempts and thoughts on suicide in rural Central India.

  10. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W.; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine mole...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Use of caffeinated energy drinks among secondary school students in Ontario: Prevalence and correlates of using energy drinks and mixing with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David; McCrory, Cassondra; Dubin, Joel A; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2015-03-12

    Caffeinated energy drinks have become increasingly popular among young people, raising concern about possible adverse effects, including increased alcohol consumption and related risk behaviours. The current study examined consumption of caffeinated energy drinks and use of energy drinks with alcohol, as well as associations with socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, among a sample of secondary school students in Ontario. Survey data from 23,610 grade 9-12 students at 43 purposefully sampled Ontario secondary schools participating in the baseline wave (2012/13) of the COMPASS study were analyzed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Outcomes were any energy drink use, frequency of use, and use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks; covariates were age, sex, race, spending money, bodymass index (BMI), weight-related efforts and alcohol use. Two-way interactions between sex and other covariates were tested. Nearly one in five students (18.2%) reported consuming energy drinks in a usual week. Use of energy drinks was associated (p < 0.01) with all socio-demographic variables examined and was more common among students who were male, off-reserve Aboriginal, had some spending money, had a BMI outside of "healthy" range, were trying to lose weight, and/or reported a higher intensity of alcohol use. Interactions with sex were observed for age, spending money and weight-related efforts. Use of energy drinks mixed with alcohol in the previous 12 months was reported by 17.3% of the sample, and was associated with race, spending money, and more frequent binge drinking. Regular use of energy drinks was common among this sample of students and strongly linked to alcohol consumption.

  13. The GABAA Receptor α2 Subunit Activates a Neuronal TLR4 Signal in the Ventral Tegmental Area that Regulates Alcohol and Nicotine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism initiates with episodes of excessive alcohol drinking, known as binge drinking, which is one form of excessive drinking (NIAAA Newsletter, 2004 that is related to impulsivity and anxiety (Ducci et al., 2007; Edenberg et al., 2004 and is also predictive of smoking status. The predisposition of non-alcohol exposed subjects to initiate binge drinking is controlled by neuroimmune signaling that includes an innately activated neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signal. This signal also regulates cognitive impulsivity, a heritable trait that defines drug abuse initiation. However, the mechanism of signal activation, its function in dopaminergic (TH+ neurons within the reward circuitry implicated in drug-seeking behavior [viz. the ventral tegmental area (VTA], and its contribution to nicotine co-abuse are still poorly understood. We report that the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR α2 subunit activates the TLR4 signal in neurons, culminating in the activation (phosphorylation/nuclear translocation of cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB but not NF-kB transcription factors and the upregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. The signal is activated through α2/TLR4 interaction, as evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation, and it is present in the VTA from drug-untreated alcohol-preferring P rats. VTA infusion of neurotropic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors for α2 (pHSVsiLA2 or TLR4 (pHSVsiTLR4 but not scrambled (pHSVsiNC siRNA inhibits signal activation and both binge alcohol drinking and nicotine sensitization, suggesting that the α2-activated TLR4 signal contributes to the regulation of both alcohol and nicotine abuse.

  14. Caffeine increases the motivation to obtain non-drug reinforcers in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, A. Brianna; Gross, Skyler C.; Pavelka, Sarah A.; Hall, Melanie J.; Palmatier, Matthew I.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Caffeine is widely considered to be a reinforcer in humans, but this effect is difficult to measure in non-human animals. We hypothesized that caffeine may have dual reinforcing effects comparable to nicotine - limited primary reinforcing effects, but potent reinforcement enhancing effects. The present studies tested this hypothesis by investigating the effect of caffeine on responding for non-drug rewards. METHODS In two experiments, rats were shaped to respond on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule for sucrose solution (20% w/v; Experiment 1) or a fixed ratio 2 (FR2) schedule for a moderately reinforcing visual stimulus (VS; Experiment 2). Pretreatment with various doses of caffeine (0–50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) were administered prior to tests over successive week days (M-F). In Experiment 1, acute administration of low-moderate caffeine doses (6.25–25 mg/kg) increased responding for sucrose under the PR schedule. This effect of caffeine declined over the initial 15 test days. In Experiment 2, only acute pretreatment with 12.5 mg/kg caffeine increased responding for the visual stimulus and complete tolerance to this effect of caffeine was observed over the 15 days of testing. In follow up tests we found that abstinence periods of 4 and 8 days resulted in incomplete recovery of the enhancing effects of caffeine. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that caffeine enhances the reinforcing effects of non-drug stimuli, but that the pharmacological profile of these effects may differ from other psychomotor stimulants. PMID:22336397

  15. Caffeine's influence on gambling behavior and other types of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2018-01-01

    Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Caffeine intake over the preceding month was quantified using the Caffeine Use Questionnaire. Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between caffeine intake and demographic, gambling symptom, and neurocognitive measures were evaluated using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS). Average weekly caffeine intake in the gamblers was 1218.5mg (a figure higher than previously reported in the general population). PLS yielded an optimal model with one latent factor, which explained 14.8% of variation in demographic/clinical/cognitive measures and 32.3% of variation in caffeine intake. In this model, higher caffeine intake was significantly associated with earlier age at first gambling, higher personality-related impulsiveness, more nicotine consumption, older age, and more impulsive decision-making. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between caffeine intake, earlier age of first gambling, and certain types of impulsivity in gamblers. Providing education about healthy caffeine use may be especially valuable in gamblers. Future work should explore whether the relationship between caffeine use and gambling is due to a common predisposing factor (impulsive tendencies) or, rather, constitutes a form of self-medication in gamblers (or a means of sustaining gambling habits for longer). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco provide neuroprotection in Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease through an NRF2-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Kien; Andrews, Laurie; Krause, James; Hanak, Tyler; Lee, Daewoo; Gelb, Michael; Pallanck, Leo

    2010-04-21

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a significantly reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) among coffee and tobacco users, although it is unclear whether these correlations reflect neuroprotective/symptomatic effects of these agents or preexisting differences in the brains of tobacco and coffee users. Here, we report that coffee and tobacco, but not caffeine or nicotine, are neuroprotective in fly PD models. We further report that decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are as neuroprotective as their caffeine and nicotine-containing counterparts and that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are also evident in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease and polyglutamine disease. Finally, we report that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco require the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 and that a known Nrf2 activator in coffee, cafestol, is also able to confer neuroprotection in our fly models of PD. Our findings indicate that coffee and tobacco contain Nrf2-activating compounds that may account for the reduced risk of PD among coffee and tobacco users. These compounds represent attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention in PD and perhaps other neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Assessing caffeine as an emerging environmental concern using conventional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Greenway, S L; Farris, J L; Guerra, B

    2008-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and nicotine, have received increased scrutiny because of their detection in water bodies receiving wastewater discharge. Despite recent measurement in United States streams, caffeine's effect on freshwater organisms is not well documented. The present study measured caffeine's lethal and sublethal effects on the freshwater species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Chironomus dilutus. These organisms, which are used in standard testing or effluent monitoring, were exposed to aqueous caffeine solutions under static exposure for 48 hours and daily renewed static exposure for 7 days. Averaged responses of 48-hour acute end points indicated that C. dubia was more sensitive to caffeine exposures (LC50 = 60 mg/L) than either P. promelas (LC50 = 100 mg/L) or C. dilutus (LC50 = 1,230 mg/L). Exposure-response slopes confirmed these findings (3% mortality/mg/L for C. dubia; 0.5% mortality/mg/L for P. promelas; and 0.07% mortality/mg/L for C. dilutus). Comparative 7-day responses between C. dubia and P. promelas (LC50 = 46 and 55 mg/L, respectively) were more similar than the broad range of acute values. Sublethal effects measured for caffeine exposure included impaired C. dubia reproduction (IC50 = 44 mg/L) and inhibited P. promelas growth (IC50 = 71 mg/L). According to the results of this study, combined with earlier studies reporting environmental concentrations and product half-lives, caffeine should pose negligible risk for most aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate organisms.

  18. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Review of the Evidence and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A

    2014-09-01

    The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) has introduced new provisions for caffeine-related disorders. Caffeine Withdrawal is now an officially recognized diagnosis, and criteria for caffeine use disorder have been proposed for additional study. caffeine use disorder is intended to be characterized by cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicative of caffeine use despite significant caffeine-related problems, similar to other Substance Use Disorders. However, since nonproblematic caffeine use is so common and widespread, it may be difficult for some health professionals to accept that caffeine use can result in the same types of pathological behaviors caused by alcohol, cocaine, opiates, or other drugs of abuse. Yet there is evidence that some individuals are psychologically and physiologically dependent on caffeine, although the prevalence and severity of these problems is unknown. This article reviews the recent changes to the DSM, the concerns regarding these changes, and some potential impacts these changes could have on caffeine consumers.

  19. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  20. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI; Roskams, Tania; Oben, Jude A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. ► Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. ► Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. ► Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine – which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed – RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-α2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type (α1, β1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type (α3, α6, α7, β2 and β4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, α3, α7, β1 and ε were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-α2 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by mecamylamine. α1 and α3-nAChR mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in NASH fibrosis compared to normal livers. Conclusion: Nicotine at levels in smokers’ blood is pro-fibrogenic, through

  1. Effects of the nicotinic agonist varenicline, nicotinic antagonist r-bPiDI, and DAT inhibitor (R)-modafinil on co-use of ethanol and nicotine in female P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Sarah E; Saunders, Meredith A; Baxter, Thomas A; Nixon, Kimberly; Prendergast, Mark A; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Slack, Rachel D; Newman, Amy H; Bell, Richard L; Bardo, Michael T

    2018-05-01

    Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs. 15%, two-bottle choice), (2) nicotine alone (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, active vs. inactive lever), and (3) concurrent access to both EtOH and nicotine. Using this model, we examined the effects of (1) varenicline, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with high affinity for the α4β2* subtype; (2) r-bPiDI, a subtype-selective antagonist at α6β2* nAChRs; and (3) (R)-modafinil, an atypical inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT). In phases 1 and 2, pharmacologically relevant intake of EtOH and nicotine was achieved. In the concurrent access phase (phase 3), EtOH consumption decreased while nicotine intake increased relative to phases 1 and 2. For drug pretreatments, in the EtOH access phase (phase 1), (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased EtOH consumption, with no effect on water consumption. In the concurrent access phase, varenicline (3 mg/kg), r-bPiDI (20 mg/kg), and (R)-modafinil (100 mg/kg) decreased nicotine self-administration but did not alter EtOH consumption, water consumption, or inactive lever pressing. These results indicate that therapeutics which may be useful for smoking cessation via selective inhibition of α4β2* or α6β2* nAChRs, or DAT inhibition, may not be sufficient to treat EtOH and nicotine co-use.

  2. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  3. The Interaction of Sorbitol with Caffeine in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Brady, John W; Cesàro, Attilio

    2013-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of caffeine interacting with the sugar alcohol sorbitol. The system examined had a caffeine concentration 0.083 m and a sugar concentration 1.08 m. The trajectories of all molecules in the system were collected over a period of 80 ns and analyzed to determine whether there is any tendency for sorbitol to bind to caffeine, and if so, by what mechanism. The results show that the sorbitol molecules have an affinity for the caffeine molecules and that the binding occurred by the interaction of the aliphatic hydrophobic protons of the sugar with the caffeine face. This intermolecular association via face-to-face stacking, as suggested by simulation studies, is similar to that found for sucrose and for D-glucose, which overwhelmingly exists in the pyranose ring chair form in aqueous solution, as well as for caffeine-caffeine association. The sorbitol molecules, however, exist as relatively extended chains and are, therefore, topologically quite different from the sugars sucrose and glucose. The comparison of the average conformation of sorbitol molecules bound to caffeine with that of molecules in the free state shows a substantial similarity.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  5. Relationship of nicotine dependence, subsyndromal and pathological gambling, and other psychiatric disorders: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Desai, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-03-01

    Nicotine dependence frequently co-occurs with subsyndromal and pathological levels of gambling. The relationship of nicotine dependence, levels of gambling pathology, and other psychiatric disorders, however, is incompletely understood. To use nationally representative data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to examine the influence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence on the association between pathological gambling severities and other psychiatric disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 43,093 adults living in households and group-quarters in the United States. The main outcome measure was the co-occurrence of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and severity of gambling based on the 10 inclusionary diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. The study was conducted from 2001 to 2002. Among non-nicotine-dependent respondents, increasing gambling severity was associated with greater psychopathology for the majority of Axis I and II disorders. This pattern was not uniformly observed among nicotine-dependent subjects. Significant nicotine-by-gambling-group interactions were observed for multiple Axis I and II disorders. All significant interactions involved stronger associations between gambling and psychopathology in the non-nicotine-dependent group. In a large national sample, nicotine dependence influences the associations between gambling and multiple psychiatric disorders. Subsyndromal levels of gambling are associated with significant psychopathology. Nicotine dependence accounts for some of the elevated risks for psychopathology associated with subsyndromal and problem/pathological levels of gambling. Additional research is needed to examine specific prevention and treatment for individuals with problem/pathological gambling with and without nicotine dependence. ©Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  7. effect of nicotine administration on weight and histology of some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    However it is not certain whether this effect is produced entirely by nicotine as cigarettes contain other toxic ... nicotine treatment while weights of the heart and liver increased with 60days treatment with the appearance of .... carried out in ascending grade of alcohol. .... This study showed that chronic nicotine treatment.

  8. Histopathological and Morphometric Evaluation in the Testis and Epididymis of Adult Rats Submitted To A Recovery Period after Treatment with Anabolic Steroid, Alcohol and/or Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Ribeiro de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Frequently, reproductive toxic substances such as androgenic anabolic steroids, alcohol and nicotine are used in association by adolescents and adults, in an indiscriminate manner. This study investigated the testicular and epididymal tissue of adult rats submitted to a recovery period after treatment with anabolic steroid, alcohol and /or nicotine. Materials and Methods: The animals (n=42 were divided into three control groups simulating the drugs administration routes (CI: distilled water, oral; CII: saline solution, subcutaneous; CIII: water and saline solution and groups treated with a testosterone esters mixture (T: 7.5 mg/kg body weight - b.w., subcutaneous, alcohol (AL: 3.5 g/kg b.w. of ethanol 25%, oral, nicotine (N: 2.0 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous, and co-administration of these three substances (T/AL/N. After 15 consecutive days of treatment (once a day, the animals were kept for 30 days in recovery. At the end of this period, the testes and epididymides were collected, weighed and processed for histological and morphometric analysis by light microscope. Results: All groups treated with toxic substances presented histopathological changes in testes and epididymis after the recovery period. There was a significant decrease (p [J Interdiscip Histopathol 2017; 5(3.000: 92-98

  9. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1; Influence of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-06-01

    Dry ({approx}3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}-, or N{sub 2}O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O{sub 2}-saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage. Post-irradiation N{sub 2}O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N{sub 2}-saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N{sub 2}- and N{sub 2}O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author).

  10. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J.; Trone, Daniel W.; McGraw, Susan; Steelman, Ryan A.; Austin, Krista G.; Lieberman, Harris R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs) completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women). The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users) were coffee (65%), colas (54%), teas (40%), and energy drinks (28%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week) included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day) was higher. PMID:27735834

  11. Caffeine Use among Active Duty Navy and Marine Corps Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Knapik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 1708 service members (SMs completed the questionnaire. Overall, 87% reported using caffeinated beverages ≥1 time/week, with caffeine users consuming a mean ± standard error of 226 ± 5 mg/day (242 ± 7 mg/day for men, 183 ± 8 mg/day for women. The most commonly consumed caffeinated beverages (% users were coffee (65%, colas (54%, teas (40%, and energy drinks (28%. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that characteristics independently associated with caffeine use (≥1 time/week included older age, white race/ethnicity, higher alcohol consumption, and participating in less resistance training. Prevalence of caffeine use in these SMs was similar to that reported in civilian investigations, but daily consumption (mg/day was higher.

  12. Explaining reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption: a test of an extended social identity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; McCafferty, Stephanie

    2015-04-01

    To test the role of group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol consumption to a group identity in shaping reactions to normative information about alcohol consumption. The study had a 2 (behaviour: identity-defining/alcohol vs. non-identity defining/caffeine) × 2 (norm: low vs. heavy consumption) between-subjects factorial design. Group identification and personal attitudes towards alcohol/caffeine consumption were included as measured predictors. Participants were 83 undergraduate students (44 female, 38 male, one unspecified) at a University in Scotland. Predictor and outcome variables included questionnaire measures of group (student) identification, personal attitudes to alcohol/caffeine consumption, the perceived importance of alcohol/caffeine consumption to group identity, and behavioral intentions to consume alcohol/caffeine. Personal attitude and group identification moderated the impact of norm information on consumption intentions, but only for alcohol consumption, and not caffeine consumption. For alcohol, norm information did affect intended consumption (ps ≤ .034), with the crucial exception of high identifiers who had favourable personal attitudes towards alcohol consumption. Instead, these individuals resist norm information (ps = .458 and .174), showing no decrease in intentions in the face of norm information that emphasised relatively 'low' levels of consumption. The impact of norm information on alcohol consumption intentions depends on group-based factors such as group identification and the perceived importance of alcohol to a group identity. When both of these factors are high, and an individual also personally favours the behaviour, the potential for norm-based interventions to fail is increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PACAP Protects Against Ethanol and Nicotine Toxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells: Implications for Drinking-Smoking Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavalan, Sridharan; Getachew, Bruk; Manaye, Kebreten F; Khundmiri, Syed J; Csoka, Antonei B; McKinley, Raechel; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Tizabi, Yousef

    2017-07-01

    The detrimental effects of heavy drinking and smoking are multiplied when the two are combined. Treatment modalities for each and especially for the combination are very limited. Although in low concentration, alcohol and nicotine, each may have beneficial effects including neuroprotection, their combination, instead of providing additive protection, may actually lead to toxicity in cell cultures. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous 38 amino-acid peptide with demonstrated protection against neuronal injury, trauma as well as various endogenous and exogenous toxic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PACAP may also protect against toxicity induced by high alcohol, high nicotine, or the combination of low alcohol and nicotine concentrations, and if so, whether this effect was mediated via PAC1 receptor. We used the neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and applied various colorimetric assays for determination of cell viability or toxicity. Results indicate that PACAP blocks toxicity induced by high alcohol and high nicotine as well as their combination at low concentrations. The effects of PACAP in turn were blocked by the PACAP antagonist (PACAP 6-38), indicating involvement of the PACAP receptor PAC1 and possibly vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in PACAP's protection. Moreover, no combined toxicity of low alcohol and low nicotine could be detected in calcium-free medium. These findings suggest possible beneficial effects of PACAP in preventing alcohol and nicotine toxicity and that calcium contributes to the damage induced by combination of low alcohol and nicotine in SH-SY5Y cells.

  14. Decaffeinated Coffee and Nicotine-Free Tobacco Provide Neuroprotection in Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease through an NRF2-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Kien; Andrews, Laurie; Krause, James; Hanak, Tyler; Lee, Daewoo; Gelb, Michael; Pallanck, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a significantly reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) among coffee and tobacco users, although it is unclear whether these correlations reflect neuroprotective/symptomatic effects of these agents or preexisting differences in the brains of tobacco and coffee users. Here, we report that coffee and tobacco, but not caffeine or nicotine, are neuroprotective in fly PD models. We further report that decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are as neur...

  15. Caffeine and risk of Parkinson disease in a large cohort of men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Shah, Roma; Gapstur, Susan; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Caffeine consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson disease. The association is strong and consistent in men, but uncertain in women, possibly because of an interaction with hormone replacement therapy. We sought to confirm these findings using data on Parkinson disease incidence in the CPS II Nutrition Cohort, a large prospective study of men and women. Methods We conducted a prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of PD within the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Intakes of coffee and other sources of caffeine were assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 317; 197 men and 120 women) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results After adjustment for age, smoking and alcohol intake, high caffeine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of PD. The relative risk comparing the 5th to the 1st quintile of caffeine intake was 0.43 (CI: 0.26, 0.71, p-trend = coffee was not associated with PD risk. Conclusion Findings from this large prospective study of men and women are consistent with a protective effect of caffeine intake on PD incidence, with an attenuating influence of hormone replacement therapy in women. PMID:22927157

  16. Caffeine and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large cohort of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; McCullough, Marjorie L; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Shah, Roma; Gapstur, Susan; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The association is strong and consistent in men, but uncertain in women, possibly because of an interaction with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We sought to confirm these findings using data on PD incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS II-Nutrition), a large, prospective study of men and women. We conducted a prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of PD within the CPS II Nutrition Cohort. Intakes of coffee and other sources of caffeine were assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 317; 197 men and 120 women) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol intake, high caffeine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of PD. The RR comparing the 5th to the 1st quintile of caffeine intake was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26, 0.71; P trend = coffee was not associated with PD risk. Findings from this large, prospective study of men and women are consistent with a protective effect of caffeine intake on PD incidence, with an attenuating influence of HRT in women. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption.

  18. Caffeine as a model drug of dependence: recent developments in understanding caffeine withdrawal, the caffeine dependence syndrome, and caffeine negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Chausmer, A L

    2000-11-01

    Caffeine is an excellent model compound for understanding drugs of abuse/dependence. The results of self-administration and choice studies in humans clearly demonstrate the reinforcing effects of low and moderate doses of caffeine. Caffeine reinforcement has been demonstrated in about 45% of normal subjects with histories of moderate and heavy caffeine use. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that caffeine physical dependence potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine through the mechanism of withdrawal symptom avoidance. Tolerance to the subjective and sleep-disrupting effects of caffeine in humans has been demonstrated. Physical dependence as reflected in a withdrawal syndrome in humans has been repeatedly demonstrated in adults and recently demonstrated in children. Withdrawal severity is an increasing function of caffeine maintenance dose, with withdrawal occurring at doses as low as 100 mg per day. Increased cerebral blood flow may be the physiological mechanism for caffeine withdrawal headache. Case studies in adults and adolescents clearly demonstrate that some individuals meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for a substance dependence syndrome on caffeine, including feeling compelled to continue caffeine use despite desires and recommendations to the contrary. Survey data suggest that 9% to 30% percent of caffeine consumers may be caffeine dependent according to DSM-IV criteria.

  19. Gene expression signatures affected by ethanol and/or nicotine in normal human normal oral keratinocytes (NHOKs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that nicotine/alcohol alters epigenetic control and leads to abrogated DNA methylation and histone modifications, which could subsequently perturb transcriptional regulation critically important in cellular transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanisms of nicotine/alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations and their mechanistic roles in transcriptional regulation in human adult stem cells. We hypothesized that nicotine/alcohol induces deregulation of epigenetic machinery and leads to epigenetic alterations, which subsequently affect transcriptional regulation in oral epithelial stem cells. As an initiating step we have profiled transcriptomic alterations induced by the combinatory administration of EtOH and nicotine in primary normal human oral keratinocytes. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57634. Our data provide comprehensive transcriptomic map describing molecular changes induced by EtOH and nicotine on normal human oral keratinocytes.

  20. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Initiated in Adolescence and Unpaired to Behavioral Context Fails to Enhance Sweetened Ethanol Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aric C. Madayag

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine use in adolescence is pervasive in the United States and, according to the Gateway Hypothesis, may lead to progression towards other addictive substances. Given the prevalence of nicotine and ethanol comorbidity, it is difficult to ascertain if nicotine is a gateway drug for ethanol. Our study investigated the relationship between adolescent exposure to nicotine and whether this exposure alters subsequent alcohol seeking behavior. We hypothesized that rats exposed to nicotine beginning in adolescence would exhibit greater alcohol seeking behavior than non-exposed siblings. To test our hypothesis, beginning at P28, female rats were initially exposed to once daily nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, SC or saline for 5 days. Following these five initial injections, animals were trained to nose-poke for sucrose reinforcement (10%, w/v, gradually increasing to sweetened ethanol (10% sucrose; 10% ethanol, w/v on an FR5 reinforcement schedule. Nicotine injections were administered after the behavioral sessions to minimize acute effects of nicotine on operant self-administration. We measured the effects of nicotine exposure on the following aspects of ethanol seeking: self-administration, naltrexone (NTX-induced decreases, habit-directed behavior, motivation, extinction and reinstatement. Nicotine exposure did not alter self-administration or the effectiveness of NTX to reduce alcohol seeking. Nicotine exposure blocked habit-directed ethanol seeking. Finally, nicotine did not alter extinction learning or cue-induced reinstatement to sweetened ethanol seeking. Our findings suggest that nicotine exposure outside the behavioral context does not escalate ethanol seeking. Further, the Gateway Hypothesis likely applies to scenarios in which nicotine is either self-administered or physiologically active during the behavioral session.

  1. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Alcohol and Anesthetic Drugs Is Augmented by Co-Exposure to Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Creeley

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs used in pediatric and obstetric medicine and several drugs, including alcohol, that are abused by pregnant women, trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain of several animal species, including non-human primates. Caffeine (CAF is often administered to premature infants to stimulate respiration, and these infants are also exposed simultaneously to anesthetic drugs for procedural sedation and/or surgical procedures. Pregnant women who abuse alcohol or other apoptogenic drugs also may heavily consume CAF. We administered CAF to infant mice alone or in combination with alcohol, phencyclidine, diazepam, midazolam, ketamine, or isoflurane, which are drugs of abuse and/or drugs frequently used in pediatric medicine, and found that CAF weakly triggers neuroapoptosis by itself and markedly potentiates the neuroapoptogenic action of each of these other drugs. Exposure of infant mice to CAF + phencyclidine resulted in long-term impairment in behavioral domains relevant to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas exposure to CAF + diazepam resulted in long-term learning/memory impairment. At doses used in these experiments, these behavioral impairments either did not occur or were substantially less pronounced in mice exposed to CAF alone or to phencyclidine or diazepam alone. CAF currently enjoys the reputation of being highly beneficial and safe for use in neonatal medicine. Our data suggest the need to consider whether CAF may have harmful as well as beneficial effects on the developing brain, and the need for research aimed at understanding the full advantage of its beneficial effects while avoiding its potentially harmful effects.

  2. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effects of chronic administration of caffeine and stress on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenuzzo, Leticia Ferreira; Noschang, Cristie; von Pozzer Toigo, Eduardo; Fachin, Andrelisa; Vendite, Deusa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2008-10-20

    Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight in male and female rats. Wistar rats (both males and females) were divided into 3 groups: control (receiving water), caffeine 0.3 g/L and caffeine 1.0 g/L (in the drinking water). These groups were subdivided into non-stressed and stressed (repeated-restraint stress for 40 days). During the entire treatment, chow consumption was monitored and rats were weighed monthly. Afterwards, feeding behavior was evaluated during 3-min trials in food-deprived and ad libitum fed animals and also in repeated exposures, using palatable food (Froot Loops and Cheetos). Chronic administration of caffeine did not affect rat chow consumption or body weight gain, but diminished the consumption of both salty (Cheetos) and sweet (Froot Loops) palatable food. In the repeated trial tests, stress diminished savory snack consumption in the later exposures [I.S. Racotta, J. Leblanc, D. Richard The effect of caffeine on food intake in rats: involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and the sympatho-adrenal system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994, 48:887-892; S.D. Comer, M. Haney, R.W. Foltin, M.W. Fischman Effects of caffeine withdrawal on humans living in a residential laboratory. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997, 5:399-403; A. Jessen, B. Buemann, S. Toubro, I.M. Skovgaard, A. Astrup The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine. Diab Ob Metab. 2005, 7:327-333; J.M. Carney Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1982, 75:451-454] and caffeine diminished consumption of both palatable foods (savory and sweet) during the early and later exposures. Most responses to caffeine were stronger

  4. Ecological momentary assessment of daily discrimination experiences and nicotine, alcohol, and drug use among sexual and gender minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Szalda-Petree, Allen; Cochran, Bryan N

    2017-12-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals experience elevated rates of minority stress, which has been linked to higher rates of nicotine and substance use. Research on this disparity to date is largely predicated on methodology that is insensitive to within day SGM-based discrimination experiences, or their relation to momentary nicotine and substance use risk. We address this knowledge gap in the current study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty SGM individuals, between 18 and 45 years of age, were recruited from an inland northwestern university, regardless of their nicotine or substance use history, and invited to participate in an EMA study. Each were prompted to provide data, six times daily (between 10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.) for 14 days, regarding SGM-based discrimination, other forms of mistreatment, and nicotine, drug, and alcohol use since their last prompt. Discrimination experiences that occurred since individuals' last measurement prompt were associated with greater odds of nicotine and substance use during the same measurement window. Substance use was also more likely to occur in relation to discrimination reported two measurements prior in lagged models. Relative to other forms of mistreatment, discrimination effects were consistently larger in magnitude and became stronger throughout the day/evening. This study adds to existing minority stress research by highlighting the both immediate and delayed correlates of daily SGM-based discrimination experiences. These results also contribute to our understanding of daily stress processes and provide insight into ways we might mitigate these effects using real-time monitoring and intervention technology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Factors associated with consumption of caffeinated-beverage among Siriraj pre-clinical year medical students, A 2-year consecutive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandejpong, Denla; Paisansudhi, Supalerg; Udompunthurak, Suthipol

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies showed that significant proportion of medical students consumed caffeine to face sleep-deprived daily schedules. To monitor the trend of caffeinated-beverage consumption among Siriraj medical students as well as to study possible factors associated with caffeine dependency. The questionnaire was distributed to a class of medical students for 2 consecutive years. Statistical analysis was performed for descriptive purpose. 269 (89.7%) and 225 (74.5%) questionnaires were returned in year 1 and year 2, respectively 16.2% refused to take caffeine-beverages totally. 13% of those who consumed caffeinated-beverages developed caffeine dependence. From logistical analysis, positive history of smoking-family member and female sex were the only other two factors associated with caffeine dependency (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.04-4.61 and 1.76, 95% CI 1.01-3.07, respectively). Other investigated factors included: exercise (p = 0.08); sleep hours (p = 0.24); reading beverage labels (p = 0.87); alcohol consumption (p = 0.59); class performance (p = 0.87); family member coffee-drinking habits (p = 0.66);family member alcohol-drinking habits (p = 0.18); and family income (p = 0.06). Caffeinated-beverage consumption was common among Siriraj medical students. No significant change was detected in the pattern of caffeinated-beverage consumption within the study period. Positive history of smoking family members and female sex were found as the only other two factors correlated with caffeine dependency.

  6. Association of caffeine intake and histological features of chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Charlotte E; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Zafrani, Elie-Serge; Medkour, Fatiha; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Mallat, Ariane; Hézode, Christophe

    2011-06-01

    The severity of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is modulated by host and environmental factors. Several reports suggest that caffeine intake exerts hepatoprotective effects in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of caffeine consumption on activity grade and fibrosis stage in patients with CHC. A total of 238 treatment-naïve patients with histologically-proven CHC were included in the study. Demographic, epidemiological, environmental, virological, and metabolic data were collected, including daily consumption of alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and caffeine during the six months preceding liver biopsy. Daily caffeine consumption was estimated as the sum of mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, tea, and caffeine-containing sodas. Histological activity grade and fibrosis stage were scored according to Metavir. Patients (154 men, 84 women, mean age: 45±11 years) were categorized according to caffeine consumption quartiles: group 1 (678 mg/day, n=60). There was a significant inverse relationship between activity grade and daily caffeine consumption: activity grade>A2 was present in 78%, 61%, 52%, and 48% of patients in group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (pA2 (OR=0.32 (0.12-0.85). Caffeine intake showed no relation with fibrosis stage. Caffeine consumption greater than 408 mg/day (3 cups or more) is associated with reduced histological activity in patients with CHC. These findings support potential hepatoprotective properties of caffeine in chronic liver diseases. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential responsiveness to caffeine and perceived effects of caffeine in moderate and high regular caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, A S; Higgs, S; Terry, P

    2007-03-01

    Individual differences in responsiveness to caffeine occur even within a caffeine-consuming population, but the factors that mediate differential responsiveness remain unclear. To compare caffeine's effects on performance and mood in a group of high vs moderate consumers of caffeine and to examine the potential role of subjective awareness of the effects of caffeine in mediating any differential responsiveness. Two groups of regular caffeine consumers (200 mg/day) attended two sessions at which mood and cognitive functions were measured before and 30 min after consumption of 400-mg caffeine or placebo in a capsule. Cognitive tests included visual information processing, match-to-sample visual search (MTS) and simple and choice reaction times. Post-session questionnaires asked participants to describe any perceived effect of capsule consumption. High consumers, but not moderate consumers, demonstrated significantly faster simple and choice reaction times after caffeine relative to placebo. These effects were not attributable to obvious group differences in withdrawal or tolerance because there were no group differences in baseline mood or in reports of negative affect after caffeine. Instead, the high consumers were more likely to report experiencing positive effects of caffeine, whereas the moderate consumers were more likely to report no effect. The sensitivity of caffeine consumers to the mood- and performance-enhancing effects of caffeine is related to their levels of habitual intake. High caffeine consumers are more likely than moderate consumers to perceive broadly positive effects of caffeine, and this may contribute to their levels of use.

  8. Mechanisms of the psychostimulant effects of caffeine: Implications for substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychostimulant properties of caffeine are reviewed and compared with those of prototypical psychostimulants, able to cause substance use disorders (SUD). Caffeine produces psychomotor activating, reinforcing and arousing effects, which depend on its ability to disinhibit the brake that endogenous adenosine imposes on the ascending dopamine and arousal systems. Objectives A model that considers the striatal adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromer as a key modulator of dopamine-dependent striatal functions (reward-oriented behavior and learning of stimulus-reward and reward-response associations) is introduced, which should explain most of the psychomotor and reinforcing effects of caffeine. Highlights The model can explain the caffeine-induced rotational behavior in rats with unilateral striatal dopamine denervation and the ability of caffeine to reverse the adipsic-aphagic syndrome in dopamine-deficient rodents. The model can also explain the weaker reinforcing effects and low abuse liability of caffeine, compared with prototypical psychostimulants. Finally the model can explain the actual major societal dangers of caffeine: the ability of caffeine to potentiate the addictive and toxic effects of drugs of abuse, with the particularly alarming associations of caffeine (as adulterant) with cocaine, amphetamine derivatives and synthetic cathinones and energy drinks with alcohol; and the higher sensitivity of children and adolescents to the psychostimulants effects of caffeine and its possible increase in the vulnerability to develop SUD. Conclusions The striatal A2A-D2 receptor heteromer constitutes an unequivocal main pharmacological target of caffeine and provides the main mechanisms by which caffeine potentiates the acute and long-term effects of prototypical psychostimulants. PMID:26786412

  9. Tick Tock: Your Body Clocks: Understanding Your Daily Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have trouble falling or staying asleep during daylight hours after work. Studies show that shift workers have increased risk ... day of the week. Sleep in a dark, quiet, and comfortable place. Avoid heavy meals two to three hours before bedtime. Avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol late ...

  10. Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is caffeine? Caffeine is a bitter substance that occurs naturally in more than 60 plants including Coffee beans Tea leaves Kola nuts, ... chocolate products There is also synthetic (man-made) caffeine, which is added to some medicines, foods, and ...

  11. The effects of nicotine on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversions in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Jennifer A; Busse, Gregory D; Roma, Peter G; Chen, Scott A; Barr, Christina S; Riley, Anthony L

    2008-04-01

    Overall drug acceptability is thought to be a function of the balance between its rewarding and aversive effects, the latter of which is reportedly affected by polydrug use. Given that nicotine and alcohol are commonly co-used, the present experiments sought to assess nicotine's impact on ethanol's aversive effects within a conditioned taste aversion design. Experiment 1 examined various doses of nicotine (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 mg/kg) to determine a behaviorally active dose, and experiment 2 examined various doses of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg) to determine a dose that produced intermediate aversions. Experiment 3 then examined the aversive effects of nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) and ethanol (1.0 g/kg) alone and in combination. Additionally, nicotine's effects on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and ethanol-induced hypothermia were examined. Nicotine and ethanol combined produced aversions significantly greater than those produced by either drug alone or the summed aversive effects of the individual compounds. These effects were unrelated to changes in BAC, but nicotine and ethanol combined produced a prolonged hypothermic effect which may contribute to the increased aversions induced by the combination. These data demonstrate that nicotine may interact with ethanol, increasing ethanol's aversive effects. Although the rewarding effects of concurrently administered nicotine and ethanol were not assessed, these data do indicate that the reported high incidence of nicotine and ethanol co-use is unlikely due to reductions in the aversiveness of ethanol with concurrently administered nicotine. It is more likely attributable to nicotine-related changes in ethanol's rewarding effects.

  12. Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E

    2014-09-01

    Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stimulus properties of nicotine, amphetamine, and chlordiazepoxide as positive features in a pavlovian appetitive discrimination task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmatier, Matthew I; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Metschke, Dawn M; Bevins, Rick A

    2005-04-01

    Recent experiments from our laboratory have demonstrated that drug states can signal when environmental cues will be followed by rewarding outcomes (ie Pavlovian conditioning). However, little is known about the generality of this approach and whether it can be used for studying the pharmacological properties of drug states. Accordingly, the present experiments tested the pharmacological specificity of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg), amphetamine (1 mg/kg), and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5 mg/kg) in this Pavlovian drug discrimination procedure. Following drug administration, presentation of a conditional stimulus (CS) was followed by brief access to sucrose. When saline was administered, the same CS was presented but sucrose was withheld. In substitution tests, rats in each condition received varying doses of all training drugs and caffeine. Anticipatory food seeking developed during the CS on drug sessions but not on saline sessions for all drug features (ie drug state-specific conditional response (CR)). In generalization tests, this CR decreased as a function of decreases in the training dose. Median effective doses (ED50s) were calculated for nicotine (0.054 mg/kg), amphetamine (0.26 mg/kg), and CDP (2.48 mg/kg). No compound tested substituted for the CDP training drug. Partial substitution was evident between nicotine and amphetamine; CDP did not substitute for either of these drug features. Caffeine fully substituted for nicotine (ED50 = 15.45 mg/kg) and amphetamine (ED50 = 3.70 mg/kg), but not for CDP. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that drug states can occasion appetitive Pavlovian CRs in a pharmacologically specific manner.

  14. Caffein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Charlotte Buchard; Jensen, Martin Bach; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2005-01-01

    /kg) can increase the endurance of athletes engaged in running, bicycling, swimming and other endurance sports. Caffeine is used both in training and in competitions, and the International Olympic Commitée (IOC) has included caffeine as a drug used for doping. There are several theories about caffeine...

  15. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ductal adenocarcinoma induced by DMBA in mice: effects of alcohol and caffeine Neoplasia pancreática intraepithelial e adenocarcinoma ductal induzidos pelo DMBA em camundongos: efeitos do álcool e da cafeína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Wendt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alcohol and caffeine in a pancreatic carcinogenesis mouse model induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA, according to the PanIN classification system. METHODS: 120 male, Mus musculus, CF-1 mice were divided into four groups. Animals received either water or caffeine or alcohol or alcohol + caffeine in their drinking water. In all animals, 1 mg of DMBA was implanted into the head of the pancreas. After 30 days, euthanasia was performed; excised pancreata were then fixed in formalin, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and categorized as follows: normal ducts, reactive hyperplasia, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 or adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: PanIN lesions were verified in all groups. Adenocarcinoma was detected in 15% of animals in the caffeine group, 16.6% in the water group, 23.8% in the alcohol + caffeine group and 52.9% in the alcohol group (POBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do álcool e da cafeína na carcinogênese pancreática induzida pelo 7,12-dimetilbenzantraceno (DMBA em camundongos, descrevendo as lesões de acordo com a classificação das neoplasias pacreáticas intraepiteliais (PanIN. MÉTODOS: 120 camundogos machos, Mus musculus, CF-1 foram divididos em quatro grupos. Animais receberam água ou cafeína ou álcool ou álcool + cafeína para beber. Em todos animais, 1 mg de DMBA foi implantado na cabeça do pâncreas. Após 30 dias, eutanásia foi realizada, o pâncreas foi removido, fixado em formalina e corado com hematoxilina e eosina sendo classificado em: ductos normais, hiperplasia reativa, PanIN-1A, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, PanIN-3 ou adenocarcinoma. RESULTADOS: Neoplasias pancreáticas intraepiteliais foram encontradas em todos grupos. Adenocarcinoma foi detectado em 15% dos animais do grupo cafeína, 16,6% do grupo água, 23,8% do grupo álcool + cafeína e 52,9% do grupo álcool (P<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese pancreática em camundongos utilizando DMBA induz

  16. Electrospun polyvinyl-alcohol nanofibers as oral fast-dissolving delivery system of caffeine and riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    that PVA/caffeine and PVA/riboflavin nanofibrous mats had almost the same dissolution time (about 1.5 s) and wetting time (about 4.5 s). The release measurements indicated that drugs can be released in a burst manner (caffeine to an extent of 100% and riboflavin to an extent of 40% within 60 s) from...

  17. [Caffeine dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2010-08-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. The potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Although in recent studies, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence. It is valuable for psychiatrists and primary care physicians to recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical syndrome, since some people are distressed by their caffeine use and feel they can not control or stop their problematic use.

  18. Make Caffeine Visible: a Fluorescent Caffeine “Traffic Light” Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Zhai, Duanting; Er, Jun Cheng; Zhang, Liyun; Kale, Anup Atul; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine has attracted abundant attention due to its extensive existence in beverages and medicines. However, to detect it sensitively and conveniently remains a challenge, especially in resource-limited regions. Here we report a novel aqueous phase fluorescent caffeine sensor named Caffeine Orange which exhibits 250-fold fluorescence enhancement upon caffeine activation and high selectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding contribute to their interactions while dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrate the change of Caffeine Orange ambient environment induces its fluorescence emission. To utilize this probe in real life, we developed a non-toxic caffeine detection kit and tested it for caffeine quantification in various beverages. Naked-eye sensing of various caffeine concentrations was possible based on color changes upon irradiation with a laser pointer. Lastly, we performed the whole system on a microfluidic device to make caffeine detection quick, sensitive and automated.

  19. Reassessment of Self-Reported Behavioral Health Habits and Other Issues Among Distributed Common Ground System Intelligence Operators and Non-Combatant Support Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-28

    9 4.2 Sleep and Physical Exercise Health Behaviors...excess caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol use, and a deficit in physical fitness activity can further contribute to reduction in overall health . Since...to address key physical and psychological health concerns and to promote resiliency among their designated remote warrior workforces. The purpose

  20. Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Giles, Grace E; Marriott, Bernadette P; Judelson, Daniel A; Glickman, Ellen L; Geiselman, Paula J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2018-04-10

    Caffeine intake in a convenience sample of U.S. college students (N = 1248) was surveyed at five geographically-dispersed United States (U.S.) universities. Intake from coffee, tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, gums, and medications was assessed. Associations between caffeine intake and demographic variables including sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, general health, exercise, weight variables and tobacco use were examined. Reasons for use of caffeine-containing products were assessed. Caffeine, in any form, was consumed by 92% of students in the past year. Mean daily caffeine consumption for all students, including non-consumers, was 159 mg/d with a mean intake of 173 mg/d among caffeine users. Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake in male (120 mg/d) and female (111 mg/d) consumers. Male and female students consumed 53 vs. 30 mg/d of caffeine in energy drinks, respectively, and 28% consumed energy drinks with alcohol on at least one occasion. Students provided multiple reasons for caffeine use including: to feel awake (79%); enjoy the taste (68%); the social aspects of consumption (39%); improve concentration (31%); increase physical energy (27%); improve mood (18%); and alleviate stress (9%). As in the general U.S. population, coffee is the primary source of caffeine intake among the college students surveyed. Energy drinks provide less than half of total daily caffeine intake but more than among the general population. Students, especially women, consume somewhat more caffeine than the general population of individuals aged 19-30 y but less than individuals aged 31-50 y. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee A Moore

    Full Text Available Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  2. Substance Use and Depression Symptomatology: Measurement Invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) among Non-Users and Frequent-Users of Alcohol, Nicotine and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashlee A; Neale, Michael C; Silberg, Judy L; Verhulst, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a highly heterogeneous condition, and identifying how symptoms present in various groups may greatly increase our understanding of its etiology. Importantly, Major Depressive Disorder is strongly linked with Substance Use Disorders, which may ameliorate or exacerbate specific depression symptoms. It is therefore quite plausible that depression may present with different symptom profiles depending on an individual's substance use status. Given these observations, it is important to examine the underlying construct of depression in groups of substance users compared to non-users. In this study we use a non-clinical sample to examine the measurement structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) in non-users and frequent-users of various substances. Specifically, measurement invariance was examined across those who do vs. do not use alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Results indicate strict factorial invariance across non-users and frequent-users of alcohol and cannabis, and metric invariance across non-users and frequent-users of nicotine. This implies that the factor structure of the BDI-II is similar across all substance use groups.

  3. Interindividual Differences in Caffeine Metabolism and Factors Driving Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals adjust their caffeine intake according to the objective and subjective effects induced by the methylxanthine. However, to reach the desired effects, the quantity of caffeine consumed varies largely among individuals. It has been known for decades that the metabolism, clearance, and pharmacokinetics of caffeine is affected by many factors such as age, sex and hormones, liver disease, obesity, smoking, and diet. Caffeine also interacts with many medications. All these factors will be reviewed in the present document and discussed in light of the most recent data concerning the genetic variability affecting caffeine levels and effects at the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic levels that both critically drive the level of caffeine consumption. The pharmacokinetics of caffeine are highly variable among individuals due to a polymorphism at the level of the CYP1A2 isoform of cytochrome P450, which metabolizes 95% of the caffeine ingested. Moreover there is a polymorphism at the level of another critical enzyme, N -acetyltransferase 2. At the pharmacodynamic level, there are several polymorphisms at the main brain target of caffeine, the adenosine A2A receptor or ADORA2. Genetic studies, including genome-wide association studies, identified several loci critically involved in caffeine consumption and its consequences on sleep, anxiety, and potentially in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. We start reaching a better picture on how a multiplicity of biologic mechanisms seems to drive the levels of caffeine consumption, although much more knowledge is still required to understand caffeine consumption and effects on body functions. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  5. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  6. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  7. Effects of caffeine on performance and mood depend on the level of caffeine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Ripley, Tamzin; Davies, Laura H; Rusted, Jennifer M; Rogers, Peter J

    2002-11-01

    Most studies of the effects of caffeine on performance have used regular caffeine consumers who are deprived at test. Thus the reported effects of caffeine could be explained through reversal of caffeine withdrawal. To test how preloading deprived caffeine consumers with 0, 1 or 2 mg/kg caffeine altered the subsequent ability of caffeine to modify mood and performance. Thirty moderate caffeine consumers were given a drink containing 0, 1 or 2 mg/kg caffeine at breakfast followed 60 min later by a second drink containing either 0 or 1 mg/kg caffeine. Performance on a measure of sustained attention and mood were measured before and after each drink. Administration of both 1 and 2 mg/kg caffeine at breakfast decreased reaction time and 1 mg/kg caffeine also increased performance accuracy on the sustained attention (RVIP) task relative to placebo. Both breakfast doses of caffeine also improved rated mental alertness. Similarly, 1 mg/kg caffeine administered 60 min after breakfast decreased reaction time and increased rated mental alertness in the group who had not been given caffeine at breakfast. However, this second dose of caffeine had no effect on subsequent performance or mood in the two groups who had received caffeine at breakfast. Caffeine reliably improved performance on a sustained attention task, and increased rated mental alertness, in moderate caffeine consumers who were tested when caffeine-deprived. However, caffeine had no such effects when consumers were no longer caffeine deprived. These data are consistent with the view that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance.

  8. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  9. A comparison of the effects of caffeine following abstinence and normal caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Laurienti, Paul J

    2009-12-01

    Caffeine typically produces positive effects on mood and performance. However, tolerance may develop following habitual use, and abrupt cessation can result in withdrawal symptoms, such as fatigue. This study investigated whether caffeine has a greater stimulant effect in a withdrawn state compared to a normal caffeinated state, among moderate daily caffeine consumers. Using a within-subjects design, 17 caffeine consumers (mean +/- sd = 375 +/- 101 mg/day) ingested placebo or caffeine (250 mg) following 30-h of caffeine abstention or normal dietary caffeine use on four separate days. Self-reported mood and performance on choice reaction time, selective attention, and memory tasks were measured. Caffeine had a greater effect on mood and choice reaction time in the abstained state than in the normal caffeinated state, but caffeine improved selective attention and memory in both states. Although improvements in mood and reaction time may best explained as relief from withdrawal symptoms, other performance measures showed no evidence of withdrawal and were equally sensitive to an acute dose of caffeine in the normal caffeinated state.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine, providing advice on caffeine intakes, from all dietary sources that do not give rise to concerns about adverse health...... not give rise to safety concerns. The same amount does not give rise to safety concerns when consumed .../L of caffeine, taurine and d-glucurono-γ-lactone, respectively), as well as alcohol at doses up to about 0.65 g/kg bw, would not affect the safety of single doses of caffeine up to 200 mg. Habitual caffeine consumption up to 400 mg per day does not give rise to safety concerns for non-pregnant adults. Habitual...

  11. The effects of alcohol-containing e-cigarettes on young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gerald W; Jatlow, Peter I; Coffman, Marcedes; Nadim, Haleh; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The liquids (e-liquids) used in an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) contain myriad chemicals without adequate human inhalation safety data. Furthermore, the absence of e-liquid labeling requirements poses a formidable challenge to understanding how e-liquid constituents may promote nicotine addiction and/or have independent or synergistic biological effects when combined with nicotine. Ethyl alcohol is such a constituent, but has received little scientific interest in this context. Using a randomized, double blind, crossover design, acute changes in subjective drug effects, motor performance and biochemical measures of alcohol and nicotine intake were evaluated after directed and ad lib puffing from two commercially available e-liquids containing nicotine (8 mg/ml), vanilla flavor and either 23.5% (high) or 0.4% (trace) alcohol. While no differences in subjective drug effects were observed between alcohol conditions, performance on the Purdue Pegboard Dexterity Test (PPDT) improved under the trace, but not under the 23.5% alcohol condition. Although plasma alcohol levels remained undetectable during testing, urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG), an alcohol metabolite, became measurable in three participants after puffing from the 23.5% alcohol e-cigarette. Brief use of a widely available type of e-cigarette containing an e-liquid purchased from an internet vendor can negatively impact psychomotor performance and in some instances, produce detectable levels of a urine alcohol metabolite. Given the widespread and unregulated use of e-cigarettes, especially by youth and other vulnerable populations, further studies are needed to evaluate both the acute safety and long-term health risks of using alcohol-containing e-cigarettes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Comparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learning, and Salivary Paraxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Fang, Wendy B; Ferré, Sergi; Moeller, F Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtained on measures of cardiovascular effects, subjective drug effects (ARCI, VAS, DEQ), and a probabilistic reward-learning task sensitive to dopamine modulation. Levels of salivary caffeine and the primary caffeine metabolite paraxanthine were obtained on placebo and caffeine dosing days. Cardiovascular results revealed main effects of dose for diastolic blood pressure and heart rate; follow up tests showed that controls were most sensitive to 300 mg caffeine and 20 mg amphetamine; cocaine-dependent subjects were sensitive only to 300 mg caffeine. Subjective effects results revealed dose × time and dose × group interactions on the ARCI A, ARCI LSD, and VAS 'elated' scales; follow up tests did not show systematic differences between groups with regard to caffeine or d-amphetamine. Large between-group differences in salivary paraxanthine (but not salivary caffeine) levels were obtained under both caffeine doses. The cocaine-dependent group expressed significantly higher paraxanthine levels than controls under 150 mg and 3-4 fold greater levels under 300 mg at 90 min and 150 min post caffeine dose. However, these differences also covaried with cigarette smoking status (not balanced between groups), and nicotine smoking is known to alter caffeine/paraxanthine metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes. These preliminary data raise the possibility that adenosine antagonists may affect cocaine-dependent and non-dependent subjects differently. In conjunction with previous preclinical and

  13. Biodegradation of Caffeine by Trichosporon asahii Isolated from Caffeine Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    LAKSHMI V.; NILANJANA DAS

    2011-01-01

    Studies were carried out on caffeine degradation using Trichosporon asahii, a yeast species isolated from caffeine contaminated soil. There was 100 % degradation of caffeine at 54 h by the yeast cells acclimated to the medium containing caffeine and sucrose both. Experiments with T. asahii growing on caffeine in the presenceof 1 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system, resulted inhibition of biomass production relative to positive control implicating ...

  14. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-02-01

    Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = -0.15; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race.

  15. Caffeine dependence in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Carroll, Marilyn E; Thuras, Paul D; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Roth, Megan E

    2002-03-01

    This study identifies and characterizes symptoms of caffeine dependence in adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who consumed caffeine daily and had some features of caffeine dependence on telephone screen were scheduled for outpatient evaluation. Evaluation included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV-Youth Version (DISC-IV) and modified DISC-IV questions that assessed caffeine dependence based on DSM-IV substance dependence criteria. Of 36 subjects, 41.7% (n=15) reported tolerance to caffeine, 77.8% (n=28) described withdrawal symptoms after cessation or reduction of caffeine intake, 38.9% (n=14) reported desire or unsuccessful attempts to control use, and 16.7% (n=6) endorsed use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems associated with caffeine. There was no significant difference in the amount of caffeine consumed daily by caffeine dependent versus non-dependent teenagers. These findings are important due to the vast number of adolescents who drink caffeinated beverages.

  16. Caffeine controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Samuel J; Travers, Colm P; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus. The lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment noted at 18-21 months was not statistically different at later timepoints; however, infants in the caffeine group had lower rates of motor impairment at 11-year follow-up. The time of caffeine therapy initiation is now substantially earlier, and doses used are sometimes higher that previously used, but there are limited data to support these practices. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) remains one of the pillars of neonatal care, although more evidence to support dosing and timing of initiation and discontinuation are needed.

  17. Caffeine and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluska, Scott A

    2003-08-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser degree it also enhances short-term, high-intensity athletic performance. Caffeine improves concentration, reduces fatigue, and enhances alertness. Habitual intake does not diminish caffeine's ergogenic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the physiologic effects of caffeine, but adenosine receptor antagonism most likely accounts for the primary mode of action. It is relatively safe and has no known negative performance effects, nor does it cause significant dehydration or electrolyte imbalance during exercise. Routine caffeine consumption may cause tolerance or dependence, and abrupt discontinuation produces irritability, mood shifts, headache, drowsiness, or fatigue. Major sport governing bodies ban excessive use of caffeine, but current monitoring techniques are inadequate, and ethical dilemmas persist regarding caffeine intake by athletes.

  18. Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What are the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549

  19. Caffeine Citrate Dosing Adjustments to Assure Stable Caffeine Concentrations in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Datta, Alexandre N; Jost, Kerstin; Schulzke, Sven M; van den Anker, John; Pfister, Marc

    2017-12-01

    To identify dosing strategies that will assure stable caffeine concentrations in preterm neonates despite changing caffeine clearance during the first 8 weeks of life. A 3-step simulation approach was used to compute caffeine doses that would achieve stable caffeine concentrations in the first 8 weeks after birth: (1) a mathematical weight change model was developed based on published weight distribution data; (2) a pharmacokinetic model was developed based on published models that accounts for individual body weight, postnatal, and gestational age on caffeine clearance and volume of distribution; and (3) caffeine concentrations were simulated for different dosing regimens. A standard dosing regimen of caffeine citrate (using a 20 mg/kg loading dose and 5 mg/kg/day maintenance dose) is associated with a maximal trough caffeine concentration of 15 mg/L after 1 week of treatment. However, trough concentrations subsequently exhibit a clinically relevant decrease because of increasing clearance. Model-based simulations indicate that an adjusted maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in the second week, 7 mg/kg/day in the third to fourth week and 8 mg/kg/day in the fifth to eighth week assures stable caffeine concentrations with a target trough concentration of 15 mg/L. To assure stable caffeine concentrations during the first 8 weeks of life, the caffeine citrate maintenance dose needs to be increased by 1 mg/kg every 1-2 weeks. These simple adjustments are expected to maintain exposure to stable caffeine concentrations throughout this important developmental period and might enhance both the short- and long-term beneficial effects of caffeine treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Waterpipe tobacco products: nicotine labelling versus nicotine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco package labelling typically indicates "0.0% tar" and "0.05% or 0.5% nicotine". To determine the extent to which nicotine labeling is related to nicotine delivery. 110 waterpipe smokers engaged in a 45-minute waterpipe smoking session. Puff topography and plasma nicotine were measured. Three waterpipe tobacco brands were used: Nakhla (0.5% nicotine), Starbuzz (0.05% nicotine), and Al Fakher (0.05% nicotine). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Topography did not differ across brands. Peak plasma nicotine varied significantly across brands. Al Fakher had the highest nicotine delivery (11.4 ng/ml) followed by Nakhla (9.8 ng/ml) and Starbuzz (5.8 ng/ml). Nicotine labelling on waterpipe tobacco products does not reflect delivery; smoking a brand with a "0.05% nicotine" label led to greater plasma nicotine levels than smoking a brand with a "0.5% nicotine" label. Waterpipe tobacco products should be labelled in a manner that does not mislead consumers.

  2. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L.; King, Christopher P.; Meyer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli (“cues”), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. Objectives To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food predictive cue (“sign-trackers”) or a reward-delivery location (“goal-trackers”). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Methods Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Results Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue, and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs. PMID:27282365

  3. The tendency to sign-track predicts cue-induced reinstatement during nicotine self-administration, and is enhanced by nicotine but not ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaggi, Cassandra L; King, Christopher P; Meyer, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    Some individuals are particularly responsive to reward-associated stimuli ("cues"), including the effects of these cues on craving and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. In the cases of nicotine and alcohol, cues may acquire these abilities via the incentive-enhancing properties of the drug. To determine the interaction between cue-responsivity and nicotine reinforcement, we studied the patterns of nicotine self-administration in rats categorized based on their tendency to approach a food-predictive cue ("sign-trackers") or a reward-delivery location ("goal-trackers"). In a second experiment, we determined whether nicotine and ethanol altered the incentive value of a food cue. Rats were classified as sign- or goal-trackers during a Pavlovian conditioned approach paradigm. Rats then self-administered intravenous nicotine (0.03 mg/kg infusions) followed by extinction and cue-induced reinstatement tests. We also tested the effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg base s.c.) or ethanol (0.7 g/kg i.p.) on the approach to, and reinforcing efficacy of, a food cue. Sign-trackers showed greater reinstatement in response to a nicotine cue. Further, nicotine enhanced sign-tracking but not goal-tracking to a food cue and also enhanced responding for the food cue during the conditioned reinforcement test. Conversely, ethanol reduced sign-tracking and increased goal-tracking, but had no effect on conditioned reinforcement. Our studies demonstrate that the tendency to attribute incentive value to a food cue predicts enhanced cue-induced reinstatement. Additionally, the incentive value of food cues is differentially modulated by nicotine and ethanol, which may be related to the reinforcing effects of these drugs.

  4. Chronic caffeine consumption prevents memory disturbance in different animal models of memory decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo A; Agostinho, Paula M

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug, enhances attention/vigilance, stabilizes mood, and might also independently enhance cognitive performance. Notably, caffeine displays clearer and more robust beneficial effects on memory performance when memory is perturbed by stressful or noxious stimuli either in human or animal studies. Thus, caffeine restores memory performance in sleep-deprived or aged human individuals, a finding replicated in rodent animal models. Likewise, in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), caffeine alleviates memory dysfunction, which is in accordance with the tentative inverse correlation between caffeine intake and the incidence of AD in different (but not all) cohorts. Caffeine also affords beneficial effects in animal models of conditions expected to impair memory performance such as Parkinson's disease, chronic stress, type 2 diabetes, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, early life convulsions, or alcohol-induced amnesia. Thus, caffeine should not be viewed as a cognitive enhancer but instead as a cognitive normalizer. Interestingly, these beneficial effects of caffeine on stress-induced memory disturbance are mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors. This prominent role of A2A receptors in preventing memory deterioration is probably related to the synaptic localization of this receptor in limbic areas and its ability to control glutamatergic transmission, especially NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity, and to control apoptosis, brain metabolism, and the burden of neuroinflammation. This opens the real and exciting possibility that caffeine consumption might be a prophylactic strategy and A2A receptor antagonists may be a novel therapeutic option to manage memory dysfunction both in AD and in other chronic neurodegenerative disorders where memory deficits occur.

  5. Caffeine Use: Association with Nicotine Use, Aggression, and Other Psychopathology in Psychiatric and Pediatric Outpatient Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caffeine use, other drug use, and psychopathology in adolescents, using self-report measures. The study group consisted of 132 adolescents (average age 14.01 ± 2.06 years, 52% female, 19% African American, 5% other categories, 76% Caucasian. Most (47% were recruited from a child psychiatry clinic with emphasis on youth with disruptive disorders, with 35% from an adolescent pediatric clinic with emphasis on prevention of risk-taking behavior and 18% from a pediatric clinic for families with limited resources. Subjects were consecutively recruited before or after regular clinic visits. Consent was obtained from parents and assent from the youth. High caffeine consumption was associated with daily cigarette use; aggressive behavior; conduct, attention deficit/hyperactivity, and social problems; and increased somatic complaints in adolescents.

  6. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyama, Kumiya; Cho, Tatsurai; Tatewaki, Masamitsu; Onishi, Shogo; Yokoyama, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Naruo; Fujimatsu, Takayoshi; Hirata, Hirokuni; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anaphylaxis due to caffeine intake. A 27-year-old woman suffered her first episode of anaphylaxis and a positive skin prick test suggested that the anaphylaxis was due to an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to caffeine. She was diagnosed with caffeine allergy and has not had an allergic reaction after avoiding foods and drinks containing caffeine. Although caffeine is known to have antiallergic effects, this case shows that caffeine can be an allergen and cause ...

  7. Attentional bias for caffeine-related stimuli in high but not moderate or non-caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Javaherian, Shabnam; Tovey, Heather M; Stafford, Lorenzo D

    2005-09-01

    Attentional bias for drug-related cues has been reported with a wide range of drugs, but to date the extent to which caffeine consumers show similar biases for caffeine-related stimuli has not been tested. The present study therefore examined this issue in terms of differences in attentional bias for caffeine-related words in High, Moderate and Non-caffeine consumers using a dot-probe word task following overnight caffeine abstinence. This study was conducted to test whether caffeine consumers show an attentional bias for caffeine-related words, and whether such biases relate to habitual levels of caffeine use. Sixteen High, Moderate and Non-consumers of caffeine were asked to complete a modified dot-probe task in order to measure attentional bias for caffeine-related relative to neutral control word groups. The task was completed following overnight caffeine abstinence, and participants also completed mood and caffeine-craving measures. The High consumer group showed a significant attentional bias for the caffeine-related words, but no such bias was seen in Moderate or Non-consumer groups. As expected, craving for caffeine was strongest in the High consumers and weakest in the Non-consumers. Attentional bias in the High group correlated with self-reported caffeine consumption and with craving for caffeine, but neither effect was significant in the Moderate group. These data confirm that High caffeine consumers show attentional bias for caffeine-related stimuli, consistent with current theories of drug addiction.

  8. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  9. Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Amarakoon, A M Tissa; Weerasinghe, Vajira S

    2017-07-01

    l-theanine is a constituent of tea which is claimed to enhance cognitive functions. We aimed to determine whether theanine and theanine-caffeine combination have acute positive effects on cognitive and neurophysiological measures of attention, compared to caffeine (a positive control) and a placebo in healthy individuals. In a placebo-controlled, five-way crossover trial in 20 healthy male volunteers, we compared the effects of l-theanine (200 mg), caffeine (160 mg), their combination, black tea (one cup) and a placebo (distilled water) on cognitive (simple [SVRT] and recognition visual reaction time [RVRT]) and neurophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs]) measures of attention. We also recorded visual (VEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to examine any effects of treatments on peripheral visual and motor conduction, respectively. Mean RVRT was significantly improved by theanine (P = 0.019), caffeine (P = 0.043), and theanine-caffeine combination (P = 0.001), but not by tea (P = 0.429) or placebo (P = 0.822). VEP or MEP latencies or SVRT did not show significant inter-treatment differences. Theanine (P = 0.001) and caffeine (P = 0.001) elicited significantly larger mean peak-to-peak N2-P300 ERP amplitudes than the placebo, whereas theanine-caffeine combination elicited a significantly larger mean N2-P300 amplitude than placebo (P caffeine (P = 0.005). No significant theanine × caffeine interaction was observed for RVRT or N2-P300 amplitude. A dose of theanine equivalent of eight cups of back tea improves cognitive and neurophysiological measures of selective attention, to a degree that is comparable with that of caffeine. Theanine and caffeine seem to have additive effects on attention in high doses.

  10. The Effect of Nicotine Dependence on Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nicotine dependence and investigate the effect of nicotine dependence on psychopathology among schizophrenia patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at a general hospital in Malaysia. 180 recruited subjects were administered the Malay version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, and the Malay version of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M questionnaires. Results. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the subjects was 38.1% (n=69 and they were mainly composed of male gender, Malay ethnicity, being treated with atypical antipsychotics, and taking other illicit drugs or alcohol. Subjects with severe nicotine dependence scored less in the negative subscale of PANSS compared with the nonsmokers (P=0.011. On performing the hierarchy multiple regressions, dependence status still significantly predicted negative scores after adjusting the confounders (t=-2.87, P=0.005. Conclusion. The rate of nicotine use disorder among schizophrenia patients in this study is higher than that of the general population in Malaysia. The significant association between nicotine dependence and negative psychopathology symptoms will help the healthcare practitioners in their management of nicotine dependence among schizophrenia patients.

  11. Extended nicotine self-administration increases sensitivity to nicotine, motivation to seek nicotine and the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Kelly J; Lay, Belinda P P; Holmes, Nathan M

    2017-03-01

    An array of pharmacological and environmental factors influence the development and maintenance of tobacco addiction. The nature of these influences likely changes across the course of an extended smoking history, during which time drug seeking can become involuntary and uncontrolled. The present study used an animal model to examine the factors that drive nicotine-seeking behavior after either brief (10 days) or extended (40 days) self-administration training. In Experiment 1, extended training increased rats' sensitivity to nicotine, indicated by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve, and their motivation to work for nicotine, indicated by an increase in the break point achieved under a progressive ratio schedule. In Experiment 2, extended training imbued the nicotine-paired cue with the capacity to maintain responding to the same high level as nicotine itself. However, Experiment 3 showed that the mechanisms involved in responding for nicotine or a nicotine-paired cue are dissociable, as treatment with the partial nicotine receptor agonist, varenicline, suppressed responding for nicotine but potentiated responding for the nicotine-paired cue. Hence, across extended nicotine self-administration, pharmacological and environmental influences over nicotine seeking increase such that nicotine seeking is controlled by multiple sources, and therefore highly resistant to change. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gracia-Lor, Emma; Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    with the human urinary excretion profile. A good match was found for 1,7-dimethyluric acid, an exclusive caffeine metabolite, suggesting that might be a suitable biomarker in wastewater for assessing population-level caffeine consumption. A correction factor was developed considering the percentage of excretion......Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared...... of this metabolite in humans, according to published pharmacokinetic studies. Daily caffeine intake estimated from wastewater analysis was compared with the average daily intake calculated from the average amount of coffee consumed by country per capita. Good agreement was found in some cities but further...

  13. Caffeine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Caffeine KidsHealth / For Parents / Caffeine What's in this article? ... español La cafeína y su hijo What Is Caffeine? Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, ...

  14. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Giles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.

  15. Caffeine alters emotion and emotional responses in low habitual caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Spring, Alexander M; Urry, Heather L; Moran, Joseph M; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine reliably increases emotional arousal, but it is unclear whether and how it influences other dimensions of emotion such as emotional valence. These experiments documented whether caffeine influences emotion and emotion regulation choice and success. Low to abstinent caffeine consumers (maximum 100 mg/day) completed measures of state anxiety, positive and negative emotion, and salivary cortisol before, 45 min after, and 75 min after consuming 400 mg caffeine or placebo. Participants also completed an emotion regulation choice task, in which they chose to employ cognitive reappraisal or distraction in response to high and low intensity negative pictures (Experiment 1), or a cognitive reappraisal task, in which they employed cognitive reappraisal or no emotion regulation strategy in response to negative and neutral pictures (Experiment 2). State anxiety, negative emotion, and salivary cortisol were heightened both 45 and 75 min after caffeine intake relative to placebo. In Experiment 1, caffeine did not influence the frequency with which participants chose reappraisal or distraction, but reduced negativity of the picture ratings. In Experiment 2, caffeine did not influence cognitive reappraisal success. Thus, caffeine mitigated emotional responses to negative situations, but not how participants chose to regulate such responses or the success with which they did so.

  16. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  17. [Designer drugs and caffeine - characteristics of psychoactive substances and their impact on the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2014-01-01

    For many teenagers the time of growing up is a period of trying prohibited substances. Nowadays apart from alcohol and tobacco new designed, psychoactive substances known as "smart drugs" or "legal highs" are available. Intensive development of their market is taking place in the last few years which is difficult to overcome by regulations only. Toxicological tests used now are not able to detect the presence of many such substances in the body. Designer drugs cause the interest of young people even from small towns and many times taking them give effects requiring medical help. Caffeine is also a psychoactive substance but depending on the dose it can have positive or detrimental effect. Recently there are more and more products with caffeine, especially drinks and dietary supplements, what can cause the increase of consumption of caffeine. Children are particularly exposed to the adverse effect of high consumption of caffeine because of their small body weight and development of the central nervous system. This article presents actual data about the market of designer drugs, frequency of using them, consumption of caffeine by children and teenagers and about the impact of these substances on the organism.

  18. Faster but not smarter:effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear.To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption.Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150...

  19. Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia-Lor, E.; Rousis, N.I.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles Llanes, A.; Hernández, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Santos, M.M.; Thomas, K.; de Voogt, P.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared with the

  20. Caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones among premenopausal women in the BioCycle Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisterman, Enrique F; Mumford, Sunni L; Pollack, Anna Z; Zhang, Cuilin; Ye, Aijun; Stanford, Joseph B; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Porucznik, Christina A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Background: Caffeinated beverages are widely consumed among women of reproductive age, but their association with reproductive hormones, and whether race modifies any such associations, is not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relation between caffeine and caffeinated beverage intake and reproductive hormones in healthy premenopausal women and evaluated the potential effect modification by race. Design: Participants (n = 259) were followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles and provided fasting blood specimens for hormonal assessment at up to 8 visits per cycle and four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle. Weighted linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models with harmonic terms were used to estimate associations between caffeine and hormone concentrations, adjusted for age, adiposity, physical activity, energy and alcohol intakes, and perceived stress. On the basis of a priori assumptions, an interaction between race and caffeine was tested, and stratified results are presented. Results: Caffeine intake ≥200 mg/d was inversely associated with free estradiol concentrations among white women (β = −0.15; 95% CI: −0.26, −0.05) and positively associated among Asian women (β = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.92). Caffeinated soda intake and green tea intake ≥1 cup/d (1 cup = 240 mL) were positively associated with free estradiol concentrations among all races: β = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22) and β = 0.26 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.45), respectively. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of caffeine was associated with reduced estradiol concentrations among white women, whereas caffeinated soda and green tea intakes were associated with increased estradiol concentrations among all races. Further research is warranted on the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverages and reproductive hormones and whether these relations differ by race. PMID:22237060

  1. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Glenda K.

    1998-04-01

    A modern high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment which entails the separation of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine and the quantitative assay of caffeine in commercial mixtures of these compounds has been developed. Our HPLC protocol resolves these compounds in only three minutes with a straightforward chromatographic apparatus which consists of a C-18 column, an isocratic mobile phase, UV detection at 254 nm, and an integrator; an expensive, sophisticated system is not required. The separation is both repeatable and rapid. Moreover, the experiment can be completed in a single three-hour period. The experiment is appropriate for any chemistry student who has completed a minimum of one year of general chemistry and is ideal for an analytical or instrumental analysis course. The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients. However, the separation scheme is not limited to this brand of medication nor is it limited to caffeine as the analyte. With only minor procedural modifications, students can simultaneously quantitate all of these compounds in a commercial mixture. In our procedure, students prepare a series of four caffeine standard solutions as well as a solution from a pharmaceutical analgesic/caffeine mixture, chromatographically analyze each solution in quadruplicate, and plot relative average caffeine standard peak area versus concentration. From the mathematical relationship that results, the concentration of caffeine in the commercial formulation is obtained. Finally, the absolute standard deviation of the mean concentration is calculated.

  2. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  3. Caffeine consumption among eating disorder patients: epidemiology, motivations, and potential of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalassi, A; Ramacciotti, C E; Bianchi, M; Coli, E; Polese, L; Bondi, E; Massimetti, G; Dell'osso, L

    2009-12-01

    caffeine intake and alcohol/cigarettes use are associated supporting the link with the dimension of impulse disregulation. The substantial number of subjects from our sample satisfying research criteria for Dependence, together with increasing reports of caffeine intoxication, suggests the growing relevance of these issues that deserve further investigation.

  4. Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Hill, Joanne; Kane, Marian

    2005-06-01

    It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alertness is low. To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been previously deprived of caffeine for 3 weeks, thereby potentially removing the confounding effects of acute caffeine withdrawal. Participants were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers who were provided with either decaffeinated tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (LTW) or regular tea and/or coffee for 3 weeks (overnight caffeine-withdrawn participants, ONW). Then, following overnight caffeine abstinence, they were tested on a battery of tasks assessing mood, cognitive performance, etc. before and after receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or on another day after receiving placebo. Final analyses were based on 17 long-term caffeine-withdrawn participants (LTW) and 17 ONW participants whose salivary caffeine levels on each test day confirmed probable compliance with the instructions concerning restrictions on consumption of caffeine-containing drinks. Acute caffeine withdrawal (ONW) had a number of negative effects, including impairment of cognitive performance, increased headache, and reduced alertness and clear-headedness. Caffeine (versus placebo) did not significantly improve cognitive performance in LTW participants, although it prevented further deterioration of performance in ONW participants. Caffeine increased tapping speed (but tended to impair hand steadiness), increased blood pressure, and had some effects on mood in both groups. The findings provide strong support for the withdrawal reversal hypothesis. In particular, cognitive performance was found to be affected adversely by acute caffeine withdrawal and, even in the context of alertness lowered by sleep restriction, cognitive performance was not improved by caffeine in the absence of these withdrawal

  5. Caffeine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002579.htm Caffeine overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Caffeine is a substance that exists naturally in certain ...

  6. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of acute caffeine in light, nondependent caffeine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2006-05-01

    Caffeine produces mild psychostimulant effects that are thought to underlie its widespread use. However, the direct effects of caffeine are difficult to evaluate in regular users of caffeine because of tolerance and withdrawal. Indeed, some researchers hypothesize that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine are due largely to the reversal of withdrawal and question whether there are direct effects of caffeine consumption upon mood, alertness, or mental performance in nondependent individuals. This study investigated the physiological, subjective, and behavioral effects of 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg caffeine in 102 light, nondependent caffeine users. Using a within-subjects design, subjects participated in four experimental sessions, in which they received each of the four drug conditions in random order under double blind conditions. Participants completed subjective effects questionnaires and vital signs were measured before and at repeated time points after drug administration. Forty minutes after the capsules were ingested, subjects completed behavioral tasks that included tests of sustained attention, short-term memory, psychomotor performance, and behavioral inhibition. Caffeine significantly increased blood pressure, and produced feelings of arousal, positive mood, and high. Caffeine increased the number of hits and decreased reaction times in a vigilance task, but impaired performance on a memory task. We confirm that acute doses of caffeine, at levels typically found in a cup of coffee, produce stimulant-like subjective effects and enhance performance in light, nondependent caffeine users. These findings support the idea that the drug has psychoactive effects even in the absence of withdrawal.

  7. The effect of self-regulated caffeine use on cognition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvanko, Arit M; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2015-03-01

    Based on previous observational studies that have suggested self-regulated caffeine use by older adults may enhance reaction time performance and vigilance on cognitive tasks, the current study sought to examine whether this effect held true for young adults as well. One hundred and four young adults from two major metropolitan areas, ages 18-29 years, not meeting the criteria for a current psychiatric disorder, completed several cognitive tasks related to decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), response inhibition and reaction time (stop-signal task), and vigilance and reaction time (Rapid Visual Information Processing). Caffeine usage was self-reported using a reliable quantity and frequency questionnaire. Self-reported caffeine usage was not significantly associated with any of the cognitive measures used in this study after controlling for age, gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and gambling frequency. These data suggest that self-regulated caffeine usage may not have a significant impact on reaction time, vigilance, response inhibition, or decision-making in young adults, or that these effects are contingent upon other variables not accounted for in the current study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Britta L; Juliano, Laura M; Schulkin, Jay

    2009-09-01

    Caffeine has relevance for women's health and pregnancy, including significant associations with spontaneous abortion and low birth weight. According to scientific data, pregnant women and women of reproductive age should be advised to limit their caffeine consumption. This article reviews the implications of caffeine for women's psychological and physical health, and presents data on obstetrician-gynecologists' (ob-gyns) knowledge and practices pertaining to caffeine. Ob-gyns (N = 386) who are members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network responded to a 21-item survey about caffeine. Although most knew that caffeine is passed through breast milk, only 24.8% were aware that caffeine metabolism significantly slows as pregnancy progresses. Many respondents were not aware of the caffeine content of commonly used products, such as espresso and Diet Coke, with 14.3% and 57.8% indicating amounts within an accurate range, respectively. Furthermore, ob-gyns did not take into account large differences in caffeine content across different caffeinated beverages with most recommending one to two servings of coffee or tea or soft drinks per day. There was substantial inconsistency in what was considered to be "high levels" of maternal caffeine consumption, with only 31.6% providing a response. When asked to indicate the risk that high levels of caffeine have on various pregnancy outcomes, responses were not consistent with scientific data. For example, respondents overestimated the relative risk of stillbirths and underestimated the relative risk of spontaneous abortion. There was great variability in assessment and advice practices pertaining to caffeine. More than half advise their pregnant patients to consume caffeine under certain circumstances, most commonly to alleviate headache and caffeine withdrawal. The data suggest that ob-gyns could benefit from information about caffeine and its relevance to their

  9. Taurine, caffeine, and energy drinks: Reviewing the risks to the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Marczinski, Cecile A

    2017-12-01

    Energy drinks are emerging as a major component of the beverage market with sales projected to top $60 billion globally in the next five years. Energy drinks contain a variety of ingredients, but many of the top-selling brands include high doses of caffeine and the amino acid taurine. Energy drink consumption by children has raised concerns, due to potential caffeine toxicity. An additional risk has been noted among college-aged consumers of energy drinks who appear at higher risk of over-consumption of alcohol when the two drinks are consumed together. The differential and combinatorial effects of caffeine and taurine on the developing brain are reviewed here with an emphasis on the adolescent brain, which is still maturing. Key data from animal studies are summarized to highlight both reported benefits and adverse effects reported following acute and chronic exposures. The data suggest that age is an important factor in both caffeine and taurine toxicity. Although the aged or diseased brain might benefit from taurine or caffeine supplementation, it appears that adolescents are not likely to benefit from supplementation and may, in fact, suffer ill effects from chronic ingestion of high doses. Additional work is needed though to address gaps in our understanding of how taurine affects females, since the majority of animal studies focused exclusively on male subjects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie

    2003-10-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.

  11. Adolescent Substance Use, Sleep, and Academic Achievement: Evidence of Harm Due to Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jack E.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2011-01-01

    Using academic achievement as the key outcome variable, 7377 Icelandic adolescents were surveyed for cigarette smoking, alcohol use, daytime sleepiness, caffeine use, and potential confounders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in two models: the first with caffeine…

  12. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Dalsgaard, Søren; Obel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the relationship between prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and psychosocial stress during pregnancy to the risk of developing behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...... indicated a greater risk of ADHD-related disorders among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Contradictory findings were reported in the alcohol studies, and no conclusion could be reached on the basis of the caffeine study. Results from studies on psychological stress during pregnancy were...... of information on familial psychopathology also limited the interpretations. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero is suspected to be associated with ADHD and ADHD symptoms in children. Other maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy may also be associated with these disorders. Further studies...

  13. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies - Vol 9, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African health care providers' recognition of the links between alcohol and HIV ... Determination of Caffeine Content in Non-Alcoholic Beverages and Energy Drinks Using Hplc-Uv Method. ... Is Cannabis Use Related to Road Crashes?

  14. Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    The effects of caffeine on cognition were reviewed based on the large body of literature available on the topic. Caffeine does not usually affect performance in learning and memory tasks, although caffeine may occasionally have facilitatory or inhibitory effects on memory and learning. Caffeine facilitates learning in tasks in which information is presented passively; in tasks in which material is learned intentionally, caffeine has no effect. Caffeine facilitates performance in tasks involving working memory to a limited extent, but hinders performance in tasks that heavily depend on working memory, and caffeine appears to rather improve memory performance under suboptimal alertness conditions. Most studies, however, found improvements in reaction time. The ingestion of caffeine does not seem to affect long-term memory. At low doses, caffeine improves hedonic tone and reduces anxiety, while at high doses, there is an increase in tense arousal, including anxiety, nervousness, jitteriness. The larger improvement of performance in fatigued subjects confirms that caffeine is a mild stimulant. Caffeine has also been reported to prevent cognitive decline in healthy subjects but the results of the studies are heterogeneous, some finding no age-related effect while others reported effects only in one sex and mainly in the oldest population. In conclusion, it appears that caffeine cannot be considered a ;pure' cognitive enhancer. Its indirect action on arousal, mood and concentration contributes in large part to its cognitive enhancing properties.

  15. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session.

  16. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-gowilly, Sahar M.; Fouda, Mohamed A.; Saad, Evan I.

    2011-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16 μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100 μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS SNP in contrast to no effect on BRS PE . BRS SNP was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS SNP were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS SNP was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A 2A antagonist), or VUF5574 (A 3 antagonist). In contrast, BRS SNP was preserved after blockade of A 1 (DPCPX) or A 2B (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS SNP depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A 2A receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms. - Research highlights: → The role of central adenosinergic sites in

  17. The Effects of Caffeine Use on Driving Safety Among Truck Drivers Who Are Habitual Caffeine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Karen; Griffin, Russell

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe caffeine use among a group of habitual caffeine users, truck drivers, and to explore the associations between caffeine use and critical safety events by age in the naturalistic work setting. A secondary analysis of existing data from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study was conducted. Analyses focused on the association between sleep and caffeine consumption by duty status, comparisons of sleep and caffeine use by age, and the associations between caffeine use and safety-critical events (SCEs). Findings indicated differences in caffeine use by duty status. However, no difference in sleep time by duty status, or between sleep time and caffeine use was found regardless of when the caffeine was consumed during the 5 hours prior to sleep. Sleep time did not vary significantly by age, although increasing age was associated with decreased caffeine use. Overall, a 6% reduction in the rate of SCEs per eight ounces of caffeinated beverage consumed was found. This study makes a unique scientific contribution because it uses real-time observations of truckers in the naturalistic work setting. It also does not involve caffeine withdrawal but rather an investigation of the effects of the naturalistic consumption of caffeine on sleep and driving performance. Findings suggest that caffeine use among habitual users offers a protective effect for safety-critical driving events. Occupational health nurses may use this information to counsel workers in the use of caffeine to enhance driving safety. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. ADHD and cannabinoid use as a form of self-medication

    OpenAIRE

    Karchňáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract BASIC POSTULATES: It is common the people affected by ADHD consume addictive substances such as alcohol, marihuana, heroin, sedatives, analgetics, nicotine, caffeine, sugar, cocaine or street-produced amphetamines, seeking relief from their sensations of motorical unease and to disturb their rationalising and thinking (Downs, 2013). Using these substances subjectively improves their abilities, reducing the undesired and unpleasant sensations emanating from the ADHD, possibly even c...

  19. Reduced-Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Smokers: Impact of Nicotine Metabolism on Nicotine Dose Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paul; Ghahremani, Dara G; Tyndale, Rachel F; Cox, Chelsea M; Kazanjian, Ari S; Paterson, Neil; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Petersen, Nicole; Vigil, Celia; London, Edythe D

    2017-07-01

    The use of cigarettes delivering different nicotine doses allows evaluation of the contribution of nicotine to the smoking experience. We compared responses of 46 young adult smokers to research cigarettes, delivering 0.027, 0.110, 0.231, or 0.763 mg nicotine, and conventional cigarettes. On five separate days, craving, withdrawal, affect, and sustained attention were measured after overnight abstinence and again after smoking. Participants also rated each cigarette, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was used to identify participants as normal or slow metabolizers. All cigarettes equally alleviated craving, withdrawal, and negative affect in the whole sample, but normal metabolizers reported greater reductions of craving and withdrawal than slow metabolizers, with dose-dependent effects. Only conventional cigarettes and, to a lesser degree, 0.763-mg nicotine research cigarettes increased sustained attention. Finally, there were no differences between ratings of lower-dose cigarettes, but the 0.763-mg cigarettes and (even more so) conventional cigarettes were rated more favorably than lower-dose cigarettes. The findings indicate that smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal reflects primarily non-nicotine effects in slow metabolizers, but depends on nicotine dose in normal metabolizers. By contrast, relief of withdrawal-related attentional deficits and cigarette ratings depend on nicotine dose regardless of metabolizer status. These findings have bearing on the use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes to facilitate smoking cessation and on policy regarding regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. They suggest that normal and slow nicotine metabolizers would respond differently to nicotine reduction in cigarettes, but that irrespective of metabolizer status, reductions to <0.763 mg/cigarette may contribute to temporary attentional deficits.

  20. Performance effects and metabolic consequences of caffeine and caffeinated energy drink consumption on glucose disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jane; Graham, Terry E

    2014-10-01

    This review documents two opposing effects of caffeine and caffeine-containing energy drinks, i.e., their positive effects on athletic performance and their negative impacts on glucose tolerance in the sedentary state. Analysis of studies examining caffeine administration prior to performance-based exercise showed caffeine improved completion time by 3.6%. Similar analyses following consumption of caffeine-containing energy drinks yielded positive, but more varied, benefits, which were likely due to the diverse nature of the studies performed, the highly variable composition of the beverages consumed, and the range of caffeine doses administered. Conversely, analyses of studies administering caffeine prior to either an oral glucose tolerance test or insulin clamp showed a decline in whole-body glucose disposal of ~30%. The consequences of this resistance are unknown, but there may be implications for the development of a number of chronic diseases. Both caffeine-induced performance enhancement and insulin resistance converge with the primary actions of caffeine on skeletal muscle. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Faster but not smarter: effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on alertness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Smith, Jessica E

    2013-03-01

    Despite 100 years of psychopharmacological research, the extent to which caffeine consumption benefits human functioning remains unclear. To measure the effects of overnight caffeine abstinence and caffeine administration as a function of level of habitual caffeine consumption. Medium-high (n = 212) and non-low (n = 157) caffeine consumers completed self-report measures and computer-based tasks before (starting at 10:30 AM) and after double-blind treatment with either caffeine (100 mg, then 150 mg) or placebo. The first treatment was given at 11:15 AM and the second at 12:45 PM, with post-treatment measures repeated twice between 1:45 PM and 3:30 PM. Caffeine withdrawal was associated with some detrimental effects at 10:30 AM, and more severe effects, including greater sleepiness, lower mental alertness, and poorer performance on simple reaction time, choice reaction time and recognition memory tasks, later in the afternoon. Caffeine improved these measures in medium-high consumers but, apart from decreasing sleepiness, had little effect on them in non-low consumers. The failure of caffeine to increase mental alertness and improve mental performance in non-low consumers was related to a substantial caffeine-induced increase in anxiety/jitteriness that offset the benefit of decreased sleepiness. Caffeine enhanced physical performance (faster tapping speed and faster simple and choice reaction times) in both medium-high and non-low consumers. While caffeine benefits motor performance and tolerance develops to its tendency to increase anxiety/jitteriness, tolerance to its effects on sleepiness means that frequent consumption fails to enhance mental alertness and mental performance.

  2. Dispelling the myth that habitual caffeine consumption influences the performance response to acute caffeine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lívia de Souza; Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Yamaguchi, Guilherme; Oliveira, Luana Farias de; Saunders, Bryan; da Silva, Rafael Pires; Maciel, Erika; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the influence of habitual caffeine intake on aerobic exercise-performance responses to acute caffeine supplementation. A double-blind, crossover, counterbalanced study was performed. Forty male endurance-trained cyclists were allocated into tertiles, according to their daily caffeine intake: low (58 ± 29 mg/d), moderate (143 ± 25 mg/d), and high (351 ± 139 mg/d) consumers. Participants completed three trials in which they performed simulated cycling time trials (TTs) in the fastest time possible following ingestion of the following: caffeine (CAF: 6 mg/kg body mass), placebo (PLA), and no supplement (CON). A mixed-model analysis revealed that TT performance was significantly improved in CAF compared with PLA and CON (29.92 ± 2.18 vs. 30.81 ± 2.67 and 31.14 ± 2.71 min, respectively; P = 0.0002). Analysis of covariance revealed no influence of habitual caffeine intake as a covariate on exercise performance ( P = 0.47). TT performance was not significantly different among tertiles ( P = 0.75). No correlation was observed between habitual caffeine intake and absolute changes (CAF - CON) in TT performance with caffeine ( P = 0.524). Individual analysis showed that eight, seven, and five individuals improved above the variation of the test in CAF in the low, moderate, and high tertiles, respectively. A Fisher's exact test did not show any significant differences in the number of individuals who improved in CAF among the tertiles ( P > 0.05). Blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials and tertiles ( P > 0.05). Performance effects of acute caffeine supplementation during an ~30-min cycling TT performance were not influenced by the level of habitual caffeine consumption. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. Low, moderate, and high caffeine consumers showed similar absolute and

  3. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  4. Effect of in vivo nicotine exposure on chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Kwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-03-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most studied and widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. The neurotoxicity of CPF results from inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) by its metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon), which subsequently leads to cholinergic hyperstimulation. The routine consumption of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products will modify a number of metabolic and physiological processes which may impact the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of other xenobiotics including pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of repeated ethanol and nicotine co-exposure on in vivo CPF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The major CPF metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine along with changes in plasma and brain AChE activities were measured in male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Animals were repeatedly treated with either saline or ethanol (1 g/kg/day, po) and nicotine (1 mg/kg/day, sc) in addition to CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, po) for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at times from 1 to 24 hr post-last dosing of CPF. There were apparent differences in blood TCPy pharmacokinetics following ethanol and nicotine pretreatments in both CPF dose groups, which showed higher TCPy peak concentrations and increased blood TCPy AUC in ethanol and nicotine groups over CPF-only (~1.8- and 3.8-fold at 1 and 5 mg CPF doses, respectively). Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities from both ethanol and nicotine-treated groups showed substantially less inhibition following repeated 5 mg CPF/kg dosing compared to CPF-only controls (96 ± 13 and 66 ± 7% of naïve at 4 hr post-last CPF dosing, respectively). Inhibition of brain AChE activities was minimal in both 1 mg CPF/kg/day dosing groups, but a similar trend indicating less inhibition following ethanol/nicotine pretreatment was apparent. No differences were observed in plasma ChE activities due to the combined alcohol and nicotine treatments. In vitro, CPF

  5. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine. PMID:26184263

  6. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. Methods: The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629. Results: EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%. Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. Conclusions: EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  7. Analysis of the Consumption of Caffeinated Energy Drinks among Polish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2015-07-10

    Energy drinks (EDs) are extremely popular among adults and adolescents. Regular intake of EDs may lead to an overdose of caffeine, loss of bone mass, overweight, hypertension and, in older age, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Some people mix EDs with alcohol, which adversely affects their health. The objective of this study was to analyze the consumption of EDs by adolescents. The study consisted of a questionnaire surveying amounts of drinks, preferences and product awareness among younger consumers. The study was carried out in junior and senior high schools in Poland (n = 2629). EDs were consumed by 67% of students (quite frequently by 16%). Students who practiced sports were more willing to drink EDs. Also, boys drank them more often than girls. When selecting a particular ED, young people looked at the taste, price and effect. Most respondents consumed one ED (250 mL) daily, although there were individuals consuming two or more drinks daily. Most respondents knew the ingredients of EDs, and 24% admitted to mixing EDs with alcohol. EDs are extremely popular among adolescents. Young people drinking EDs every day are potentially at risk of taking an overdose of caffeine.

  8. Caffeine, extraversion and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance.

  9. Nicotine Vapor Method to Induce Nicotine Dependence in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallupi, Marsida; George, Olivier

    2017-07-05

    Nicotine, the main addictive component of tobacco, induces potentiation of brain stimulation reward, increases locomotor activity, and induces conditioned place preference. Nicotine cessation produces a withdrawal syndrome that can be relieved by nicotine replacement therapy. In the last decade, the market for electronic cigarettes has flourished, especially among adolescents. The nicotine vaporizer or electronic nicotine delivery system is a battery-operated device that allows the user to simulate the experience of tobacco smoking without inhaling smoke. The device is designed to be an alternative to conventional cigarettes that emits vaporized nicotine inhaled by the user. This report describes a procedure to vaporize nicotine in the air to produce blood nicotine levels in rodents that are clinically relevant to those that are observed in humans and produce dependence. We also describe how to construct the apparatus to deliver nicotine vapor in a stable, reliable, and consistent manner, as well as how to analyze air for nicotine content. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Tops, M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support

  11. A Randomized, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate the Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine Delivered Using Caffeinated Chewing Gum Versus a Marketed Caffeinated Beverage in Healthy Adult Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Paul; Pan, Xiao; Shepherd, Phil; Malandain, Elise; Carney, John; Coleman, Hugh

    2017-12-01

    Background: This study was conducted to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine delivered using caffeinated chewing gum to that delivered using a marketed caffeinated beverage (instant coffee) in 16 healthy adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study. Caffeinated chewing gum and a serving of instant coffee, each containing ∼50 mg caffeine, were administered with blood samples collected before and up to 24 hours after administration starts. Plasma caffeine levels were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry methodology. Results: There were no statistical differences between the two caffeine products in t max ( p  = 0.3308) and k a ( p  = 0.3894). Although formulated at ∼50 mg caffeine each, mean dose released from chewing gum was ∼18% less than beverage. Dose-normalized area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max was similar between products. Although the criteria were not set a priori and the study was not powered for concluding bioequivalence, the 90% confidence intervals fell within the bioequivalence limit of 80% to 125%. Conclusions: Existing scientific literature on caffeine, based mostly on data from caffeinated beverages, can be leveraged to support the safety of caffeine delivered by chewing gum and current maximum safe caffeine dose advice should be applicable irrespective of delivery method.

  12. Modeling caffeine concentrations with the Stanford Caffeine Questionnaire: preliminary evidence for an interaction of chronotype with the effects of caffeine on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, Philip; Hernandez, Beatriz; Ptolemy, Adam S; Zeitzer, Jamie M

    2012-04-01

    To examine the validity of a novel caffeine intake questionnaire and to examine the effects of caffeine on sleep in college students. One-week, ad libitum behavior of 50 university students (28 female, 22 male; aged 20.9 ± 1.78 years) was examined with sleep logs, wrist actigraphy, and a novel daily questionnaire assessing caffeine intake at different times of day. Saliva samples were collected for caffeine assessment (questionnaire validation) and DNA extraction, and for analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the adenosine receptor 2A (ADORA2A) gene. The caffeine questionnaire was able to accurately predict salivary concentrations of caffeine (R(2) = 0.41, Psleep were correlated with wake after sleep onset (WASO) most strongly in morning-type individuals (R(2) = 0.49; Psleep and genotype and chronotype. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Nicotine, alcohol and cocaine coupling to reward processes via endogenous morphine signaling: the dopamine-morphine hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Bianchi, Enrica; Guarna, Massimo; Fricchione, Gregory L; Zhu, Wei; Cadet, Patrick; Mantione, Kirk J; Casares, Federico M; Kream, Richard M; Esch, Tobias

    2007-06-01

    Pleasure is described as a state or feeling of happiness and satisfaction resulting from an experience that one enjoys. We examine the neurobiological factors underlying reward processes and pleasure phenomena. With regard to possible negative effects of pleasure, we focus on addiction and motivational toxicity. Pleasure can serve cognition, productivity and health, but simultaneously promotes addiction and other negative behaviors. It is a complex neurobiological phenomenon, relying on reward circuitry or limbic activity. These processes involve dopaminergic signaling. Moreover, nicotine, cocaine and alcohol appear to exert their pleasure providing action via endogenous morphinergic mechanisms. Natural rewarding activities are necessary for survival and appetitive motivation, usually governing beneficial biological behaviors like eating, sex and reproduction. Social contacts can further facilitate the positive effects exerted by pleasurable experiences. However, artificial stimulants can be detrimental, since flexibility and normal control of behavior are deteriorated. Additionally, addictive drugs are capable of directly acting on reward pathways, now, in part, via endogenous morphine processes.

  14. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  15. Cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood, and pressor effects of caffeine after 4, 6 and 8 h caffeine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Rogers, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have found that caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence improves cognitive performance and mood. Much less is known, however, about the effects of caffeine after shorter periods of caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to measure the effects on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, hand steadiness, blood pressure and heart rate of caffeine administration after periods of 4, 6, and 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Participants (n = 49, 27 female) were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers (mean daily intake 370 mg/day). Following overnight caffeine abstinence, a 'pre-dose' of caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered at 9 A.M, 11 A.M or 1 P.M. The participants started a baseline battery of measurements at 4 P.M.: before receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or placebo at 5 P.M.: They then performed the battery of tests again, starting at 5:30 P.M. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Performance and mood measurements confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine (versus placebo), but only after 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Caffeine also increased blood pressure after 8-h abstinence, whereas hand steadiness was decreased and perception of task demand was increased by caffeine after 4 h, but not after 6- and 8-h abstinence. A second cup-of-coffee equivalent dose of caffeine only reliably affected cognitive performance and mood after an 8-h interval between doses, but not after shorter intervals (when caffeine had some adverse effects). These results show that, apart from caffeine consumption soon after waking, the daily pattern of caffeine intake of many typical caffeine consumers is not well explained by the short-term psychostimulant effects of caffeine.

  16. Effects of low doses of caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in low and higher caffeine consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, H J; Rogers, P J

    2000-10-01

    Caffeine is present in many widely consumed drinks and some foods. In the fairly extensive literature on the psychostimulant effects of caffeine, there are few dose-response studies and even fewer studies of the effects of doses of caffeine lower than 50 mg (the range of the amounts of caffeine contained in, for example, a typical serving of tea or cola). This study measured the effects of 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and thirst in adults with low and moderate to high habitual caffeine intakes. This was a double-blind, within-subjects study. Following overnight caffeine abstinence, participants (n=23) completed a test battery once before and three times after placebo or caffeine administration. The test battery consisted of two performance tests, a long duration simple reaction time task and a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire (including also an item on thirst). Effects on performance and mood confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine. All doses of caffeine significantly affected cognitive performance, and the dose-response relationships for these effects were rather flat. The effects on performance were more marked in individuals with a higher level of habitual caffeine intake, whereas caffeine increased thirst only in low caffeine consumers. After overnight caffeine abstinence, caffeine can significantly affect cognitive performance, mood and thirst at doses within and even lower than the range of amounts of caffeine contained in a single serving of popular caffeine-containing drinks. Regular caffeine consumers appear to show substantial tolerance to the thirst-increasing but not to the performance and mood effects of caffeine.

  17. Caffeine Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20 mg* Milk chocolate 1 ounce 6 mg* Cocoa beverage 5 ounces 4 mg* Chocolate milk beverage 8 ounces 5 mg* Cold relief medication 1 tablet 30 mg* *This is an average amount of caffeine. That means some of these products may contain a little more caffeine; some may ...

  18. Caffeine in the milk prevents respiratory disorders caused by in utero caffeine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, Laurence; Saadani-Makki, Fadoua; Jullien, Hugues; Frugière, Alain

    2006-01-25

    Consequences of postnatal caffeine exposure by the milk on ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances observed following an in utero caffeine exposure were analysed. Ponto-medullary-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth display an increase in respiratory frequency and an exaggeration of the hypoxic respiratory depression compared to not treated preparations. These data suggest that tachypneic and apneic episodes encountered in human newborns whose mother consumed caffeine during pregnancy are due in large part to central effect of caffeine at the ponto-medullary level. Both baseline respiratory frequency increase and emphasis of hypoxic respiratory depression are not encountered if rat dams consumed caffeine during nursing. Our hypothesis is that newborn rats exposed to caffeine during gestation but not after the birth would be in withdrawal situation whereas, when caffeine is present in drinking fluid of lactating dams, it goes down the milk and is able to prevent ponto-medullary respiratory disturbances.

  19. Degradation of exogenous caffeine by Populus alba and its effects on endogenous caffeine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierattini, Erika C; Francini, Alessandra; Raffaelli, Andrea; Sebastiani, Luca

    2016-04-01

    This is the first study reporting the presence of endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in all organs of poplar plants. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used in order to evaluate the uptake, translocation, and metabolism of caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) in Populus alba L. Villafranca clone grown in hydroponic conditions. We investigated the remediation of caffeine since it is one of the most widely consumed drugs and it is frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface water, and groundwater worldwide. Our results demonstrated that poplar can absorb and degrade exogenous caffeine without negative effects on plant health. Data showed that concentrations of all endogenous compounds varied depending on caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) treatments. In particular, in control conditions, endogenous caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were mainly distributed in roots. On the other hand, once caffeine-(trimethyl-(13)C) was provided, this compound and its dimethy-(13)C metabolites are mainly localized at leaf level. In conclusion, our results support the possible use of Villafranca clone in association with other water treatment systems in order to complete the process of caffeine remediation.

  20. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Kate A; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2018-03-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.

  1. Effects of Nicotine Metabolites on Nicotine Withdrawal Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Sagi; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad

    2017-06-01

    Rodent studies suggest that nicotine metabolites and minor tobacco alkaloids such as nornicotine and cotinine may promote cigarette smoking by enhancing nicotine rewarding and reinforcing effects. However, there is little information on the effects of these minor tobacco alkaloids on nicotine withdrawal. The present studies were conducted to determine whether the minor tobacco alkaloids nornicotine and cotinine exhibit nicotine-like behavioral effects in a mouse model of spontaneous nicotine withdrawal. Mice were infused with nicotine or saline for 14 days. Experiments were conducted on day 15, 18-24 hours after minipump removal. Ten minutes prior to testing, nicotine-dependent ICR male mice received an acute injection of nicotine (0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg), nornicotine (2.5 and 25 mg/kg), or cotinine (5 and 50 mg/kg) to determine effects on somatic signs, anxiety-like behaviors, and hyperalgesia spontaneous signs of withdrawal. Nicotine and the minor tobacco alkaloid nornicotine, but not cotinine, produced dose-dependent reversal of nicotine withdrawal signs in the mouse. The minor tobacco alkaloid and nicotine metabolite nornicotine at high doses have nicotinic like effects that may contribute to tobacco consumption and dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Ahmad Bhawani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of caffeine reveals that it is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. It is a common ingredient in a variety of drinks (soft and energy drinks and is also used in combination with various medicines. In order to maintain the optimum level of caffeine, various spectrophotometric methods have been developed. The monitoring of caffeine is very important aspect because of its consumption in higher doses that can lead to various physiological disorders. This paper incorporates various spectrophotometric methods used in the analysis of caffeine in various environmental samples such as pharmaceuticals, soft and energy drinks, tea, and coffee. A range of spectrophotometric methodologies including chemometric techniques and derivatization of spectra have been used to analyse the caffeine.

  3. Caffeine for asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, EJ; Bara, A; Barley, E; Cates, CJ

    2010-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological effects; it is a weak bronchodilator and it also reduces respiratory muscle fatigue. It is chemically related to the drug theophylline which is used to treat asthma. It has been suggested that caffeine may reduce asthma symptoms and interest has been expressed in its potential role as an asthma treatment. A number of studies have explored the effects of caffeine in asthma, this is the first review to systematically examine and summar...

  4. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  5. Caffeine Use and Extroversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric; Meliska, Charles J.

    Some research on the stimulant effect of caffeine suggests that the amount of behavioral enhancement produced by caffeine may depend on subjects' prior experience with the task and the drug. A study was undertaken to test whether prior experience with a task while under the influence of caffeine would facilitate performance of that task. Male…

  6. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  7. The Janus face of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Sallaberry, Cássia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2013-11-01

    Caffeine is certainly the psychostimulant substance most consumed worldwide. Over the past years, chronic consumption of caffeine has been associated with prevention of cognitive decline associated to aging and mnemonic deficits of brain disorders. While its preventive effects have been reported extensively, the cognitive enhancer properties of caffeine are relatively under debate. Surprisingly, there are scarce detailed ontogenetic studies focusing on neurochemical parameters related to the effects of caffeine during prenatal and earlier postnatal periods. Furthermore, despite the large number of epidemiological studies, it remains unclear how safe is caffeine consumption during pregnancy and brain development. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review what is currently known about the actions of caffeine intake on neurobehavioral and adenosinergic system during brain development. We also reviewed other neurochemical systems affected by caffeine, but not only during brain development. Besides, some recent epidemiological studies were also outlined with the control of "pregnancy signal" as confounding variable. The idea is to tease out how studies on the impact of caffeine consumption during brain development deserve more attention and further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caffeine levels in beverages from Argentina's market: application to caffeine dietary intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, V; Bardoni, N; Ridolfi, A S; Villaamil Lepori, E C

    2009-03-01

    The caffeine content of different beverages from Argentina's market was measured. Several brands of coffees, teas, mates, chocolate milks, soft and energy drinks were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection. The highest concentration level was found in short coffee (1.38 mg ml(-1)) and the highest amount per serving was found in instant coffee (95 mg per serving). A consumption study was also carried out among 471 people from 2 to 93 years of age to evaluate caffeine total dietary intake by age and to identify the sources of caffeine intake. The mean caffeine intake among adults was 288 mg day(-1) and mate was the main contributor to that intake. The mean caffeine intake among children of 10 years of age and under was 35 mg day(-1) and soft drinks were the major contributors to that intake. Children between 11 and 15 years old and teenagers (between 16 and 20 years) had caffeine mean intakes of 120 and 240 mg day(-1), respectively, and mate was the major contributor to those intakes. Drinking mate is a deep-rooted habit among Argentine people and it might be the reason for their elevated caffeine mean daily intake.

  9. Clinical importance of caffeine dependence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naoshi; Ueki, Hirofumi

    2007-06-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance and is a legal stimulant that is readily available to children. Caffeine has occasionally been considered a drug of abuse and the potential for dependence on caffeine has been debated. Presently, due to a paucity of clinical evidence on caffeine dependence or abuse, no such diagnosis is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition. The authors present two cases of abuse or dependence on the caffeine contained in 'eutrophic' (energy/nutritional) beverages or caffeine preparations, followed by a review of clinical studies demonstrating evidence that some people can manifest a clinical syndrome of caffeine dependence or abuse. The cases suggest that caffeine can produce a clinical dependence syndrome similar to those produced by other psychoactive substances and has a potential for abuse. In a recent study using a structured interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-fourth edition criteria for substance dependence and abuse, a subset of the general population was found to demonstrate caffeine dependence or caffeine abuse. Therefore, the authors propose that companies or businesses manufacturing or marketing caffeine or products containing caffeine must meet the following guidelines: (i) clearly indicate the caffeine content of products containing comparatively higher quantities of caffeine; (ii) warn that such products should be avoided by infants and children wherever possible, and inform adult consumers about the precise quantity of caffeine that is considered safe for consumption; and (iii) clearly state that consuming large quantities of caffeine and the long-term use of caffeine carry health risks.

  10. Compound list: caffeine [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available caffeine CAF 00097 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/caffeine....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/caffeine....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/caffeine...-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/caffeine.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/ar...chive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/caffeine.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.bioscie

  11. Caffeine intake, toxicity and dependence and lifetime risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders: an epidemiologic and co-twin control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; O Gardner, Charles

    2006-12-01

    Although caffeine is the most commonly used psychoactive substance and often produces symptoms of toxicity and dependence, little is known, especially in community samples, about the association between caffeine use, toxicity and dependence and risk for common psychiatric and substance use disorders. Assessments of lifetime maximal caffeine use and symptoms of caffeine toxicity and dependence were available on over 3600 adult twins ascertained from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry. Lifetime histories of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder, alcohol dependence, adult antisocial behavior and cannabis and cocaine abuse/dependence were obtained at personal interview. Logistic regression analyses in the entire sample and within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs were conducted in SAS. In the entire sample, measures of maximal caffeine use, heavy caffeine use, and caffeine-related toxicity and dependence were significantly and positively associated with all seven psychiatric and substance use disorders. However, within MZ twin pairs, controlling for genetic and family environmental factors, these associations, while positive, were all non-significant. These results were similar when excluding twins who denied regular caffeine use. Maximal lifetime caffeine intake and caffeine-associated toxicity and dependence are moderately associated with risk for a wide range of psychiatric and substance use disorders. Analyses of these relationships within MZ twin pairs suggest that most of the observed associations are not causal. Rather, familial factors, which are probably in part genetic, predispose to both caffeine intake, toxicity and dependence and the risk for a broad array of internalizing and externalizing disorders.

  12. Altered expression of the caffeine synthase gene in a naturally caffeine-free mutant of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Perez Maluf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the biosynthesis of caffeine by examining the expression of genes involved in this biosynthetic pathway in coffee fruits containing normal or low levels of this substance. The amplification of gene-specific transcripts during fruit development revealed that low-caffeine fruits had a lower expression of the theobromine synthase and caffeine synthase genes and also contained an extra transcript of the caffeine synthase gene. This extra transcript contained only part of exon 1 and all of exon 3. The sequence of the mutant caffeine synthase gene revealed the substitution of isoleucine for valine in the enzyme active site that probably interfered with enzymatic activity. These findings indicate that the absence of caffeine in these mutants probably resulted from a combination of transcriptional regulation and the presence of mutations in the caffeine synthase amino acid sequence.

  13. Consumption of caffeinated beverages and the awareness of their caffeine content among Dutch students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora J A E; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the knowledge of caffeine content of a variety of caffeinated beverages among Dutch university students. A pencil-and-paper survey was conducted among N = 800 Dutch students. Most participants (87.8%) reported consuming caffeinated beverages during the

  14. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  15. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  16. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-13

    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  17. Heritability of caffeine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthaei, Johannes; Tzvetkov, Mladen V; Strube, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Heritability of caffeine pharmacokinetics and CYP1A2 activity is controversial. Here we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, an in vivo probe drug for CYP1A2 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) activity, in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In the entire group, common and unique...... environmental effects explained most variation in caffeine AUC. Apparently, smoking and hormonal contraceptives masked the genetic effects on CYP1A2 activity. However, when excluding smokers and users of hormonal contraceptives, 89% of caffeine AUC variation was due to genetic effects and even in the entire...... group, 8% of caffeine AUC variation could be explained by a CYP1A1/1A2 promotor polymorphism (rs2470893). In contrast, nearly all of the variation (99%) of NAT2 activity was explained by genetic effects. This study illustrates two very different situations in pharmacogenetics, from an almost exclusively...

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN CAFFEINE CONTENTS OF GREEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Green coffee beans, Caffeine, Correlation between caffeine content and altitude of coffee plant,. UV-Vis .... The extraction of caffeine from green coffee bean samples in to water was carried out by the reported method ..... caffeine in proposed green tea standard reference materials by liquid chromatography.

  19. Caffeine intake among adolescents in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Gera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys, 291 (97% were consuming caffeine [mean (SD: 121.0 (98.2 mg/day]. Nineteen (6% students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets.

  20. Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Ellis, Aleisha; O'Keeffe, Brooke; Grant, Gary; Leveritt, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of a controlled 4-day caffeine withdrawal period on the effect of an acute caffeine dose on endurance exercise performance. Twelve well-trained and familiarized male cyclists, who were caffeine consumers (from coffee and a range of other sources), were recruited for the study. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed, involving four experimental trials. Participants abstained from dietary caffeine sources for 4 days before the trials and ingested capsules (one in the morning and one in the afternoon) containing either placebo or caffeine (1.5 mg · kg(-1) body weight · day(-1)). On day 5, capsules containing placebo or caffeine (3 mg · kg(-1) body weight) were ingested 90 min before completing a time trial, equivalent to one hour of cycling at 75% peak sustainable power output. Hence the study was designed to incorporate placebo-placebo, placebo-caffeine, caffeine-placebo, and caffeine-caffeine conditions. Performance time was significantly improved after acute caffeine ingestion by 1:49 ± 1:41 min (3.0%, P = 0.021) following a withdrawal period (placebo-placebo vs. placebo-caffeine), and by 2:07 ± 1:28 min (3.6%, P = 0.002) following the non-withdrawal period (caffeine-placebo vs. caffeine-caffeine). No significant difference was detected between the two acute caffeine trials (placebo-caffeine vs. caffeine-caffeine). Average heart rate throughout exercise was significantly higher following acute caffeine administration compared with placebo. No differences were observed in ratings of perceived exertion between trials. A 3 mg · kg(-1) dose of caffeine significantly improves exercise performance irrespective of whether a 4-day withdrawal period is imposed on habitual caffeine users.

  1. Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Kathleen T; Jackson, Edwin K; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gillespie, Delbert G; Puccio, Ava M; Clark, Robert SB; Dixon, C Edward; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive drug and a weak adenosine receptor antagonist, can be neuroprotective or neurotoxic depending on the experimental model or neurologic disorder. However, its contribution to pathophysiology and outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans is undefined. We assessed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites (theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline) by high-pressure liquid chromatography/ultraviolet in 97 ventricular CSF samples from an established bank, from 30 adults with severe TBI. We prospectively selected a threshold caffeine level of ≥1 μmol/L (194 ng/mL) as clinically significant. Demographics, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, admission blood alcohol level, and 6-month dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score were assessed. Mean time from injury to initial CSF sampling was 10.77±3.13 h. On initial sampling, caffeine was detected in 24 of 30 patients, and the threshold was achieved in 9 patients. Favorable GOS was seen more often in patients with CSF caffeine concentration ≥ versus theobromine and paraxanthine were also associated with favorable outcome (P = 0.018 and 0.056, respectively). Caffeine and its metabolites are commonly detected in CSF in patients with severe TBI and in an exploratory assessment are associated with favorable outcome. We speculate that caffeine may be neuroprotective by long-term upregulation of adenosine A1 receptors or acute inhibition of A2a receptors. PMID:17684518

  2. Nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a relapsing disorder that constitutes a substantial worldwide health problem, with evidence suggesting that nicotine and nicotine-associated stimuli play divergent roles in maintaining smoking behavior in men and women. While animal models of tobacco addiction that utilize nicotine self-administration have become more widely established, systematic examination of the multiple factors that instigate relapse to nicotine-seeking have been limited. Here, we examined nicotine self-administration and subsequent nicotine-seeking in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats using an animal model of self-administration and relapse. Rats lever pressed for nicotine (0.03 and 0.05 mg/kg/infusion, IV) during 15 daily 2-h sessions, followed by extinction of lever responding. Once responding was extinguished, we examined the ability of previously nicotine-paired cues (tone+light), the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (2.5mg/kg, IP), a priming injection of nicotine (0.3mg/kg, SC), or combinations of drug+cues to reinstate nicotine-seeking. Both males and females readily acquired nicotine self-administration and displayed comparable levels of responding and intake at both nicotine doses. Following extinction, exposure to the previously nicotine-paired cues or yohimbine, but not the nicotine-prime alone, reinstated nicotine-seeking in males and females. Moreover, when combined with nicotine-paired cues, both yohimbine and nicotine enhanced reinstatement. No significant sex differences or estrous cycle dependent changes were noted across reinstatement tests. These results demonstrate the ability to reinstate nicotine-seeking with multiple modalities and that exposure to nicotine-associated cues during periods of a stressful state or nicotine can increase nicotine-seeking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Indrajeet Sharma; Tulika Jha; Purshottam K. Kaundal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is the world's most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The stu...

  4. Effects of smoking cues on caffeine urges in heavy smokers and caffeine consumers with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfo, Amy B; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Tidey, Jennifer W

    2009-02-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n=15) and non-psychiatric controls (CS; n=18) all of whom were heavy smokers and daily caffeine users. Participants were tested under non-abstinent and 5-hour abstinent conditions. SS tended to report greater daily levels of caffeine use than CS. Although this difference was not significant, that may be due to the small sample sizes as the size of this effect was large. Daily caffeine intake was significantly correlated with daily smoking rate in SS but not CS. A significant interaction between group and cue type after controlling for caffeine intake indicated that exposure to smoking cues increased urge for caffeinated beverages in SS but not CS. These results indicate support for associative connections between cigarette smoking cues and craving for caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia.

  5. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Caffeine intake and fecundability: a follow-up study among 430 Danish couples planning their first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T K; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Fecundability has been defined as the ability to achieve a recognized pregnancy. Several studies on caffeine and fecundability have been conducted but have been inconclusive. This may be explained partly by lack of stratification by smoking. Furthermore, few researchers have tried to separate the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience. At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association between caffeine intake and fecundability was analyzed in a logistic regression model with the outcome at each cycle (pregnant or not pregnant) in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds-ratio (FR). Compared to nonsmoking women with caffeine intake less than 300 mg/d, nonsmoking women who consumed 300 to 700 mg/d caffeine had a FR of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.31], whereas women with a higher caffeine intake had a FR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.25-1.60) after adjusting for female body mass index and alcohol intake, diseases of the female reproductive organs, semen quality, and duration of menstrual cycle. No dose-response relationship was found among smokers. Among males, the same decline in point estimates of the FR was present. Smoking women whose

  7. 21 CFR 182.1180 - Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Caffeine. 182.1180 Section 182.1180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1180 Caffeine. (a) Product. Caffeine. (b) Tolerance. 0.02 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  8. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  9. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  10. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  11. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  12. Caffeine Toxicity Due to Supplement Use in Caffeine--Naïve Individual: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystrup, Robert M; Leggit, Jeffery C

    2015-08-01

    Thousands of military members self-medicate with dietary supplements containing unknown quantities of pharmacologically active compounds. These poorly regulated substances can cause real harm to the military population, especially when they contain stimulants such as caffeine. When taken regularly, caffeine has several performance-enhancing benefits. However, when used excessively or in vulnerable populations, caffeine can cause several unwanted side effects such as nervousness, sensory disturbances, insomnia, arrhythmia, excitability, inattentiveness, restlessness, mood changes, gastrointestinal disturbances, and even psychosis. Vulnerable patients include the caffeine-naïve, physiologically stressed, young, and mentally ill patients. One such case describes a caffeine-naïve service member who suffered an adverse reaction after taking an allegedly moderate dose of caffeine from a pill he obtained from a teammate. This case highlights the importance of supplement awareness among service members, increased provider vigilance, third party verification, and enhanced regulation on the approval and marketing of dietary supplements. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory: an fMRI study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Longo, Carmelinda; A Fried, Peter; Cameron, Ian; M Smith, Andra

    2014-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a 2-Back working memory task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants with more prenatal nicotine exposure demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve verbal working memory including the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe and the cingulate gyrus. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure contributes to altered neural functioning during verbal working memory that continues into adulthood. Working memory is critical for a wide range of cognitive skills such as language comprehension, learning and reasoning. Thus, these findings highlight the need for continued educational programs and public awareness campaigns to reduce tobacco use among pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nicotine response and nicotinic receptors in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiebre, C M; Medhurst, L J; Collins, A C

    1987-01-01

    Nicotine response and nicotinic receptor binding were characterized in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice which have been selectively bred for differential "sleep-time" following ethanol administration. LS mice are more sensitive than SS mice to nicotine as measured by a battery of behavioral and physiological tests and as measured by sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures. The greater sensitivity of the LS mice is not due to differences in binding of [3H]nicotine. Unlike inbred mouse strains which differ in sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures, these selected mouse lines do not differ in levels of binding of [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) in the hippocampus. Significant differences in BTX binding were found in the cerebellum and striatum. Although these two mouse lines do not differ in blood levels of nicotine following nicotine administration, they differ slightly in brain levels of nicotine indicating differential distribution of the drug. Since this distribution difference is much smaller than the observed behavioral differences, these mice probably differ in CNS sensitivity to nicotine; however, follow-up studies are necessary to test whether the differential response of these mice is due to subtle differences in distribution of nicotine to the brain.

  15. Caffeine metabolites not caffeine protect against riboflavin photosensitized oxidative damage related to skin and eye health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scurachio, R. S.; Mattiucci, F.; Santos, W. G.

    2016-01-01

    . Caffeine metabolites rather than caffeine seem accordingly important for the observed protective effect against cutaneous melanoma identified for drinkers of regular but not of decaffeinated coffee. The caffeine metabolites, but not caffeine, were by time resolved single photon counting found to quench...... singlet excited riboflavin through exothermic formation of ground-state precursor complexes indicating importance of hydrogen bounding through keto-enol tautomer's for protection of oxidizable substrates and sensitive structures against riboflavin photosensitization....

  16. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Betel - the fourth most popular substance in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Kosowski, Wojciech; Królikowska, Natalia; Stebnicki, Marek; Stebnicki, Michał R

    2015-09-01

    Betel is a kind of substance for chewing, that is made from piper betle, areca nuts and other, additional constituents. It is the fourth most popular psychoactive substance in the world, right after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. It is particularly famous in Asia. Betel chewing induces euphoria and it is addictive. Similarly like in other substances such as nicotine or alcohol, betel also has detrimental effects. It causes e.g. oral cancer and cancer of the oesophagus, it contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome, liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. There are also positive effects of chewing betel, because is has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antyparasitic and antiseptic properties. The aim of this paper was to expand knowledge about betel and its both: positive and negative influence on human health. In this article original and review papers associated with the topic were used. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Interactions Between Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep Problems: Associations with Alcohol Use Among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption and sleep problems are both associated with alcohol use among adolescents. In addition, caffeine consumption (including energy drinks) is associated with sleep problems. However, information about how these three constructs may interact is limited. The goal of this study was to examine potential interactions between energy drink consumption and sleep problems in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use among young adolescents. Coffee and soda consumption were also examined for comparison. Methods: Participants from the Camden Youth Development Study were included ( n  = 127; mean age = 13.1; 68% Hispanic, 29% African American) and questionnaire measures of frequency of caffeinated beverage consumption (energy drinks, coffee, and soda), sleep (initial insomnia, sleep disturbances, daytime fatigue, and sleep duration), and alcohol consumption were used. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactions between caffeinated beverage consumption and sleep in the concurrent prediction of alcohol use. Results: Energy drink consumption interacted with initial insomnia and daytime fatigue to concurrently predict particularly frequent alcohol use among those with either of these sleep-related problems and energy drink consumption. The pattern of results for coffee consumption was similar for insomnia but reached only a trend level of significance. Results of analyses examining soda consumption were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Young adolescents who both consume energy drinks and experience initial insomnia and/or daytime fatigue are at particularly high risk for alcohol use. Coffee consumption appears to be associated with similar patterns. Longitudinal research is needed to explain the developmental pathways by which these associations emerge, as well as mediators and moderators of these associations.

  20. Acute effects of nicotine amplify accumbal neural responses during nicotine-taking behavior and nicotine-paired environmental cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Guillem

    Full Text Available Nicotine self-administration (SA is maintained by several variables, including the reinforcing properties of nicotine-paired cues and the nicotine-induced amplification of those cue properties. The nucleus accumbens (NAc is implicated in mediating the influence of these variables, though the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are not yet understood. In the present study, Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer nicotine. During SA sessions each press of a lever was followed by an intravenous infusion of nicotine (30 µg/kg paired with a combined light-tone cue. Extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity showed that 20% of neurons exhibited a phasic change in firing during the nicotine-directed operant, the light-tone cue, or both. The phasic change in firing for 98% of neurons was an increase. Sixty-two percent of NAc neurons additionally or alternatively showed a sustained decrease in average firing during the SA session relative to a presession baseline period. These session decreases in firing were significantly less prevalent in a group of neurons that were activated during either the operant or the cue than in a group of neurons that were nonresponsive during those events (referred to as task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons, respectively. Moreover, the session decrease in firing was dose-dependent for only the task-nonactivated neurons. The data of the present investigation provide supportive correlational evidence for two hypotheses: (1 excitatory neurophysiological mechanisms mediate the NAc role in cue-maintenance of nicotine SA, and (2 a differential nicotine-induced inhibition of task-activated and task-nonactivated neurons mediates the NAc role in nicotine-induced amplification of cue effects on nicotine SA.

  1. Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine induces tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross; Cordery, Philip; Funnell, Mark; Mears, Stephen; James, Lewis; Watson, Phillip

    2017-10-01

    This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg -1 day -1 ; titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O 2peak and W max (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O 2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla]). During the supplementation period a second V̇O 2peak test was completed on day 21 before a final, acute 3 mg · kg -1 caffeine trial (postcaf) on day 29. Trials consisted of 60 min cycle exercise at 60% V̇O 2peak followed by a 30 min performance task. All participants produced more external work during the precaf trial than testpla, with increases in the caffeine (383.3 ± 75 kJ vs. 344.9 ± 80.3 kJ; Cohen's d effect size [ES] = 0.49; P = 0.001) and placebo (354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. 333.1 ± 56.4 kJ; ES = 0.38; P = 0.004) supplementation group, respectively. This performance benefit was no longer apparent after 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation (precaf: 383.3 ± 75.0 kJ vs. postcaf: 358.0 ± 89.8 kJ; ES = 0.31; P = 0.025), but was retained in the placebo group (precaf: 354.5 ± 55.2 kJ vs. postcaf: 351.8 ± 49.4 kJ; ES = 0.05; P > 0.05). Circulating caffeine, hormonal concentrations and substrate oxidation did not differ between groups (all P > 0.05). Chronic ingestion of a low dose of caffeine develops tolerance in low-caffeine consumers. Therefore, individuals with low-habitual intakes should refrain from chronic caffeine supplementation to maximise performance benefits from acute caffeine ingestion.

  2. Effects of nicotine and nicotine expectancy on attentional bias for emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine's effects on mood are thought to enhance its addictive potential. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of nicotine on affect regulation have not been reliably demonstrated in human laboratory studies. We investigated the effects of nicotine abstinence (Experiment 1), and nicotine challenge and expectancy (Experiment 2) on attentional bias towards facial emotional stimuli differing in emotional valence. In Experiment 1, 46 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to either continue to abstain from smoking or to smoke immediately before testing. In Experiment 2, 96 nicotine-deprived smokers were randomized to smoke a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette and to be told that the cigarette did or did not contain nicotine. In both experiments participants completed a visual probe task, where positively valenced (happy) and negatively valenced (sad) facial expressions were presented, together with neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location and abstinence on reaction time, indicating that abstinent smokers showed an attentional bias for neutral stimuli. In Experiment 2, there was evidence of an interaction between probe location, nicotine challenge and expectation on reaction time, indicating that smokers receiving nicotine, but told that they did not receive nicotine, showed an attentional bias for emotional stimuli. Our data suggest that nicotine abstinence appears to disrupt attentional bias towards emotional facial stimuli. These data provide support for nicotine's modulation of attentional bias as a central mechanism for maintaining affect regulation in cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Nicotinic plant poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Beasley, D Michael G

    2009-09-01

    A wide range of plants contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids. Of this diverse group, those that have been reported to cause human poisoning appear to have similar mechanisms of toxicity and presenting patients therefore have comparable toxidromes. This review describes the taxonomy and principal alkaloids of plants that contain nicotinic and nicotinic-like alkaloids, with particular focus on those that are toxic to humans. The toxicokinetics and mechanisms of toxicity of these alkaloids are reviewed and the clinical features and management of poisoning due to these plants are described. This review was compiled by systematically searching OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. This identified 9,456 papers, excluding duplicates, all of which were screened. Reviewed plants and their principal alkaloids. Plants containing nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids that have been reported to be poisonous to humans include Conium maculatum, Nicotiana glauca and Nicotiana tabacum, Laburnum anagyroides, and Caulophyllum thalictroides. They contain the toxic alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cytisine, n-methylcytisine, coniine, n-methylconiine, and gamma-coniceine. These alkaloids act agonistically at nicotinic-type acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors (nAChRs). The nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptor can vary both in its subunit composition and in its distribution within the body (the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla). Agonistic interaction at these variable sites may explain why the alkaloids have diverse effects depending on the administered dose and duration of exposure. Nicotine and nicotine-like alkaloids are absorbed readily across all routes of exposure and are rapidly and widely distributed, readily traversing the blood-brain barrier and the placenta, and are freely distributed in breast milk. Metabolism occurs predominantly in the liver followed by rapid renal elimination. Following acute exposure

  5. Relationships Between Caffeine Intake and Risk for Probable Dementia or Global Cognitive Impairment: The Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Sally A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Margolis, Karen L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Methods: All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467). In 10 years or less of follow-up with annual assessments of cognitive function, 388 of these women received a diagnosis of probable dementia based on a 4-phase protocol that included central adjudication. We used proportional hazards regression to assess differences in the distributions of times until incidence of probable dementia or composite cognitive impairment among women grouped by baseline level of caffeine intake, adjusting for risk factors (hormone therapy, age, race, education, body mass index, sleep quality, depression, hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Results: Women consuming above median levels (mean intake = 261mg) of caffeine intake for this group were less likely to develop incident dementia (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.99], p = .04) or any cognitive impairment (hazard ratio = 0.74, confidence interval [0.60, 0.91], p = .005) compared to those consuming below median amounts (mean intake = 64mg) of caffeine for this group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest lower odds of probable dementia or cognitive impairment in older women whose caffeine consumption was above median for this group and are consistent with the existing literature showing an inverse association between caffeine intake and age-related cognitive impairment. PMID:27678290

  6. Caffeine tolerance: behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.T.; Khan, S.; Forde, J.; Hirsh, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of tolerance to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon mesencephalic reticular neurons and upon spontaneous locomotor activity was evaluated in rats after two weeks of chronic exposure to low doses of caffeine (5-10 mg/kg/day via their drinking water). These doses are achievable through dietary intake of caffeine-containing beverages in man. Concomitant measurement of [ 3 H]-CHA binding in the mesencephalic reticular formation was also carried out in order to explore the neurochemical basis of the development of tolerance. Caffeine, 2.5 mg/kg i.v., markedly increased the firing rate of reticular neurons in caffeine naive rats but failed to modify the neuronal activity in a group exposed chronically to low doses of caffeine. In addition, in spontaneous locomotor activity studies, the data show a distinct shift to the right of the caffeine dose-response curve in caffeine pretreated rats. These results clearly indicate that tolerance develops to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon the reticular formation at the single neuronal activity level as well as upon spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, in chronically caffeine exposed rats, an increase in the number of binding sites for [ 3 H]-CHA was observed in reticular formation membranes without any change in receptor affinity. 28 references, 4 figures

  7. Caffeine Consumption Among Naval Aviation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Thomas E; Williams, Ronald D; Delorey, Donald R; Woolsey, Conrad L

    2017-04-01

    Education frequently dictates students need to study for prolonged periods of time to adequately prepare for examinations. This is especially true with aviation preflight indoctrination (API) candidates who have to assimilate large volumes of information in a limited amount of time during API training. The purpose of this study was to assess caffeine consumption patterns (frequency, type, and volume) among naval aviation candidates attending API to determine the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage and to examine if the consumption of a nonenergy drink caffeinated beverage was related to energy drink consumption. Data were collected by means of an anonymous 44-item survey administered and completed by 302 students enrolled in API at Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL. Results indicated the most frequently consumed caffeinated beverage consumed by API students was coffee (86.4%), with daily coffee consumption being approximately 28% and the most frequent pattern of consumption being 2 cups per day (85%). The least frequently consumed caffeinated beverages reported were energy drinks (52%) and energy shots (29.1%). The present study also found that the consumption patterns (weekly and daily) of caffeinated beverages (coffee and cola) were positively correlated to energy drink consumption patterns. Naval aviation candidates' consumption of caffeinated beverages is comparable to other college and high school cohorts. This study found that coffee and colas were the beverages of choice, with energy drinks and energy shots being the least frequently reported caffeinated beverages used. Additionally, a relationship between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and energy drinks was identified.Sather TE, Williams RD, Delorey DR, Woolsey CL. Caffeine consumption among naval aviation candidates. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(4):399-405.

  8. Caffeine promotes wakefulness via dopamine signaling in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Aleksandra H.; Shakhmantsir, Iryna; Cichewicz, Karol; Birman, Serge; Hirsh, Jay; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely-consumed psychoactive drug in the world, but our understanding of how caffeine affects our brains is relatively incomplete. Most studies focus on effects of caffeine on adenosine receptors, but there is evidence for other, more complex mechanisms. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which shows a robust diurnal pattern of sleep/wake activity, caffeine reduces nighttime sleep behavior independently of the one known adenosine receptor. Here, we show that dopamine is required for the wake-promoting effect of caffeine in the fly, and that caffeine likely acts presynaptically to increase dopamine signaling. We identify a cluster of neurons, the paired anterior medial (PAM) cluster of dopaminergic neurons, as the ones relevant for the caffeine response. PAM neurons show increased activity following caffeine administration, and promote wake when activated. Also, inhibition of these neurons abrogates sleep suppression by caffeine. While previous studies have focused on adenosine-receptor mediated mechanisms for caffeine action, we have identified a role for dopaminergic neurons in the arousal-promoting effect of caffeine. PMID:26868675

  9. Relationships Between Caffeine Intake and Risk for Probable Dementia or Global Cognitive Impairment: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Ira; Shumaker, Sally A; Snively, Beverly M; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rossom, Rebecca C; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467). In 10 years or less of follow-up with annual assessments of cognitive function, 388 of these women received a diagnosis of probable dementia based on a 4-phase protocol that included central adjudication. We used proportional hazards regression to assess differences in the distributions of times until incidence of probable dementia or composite cognitive impairment among women grouped by baseline level of caffeine intake, adjusting for risk factors (hormone therapy, age, race, education, body mass index, sleep quality, depression, hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Women consuming above median levels (mean intake = 261mg) of caffeine intake for this group were less likely to develop incident dementia (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.99], p = .04) or any cognitive impairment (hazard ratio = 0.74, confidence interval [0.60, 0.91], p = .005) compared to those consuming below median amounts (mean intake = 64mg) of caffeine for this group. Our findings suggest lower odds of probable dementia or cognitive impairment in older women whose caffeine consumption was above median for this group and are consistent with the existing literature showing an inverse association between caffeine intake and age-related cognitive impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  10. The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Temple

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Natural sources of caffeine include coffee, tea, and chocolate. Synthetic caffeine is also added to products to promote arousal, alertness, energy, and elevated mood. Over the past decade, the introduction of new caffeine-containing food products, as well as changes in consumption patterns of the more traditional sources of caffeine, has increased scrutiny by health authorities and regulatory bodies about the overall consumption of caffeine and its potential cumulative effects on behavior and physiology. Of particular concern is the rate of caffeine intake among populations potentially vulnerable to the negative effects of caffeine consumption: pregnant and lactating women, children and adolescents, young adults, and people with underlying heart or other health conditions, such as mental illness. Here, we review the research into the safety and safe doses of ingested caffeine in healthy and in vulnerable populations. We report that, for healthy adults, caffeine consumption is relatively safe, but that for some vulnerable populations, caffeine consumption could be harmful, including impairments in cardiovascular function, sleep, and substance use. We also identified several gaps in the literature on which we based recommendations for the future of caffeine research.

  11. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  12. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  13. Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence among Conflict-Affected Men in the Republic of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is very little evidence globally on tobacco use and nicotine dependence among civilian populations affected by armed conflict, despite key vulnerability factors related to elevated mental disorders and socio-economic stressors. The study aim was to describe patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected civilian men in the Republic of Georgia and associations with mental disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey using multistage random sampling was conducted in late 2011 among conflict-affected populations in Georgia. Respondents included in this paper were 1,248 men aged ≥18 years who were internally displaced persons (IDPs and former IDPs who had returned in their home areas. Outcomes of current tobacco use, heavy use (≥20 cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence (using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence were used. PTSD, depression, anxiety and hazardous alcohol use were also measured, along with exposure to traumatic events and a range of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Results: Of 1,248 men, 592 (47.4% smoked and 70.9% of current smokers were heavy smokers. The mean nicotine dependence score was 5.0 and the proportion with high nicotine dependence (≥6 was 41.4%. In multivariate regression analyses, nicotine dependence was significantly associated with PTSD (β 0.74 and depression (β 0.85, along with older age (except 65+ years, and being a returnee (compared to IDPs. Conclusions: The study reveals very high levels of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. The associations between nicotine dependence, PTSD and depression suggest interventions could yield synergistic benefits.

  14. Caffeine Increases Hippocampal Sharp Waves in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine promotes memory consolidation. Memory consolidation is thought to depend at least in part on hippocampal sharp waves (SWs). In the present study, we investigated the effect of bath-application of caffeine in spontaneously occurring SWs in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Caffeine induced an about 100% increase in the event frequency of SWs at concentrations of 60 and 200 µM. The effect of caffeine was reversible after washout of caffeine and was mimicked by an adenosine A 1 receptor antagonist, but not by an A 2A receptor antagonist. Caffeine increased SWs even in dentate-CA3 mini-slices without the CA2 regions, in which adenosine A 1 receptors are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Thus, caffeine facilitates SWs by inhibiting adenosine A 1 receptors in the hippocampal CA3 region or the dentate gyrus.

  15. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  16. Determination of caffeine and identification of undeclared substances in dietary supplements and caffeine dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine is one of the most consumed stimulants in the world, and is a frequent ingredient of dietary supplements. The aims of this work were to validate a GC-MS method for the quantitation of caffeine and identification of other substances in supplements, mainly weight loss products, and to estimate the caffeine intake by consumers. Sample preparation included extraction with chloroform:water in ultrasonic bath, centrifugation and analysis of the organic layer for caffeine quantitation, and extraction with methanol for identification of other substances. A total of 213 samples of 52 supplement products not registered in Brazil and seized by the Brazilian Federal Police were analyzed. From the 109 samples that declared the amount of caffeine present, 26.6% contained more than 120% of the specified content. Considering the maximum recommended dose stated on the product labels, the consumption of 47.9% of the samples would lead to a daily intake of caffeine above the safe limit of 400 mg. Undeclared drugs, including sibutramine, phenolphthalein, amphepramone and femproporex were found in 28 samples. These results show that consumers of dietary supplements should be aware that these products might contain caffeine at levels that could represent potential health risks, in addition to undeclared pharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity

  18. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  19. Caffeine, sleep and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Snel, J.; Verster, J.C.; Pandi-Perumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine is regarded as a mild stimulant acting on the central nervous system that is responsible for a significant portion of the behavioural and physiological effects of coffee and tea. Motives why people take caffeine are reflected in consumption patterns. Early in the morning caffeine might help

  20. Acute Ingestion of Caffeinated Chewing Gum Improves Repeated Sprint Performance of Team Sport Athletes With Low Habitual Caffeine Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan

    2018-04-23

    The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high-intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. A total of 18 male team sport athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40-m maximum shuttle run test, which incorporates 10 × 40-m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; noncaffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (%), did not differ (p = .209; effect size = 0.16; N = 18) between CAF (5.00 ± 2.84%) and PLA (5.43 ± 2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (130 mg/day, n = 6; 3.98 ± 2.57% vs. 3.80 ± 1.79%, respectively; p = .684; effect size = 0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.

  1. Nutrition Influences Caffeine-Mediated Sleep Loss in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebaugh, Erin S; Park, Jin Hong; Su, Chenchen; Yamada, Ryuichi; Ja, William W

    2017-11-01

    Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine. We measured sleep and total consumption during the first 24 hours of exposure to caffeinated diets containing a range of sucrose concentrations to determine the relative influence of caffeine and nutrient ingestion on sleep. Experiments were replicated using three fly strains. Caffeine reduced total consumption and nighttime sleep, but only at intermediate sucrose concentrations. Although sleep can be modeled by an exponential dose response to nutrient intake, caffeine-mediated sleep loss cannot be explained by absolute caffeine or sucrose ingestion alone. Instead, reduced sleep strongly correlates with changes in total consumption due to caffeine. Other bitter compounds phenocopy the effect of caffeine on sleep and food intake. Our results suggest that a major effect of dietary caffeine is on fly feeding behavior. Changes in feeding behavior may drive caffeine-mediated sleep loss. Future studies using psychoactive compounds should consider the potential impact of nutrition when investigating effects on sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  3. Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Jalilian, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine which exists in drinks such as coffee as well as in drug dosage forms in the global market is among the materials that increase alertness and decrease fatigue. Compared to other forms of caffeine, caffeine gum can create faster and more prominent effects. In this study, the main goal is to design a new formulation of caffeine gum with desirable taste and assess its physicochemical properties. Caffeine gum was prepared by softening of gum bases and then mixing with other formulation ingredients. To decrease the bitterness of caffeine, sugar, aspartame, liquid glucose, sorbitol, manitol, xylitol, and various flavors were used. Caffeine release from gum base was investigated by mechanical chewing set. Content uniformity test was also performed on the gums. The gums were evaluated in terms of organoleptic properties by the Latin-Square design at different stages. After making 22 formulations of caffeine gums, F11 from 20 mg caffeine gums and F22 from 50 mg caffeine gums were chosen as the best formulation in organoleptic properties. Both types of gum released about 90% of their own drug content after 30 min. Drug content of 20 and 50 mg caffeine gum was about 18.2-21.3 mg and 45.7-53.6 mg respectively. In this study, 20 and 50 mg caffeine gums with suitable and desirable properties (i.e., good taste and satisfactory release) were formulated. The best flavor for caffeine gum was cinnamon. Both kinds of 20 and 50 mg gums succeeded in content uniformity test.

  4. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Striley, Catherine L.W.; Griffiths, Roland R.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who re...

  5. Caffeine as a cause of urticaria-angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tognetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a young woman presenting with recurrent urticaria. The episodes occurred both in and out of the workplace. On three occasions it presented as urticaria-angioedema, requiring emergency care on one occassion. A thorough clinical history along with serological and allergological tests allowed a diagnosis of caffeine-induced urticaria-angioedema. We advised the patient to follow a caffeine-free diet and to avoid all caffeine or methylxanthine-containing drugs. After two years of caffeine abstinence, she had not experienced any further episodes of urticaria-angioedema. Only a few cases of caffeine-induced urticaria and/or anaphylaxis have been reported till date, with varying outcomes in allergologic investigations. Moreover, several cases are probably undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as idiopathic urticaria or as occupational allergy. We speculate that hypersensitivity to caffeine rather than autoimmine reaction may be the probable cause of urticaria. Caffeine should considered as a potential urticaria-inducing agent and should be included in the allergological test series.

  6. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G

    1998-08-01

    The effects of brief caffeine deprivation on vigilance performance, mood, and symptoms of caffeine withdrawal were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 hours) after mornings in which they either consumed caffeinated beverages ad lib or abstained. Vigilance performance was tested with a 30-min computerized visual monitoring task. Mood and withdrawal symptom reports were collected by questionnaires. Caffeine deprivation was associated with impaired vigilance performance characterized by a reduction in the percentage of targets detected and an increase in response time, and by subjective reports of decreased vigor and increased fatigue and symptoms characterized by sleepiness, headache, and reduced ability to work. Even short periods of caffeine deprivation, equivalent in length to skipping regular morning coffee, can produce deficits in sustained attention and noticeable unpleasant caffeine-withdrawal symptoms in habitual coffee drinkers. Such symptoms may be a common side-effect of habitual caffeine consumption that contributes to the maintenance of this behavior.

  7. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  8. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; St Helen, Gideon; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-06-01

    African American (AA) smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden than Whites, despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD). Understanding factors that influence daily nicotine intake in AA smokers is an important step toward decreasing tobacco-related health disparities. One factor of interest is smoking topography, or the study of puffing behavior. (i) to create a model using puff characteristics, nicotine dependence, and nicotine metabolism to predict daily nicotine exposure, and (ii) to compare puff characteristics and nicotine intake from two cigarettes smoked at different times to ensure the reliability of the puff characteristics included in our model. Sixty AA smokers smoked their preferred brand of cigarette at two time points through a topography device. Plasma nicotine, expired CO, and changes in subjective measures were measured before and after each cigarette. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) was measured from 24-hour urine collected during ad libitum smoking. In a model predicting daily nicotine exposure, total puff volume, CPD, sex, and menthol status were significant predictors (R(2) = 0.44, P smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 936-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Characterization of Individuals Seeking Treatment for Caffeine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Laura M.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Richards, Brian D.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for DSM-IV-TR substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-t...

  10. A fluvoxamine-caffeine interaction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, U; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1996-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between fluvoxam......The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine is a very potent inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2, which is the major P450 catalysing the biotransformation of caffeine. Thus, a pharmacokinetic study was undertaken with the purpose of documenting a drug-drug interaction between...... fluvoxamine and caffeine. The study was carried out as a randomized, in vivo, cross-over study including eight healthy volunteers. In Period A of the study, each subject took 200 mg caffeine orally, and in Period B, the subjects took fluvoxamine 50 mg per day for 4 days and 100 mg per day for 8 days. On day 8...... fluvoxamine treatment may lead to caffeine intoxication. Finally, our study provides additional evidence that fluvoxamine can be used to probe CYP1A2 in drug metabolism....

  11. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  12. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  13. Caffeine and cognition in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelstaetter, Florian; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Kolbitsch, Christian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Felber, Stephan R; Jaschke, Werner R; Krause, Bernd J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine has been consumed since ancient times due to its beneficial effects on attention, psychomotor function, and memory. Caffeine exerts its action mainly through an antagonism of cerebral adenosine receptors, although there are important secondary effects on other neurotransmitter systems. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) entered the field of neuropharmacology to explore the intracerebral sites and mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents. However, as caffeine possesses vasoconstrictive properties it may interfere with the mechanisms underlying the functional contrast in fMRI. Yet, only a limited number of studies dealt with the effect of caffeine on measures in fMRI. Even fewer neuroimaging studies examined the effects that caffeine exerts on cognition: Portas and colleagues used fMRI in an attentional task under different levels of arousal (sleep deprivation or caffeine administration), concluding that the thalamus is involved in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal. Bendlin and colleagues found caffeine to stabilize the extent of neuronal activation in repetitive word stem completion, counteracting the general task practice effect. Recently, Koppelstaetter and colleagues assessed the effect of caffeine on verbal working memory demonstrating a modulatory effect of caffeine on brain regions (medial frontopolar and anterior cingulate cortex) that have been associated with attentional and executive functions. This review surveys and discusses neuroimaging findings on 1) how caffeine affects the contrast underlying fMRI techniques, particularly the blood oxygen level dependent contrast (BOLD fMRI), and 2) how caffeine operates on neuronal activity underlying cognition, to understand the effect of caffeine on behavior and its neurobiological underpinnings.

  14. Replicative bypass repair of ultraviolet damage to DNA of mammalian cells: caffeine sensitive and caffeine resistant mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    1976-01-01

    Replicative bypass repair of UV damage to DNA was studied in a wide variaty of human, mouse and hamster cells in culture. Survival curve analysis revealed that in established cell lines (mouse L, Chinese hamster V79, HeLa S3 and SV40-transformed xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), post-UV caffeine treatment potentiated cell killing by reducing the extrapolation number and mean lethal UV fluence (Do). In the Do reduction as the result of random inactivation by caffeine of sensitive repair there were marked clonal differences among such cell lines, V79 being most sensitive to caffeine potentiation. However, other diploid cell lines (normal human, excision-defective XP and Syrian hamster) exhibited no obvious reduction in Do by caffeine. In parallel, alkaline sucrose sedimentation results showed that the conversion of initially smaller segments of DNA synthesized after irradiation with 10 J/m 2 to high-molecular-weight DNA was inhibited by caffeine in transformed XP cells, but not in the diploid human cell lines. Exceptionally, diploid XP variants had a retarded ability of bypass repair which was drastically prevented by caffeine, so that caffeine enhanced the lethal effect of UV. Neutral CsCl study on the bypass repair mechanism by use of bromodeoxyuridine for DNA synthesis on damaged template suggests that the pyrimodine dimer acts as a block to replication and subsequently it is circumvented presumably by a new process involving replicative bypassing following strand displacement, rather than by gap-filling de novo. This mechanism worked similarly in normal and XP cells, whether or not caffeine was present, indicating that excision of dimer is not always necessary. However, replicative bypassing became defective in XP variant and transformed XP cells when caffeine was present. It appears, therefore, that the replicative bypass repair process is either caffeine resistant or sensitive, depending on the cell type used, but not necessarily on the excision repair capability

  15. Conjoint moderate or high-risk alcohol and tobacco use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-22

    Mar 22, 2016 ... southern Thailand 90.5% were moderate or high-risk tobacco users and 44.6% were moderate or high-risk alcohol users.3 Among general hospital patients in Brazil the rate of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder and nicotine dependence was 3.6%;4 in primary health care TB patients in. South Africa ...

  16. Caffeine, exercise and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine can improve exercise performance when it is ingested at moderate doses (3-6 mg/kg body mass). Caffeine also has an effect on the central nervous system (CNS), and it is now recognized that most of the performance-enhancing effect of caffeine is accomplished through the antagonism of the adenosine receptors, influencing the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems. Adenosine and dopamine interact in the brain, and this might be one mechanism to explain how the important components of motivation (i.e. vigor, persistence and work output) and higher-order brain processes are involved in motor control. Caffeine maintains a higher dopamine concentration especially in those brain areas linked with 'attention'. Through this neurochemical interaction, caffeine improves sustained attention, vigilance, and reduces symptoms of fatigue. Other aspects that are localized in the CNS are a reduction in skeletal muscle pain and force sensation, leading to a reduction in perception of effort during exercise and therefore influencing the motivational factors to sustain effort during exercise. Because not all CNS aspects have been examined in detail, one should consider that a placebo effect may also be present. Overall, it appears that the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine reside in the brain, although more research is necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms through which the CNS effect is established. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Associations of Urinary Caffeine and Caffeine Metabolites With Arterial Stiffness in a Large Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Belen; Pruijm, Menno; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Staessen, Jan A; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2018-05-01

    To assess the influence of caffeine on arterial stiffness by exploring the association of urinary excretion of caffeine and its related metabolites with pulse pressure (PP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Families were randomly selected from the general population of 3 Swiss cities from November 25, 2009, through April 4, 2013. Pulse pressure was defined as the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures obtained by 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. Carotid-femoral PWV was determined by applanation tonometry. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24-hour urine collections. Multivariate linear and logistic mixed models were used to explore the associations of quartiles of urinary caffeine and metabolite excretions with PP, high PP, and PWV. We included 863 participants with a mean ± SD age of 47.1±17.6 years, 24-hour PP of 41.9±9.2 mm Hg, and PWV of 8.0±2.3 m/s. Mean (SE) brachial PP decreased from 43.5 (0.5) to 40.5 (0.6) mm Hg from the lowest to the highest quartiles of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). The odds ratio (95% CI) of high PP decreased linearly from 1.0 to 0.52 (0.31-0.89), 0.38 (0.22-0.65), and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) from the lowest to the highest quartile of 24-hour urinary caffeine excretion (P<.001). Mean (SE) PWV in the highest caffeine excretion quartile was significantly lower than in the lowest quartile (7.8 [0.1] vs 8.1 [0.1] m/s; P=.03). Similar associations were found for paraxanthine and theophylline, whereas no associations were found with theobromine. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline excretions were associated with decreased parameters of arterial stiffness, suggesting a protective effect of caffeine intake beyond its blood pressure-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast inhibition of glutamate-activated currents by caffeine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Vyleta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses.

  19. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole- 201 Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging

  20. Caffeine reduces dipyridamole-induced myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, P.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Corstens, F.H.; Thien, T. (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1989-10-01

    The mechanism of action of coronary vasodilation after dipyridamole may be based on inhibition of cellular uptake of circulating endogenous adenosine. Since caffeine has been reported to be a competitive antagonist of adenosine we studied the effect of caffeine on the outcome of dipiridamole-{sup 201}Tl cardiac imaging in one patient. During caffeine abstinence dipyridamole induced myocardial ischemia with down-slope ST depressions on the ECG, and reversible perfusion defects on the scintigrams. When the test was repeated 1 wk later on similar conditions, but now shortly after infusion of caffeine (4 mg/kg), the ECG showed nodepressions, and the scintigrams only slight signs of ischemia. We conclude that when caffeine abstinence is not sufficient, the widespread use of coffee and related products may be responsible for false-negative findings in dipyridamole-201Tl cardiac imaging.

  1. HPLC determination of caffeine in coffee beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (pcoffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.

  2. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  3. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  4. T-type calcium channel antagonism decreases motivation for nicotine and blocks nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Vardigan, Joshua D; Drott, Jason M; Uebele, Victor N; Renger, John J; Lee, Ariel; Li, Zhaoxia; Lê, A D; Hutson, Pete H

    2010-10-15

    Recent evidence suggests an involvement of T-type calcium channels in the effects of drugs of abuse. We examined the influence of the novel, potent, and selective T-type calcium channel antagonist [2-(4-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-((1R)-1-{5-[2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]oxo}pyridine-2-yl)ethyl]acetamide] (TTA-A2) (.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) on motivation for nicotine, as measured by nicotine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and nicotine- and cue-induced reinstatement for a response previously reinforced with nicotine delivery (n = 11 or 12 Long Evans rats/group). Furthermore, we examined the specificity of the TTA-A2 effects by characterizing its influence on PR responding for food (in the absence or presence of nicotine-potentiated responding), food- versus nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food administration (n = 11 or 12 Wistar Hannover rats/group), and its ability to induce a conditioned place aversion. TTA-A2 dose-dependently decreased self-administration of nicotine on a PR schedule and the ability of both nicotine and a cue paired with nicotine to reinstate responding. The effects were specific for nicotine's incentive motivational properties, as TTA-A2 did not influence responding for food on a PR schedule but did attenuate the ability of nicotine to potentiate responding for food. Likewise, TTA-A2 did not alter food-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement for a response previously reinforced by food but did decrease nicotine-induced cue-potentiated reinstatement. Finally, TTA-A2 did not produce an aversive state, as indicated by a lack of ability to induce conditioned place aversion. These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  6. Determination of CaffeineIn Beverages: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Igelige Gerald; David Ebuka Arthur; Adebiyi Adedayo

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a well-known stimulant which is added as an ingredient to various carbonated soft drinks. Caffeine has drawn more attention due to its physiological effects beyond that of its stimulatory effect. Consumers are interested in knowing the exact amounts of caffeine existing in beverages. However, limited data exist, especially for store brand beverages. Therefore, it is pertinent to review the various methods that will effectively determine the caffeine contents in different carbonate...

  7. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  8. Brewing controversies: Darwinian perspective on the adaptive and maladaptive effects of caffeine and ethanol as dietary autonomic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Anthony J; Doux, John D; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2007-01-01

    of caffeine and alcohol may represent both a cause and an effect of modern human evolution.

  9. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  10. Caffeine products consumption habits of vilnius university students

    OpenAIRE

    Acus, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    A small amount of caffeine in caffeine-containing products helps with stimulating labor activity, but an overdose of caffeine can cause a health hazard, so it is important to pay close attention to the use of caffeine-containing products. The use of psychoactive drugs is very important public health problem, because students attitude to addictive substances can influence their behavior in their family, the labor market and in society in general. Although caffeine is a natural product, but the...

  11. Association of the Anxiogenic and Alerting Effects of Caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 Polymorphisms and Habitual Level of Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Hohoff, Christa; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Maxfield, Peter J; Evershed, Richard P; Deckert, Jürgen; Nutt, David J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine, a widely consumed adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is valued as a psychostimulant, but it is also anxiogenic. An association between a variant within the ADORA2A gene (rs5751876) and caffeine-induced anxiety has been reported for individuals who habitually consume little caffeine. This study investigated whether this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might also affect habitual caffeine intake, and whether habitual intake might moderate the anxiogenic effect of caffeine. Participants were 162 non-/low (NL) and 217 medium/high (MH) caffeine consumers. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel groups design they rated anxiety, alertness, and headache before and after 100 mg caffeine and again after another 150 mg caffeine given 90 min later, or after placebo on both occasions. Caffeine intake was prohibited for 16 h before the first dose of caffeine/placebo. Results showed greater susceptibility to caffeine-induced anxiety, but not lower habitual caffeine intake (indeed coffee intake was higher), in the rs5751876 TT genotype group, and a reduced anxiety response in MH vs NL participants irrespective of genotype. Apart from the almost completely linked ADORA2A SNP rs3761422, no other of eight ADORA2A and seven ADORA1 SNPs studied were found to be clearly associated with effects of caffeine on anxiety, alertness, or headache. Placebo administration in MH participants decreased alertness and increased headache. Caffeine did not increase alertness in NL participants. With frequent consumption, substantial tolerance develops to the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, even in genetically susceptible individuals, but no net benefit for alertness is gained, as caffeine abstinence reduces alertness and consumption merely returns it to baseline. PMID:20520601

  12. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  13. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  14. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  15. Caffeine effects on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to assess whether a psychoactive dose of caffeine would have differential affects on the mood dimensions of arousal versus feelings of pleasantness and whether these mood alterations would influence memory either by (1) the experience of arousal at learning and/or (2) altered and congruent mood states at learning and recall. To address these questions, the administration of 5 mg/kg caffeine or placebo at learning and retrieval sessions was manipulated and subjects' mood was evaluated by several different self-report measures. Sixteen words were incidentally studied during the learning session and memory was evaluated by the number of words correctly recalled at the retrieval session two days later. Results revealed that caffeine reliably increased arousal, but did not affect any emotion dimensions related to feelings of pleasure. Subjects who received caffeine at learning and retrieval were also in equivalent mood states at both sessions. Moreover, caffeine did not produce any effects on memory; thus, neither hypothesis concerning the influence of arousal on memory was supported. These data show that caffeine is a useful method for manipulating arousal in the laboratory without influencing feelings of pleasantness or learning and memory performance.

  16. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  17. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P. I.; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F. A.; Van Laethem, Danny M. G.; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual F...

  18. Temporal patterns of caffeine intake in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Danika; Lau, Annette; Richardson, Philip; Roberts, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether caffeine intake among adolescents and adults in the U.S. varies across the week or throughout the day, data from a 7-day online beverage consumption survey (2010-2011) were analyzed. Mean (206.8-213.0 mg/day) and 90th percentile (437.4-452.6 mg/day) daily caffeine intakes among consumers 13 years and older were relatively constant across the week with no marked difference among weekdays versus weekend days. Percent consumers of caffeinated beverages likewise remained stable across the week. Mean daily caffeine intake for coffee and energy drink consumers 13 years and older was higher than contributions for tea and carbonated soft drink consumers. Caffeinated beverage consumers (13 + yrs) consumed most of their caffeine in the morning (61% versus 21% and 18% in the afternoon and evening) which was driven by coffee. Caffeinated beverage consumption patterns among adolescents (13-17 yrs) - who typically consume less daily caffeine - were more evenly distributed throughout the day. These findings provide insight into U.S. temporal caffeine consumption patterns among specific caffeinated beverage consumers and different age brackets. These data suggest that while caffeine intakes do not vary from day-to-day, mornings generally drive the daily caffeine intake of adults and is predominantly attributed to coffee. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic effects of physiological levels of caffeine in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnuck, Jamie K; Gould, Lacey M; Parry, Hailey A; Johnson, Michele A; Gannon, Nicholas P; Sunderland, Kyle L; Vaughan, Roger A

    2018-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ). C2C12 myotubes were treated with various doses of caffeine for up to 24 h. Gene and protein expression were measured via qRT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cellular metabolism was determined via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate. Caffeine significantly induced regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Mitochondrial staining was suppressed in PPARβ/δ-inhibited cells which was rescued by concurrent caffeine treatment. Caffeine-treated cells also displayed elevated peak oxidative metabolism which was partially abolished following PPARβ/δ inhibition. Similar to past observations, glucose uptake and GLUT4 content were elevated in caffeine-treated cells, however, glycolytic metabolism was unaltered following caffeine treatment. Physiological levels of caffeine appear to enhance cell metabolism through mechanisms partially dependent on PPARβ/δ.

  20. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( 5 th ed .); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem.

  1. Caffeine addiction: Need for awareness and research and regulatory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Srivastava, Adya Shanker; Verma, Raghunath Prasad; Maggu, Gaurav

    2017-02-04

    Caffeine consumption has been constantly growing in India especially among children and youngsters. Addictive potential of caffeine has long been reported, still there is lack of awareness about caffeine abuse in India. There is an intense need for appropriate public health regulatory measures and awareness about addictive potential & harms related to caffeine. To the best of our knowledge this is first case from India highlighting several important issues with progressive caffeine abuse resulting in dependence leading to physical, psychological, academic and social consequences; psychotic symptoms during intoxication; predisposing factors as impulsivity and novelty seeking traits in pre-morbid personality; psychosis in family; poor awareness of health hazards even among medical professionals. Widely variable caffeine containing products are available but caffeine content or its safety limit is not mentioned on caffeine products in India. Due to harmful consequences, legal availability to children, growing consumption of caffeine products, it is utmost essential to recognize caffeine as addictive substance and impose regulatory measures on sale, advertisement, maximum caffeine content, health consequences and safety limits of caffeine containing products. Further school teachers, parents and medical practitioners need to be made aware of health hazards of caffeine. Caffeine use shall always be enquired from patients presenting with psychiatric complaints. Further research and survey are required on caffeine use and related problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine use and dependence in adolescents: one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstar, Joel V; Bernstein, Gail A; Thuras, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to conduct a 1-year follow-up of daily caffeine-using adolescents to further describe caffeine dependence symptoms and to determine whether caffeine dependence is associated with other substance dependence disorders. Twenty-one of 36 (58.3%) adolescents who participated in a study of caffeine dependence returned for follow-up. The previous study was a case series of adolescents who consumed caffeine daily and met some Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) substance dependence criteria as applied to caffeine. At follow-up, caffeine consumption from beverages was 179.9 +/- 151.8 mg/day. Of the 21 teenagers, 23.8% (n = 5) met criteria for caffeine dependence. Four of these participants developed caffeine dependence during the follow-up period. Other substance dependence disorders were not overrepresented in the caffeine dependent group compared to the caffeine nondependent group. The most commonly reported withdrawal symptoms in dependent teenagers (at baseline and follow-up combined) were feeling drowsy/tired, fatigued, or sluggish/slowed down (83.3% each) and headache (75.0%). Caffeine dependence occurs in some adolescents who drink caffeine daily and is marked by symptoms similar to those found in adults.

  4. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions.

  5. Caffeine, coffee, and appetite control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.

  6. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  7. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  8. Impact of caffeine and coffee on our health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio

    2014-10-01

    Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J

    2011-12-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The pH dependent Raman spectroscopic study of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Gu, Huaimin; Zhong, Liang; Hu, Yongjun; Liu, Fang

    2011-02-01

    First of all the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and normal Raman spectra of caffeine aqueous solution were obtained at different pH values. In order to obtain the detailed vibrational assignments of the Raman spectroscopy, the geometry of caffeine molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. By comparing the SERS of caffeine with its normal spectra at different pH values; it is concluded that pH value can dramatically affect the SERS of caffeine, but barely affect the normal Raman spectrum of caffeine aqueous solution. It can essentially affect the reorientation of caffeine molecule to the Ag colloid surface, but cannot impact the vibration of functional groups and chemical bonds in caffeine molecule.

  11. Commonly used stimulants: Sleep problems, dependence and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Phillips, James G

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that enhance alertness and mood. Discontinuation of both stimulants is associated with withdrawal symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, which may differ in males and females. The present study examines changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and psychological distress associated with use and dependence on caffeine and nicotine. An online survey comprising validated tools to assess sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological distress was completed by 166 participants (74 males, 96 females) with a mean age of 28 years. Participants completed the study in their own time, and were not offered any inducements to participate. Sleep quality was poorer in those dependent upon caffeine or nicotine, and there were also significant interaction effects with gender whereby females reported poorer sleep despite males reporting higher use of both stimulants. Caffeine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality, increased daytime dysfunction, and increased levels of night time disturbance, while nicotine dependence was associated with poorer sleep quality and increased use of sleep medication and sleep disturbances. There were strong links between poor sleep and diminished affect, with psychological distress found to co-occur in the context of disturbed sleep. Stimulants are widely used to promote vigilance and mood; however, dependence on commonly used drugs including caffeine and nicotine is associated with decrements in sleep quality and increased psychological distress, which may be compounded in female dependent users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S.; Edmonds, Caroline J.

    2011-01-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to ‘drink-type’ (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and ‘expectancy’ (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-...

  13. Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Evans, S M; Heishman, S J; Preston, K L; Sannerud, C A; Wolf, B; Woodson, P P

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of terminating low dose levels of caffeine (100 mg/day) in 7 normal humans. Substitution of placebo capsules for caffeine capsules occurred under double-blind conditions while subjects rated various dimensions of their mood and behavior. In the first phase of the study, substitution of placebo for 12 consecutive days resulted in an orderly withdrawal syndrome in 4 subjects which peaked on days 1 or 2 and progressively decreased toward prewithdrawal levels over about 1 week. Data from the remaining three subjects provided no evidence of withdrawal. In the second phase of the study, the generality of the withdrawal effect was examined by repeatedly substituting placebo for 100 mg/day of caffeine for 1-day periods separated by an average of 9 days. Despite differences within and across subjects with respect to the presence, nature and magnitude of symptoms, each of the seven subjects demonstrated a statistically significant withdrawal effect. Although the phenomenon of caffeine withdrawal has been described previously, the present report documents that the incidence of caffeine withdrawal is higher (100% of subjects), the daily dose level at which withdrawal occurs is lower (roughly equivalent to the amount of caffeine in a single cup of strong brewed coffee or 3 cans of caffeinated soft drink) and the range of symptoms experienced is broader (including headache, fatigue and other dysphoric mood changes, muscle pain/stiffness, flu-like feelings, nausea/vomiting and craving for caffeine) than heretofore recognized.

  14. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Regulation of cerebrospinal fluid production by caffeine consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Sik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caffeine is the most commonly consumed psycho-stimulant in the world. The effects of caffeine on the body have been extensively studied; however, its effect on the structure of the brain has not been investigated to date. Results In the present study we found that the long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly; this was observed in 40% of the study rats. In the caffeine-treated rats with ventriculomegaly, there was increased production of CSF, associated with the increased expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF. In contrast to the chronic effects, acute treatment with caffeine decreased the production of CSF, suggesting 'effect inversion' associated with caffeine, which was mediated by increased expression of the A1 adenosine receptor, in the choroid plexus of rats chronically treated with caffeine. The involvement of the A1 adenosine receptor in the effect inversion of caffeine was further supported by the induction of ventriculomegaly and Na+, K+-ATPase, in A1 agonist-treated rats. Conclusion The results of this study show that long-term consumption of caffeine can induce ventriculomegaly, which is mediated in part by increased production of CSF. Moreover, we also showed that adenosine receptor signaling can regulate the production of CSF by controlling the expression of Na+, K+-ATPase and CBF.

  16. Temperament and substance abuse in schizophrenia: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ammers, E C; Sellman, J D; Mulder, R T

    1997-05-01

    The influence of temperament on substance abuse in schizophrenia is poorly understood, whereas it is known to play an important role in other clinical populations. In a sample of 28 male schizophrenics, Cloninger's dimensions of temperament were measured with the use of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Levels of four commonly used substances were recorded. There was a significant correlation between the novelty-seeking dimension and past use of alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine and current use of caffeine and nicotine. There was no relationship between substance use and clinical symptoms or demographic variables. The possible implications of abnormal mean TPQ scores in the sample as well as a weak correlation between symptom patterns and TPQ scores are discussed. The findings suggest that novelty-seeking type behaviors contribute to substance use in schizophrenia.

  17. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  18. Determination of the caffeine contents of various food items within the Austrian market and validation of a caffeine assessment tool (CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, E; Färbinger, A; König, J

    2012-01-01

    The caffeine content of 124 products, including coffee, coffee-based beverages, energy drinks, tea, colas, yoghurt and chocolate, were determined using RP-HPLC with UV detection after solid-phase extraction. Highest concentrations of caffeine were found for coffee prepared from pads (755 mg l⁻¹) and regular filtered coffee (659 mg l⁻¹). The total caffeine content of coffee and chocolate-based beverages was between 15 mg l⁻¹ in chocolate milk and 448 mg l⁻¹ in canned ice coffee. For energy drinks the caffeine content varied in a range from 266 to 340 mg l⁻¹. Caffeine concentrations in tea and ice teas were between 13 and 183 mg l⁻¹. Coffee-flavoured yoghurts ranged from 33 to 48 mg kg⁻¹. The caffeine concentration in chocolate and chocolate bars was between 17 mg kg⁻¹ in whole milk chocolate and 551 mg kg⁻¹ in a chocolate with coffee filling. A caffeine assessment tool was developed and validated by a 3-day dietary record (r²= 0.817, p < 0.01) using these analytical data and caffeine saliva concentrations (r²= 0.427, p < 0.01).

  19. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  20. Inhibitory effects of caffeine on hippocampal neurogenesis and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Kim, Jae-Bong; Kim, Hak-Jin; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2007-05-18

    Caffeine is one of the most extensively consumed psychostimulants in the world. However, compared to short-term effects of caffeine, the long-term effects of caffeine consumption on learning and memory are poorly characterized. The present study found that long-term consumption of low dose caffeine (0.3 g/L) slowed hippocampus-dependent learning and impaired long-term memory. Caffeine consumption for 4 weeks also significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis compared to controls. From these results, we concluded that long-term consumption of caffeine could inhibit hippocampus-dependent learning and memory partially through inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.

  1. Caffeine exposure during rat brain development causes memory impairment in a sex selective manner that is offset by caffeine consumption throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia S; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Sallaberry, Cássia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira

    2016-04-15

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. In moderate doses, it affords a beneficial effect in adults and upon aging, but has a deleterious effect during brain development. We now tested if caffeine consumption by rats (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 g/L in the drinking water, only during active cycle and weekdays) during adulthood could revert the potentially negative effects of caffeine during early life. Thus, we compared caffeine intake starting 15 days before mating and lasting either up to weaning (development) or up to adulthood, on behavior and synaptic proteins in male and female rats. Recognition memory was impaired only in female rats receiving caffeine (0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during development, coincident with increased proBDNF and unchanged BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Caffeine in both treatment regimens caused hyperlocomotion only in male rats, whereas anxiety-related behavior was attenuated in both sexes by caffeine (1.0 g/L) throughout life. Both caffeine treatment regimens decreased GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker) in the hippocampus from male rats. TrkB receptor was decreased in the hippocampus from both sexes and treatment regimens. These findings revealed that caffeine intake during a specific time window of brain development promotes sex-dependent behavioral outcomes related to modification in BDNF signaling. Furthermore, caffeine throughout life can overcome the deleterious effects of caffeine on recognition memory during brain development in female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions and Knowledge of Caffeinated Energy Drinks: Results of Focus Groups With Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; White, Christine M; Bowman, Carolyn; Fenton, Nancy; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2017-04-01

    To examine use, knowledge, and perceptions of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) among youth. Qualitative research using focus group discussions (n = 4). Two Canadian cities (Toronto and Montreal). Youth aged 12-18 years (n = 41). Perceived definitions of CEDs, reasons for use, knowledge of health effects, use with alcohol, marketing perceptions, and use and understanding of cautionary statements on packaging. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth identified CEDs as products that provide energy and contain caffeine and sugar. Compared with mainstream CED brands and energy shots, youth were less likely to perceive Gatorade, Coca-Cola, and a Starbucks beverage as energy drinks, despite some ambiguity. The majority of participants believed that CEDs, including mixed with alcohol, were not necessarily harmful in moderation and that marketing was targeted toward older youth and young adults. Awareness of cautionary statements on CEDs was low; cautionary statements were perceived as difficult to find and read owing to the design and small font. Findings suggest a need to increase public education regarding the potential risks of CED consumption, including enhancements to the mandated cautionary statements, with greater attention to the impact of CED marketing on youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine, Diabetes, Cognition, and Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessels, Geert Jan

    2010-01-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. This review explores the relation between caffeine intake, diabetes, cognition and dementia, focusing on type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological studies on caffeine/coffee intake and T2DM risk are reviewed. Next, the

  4. Effects of Smoking Cues on Caffeine Urges in Heavy Smokers and Caffeine Consumers with and without Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo, Amy B.; AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n = 15) and no...

  5. Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeire, Ilse P I; De Smedt, Tom; Dendale, Paul; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vanacker, Hilde; Vanoeteren, Jan F A; Van Laethem, Danny M G; Van Loco, Joris; De Cremer, Koen A J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items. Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obtained. Nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine urinary levels were determined by UPLC MS/MS.Multiple linear regression models were developed to explore the relationship between nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine levels and separate FTND scores (for all six items). We found significant correlations between the different urinary biomarker concentrations, and the FTND score. The time before the first cigarette after waking (TTFC) was significantly associated with the nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine concentrations. No association was found between the ratio of hydroxycotinine to cotinine and either the FTND or the CPD. A model including four FTND questions, sex, age, and the cotinine concentration, accounted for 45% of the variance of CPD. There are significant relationships between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine and the FTND score. Especially the FTND question about TTFC is relevant for explaining the biomarker concentrations. CPD (below 15) was significantly explained by four FTND dependence items and urinary cotinine levels in a regression model. We investigated associations between urinary levels of nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine in daily smokers and the FTND scores for nicotine dependence. We did not find association between the hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio and CPD. We developed a model that explains the cigarettes smoked daily (CPD) in a group of light

  6. Chromosome 15q25.1 genetic markers associated with level of response to alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Robertson, Margaret; Smith, Tom L; Kalmijn, Jelger; Schuckit, Marc; White, Raymond L

    2008-12-23

    As with other genetically complex common psychiatric and medical conditions, multiple genetic and environmental components contribute to alcohol use disorders (AUDs), which can confound attempts to identify genetic components. Intermediate phenotypes are often more closely correlated with underlying biology and have often proven invaluable in genetic studies. Level of response (LR) to alcohol is an intermediate phenotype for AUDs, and individuals with a low LR are at increased risk. A high rate of concurrent alcohol and nicotine use and dependence suggests that these conditions may share biochemical and genetic mechanisms. Genetic association studies indicate that a genetic locus, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, plays a role in nicotine consumption and dependence. Genetic association with alcohol dependence was also recently shown. We show here that two of the markers from the nicotine studies also show an association (multiple testing corrected P a sample of 367 siblings. Additional markers in the region were analyzed and shown to be located in a 250-kb expanse of high linkage disequilibrium containing three additional genes. These findings indicate that LR intermediate phenotypes have utility in genetic approaches to AUDs and will prove valuable in the identification of other genetic loci conferring susceptibility to AUDs.

  7. Separating neural and vascular effects of caffeine using simultaneous EEG–FMRI: Differential effects of caffeine on cognitive and sensorimotor brain responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diukova, Ana; Ware, Jennifer; Smith, Jessica E.; Evans, C. John; Murphy, Kevin; Rogers, Peter J.; Wise, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of caffeine are mediated through its non-selective antagonistic effects on adenosine A1 and A2A adenosine receptors resulting in increased neuronal activity but also vasoconstriction in the brain. Caffeine, therefore, can modify BOLD FMRI signal responses through both its neural and its vascular effects depending on receptor distributions in different brain regions. In this study we aim to distinguish neural and vascular influences of a single dose of caffeine in measurements of task-related brain activity using simultaneous EEG–FMRI. We chose to compare low-level visual and motor (paced finger tapping) tasks with a cognitive (auditory oddball) task, with the expectation that caffeine would differentially affect brain responses in relation to these tasks. To avoid the influence of chronic caffeine intake, we examined the effect of 250 mg of oral caffeine on 14 non and infrequent caffeine consumers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Our results show that the task-related BOLD signal change in visual and primary motor cortex was significantly reduced by caffeine, while the amplitude and latency of visual evoked potentials over occipital cortex remained unaltered. However, during the auditory oddball task (target versus non-target stimuli) caffeine significantly increased the BOLD signal in frontal cortex. Correspondingly, there was also a significant effect of caffeine in reducing the target evoked response potential (P300) latency in the oddball task and this was associated with a positive potential over frontal cortex. Behavioural data showed that caffeine also improved performance in the oddball task with a significantly reduced number of missed responses. Our results are consistent with earlier studies demonstrating altered flow-metabolism coupling after caffeine administration in the context of our observation of a generalised caffeine-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow demonstrated by arterial spin labelling (19

  8. Caffeine markedly sensitizes human mesothelioma cell lines to pemetrexed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, I. David; Zhao, Rongbao

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in all four mesothelioma cell lines tested (H2052, H2373, H28 and MSTO-211H). Caffeine sensitized H2052 cells in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, and was associated with a markedly decreased clonogenic survival. Caffeine sensitization occurred only in cells subjected to pulse, but not continuous, exposure to pemetrexed. Similar pemetrexed sensitization was also observed with the clinically better tolerated caffeine analog, theobromine. Pemetrexed sensitization by caffeine was associated with an increase in pemetrexed-induced phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Chk1. These data indicate that caffeine and its analog, theobromine, may be a useful approach to enhance pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. PMID:17594092

  9. Reframing the science and policy of nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol - conclusions of the ALICE RAP Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Berridge, Virginia; Conrod, Patricia; Dudley, Robert; Hellman, Matilda; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Miller, David; Rehm, Jürgen; Room, Robin; Schmidt, Laura; Sullivan, Roger; Ysa, Tamyko; Gual, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, illegal drug use was responsible for 1.8% of years of life lost in the European Union, alcohol was responsible for 8.2% and tobacco for 18.2%, imposing economic burdens in excess of 2.5% of GDP. No single European country has optimal governance structures for reducing the harm done by nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol, and existing ones are poorly designed, fragmented, and sometimes cause harm. Reporting the main science and policy conclusions of a transdisciplinary five-year analysis of the place of addictions in Europe, researchers from 67 scientific institutions addressed these problems by reframing an understanding of addictions.  A new paradigm needs to account for evolutionary evidence which suggests that humans are biologically predisposed to seek out drugs, and that, today, individuals face availability of high drug doses, consequently increasing the risk of harm.  New definitions need to acknowledge that the defining element of addictive drugs is 'heavy use over time', a concept that could replace the diagnostic artefact captured by the clinical term 'substance use disorder', thus opening the door for new substances to be considered such as sugar. Tools of quantitative risk assessment that recognize drugs as toxins could be further deployed to assess regulatory approaches to reducing harm. Re-designed governance of drugs requires embedding policy within a comprehensive societal well-being frame that encompasses a range of domains of well-being, including quality of life, material living conditions and sustainability over time; such a frame adds arguments to the inappropriateness of policies that criminalize individuals for using drugs and that continue to categorize certain drugs as illegal. A health footprint, modelled on the carbon footprint, and using quantitative measures such as years of life lost due to death or disability, could serve as the accountability tool that apportions responsibility for who and what causes drug-related harm.

  10. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.

  11. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.

  12. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P.

    2012-01-01

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake

  13. Caffeine intake by patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, L.C.; Nishiura, J.L.; Baxmann, A.C.; Heilberg, I.P. [Disciplina de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-20

    Because caffeine may induce cyst and kidney enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), we evaluated caffeine intake and renal volume using renal ultrasound in ADPKD patients. Caffeine intake was estimated by the average of 24-h dietary recalls obtained on 3 nonconsecutive days in 102 ADPKD patients (68 females, 34 males; 39 ± 12 years) and compared to that of 102 healthy volunteers (74 females, 28 males; 38 ± 14 years). The awareness of the need for caffeine restriction was assessed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. Mean caffeine intake was significantly lower in ADPKD patients versus controls (86 vs 134 mg/day), and 63% of the ADPKD patients had been previously aware of caffeine restriction. Caffeine intake did not correlate with renal volume in ADPKD patients. There were no significant differences between the renal volumes of patients in the highest and lowest tertiles of caffeine consumption. Finally, age-adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that renal volume was associated with hypertension, chronic kidney disease stage 3 and the time since diagnosis, but not with caffeine intake. The present small cross-sectional study indicated a low level of caffeine consumption by ADPKD patients when compared to healthy volunteers, which was most likely due to prior awareness of the need for caffeine restriction. Within the range of caffeine intake observed by ADPKD patients in this study (0-471 mg/day), the renal volume was not directly associated with caffeine intake.

  14. [birthweight And Caffeine Consumption].

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Gladys Gripp; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and low birth weight, prematurity and intrauterine growth retardation. A case-control was carried out and 354 newborns of single labor with birthweight 3,000 g (controls) were analyzed. Caffeine consumption was calculated based on daily consumption of coffee, soft drinks and tea. Results were adjusted using multiple logistic regression for the following confounders: mother's age, schooling, income, marital status...

  15. Temporal sequencing of nicotine dependence and bipolar disorder in the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortega, José M.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Sala, Regina; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) and nicotine dependence (ND) often co-occur. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. We aimed to examine, for the first time in a national and representative sample, the magnitude and direction of the temporal relationship between BD and ND; and to compare, among individuals with lifetime ND and BD, the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of individuals whose onset of ND preceded the onset of BD (ND-prior) with those whose onset of ND followed the onset of BD (BD-prior). The sample included individuals with lifetime BD type I or ND (n=7958) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, n=43093). Survival analyses and logistic regression models were computed to study the temporal association between ND and BD, and to compare ND-prior (n=135) and BD-prior (n=386) individuals. We found that ND predicted the onset of BD and BD also predicted the onset of ND. Furthermore, the risk of developing one disorder following the other one was greatest early in the course of illness. Most individuals with lifetime ND and BD were BD-prior (72.6%). BD-prior individuals had an earlier onset of BD and a higher number of manic episodes. By contrast, ND-prior individuals had an earlier onset of both daily smoking and ND, and an increased prevalence of alcohol use disorder. In conclusion, ND and BD predict the development of each other. The phenomenology and course of ND and BD varied significantly depending on which disorder had earlier onset. PMID:23582710

  16. D-ribose--an additive with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Jim; Shecterle, L M; St Cyr, J A

    2009-05-01

    Caffeine acts as a stimulant, in which approximately 90% of people in the United States consume daily. Besides its beneficial effects, many individuals have experienced unpleasant reactions following the consumption of caffeine: such as insomnia, an increase in heart rate, feelings of nervousness, headaches, occasional lightheadedness, a state of "jitters," and a potential "crash" state following its metabolism. Researchers have proposed mechanisms responsible for caffeine's interactions, which include its blocking capacity of adenosine receptors, its role with the pituitary gland, increasing levels of dopamine, and its role with the intracellular release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is dependent on intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels. Specific substrates have been investigated to lessen the undesirable effects of caffeine and still preserve its stimulatory benefits. The results of these investigations have produced no positive consensus. However, D-ribose, an important pentose carbohydrate in the energy molecule of adenosine triphosphate, as well as our genetic code and other cellular processes, could offer such a solution to this problem. D-ribose could potentially aid in maintaining or potentially lowering extra-cellular adenosine concentrations, aid in the flux of intracellular calcium, aid in intracellular energy production, and potentially lessen the perceived "crash" state felt by many. Every cell requires adequate levels of energy to maintain its integrity and function. Caffeine has the potential to task this energy equilibrium. D-ribose with caffeine may be the substrate to aid in the potential intracellular energy demand, aid in lessening the perceived unpleasant side effects of caffeine, and still preserving the desired benefits of this stimulant consumed by all of us daily.

  17. Caffeine effects on resting-state arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Wallace, Mark J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Zlojutro, Ilinka

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the use of caffeine to manipulate arousal level without the confounds associated with task-related activation. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and EEG alpha frequency, together with a global decrease in alpha power, were used as markers of arousal increase, and we sought to identify these effects with caffeine ingestion. We examined the effect of a single oral dose of caffeine (250 mg) in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen healthy university students (mean age 21 years; 13/18 females) participated in two sessions 1 week apart. EEG and autonomic data (SCL, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration rate) from a 2 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing approximately 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, were examined. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, a global reduction in EEG power in the alpha band, and a global increase in alpha frequency. There were no cardiovascular effects. The positive results are consistent with recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal and suggest that caffeine may be utilised as a task-free means of manipulating arousal in future investigations. Further work is necessary to clarify the absence of cardiovascular effects, and to integrate those data with emerging conceptualisations of arousal and activation. The present data support the use of caffeine as a simple tool to explore the role of arousal in both normal and atypical functioning, and this may be useful in determining the validity and importance of supposed hyper- or hypo-arousal in such syndromes as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

  18. Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Wickham, Kate A.; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2018-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be importa...

  19. Nicotine and ethanol co-use in Long-Evans rats: Stimulatory effects of perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Olga; Lukatskaya, Olga; Moon, Sang-Ho; Guo, Wei-Ran; Chen, Dan; Algava, Diane; Abedi, Susan; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate frequent co-existence of nicotine and alcohol abuse and suggest that this may result, in part, from the ready access to and intake of fat-rich diets. Whereas animal studies show that high-fat diet intake in adults can enhance the consumption of either nicotine or ethanol and that maternal consumption of a fat-rich diet during pregnancy increases operant responding for nicotine in offspring, little is known about the impact of dietary fat on the co-abuse of these two drugs. The goal of this study was to test in Long-Evans rats the effects of perinatal exposure to fat on the co-use of nicotine and ethanol, using a novel paradigm that involves simultaneous intravenous (IV) self-administration of these two drugs. Fat- vs. chow-exposed offspring were characterized and compared, first in terms of their nicotine self-administration behavior, then in terms of their nicotine/ethanol self-administration behavior, and lastly in terms of their self-administration of ethanol in the absence of nicotine. The results demonstrate that maternal consumption of fat compared to low-fat chow during gestation and lactation significantly stimulates nicotine self-administration during fixed-ratio testing. It also increases nicotine/ethanol self-administration during fixed-ratio and dose-response testing, with BEC elevated to 120 mg/dL, and causes an increase in breakpoint during progressive ratio testing. Of particular note is the finding that rats perinatally exposed to fat self-administer significantly more of the nicotine/ethanol mixture as compared to nicotine alone, an effect not evident in the chow-control rats. After removal of nicotine from the nicotine/ethanol mixture, this difference between the fat- and chow-exposed rats was lost, with both groups failing to acquire the self-administration of ethanol alone. Together, these findings suggest that perinatal exposure to a fat-rich diet, in addition to stimulating self-administration of nicotine, causes

  20. A risk allele for nicotine dependence in CHRNA5 is a protective allele for cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Stitzel, Jerry A; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Cloninger, C Robert; Neuman, Rosalind J; Budde, John P; Fox, Louis; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kramer, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Tischfield, Jay; Nurnberger, John I; Almasy, Laura; Porjesz, Bernice; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc A; Edenberg, Howard J; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-12-01

    A nonsynonymous coding polymorphism, rs16969968, of the CHRNA5 gene that encodes the alpha-5 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been found to be associated with nicotine dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the association of this variant with cocaine dependence. Genetic association analysis was performed in two independent samples of unrelated case and control subjects: 1) 504 European Americans participating in the Family Study on Cocaine Dependence (FSCD) and 2) 814 European Americans participating in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). In the FSCD, there was a significant association between the CHRNA5 variant and cocaine dependence (odds ratio = .67 per allele, p = .0045, assuming an additive genetic model), but in the reverse direction compared with that previously observed for nicotine dependence. In multivariate analyses that controlled for the effects of nicotine dependence, both the protective effect for cocaine dependence and the previously documented risk effect for nicotine dependence were statistically significant. The protective effect for cocaine dependence was replicated in the COGA sample. In COGA, effect sizes for habitual smoking, a proxy phenotype for nicotine dependence, were consistent with those observed in FSCD. The minor (A) allele of rs16969968, relative to the major G allele, appears to be both a risk factor for nicotine dependence and a protective factor for cocaine dependence. The biological plausibility of such a bidirectional association stems from the involvement of nAChRs with both excitatory and inhibitory modulation of dopamine-mediated reward pathways.

  1. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference ...

  3. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  4. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  5. Caffeine Withdrawal and Dependence: A Convenience Survey Among Addiction Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Brown, Pamela C; Griffiths, Roland R; Hughes, John R; Juliano, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine withdrawal was included in the research appendix of the DSM-IV to encourage additional research to assist with determining its status for the next version of the manual. Caffeine dependence was not included because of a lack of empirical research at the time of publication. This study assessed the beliefs of addiction professionals about the clinical importance of caffeine withdrawal and dependence. A 6-item survey was developed and delivered electronically to the members of six professional organizations that focus on addiction. Open-ended comments were also solicited. Five hundred members responded. The majority (95%) thought that cessation of caffeine could produce a withdrawal syndrome, and that caffeine withdrawal can have clinical importance (73%); however, only half (48%) thought that caffeine withdrawal should be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). A majority (58%) believed that some people develop caffeine dependence; however, only 44% indicated that it should be in the DSM. Comments suggested that trepidation about inclusion of caffeine diagnoses was due to the concerns about the field of psychiatry being criticized for including common disorders with a relatively low clinical severity. Others, however, expressed an urgent need to take caffeine-related problems more seriously. The majority of addiction professionals believe that caffeine withdrawal and dependence disorders exist and are clinically important; however, these professionals are divided in whether caffeine withdrawal and dependence should be included in DSM. Wider dissemination of the extant literature on caffeine withdrawal and additional research on caffeine dependence will be needed to provide additional guidance to policymakers and healthcare workers.

  6. Caffeine Content in Popular Energy Drinks and Energy Shots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attipoe, Selasi; Leggit, Jeffrey; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-09-01

    The use of energy beverages is high among the general population and military personnel. Previous studies have reported discrepancies between the actual amount of caffeine in products and the amount of caffeine on stated labels. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the content of caffeine listed on the labels of various energy drinks and energy shots. Top-selling energy drinks (n = 9) and energy shots (n = 5) were purchased from retail stores. Three of each of the 14 products were purchased and analyzed for caffeine content by an independent laboratory. Of the 14 products tested, 5 did not provide caffeine amounts on their facts panel-of those, 3 listed caffeine as an ingredient and 2 listed caffeine as part of a proprietary blend. The remaining 9 (of 14) products stated the amounts of caffeine on their labels, all of which were within 15% of the amount indicated on the label. In this study, although the energy beverages that indicated the amount of caffeine it contained had values within ±15% of the amount listed on the label, a potentially acceptable range, this finding is not acceptable with regard to current labeling regulations, which require added ingredients to total 100%. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. The influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure response to caffeine ingestion is affected by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogerio Nogueira; Schneider, Augusto; Valle, Sandra Costa; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C). All groups had BP assessed before (basal) and 1 hourh after (post) caffeine ingestion (6 mg·kg -1 ). It was observed that AC genotype individuals had increased basal-DBP and post-caffeine SBP when compared to AA individuals. Additionally, acute caffeine ingestion increased SBP only in the AC group. It was also found that physical activity only modulated the BP responses to acute caffeine ingestion in AC individuals. Furthermore, the results indicated that the habitual heavy caffeine consumers AC individuals had increased basal-DBP when compared to the AA ones. Our results suggest that the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the basal and post-caffeine BP response to caffeine ingestion is modified by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased sensitivity to nicotine-induced seizures as a consequence of nicotine pretreatment in long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice were pretreated with a subseizure-producing dose of nicotine (2.0 mg/kg) 7.5, 15 and 30 minutes prior to challenge with seizure-producing doses of this drug. Nicotine pretreated animals were less susceptible to nicotine-induced seizures than were saline pretreated animals. The latency to seizure following nicotine challenge was greater in nicotine pretreated animals than in saline controls. Nicotine pretreated LS mice show a greater decrease in nicotine-induced seizure susceptibility than do nicotine pretreated SS mice. This decrease in seizure susceptibility is consistent with induction of nicotinic receptor desensitization via nicotine pretreatment. It is hypothesized that LS and SS mice might differ in sensitivity to nicotine in part because they differ in baseline levels of desensitized versus functional nicotinic receptors.

  9. Teratogenic effects of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takzare N

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression have a high prevalence during pregnancy therefore, pregnant women may take clomipramine and also take other drugs or consume foods that contain caffeine. As investigations about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine and its concurrent administration with caffeine during organogenesis period are scarce, we aimed to study the teratogenicity of simultaneous administration of clomipramine and caffeine in rat fetus.Methods: After dividing 42 pregnant rats to several case and control groups, we injected different doses of caffeine and clomipramine to the animals. All the injections were performed on the eighth until the 15th day of pregnancy. We removed the fetuses on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied the morphological features and apparent anomalies of the fetuses macroscopically. Results: We found a significant rate of mortality, apparent anomalies, abnormal torsion, shrinkage of skin and subcutaneous bleeding in fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or a combination of caffeine and clomipramine. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant increase (P?0.001 in teratogenicity of high doses of caffeine and its combination with clomipramine. Conclusion: This study implies simultaneous intake of high amounts of caffeine and clomipramine lead to teratogenicity. We recommend pregnant women to avoid uncontrolled consumption of foods that contain caffeine or drugs that contain high amounts of this substance. They should not also take clomipramine with caffeine in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Nicotinic receptor blockade decreases fos immunoreactivity within orexin/hypocretin-expressing neurons of nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven J; Gentile, Taylor A; Mo, Lili; Tran, Fionya H; Ma, Sisi; Muschamp, John W

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Nicotine is the principal psychoactive ingredient in tobacco that causes addiction. The structures governing nicotine addiction, including those underlying withdrawal, are still being explored. Nicotine withdrawal is characterized by negative affective and cognitive symptoms that enhance relapse susceptibility, and suppressed dopaminergic transmission from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to target structures underlies behavioral symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. Agonist and partial agonist therapies help 1 in 4 treatment-seeking smokers at one-year post-cessation, and new targets are needed to more effectively aid smokers attempting to quit. Hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin neurons send excitatory projections to dopamine (DA)-producing neurons of VTA and modulate mesoaccumbal DA release. The effects of nicotinic receptor blockade, which is commonly used to precipitate withdrawal, on orexin neurons remain poorly investigated and present an attractive target for intervention. The present study sought to investigate the effects of nicotinic receptor blockade on hypothalamic orexin neurons using mecamylamine to precipitate withdrawal in rats. Separate groups of rats were treated with either chronic nicotine or saline for 7-days at which point effects of mecamylamine or saline on somatic signs and anxiety-like behavior were assessed. Finally, tissue from rats was harvested for immunofluorescent analysis of Fos within orexin neurons. Results demonstrate that nicotinic receptor blockade leads to reduced orexin cell activity, as indicated by lowered Fos-immunoreactivity, and suggest that this underlying cellular activity may be associated with symptoms of nicotine withdrawal as effects were most prominently observed in rats given chronic nicotine. We conclude from this study that orexin transmission becomes suppressed in rats upon nicotinic receptor blockade, and that behavioral symptoms associated

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  12. Interaction of caffeine with the SOS response pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alyssa K; Weir, Tiffany L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the antimicrobial activity of caffeine, both individually and in combination with other compounds. A proposed mechanism for caffeine's antimicrobial effects is inhibition of bacterial DNA repair pathways. The current study examines the influence of sub-lethal caffeine levels on the growth and morphology of SOS response pathway mutants of Escherichia coli. Growth inhibition after treatment with caffeine and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), a mutagenic agent, was determined for E. coli mutants lacking key genes in the SOS response pathway. The persistence of caffeine's effects was explored by examining growth and morphology of caffeine and MMS-treated bacterial isolates in the absence of selective pressure. Caffeine significantly reduced growth of E. coli recA- and uvrA-mutants treated with MMS. However, there was no significant difference in growth between umuC-isolates treated with MMS alone and MMS in combination with caffeine after 48 h of incubation. When recA-isolates from each treatment group were grown in untreated medium, bacterial isolates that had been exposed to MMS or MMS with caffeine showed increased growth relative to controls and caffeine-treated isolates. Morphologically, recA-isolates that had been treated with caffeine and both caffeine and MMS together had begun to display filamentous growth. Caffeine treatment further reduced growth of recA- and uvrA-mutants treated with MMS, despite a non-functional SOS response pathway. However, addition of caffeine had very little effect on MMS inhibition of umuC-mutants. Thus, growth inhibition of E. coli with caffeine treatment may be driven by caffeine interaction with UmuC, but also appears to induce damage by additional mechanisms as evidenced by the additive effects of caffeine in recA- and uvrA-mutants.

  13. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E-Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M; Yang, Benjamin K; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-20

    Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each participant used an e-cigarette with nicotine, an e-cigarette without nicotine, or a sham control. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was determined by heart rate variability, and susceptibility to oxidative stress was determined by plasma paraoxonase activity. Following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine, but not to the e-cigarette without nicotine or the sham control, there was a significant and marked shift in cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. The decrease in high-frequency component and the increases in the low-frequency component and the low-frequency to high-frequency ratio were significantly greater following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine compared with exposure to the e-cigarette without nicotine or to sham control. Oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase, did not increase following any of the 3 exposures. The acute sympathomimetic effect of e-cigarettes is attributable to the inhaled nicotine, not to non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol, recapitulating the same heart rate variability pattern associated with increased cardiac risk in multiple populations with and without known cardiac disease. Evidence of oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase activity, was not uncovered following acute e-cigarette exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Cox, Sharon; Goniewicz, Maciej; McRobbie, Hayden; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Kośmider, Leon

    2018-06-07

    To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. London and the South East, England. Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Physical Correlates in Alcohol-dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauba, Deepak; Thomas, Pramod; Balhara, Yatan P S; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and pattern of comorbidity in alcohol dependence and its relationship with physical and laboratory findings. Eighty males with alcohol dependence were examined using the Hindi version of Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the International Classification of Disease-10 th Edition Personality Disorder Examination, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for alcohol use, global assessment of functioning, blood sampling electrocardiogram, and ultrasonogram. Eighty-seven percent had a comorbid Axis I or an Axis II psychiatric disorder, over 78% had nicotine dependence, and 56% had comorbid Axis II disorder, antisocial personality being the most common. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels were significantly associated with comorbidity. High comorbidity of Axis I psychiatric disorders was found among persons with alcohol dependence. Axis II disorders were also present.

  16. Caffeine delays autonomic recovery following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; White, Daniel W; Kappus, Rebecca M; Baynard, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    Impaired autonomic recovery of heart rate (HR) following exercise is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Caffeine, a potent stimulator of catecholamine release, has been shown to augment blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve activity; however, whether caffeine alters autonomic function after a bout of exercise bout remains unclear. In a randomized, crossover study, 18 healthy individuals (26 ± 1 years; 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m(-2)) ingested caffeine (400 mg) or placebo pills, followed by a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. Autonomic function and ventricular depolarization/repolarization were determined using heart rate variability (HRV) and corrected QT interval (QTc), respectively, at baseline, 5, 15, and 30 minutes post-exercise. Maximal HR (HRmax) was greater with caffeine (192 ± 2 vs. 190 ± 2 beat·min(-1), p < 0.05). During recovery, HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remained elevated with caffeine (p < 0.05). Natural log transformation of low-to-high frequency ratio (LnLF/LnHF) of HRV was increased compared with baseline at all time points in both trials (p < 0.05), with less of an increase during 5 and 15 minutes post-exercise in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). QTc increased from baseline at all time points in both trials, with greater increases in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). Caffeine ingestion disrupts post-exercise autonomic recovery because of increased sympathetic nerve activity. The prolonged sympathetic recovery time could subsequently hinder baroreflex function during recovery and disrupt the stability of autonomic function, potentiating a pro-arrhythmogenic state in young adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Endorsement of DSM-IV dependence criteria among caffeine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Oliveto, A H; Liguori, A; Carpenter, J; Howard, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine whether some caffeine users endorse clinical indicators of dependence and abuse. We asked 162 randomly-selected caffeine users generic DSM-IV criteria for dependence, abuse, intoxication and withdrawal pertaining to their caffeine use in the last year via a structured telephone interview. The prevalence of endorsement of dependence items was 56% for strong desire or unsuccessful attempt to stop use, 50% for spending a great deal of time with the drug, 28% for using more than intended, 18% for withdrawal, 14% for using despite knowledge of harm, 8% for tolerance and 1% for foregoing activities to use. Seven percent of users met DSM-IV criteria for caffeine intoxication and, among those who had tried to stop caffeine permanently, 24% met DSM-IV research criteria for caffeine withdrawal. Test-retest interviews for dependency agreed in 29/30 cases (97%). Eight expert substance abuse clinicians agreed with self-endorsed caffeine dependence 91% of the time. Our results replicate earlier work and suggest that a substantial proportion of caffeine users exhibit dependence-like behaviors. Further studies are needed to determine whether such users exhibit a clinically significant syndrome of drug dependence.

  18. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  20. Excess caffeine exposure impairs eye development during chick embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-lai; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine has been an integral component of our diet and medicines for centuries. It is now known that over consumption of caffeine has detrimental effects on our health, and also disrupts normal foetal development in pregnant mothers. In this study, we investigated the potential teratogenic effect of caffeine over-exposure on eye development in the early chick embryo. Firstly, we demonstrated that caffeine exposure caused chick embryos to develop asymmetrical microphthalmia and induced the orbital bone to develop abnormally. Secondly, caffeine exposure perturbed Pax6 expression in the retina of the developing eye. In addition, it perturbed the migration of HNK-1+ cranial neural crest cells. Pax6 is an important gene that regulates eye development, so altering the expression of this gene might be the cause for the abnormal eye development. Thirdly, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in eye tissues following caffeine treatment, and that the addition of anti-oxidant vitamin C could rescue the eyes from developing abnormally in the presence of caffeine. This suggests that excess ROS induced by caffeine is one of the mechanisms involved in the teratogenic alterations observed in the eye during embryogenesis. In sum, our experiments in the chick embryo demonstrated that caffeine is a potential teratogen. It causes asymmetrical microphthalmia to develop by increasing ROS production and perturbs Pax6 expression. PMID:24636305

  1. Caffeine Consumption Patterns and Beliefs of College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvain, Gary E.; Noland, Melody P.; Bickel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caffeine consumption by young people has increased dramatically over the last decade through increased coffee consumption and "energy drinks." In higher amounts, caffeine causes many adverse effects that are cause for concern. Purpose: Purposes of this study were to determine: (1) the amount of caffeine consumed by a sample…

  2. Caffeine in the management of patients with headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Richard B; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Robbins, Matthew S; Garas, Sandy Yacoub; Patel, Ketu

    2017-10-24

    Caffeinated headache medications, either alone or in combination with other treatments, are widely used by patients with headache. Clinicians should be familiar with their use as well as the chemistry, pharmacology, dietary and medical sources, clinical benefits, and potential safety issues of caffeine. In this review, we consider the role of caffeine in the over-the-counter treatment of headache. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched by combining "caffeine" with the terms "headache," "migraine," and "tension-type." Studies that were not placebo-controlled or that involved medications available only with a prescription, as well as those not assessing patients with migraine and/or tension-type headache (TTH), were excluded. Compared with analgesic medication alone, combinations of caffeine with analgesic medications, including acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, and ibuprofen, showed significantly improved efficacy in the treatment of patients with TTH or migraine, with favorable tolerability in the vast majority of patients. The most common adverse events were nervousness (6.5%), nausea (4.3%), abdominal pain/discomfort (4.1%), and dizziness (3.2%). This review provides evidence for the role of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant in the acute treatment of primary headache with over-the-counter drugs, caffeine doses of 130 mg enhance the efficacy of analgesics in TTH and doses of ≥100 mg enhance benefits in migraine. Additional studies are needed to assess the relationship between caffeine dosing and clinical benefits in patients with TTH and migraine.

  3. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrophysiological studies in healthy subjects involving caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Marcelino, Erica; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We review the electrophysiological studies concerning the effects of caffeine on muscle, lower and upper motor neuron excitability and cognition. Several different methods have been used, such as electromyography, recruitment analysis, H-reflex, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography and event-related potentials. The positive effect of caffeine on vigilance, attention, speed of reaction, information processing and arousal is supported by a number of electrophysiological studies. The evidence in favor of an increased muscle fiber resistance is not definitive, but higher or lower motor neuron excitability can occur as a consequence of a greater excitation of the descending input from the brainstem and upper motor neurons. TMS can address the influence of caffeine on the upper motor neuron. Previous studies showed that cortico-motor threshold and intracortical excitatory and inhibitory pathways are not influenced by caffeine. Nonetheless, our results indicate that cortical silent period (CSP) is reduced in resting muscles after caffeine consumption, when stimulating the motor cortex with intensities slightly above threshold. We present new data demonstrating that this effect is also observed in fatigued muscle. We conclude that CSP can be considered a surrogate marker of the effect of caffeine in the brain, in particular of its central ergogenic effect.

  5. Biosynthesis of caffeine by tea-leaf extracts. Enzymic formation of theobromine from 7-methylxanthine and of caffeine from theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polyclar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) contained two methyltransferase activities catalysing the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to 7-methylxanthine, producing theobromine, and to theobromine, producing caffeine. 2. The methyltransferases exhibited the same pH optimum (8.4) and a similar pattern of effects by metal ions, thiol inhibitors and metal-chelating reagents, both for theobromine and caffeine synthesis. Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ slightly stimulated enzyme activity but they were not essential. Paraxanthine was shown to be most active among methylxanthines, as the methyl acceptor. However, the formation of paraxanthine from 1-methylxanthine was very low and that from 7-methylxanthine was nil, suggesting that the synthesis of caffeine from paraxanthine is of little importance in intact plants. Xanthine, xanthosine, XMP and hypoxanthine were all inactive as methyl acceptors, whereas [2(-14)C]xanthine and [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine were catabolized to allantoin and urea by tea-leaf extracts. The apparent Km values are as follows: 7-methylxanthine, 1.0 times 10(-14)M; theobromine, 1.0 times 10(-3)M; paraxanthine, 0.2 times 10(-3)M; S-adenosylmethionine, 0.25 times 10(-4)M (with each of the three substrates). 3. The results suggest that the pathway for caffeine biosynthesis is as follows: 7-methylxanthine leads to theobromine leads to caffeine. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from 1-methylxanthine. The methyl groups of the purine ring of caffeine are all derived directly from the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine. Little is known about the pathways leading to the formation of 7-methylxanthine. 4. A good correlation between caffeine synthesis and shoot formation or growth of tea seedlings was shown, suggesting that the methylating systems in caffeine synthesis are closely associated with purine nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism in tea plants. PMID:238504

  6. Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, K; Evans, S M; Strain, E C; Griffiths, R R

    1992-10-15

    People who stop consuming caffeine may have symptoms, but the incidence and severity of caffeine withdrawal are not known. This study was performed to determine the effects in the general population of ending one's dietary intake of caffeine. We studied 62 normal adults whose intake of caffeine was low to moderate (mean amount, 235 mg--the equivalent of 2.5 cups of coffee--per day). They completed questionnaires about symptoms and tests of their mood and performance when consuming their normal diets (base-line period) and at the end of each of two two-day periods during which they consumed caffeine-free diets and under double-blind conditions received capsules containing placebo (placebo period) or caffeine (caffeine period) in amounts equal to their daily caffeine consumption. More subjects had abnormally high Beck Depression Inventory scores (11 percent), high scores on the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (8 percent), low vigor scores (11 percent) and high fatigue scores (8 percent) on the Profile of Mood States, and moderate or severe headache (52 percent) during the placebo period than during either the base-line period (2, 0, 0, 0, and 2 percent, respectively; P less than 0.05) or the caffeine period (3, 2, 2, 0, and 6 percent; P less than 0.05). More subjects reported unauthorized use of medications during the placebo period (13 percent) than during the caffeine period (2 percent, P = 0.017). Performance of a tapping task was slower during the placebo period than during the base-line and caffeine periods (P less than 0.01). Persons who consume low or moderate amounts of caffeine may have a withdrawal syndrome after their daily consumption of caffeine ceases.

  7. Incremento na dissolução da caffeine em base de ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/vp copolymer: desenvolvimento farmacotécnico de géis anti-celulite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Menezes Fernandes

    2015-09-01

     acryloyldimethyltaurate/vp copolymer base: pharmaceutical development of anti-cellulite gels Gynoid hydrolipodystrophy, popularly known as cellulite, is a pathological alteration of the adipose tissue and the venous-lymphatic system. Gels containing caffeine has been used as a non-invasive treatment of cellulite offering satisfactory results at low costs. Due to the low aqueous solubility of caffeine, this gel has a major drawback, which is the formation of a drug precipitate in the hydrophilic excipient (ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer gel. The aim of this work is to increase the dissolution of caffeine in the gel by adding adjuvants such as citric acid and sodium benzoate, as well as a water-alcohol solution as a co-solvent for caffeine. The increase in the dissolution of caffeine was verified by determining its content in the gel. In addition, all samples were subjected to macroscopic analysis, pH determinations and viscosity measurements. Macroscopic analysis allowed a clear visualization of a white precipitate in the gels prepared without the adjuvants, whereas the use of both adjuvants and the water-alcohol solution avoided the precipitation of caffeine. Determination of caffeine content showed that the adjuvants and co-solvent nearly doubled the concentration of this drug in the gels. The pH of the gel and the concentration of citric acid did not influence the dissolution of caffeine, whereas the viscosity of the gel was negatively influenced by these parameters, which seems to be caused by the instability of ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer at low pH. Thus, the increase in the dissolution of caffeine seems to have been caused by the formation of water-soluble salts with the adjuvants used.Keywords: Gynoid hydrolipodystrophy. Gel. Caffeine. Solubility.

  8. Caffeine Inhibits Acetylcholinesterase, But Not Butyrylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dobes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is an alkaloid with a stimulant effect in the body. It can interfere in transmissions based on acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and glutamate. Clinical studies indicate that it can be involved in the slowing of Alzheimer disease pathology and some other effects. The effects are not well understood. In the present work, we focused on the question whether caffeine can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and/or, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, the two enzymes participating in cholinergic neurotransmission. A standard Ellman test with human AChE and BChE was done for altering concentrations of caffeine. The test was supported by an in silico examination as well. Donepezil and tacrine were used as standards. In compliance with Dixon’s plot, caffeine was proved to be a non-competitive inhibitor of AChE and BChE. However, inhibition of BChE was quite weak, as the inhibition constant, Ki, was 13.9 ± 7.4 mol/L. Inhibition of AChE was more relevant, as Ki was found to be 175 ± 9 µmol/L. The predicted free energy of binding was −6.7 kcal/mol. The proposed binding orientation of caffeine can interact with Trp86, and it can be stabilize by Tyr337 in comparison to the smaller Ala328 in the case of human BChE; thus, it can explain the lower binding affinity of caffeine for BChE with reference to AChE. The biological relevance of the findings is discussed.

  9. Studies of action of heavy metals on caffeine degradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is an important naturally occurring compound that can be degraded by bacteria. Excessive caffeine consumption is known to have some adverse problems. Previously, Leifsonia sp. strain SIU capable of degrading caffeine was isolated from agricultural soil. The bacterium was tested for its ability to degrade caffeine ...

  10. Alcohol and tobacco use among methadone maintenance patients in Vietnamese rural mountainside areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not, nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C. EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results: The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7% and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%. People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR=0.45; 95%CI=0.22–0.92 and had problems in usual activities (OR=0.20; 95%CI=0.06–0.70 were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef.=0.03; 95%CI=0.02–0.05 and having problems in mobility (Coef.=0.72; 95%CI=0.03–1.42 was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.20–6.82. Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR=1.07; 95%CI=1.01–1.13. Conclusions: This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role

  11. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  12. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  13. Caffeine enhances working memory for extraverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Gökçen, Elif

    2010-12-01

    Using a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design we examined the effects of caffeine on working memory (WM) as a function of extraverted personality. Participants (N=59) received 200mg of caffeine and placebo in counterbalanced-order over two sessions prior to completing a 'N-Back' WM paradigm. Findings revealed that caffeine administration relative to the placebo condition resulted in heightened WM performance, but only for extraverted participants. We suggest based on previous theory and research that dopamine function (DA) may be the most plausible mechanism underlying this finding. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Caffeine: a nutrient, a drug or a drug of abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Yolanda; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Farré Albaladejo, Magí

    2007-01-01

    Coffee, tea, chocolate and caffeinated drinks are the main sources of caffeine, which is consumed in almost all ages and socioeconomic levels. Caffeine acts as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist in the central nervous system. Its main effects are as psychostimulant, acting in addition on the respiratory, muscular and cardiovascular systems. Basically, caffeine is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A2 enzymes (CYP1A2). Several drugs can interact with its metabolism. The observed interindividual differences of its effects can be explained by variations in its metabolism. The main therapeutic use of caffeine is bronchodilator in respiratory diseases. Other possible uses are under investigation. Acute or chronic consumption of caffeine can induce several adverse effects, including intoxication that can be lethal. Finally, caffeine can be considered a drug of abuse. It has positive reinforcing actions, produces tolerance, and a withdrawal syndrome after stopping its consumption. Caffeine can cause different mental disorders such as dependence, which is not included in the DSM-IV-R, withdrawal syndrome and intoxication. Depending on its use, caffeine can be considered a nutrient, a drug or a drug of abuse.

  15. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  16. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  17. Caffeine, cognitive failures and health in a non-working community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    Most studies of the effects of caffeine on performance have been conducted in the laboratory and further information is required on the real-life effects of caffeine consumption on cognition. In addition, possible effects of caffeine consumption on a range of health outcomes should also be assessed in these studies to enable cost-benefit analyses to be conducted. Secondary analyses of a large epidemiological database (N = 3223 non-working participants, 57% female, with a mean age of 49.6 years, range 17-92 years) were conducted to examine associations between caffeine consumption (mean caffeine consumption was 140 mg/day, range 0-1800 mg) and cognitive failures (errors of memory, attention and action) in a non-working sample. Associations between caffeine consumption and physical and mental health problems were also examined. The study involved secondary analyses of a database formed by combining the Bristol Stress and Health at Work and Cardiff Health and Safety at Work studies. Associations between caffeine consumption and frequency of cognitive failures and health outcomes were examined in a sample of non-workers. After controlling for possible confounding factors significant associations between caffeine consumption and fewer cognitive failures were observed. Initial analyses suggested that many health variables were associated with regular level of caffeine consumption. However, most of the significant effects of caffeine disappeared when demographic and lifestyle factors were controlled for. Consumption of caffeine was, however, associated with a reduced risk of depression. These effects were also observed in separate analyses examining the source of the caffeine (coffee and tea). Overall, the results show that caffeine consumption may benefit cognitive functioning in a non-working population. This confirms earlier findings from working samples. This beneficial effect of caffeine was not associated with negative health consequences. Indeed, consumption of

  18. Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David K; Wu, Cai; Tilley, Barbara C; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine; Payami, Haydeh; Wills, Anne-Marie; Aminoff, Michael J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Dewey, Richard; Hauser, Robert A; Schaake, Susen; Schneider, Jay S; Sharma, Saloni; Singer, Carlos; Tanner, Caroline M; Truong, Daniel; Wei, Peng; Wong, Pei Shieen; Yang, Tianzhong

    2017-04-15

    Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD. The GRIN2A genotype was not associated with the rate of clinical progression of PD in the placebo group. However, there was a 4-way interaction between GRIN2A genotype, caffeine, creatine and the time since baseline. Among subjects in the creatine group with high levels of caffeine intake, but not among those with low caffeine intake, the GRIN2A T allele was associated with more rapid progression (p=0.03). These data indicate that the deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to rate of progression of PD is influenced by GRIN2A genotype. This example of a genetic factor interacting with environmental factors illustrates the complexity of gene-environment interactions in the progression of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The paradox of caffeine-zolpidem interaction: a network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslobodsky, Michael

    2009-10-01

    A widely prescribed and potent short-acting hypnotic, zolpidem has become the mainstay for the treatment of middle-of-the-night sleeplessness. It is expected to be antagonized by caffeine. Paradoxically, in some cases caffeine appears to slightly enhance zolpidem sedation. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic nature of this odd effect remains unexplored. The purpose of this study is to reproduce a hypothetical molecular network recruited by caffeine when co-administered with zolpidem using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Thus generated, network drew attention to several possible contributors to caffeine sedation, such as tachykinin precursor 1, cannabinoid, and GABA receptors. The present overview is centered on the possibility that caffeine potentiation of zolpidem sedation does not involve a centralized interaction of specific neurotransmitters, but rather is contributed by its antioxidant capacity. It is proposed that by modifying the cellular redox state, caffeine ultimately reduces the pool of reactive oxygen species, thereby increasing the bioavailability of endogenous melatonin for interaction with zolpidem. This side effect of caffeine encourages further studies of multiple antioxidants as an attractive way to potentially increasing somnolence.

  20. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. VII. Evidence that caffeine enhances expression of potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, K.L.; Tolmach, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    HeLa cells irradiated with 2 Gy of 220-kV X rays suffer a 60-70% loss of colony-forming ability which is increased to 90% by postirradiation treatment with 10 mM caffeine for 6 hr. The detailed postirradiation patterns of cell death and sister-cell fusion in such cultures and in cultures in which the colony-forming ability was brought to about the same level by treatment with a larger (4 Gy) X-ray dose alone or by longer (48 hr) treatment with 10 mM caffeine alone were recorded by time-lapse cinemicrography. Because the patterns of cell death and fusion differ radically in irradiated and in caffeine-treated cultures, the response of the additional cells killed by the combined treatment can be identified as X-ray induced rather than caffeine induced. The appearance of cultures after several days of incubation confirms the similarity of the post-treatment patterns of proliferation in cultures suffering enhanced killing to those occurring in cultures treated with larger doses of X rays alone. It is concluded that x rays do not sensitize cells to caffeine, but rather that caffeine enhanced the expression of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage

  1. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  2. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith, Steven E.; Juliano, Laura M.; Hughes, John R.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensi...

  5. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    It is currently not known whether caffeine has an enhancing effect on long-term memory in humans. We used post-study caffeine administration to test its effect on memory consolidation using a behavioral discrimination task. Caffeine enhanced performance 24 h after administration according to an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve; this effect was specific to consolidation and not retrieval. We conclude that caffeine enhanced consolidation of long-term memories in humans.

  6. Exercise and Sport Performance with Low Doses of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5–13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (

  7. Caffeine: How Much Is Too Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Caffeine has its perks, but it can pose problems too. Find out how much is too much and if you need to curb ... By Mayo Clinic Staff If you rely on caffeine to wake you up and keep you going, ...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Caffeine Aggregation in Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Tavagnacco, Letizia; Schnupf, Udo; Mason, Philip E.; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio; Brady, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a system of eight independent caffeine molecules in a periodic box of water at 300 K, representing a solution near the solubility limit for caffeine at room temperature, using a newly-developed CHARMM-type force field for caffeine in water. Simulations were also conducted for single caffeine molecules in water using two different water models (TIP3P and TIP4P). Water was found to structure in a complex fashion around the planar caffeine molec...

  9. Caffeine and blood pressure response: sex, age, and hormonal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Whitsett, Thomas L; McKey, Barbara S; Wilson, Michael F; Vincent, Andrea S; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Lovallo, William R

    2010-06-01

    The pressor effect of caffeine has been established in young men and premenopausal women. The effect of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) remains unknown in postmenopausal women and in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a randomized, 2-week cross-over design, we studied 165 healthy men and women in 6 groups: men and premenopausal women (35-49 yrs) vs. men and postmenopausal women (50-64 yrs), with postmenopausal women divided into those taking no hormone replacements (HR), estrogen alone, or estrogen and progesterone. Testing during one week of the study involved 6 days of caffeine maintenance at home (80 mg, 3x/day) followed by testing of responses to a challenge dose of caffeine (250 mg) in the laboratory. The other week involved ingesting placebos on maintenance and lab days. Resting BP responses to caffeine were measured at baseline and at 45 to 60 min following caffeine vs placebo ingestion, using automated monitors. Ingestion of caffeine resulted in a significant increase in systolic BP in all 6 groups (4 +/- .6, p < 0.01). Diastolic BP significantly increased in response to caffeine in all (3 +/- .4, p < 0.04) but the group of older men (2 +/- 1.0, p = 0.1). The observed pressor responses to caffeine did not vary by age. Caffeine resulted in an increase in BP in healthy, normotensive, young and older men and women. This finding warrants the consideration of caffeine in the lifestyle interventions recommended for BP control across the age span.

  10. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  11. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  12. Effects of caffeine on DNA repair of UV-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Okaichi, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Nozu, K.

    1981-01-01

    Caffeine enhances the UV-killing of amoeboid cells of NC-4, but UV-irradiated γs-13 is insensitive to caffeine. UV-irradiated NC-4 becomes insensitive to the effect of caffeine during a postirradiation incubation in buffer for about 90 min, but γs-13 remains unchanged in the sensitivity to caffeine throughout the incubation for 180 min. Amoeboid cells of γs-13 can remove pyrimidine dimers as well as NC-4 even in the presence of caffeine. Caffeine inhibits rejoining of strand-breaks of DNA in UV-irradiated NC-4, but the rejoining in γs-13 is insensitive to caffeine. (author)

  13. Chronic caffeine exposure attenuates blast-induced memory deficit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ya-Lei; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhao, Zi-Ai; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Chen, Xing-Yun; Li, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of three different ways of chronic caffeine administration on blast- induced memory dysfunction and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were used and randomly divided into five groups: control: without blast exposure, con-water: administrated with water continuously before and after blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), con-caffeine: administrated with caffeine continuously for 1 month before and after bTBI, pre-caffeine: chronically administrated with caffeine for 1 month before bTBI and withdrawal after bTBI, post-caffeine: chronically administrated with caffeine after bTBI. After being subjected to moderate intensity of blast injury, mice were recorded for learning and memory performance using Morris water maze (MWM) paradigms at 1, 4, and 8 weeks post-blast injury. Neurological deficit scoring, glutamate concentration, proinflammatory cytokines production, and neuropathological changes at 24 h, 1, 4, and 8 weeks post-bTBI were examined to evaluate the brain injury in early and prolonged stages. Adenosine A1 receptor expression was detected using qPCR. All of the three ways of chronic caffeine exposure ameliorated blast-induced memory deficit, which is correlated with the neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity, inflammation, astrogliosis and neuronal loss at different stages of injury. Continuous caffeine treatment played positive roles in both early and prolonged stages of bTBI; pre-bTBI and post-bTBI treatment of caffeine tended to exert neuroprotective effects at early and prolonged stages of bTBI respectively. Up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptor expression might contribute to the favorable effects of chronic caffeine consumption. Since caffeinated beverages are widely consumed in both civilian and military personnel and are convenient to get, the results may provide a promising prophylactic strategy for blast-induced neurotrauma and the consequent cognitive impairment.

  14. The effects of caffeine and expectancy on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Adam; Hartley, Laurence R

    2005-04-01

    The present study contrasted caffeine's effects on individuals who expect caffeine to stimulate them and those who do not. Secondly, whether a message that caffeine rather than placebo was administered would also affect these two groups of subjects differently was investigated. The study was conducted single-blind in a 2x2x2 mixed design. The between subjects factor was whether they expected caffeine to stimulate them (E+) or not (E-) according to their self reports obtained before the experiment began. The within subjects factors were message (told caffeine vs told placebo) and beverage type (given caffeine vs placebo). Sixteen subjects in each group (n=32) performed on signal detection, memory scanning and delayed free recall tasks following ingestion of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee on two sessions each, a total of four experimental sessions. On each session, subjects were given a message regarding their drink (told caffeine vs told placebo). However, on two sessions there was a mismatch between the message and drink given. For signal detection, performance under caffeine was better than placebo in the E+ but not the E- group. However, subjects in the E+ group did not benefit more than the E- group in either message condition. On memory scanning, detections and false alarms did not differ for either beverage, nor was there a differential finding in the E+ and E- groups. However, reaction time under caffeine condition was shorter. No effects of message were found. Caffeine and message also did not have any effect on performance on the delayed free recall task. The hypothesis that caffeine and message would affect E+ and E- subjects differentially was partly supported. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  16. Caffeine and acetaminophen association: Effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Débora F; de Carvalho, Nelson R; Leite, Martim B; Courtes, Aline A; Hartmann, Diane D; Stefanello, Sílvio T; da Silva, Ingrid K; Franco, Jéferson L; Soares, Félix A A; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L

    2018-01-15

    Many studies have been demonstrating the role of mitochondrial function in acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since APAP is commonly consumed with caffeine, this work evaluated the effects of the combination of APAP and caffeine on hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetic function in mice. Mice were treated with caffeine (20mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)) or its vehicle and, after 30minutes, APAP (250mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle. Four hours later, livers were removed, and the parameters associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were evaluated. Hepatic cellular oxygen consumption was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry (HRR). APAP treatment decreased cellular oxygen consumption and mitochondrial complex activities in the livers of mice. Additionally, treatment with APAP increased swelling of isolated mitochondria from mice livers. On the other hand, caffeine administered with APAP was able to improve hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Treatment with APAP increased lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased glutathione levels in the livers of mice. Caffeine administered with APAP was able to prevent lipid peroxidation and the ROS production in mice livers, which may be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial function caused by caffeine treatment. We suggest that the antioxidant effects of caffeine and/or its interactions with mitochondrial bioenergetics may be involved in its beneficial effects against APAP hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip, E-mail: sandipp@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl.

  18. Effects of dilute aqueous NaCl solution on caffeine aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    The effect of salt concentration on association properties of caffeine molecule was investigated by employing molecular dynamics simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble of eight caffeine molecules in pure water and three different salt (NaCl) concentrations, at 300 K temperature and 1 atm pressure. The concentration of caffeine was taken almost at the solubility limit. With increasing salt concentration, we observe enhancement of first peak height and appearance of a second peak in the caffeine-caffeine distribution function. Furthermore, our calculated solvent accessible area values and cluster structure analyses suggest formation of higher order caffeine cluster on addition of salt. The calculated hydrogen bond properties reveal that there is a modest decrease in the average number of water-caffeine hydrogen bonds on addition of NaCl salt. Also observed are: (i) decrease in probability of salt contact ion pair as well as decrease in the solvent separated ion pair formation with increasing salt concentration, (ii) a modest second shell collapse in the water structure, and (iii) dehydration of hydrophobic atomic sites of caffeine on addition of NaCl

  19. Caffeine accelerates recovery from general anesthesia via multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Robert; Khokhar, Suhail; Chowdhury, Atif N; Xie, Kelvin G; Wong, Josiah Hiu-Yuen; Fox, Aaron P; Xie, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have explored different ways to speed emergence from anesthesia. Previously, we have shown that three drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP (forskolin, theophylline, and caffeine) accelerate emergence from anesthesia in rats. However, our earlier studies left two main questions unanswered. First, were cAMP-elevating drugs effective at all anesthetic concentrations? Second, given that caffeine was the most effective of the drugs tested, why was caffeine more effective than forskolin since both drugs elevate cAMP? In our current study, emergence time from anesthesia was measured in adult rats exposed to 3% isoflurane for 60 min. Caffeine dramatically accelerated emergence from anesthesia, even at the high level of anesthetic employed. Caffeine has multiple actions including blockade of adenosine receptors. We show that the selective A 2a adenosine receptor antagonist preladenant or the intracellular cAMP ([cAMP] i )-elevating drug forskolin, accelerated recovery from anesthesia. When preladenant and forskolin were tested together, the effect on anesthesia recovery time was additive indicating that these drugs operate via different pathways. Furthermore, the combination of preladenant and forskolin was about as effective as caffeine suggesting that both A 2A receptor blockade and [cAMP] i elevation play a role in caffeine's ability to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Because anesthesia in rodents is thought to be similar to that in humans, these results suggest that caffeine might allow for rapid and uniform emergence from general anesthesia in humans at all anesthetic concentrations and that both the elevation of [cAMP] i and adenosine receptor blockade play a role in this response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Currently, there is no method to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Patients "wake" when they clear the anesthetic from their systems. Previously, we have shown that caffeine can accelerate emergence from anesthesia. In this study, we show that

  20. Hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the incomplete tolerance to caffeine's pressor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Vincent, Andrea S; McKey, Barbara S; Whitsett, Thomas L; Lovallo, William R

    2005-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular hemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after caffeine administration in a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of caffeine tolerance formation. Half of the subjects developed tolerance to the pressor effect of caffeine, whereas the other half continued to show increases in BP after caffeine ingestion (F = 16.7, p <0.0001). In the subjects who did not develop tolerance, peripheral resistance increased incrementally as the daily dose of caffeine increased (F = 2.8, p = 0.05).

  1. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  2. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  3. The role of conduct disorder in the relationship between alcohol</