WorldWideScience

Sample records for nickel-like x-ray lasers

  1. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  2. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  3. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  4. Development of x-ray laser and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-10-01

    Nickel-like silver and tin X-ray lasers (XRL) at wavelengths of 13.9 nm and 11.9 nm, respectively, in the transient collisional-excitation scheme. The gain-length product is 10 for the former case and 8.4 for the latter. The size of the gain region and the beam divergence of the silver laser are measured to be 75 {mu}m x 25 {mu}m and about 6 mrad, respectively. Our plans in the near future, which are applications of XRL, generation of XRL with high spatial coherence and short-wavelength XRL, are also shown. (author)

  5. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  6. Soft X-Ray Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    AND SUBTrI 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Soft X-ray Laser Development 61102F/2301/A8 L AUTHOR(S) ( Szymon Suckewer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS...REPORT Report of Progress on Soft X-ray Laser Development submitted to Air Force Office of Scientific Research by Acession For DT!C T.IB Princeton...x-ray laser development by Jaegl6 and coworkers 6, however the present work on aluminium plasmas pumped with a low energy Nd laser was primarily

  7. Development of a X-UV Michelson interferometer for probing laser produced plasmas with a X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; CEA Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). DAM/CEB.3/ODIR; Zeitoun, Ph.; Vanbostal, L.; Carillon, A.; Fourcade, P.; Idir, M.; Pape, S. le; Ros, D.; Jamelot, G. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; Bechir, E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). DAM/CEB.3/ODIR; Delmotte, F.; Ravet, M.F. [IOTA, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2001-07-01

    We have developed and used a soft X-ray Michelson interferometer to probe large laser-produced plasmas. The aim investigated is to obtain electron density profiles and thus important informations on the plasma dynamic. This paper describes our design and presents some preliminary results using a nickel-like X-ray laser operating at 13.9 nm. We present numericals results which show the interest of using X-ray laser to probe laser-produced plasma by interferometry. (orig.)

  8. X-ray lasers: Multicolour emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao

    2016-11-01

    The X-ray free-electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in the US can now generate multicolour X-ray pulses with unprecedented brightness using the fresh-slice technique. The development opens the way to new forms of spectroscopy.

  9. Investigation on Soft X-Ray Lasers with a Picosecond-Laser-Irradiated Gas Puff Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowiez, H; Bartnik, A; Jarocki, R; Rakowski, R; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Hilsen, J; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2002-10-09

    We present results of experimental studies on transient gain soft x-ray lasers with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target. The target in a form of an elongated gas sheet is formed by pulsed injection of gas through a slit nozzle using a high-pressure electromagnetic valve developed and characterized at the Institute of Optoelectronics. The x-ray laser experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the tabletop Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser to irradiate argon, krypton or xenon gas puff targets. Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like argon on the 3p-3s transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d-3p transition at 45.1 nm have been demonstrated, however, no amplification for nickel-like krypton or xenon was observed. Results of the experiments are presented and discussed.

  10. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaja-Avila, L; O'Neil, G C; Uhlig, J; Cromer, C L; Dowell, M L; Jimenez, R; Hoover, A S; Silverman, K L; Ullom, J N

    2015-03-01

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼10(6) photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >10(7) laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  11. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  12. 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Menoni, Carmen; Marconi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2014). This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress toward practical devices and their applications in numerous fields are reported. Areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation, and other x-ray generation schemes are covered.  The scope of ICXRL 2014 included, but was not limited to: Laser-pumped X-ray lasers Discharge excitation and other X-ray laser pumping methods Injection/seeding of X-ray amplifiers New lasing transitions and novel X-ray laser schemes High Harmonic sources-Free-electron laser generation in the XUV and X-ray range Novel schemes for coherent XUV and X-ray ge...

  13. Laser-based X-ray and electron source for X-ray fluorescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle Brozas, F.; Crego, A.; Roso, L.; Peralta Conde, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a modification to conventional X-rays fluorescence using electrons as excitation source and compare it with the traditional X-ray excitation for the study of pigments. For this purpose, we have constructed a laser-based source capable to produce X-rays as well as electrons. Because of the large penetration depth of X-rays, the collected fluorescence signal is a combination of several material layers of the artwork under study. However, electrons are stopped in the first layers, allowing a more superficial analysis. We show that the combination of both excitation sources can provide extremely valuable information about the structure of the artwork.

  14. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (<100 fs) and intense (similar to 10(12) photons) pulses of hard X-rays, making them excellent sources for time-resolved studies. Here we show that, despite the inherent instabilities of current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring hi...

  15. X-ray Chirped Pulse Amplification: towards GW Soft X-ray Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV. X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources.

  16. Transient and Capillary Collisional X-ray Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Fournier, K B; Moon, S; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Detering, F; Rozmus, W; Matte, J P; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Kanouff, M

    2001-12-17

    In this work we report our numerical modeling results of laser-generated transient inversion and capillary discharge X-ray lasers. In the search for more efficient X-ray lasers we look closely at other approaches in conjunction with experiments at LLNL. In the search for improved X-ray lasers we perform modeling and experimental investigations of low density targets including gas puff targets. We have found the importance of plasma kinetics in transient X-ray lasers by expanding the physical model beyond hydrodynamics approach with Particle In Cell (PIC) and Fokker-Planck codes. The evidence of the Langdon effect was inferred from the recent experimental data obtained with the Ni-like Pd X-ray laser. We continue modeling different kinds of capillary discharge plasma configurations directed toward shorter wavelength X-ray lasers, plasma diagnostics and other applications.

  17. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  18. Laser-based X-ray and electron source for X-ray fluorescence studies

    CERN Document Server

    Brozas, F Valle; Roso, L; Conde, A Peralta

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a modification to conventional X-rays fluorescence using electrons as excitation source, and compare it with the traditional X-ray excitation for the study of pigments. For this purpose we have constructed a laser-based source capable to produce X-rays as well as electrons. Because of the large penetration depth of X-rays, the collected fluorescence signal is a combination of several material layers of the artwork under study. However electrons are stopped in the first layers allowing therefore a more superficial analysis. We show that the combination of both excitation sources can provide extremely valuable information about the structure of the artwork.

  19. Recent X-Ray Laser Experiments on the COMET Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Nilsen, J; Hunter, J R; Barbee, T W; Shlyaptsev, V N; Filevich, J; Rocca, J J; Marconi, M C; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A

    2001-09-22

    The development of the transient collisional excitation x-ray laser scheme using tabletop laser systems with multiple pulse capability has progressed rapidly in the last three years. The high small-signal gain and strong x-ray output have been demonstrated for laser drive energies of typically less than 10 J. We report recent x-ray laser experiments on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) tabletop facility using this technique. In particular, the saturated output from the Ni-like Pd ion 4d - 4p x-ray laser at 146.8 {angstrom} has been well characterized and has potential towards a useable x-ray source in a number of applications. One important application of a short wavelength x-ray laser beam with picosecond pulse duration is the study of a high density laser-produced plasma. We report the implementation of a Mach-Zehnder type interferometer using diffraction grating optics as beam splitters designed for the Ni-like Pd laser and show results from probing a 600 ps heated plasma. In addition, gas puff targets are investigated as an x-ray laser gain medium and we report results of strong lasing on the n = 3 - 3 transitions of Ne-like Ar.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Table-Top X-Ray Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Moon, S; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Detering, F; Rozmus, W; Matte, J P; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Kanouff, M

    2002-04-29

    In this work we report numerical modeling results of laser-generated transient inversion and capillary discharge X-ray lasers. We have found the importance of plasma kinetics approaches in transient X-ray lasers physics by expanding the physical model beyond hydrodynamics approximation. Using Particle and Fokker-Planck codes the clear evidence of the Langdon effect was inferred from the recent experimental data obtained with the Ni-like Pd X-ray laser. In the search for more efficient X-ray lasers we looked closely at alternative target designs utilizing low density targets. In conjunction with recent experiments at LLNL the numerical investigations of gas puff targets has been performed.

  1. High-harmonic generation: Ultrafast lasers yield X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinnie, Iain; Kapteyn, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Table-top sources that generate both extreme ultraviolet light and soft X-rays through high-harmonic generation of ultrafast infrared laser pulses look set to perform tasks previously accessible using only large-scale synchrotrons.

  2. Recent X-Ray Laser Characterization Experiments at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R F; Dunn, J; Nilsen, J; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2002-02-26

    We report on a series of experiments, using the COMET picosecond facility, designed to characterize and develop different x-ray laser sources. This work encompasses collisional pumping of slab and gas puff targets.

  3. Experimental and theoretical characterisation of short pulse X ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Strati, F

    2002-01-01

    Since the demonstration in 1984 of x-ray laser action in Ne-like Se at 20.6 and 20.9 nm, much experimental and theoretical effort has been ongoing to investigate different lasing schemes. Aims in this research include improving pumping efficiency, beam quality and overall energy output of the demonstrated x-ray lasers and the production of lasing at shorter wavelengths. The envisaged and demonstrated applications of x-ray lasers utilise their short wavelength, high brightness and coherence. Examples of potential applications include x-ray imaging and holography of biological materials in the water window region (2.3 - 4.4 nm), x-ray photolithography for the fabrication of microcircuits and structures below the micron scale and x-ray interferometry, deflectometry and radiography of dense plasma environments of interest in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Soft x-ray laser action has been demonstrated in various plasma active media with wavelengths ranging from 3.5 nm to 40.0 nm and above. However, ...

  4. Ultrafast laser pump/x-ray probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, J.; Judd, E.; Schuck, P.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In an ongoing project aimed at probing solids using x-rays obtained at the ALS synchrotron with a sub-picosecond time resolution following interactions with a 100 fs laser pulse, the authors have successfully performed pump-probe experiments limited by the temporal duration of ALS-pulse. They observe a drop in the diffraction efficiency following laser heating. They can attribute this to a disordering of the crystal. Studies with higher temporal resolution are required to determine the mechanism. The authors have also incorporated a low-jitter streakcamera as a diagnostic for observing time-dependant x-ray diffraction. The streakcamera triggered by a photoconductive switch was operated at kHz repetition rates. Using UV-pulses, the authors obtain a temporal response of 2 ps when averaging 5000 laser pulses. They demonstrate the ability to detect monochromatized x-ray radiation from a bend-magnet with the streak camera by measuring the pulse duration of a x-ray pulse to 70 ps. In conclusion, the authors show a rapid disordering of an InSb crystal. The resolution was determined by the duration of the ALS pulse. They also demonstrate that they can detect x-ray radiation from a synchrotron source with a temporal resolution of 2ps, by using an ultrafast x-ray streak camera. Their set-up will allow them to pursue laser pump/x-ray probe experiments to monitor structural changes in materials with ultrafast time resolution.

  5. Femtosecond X-ray magnetic circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy at an X-ray free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Daniel J., E-mail: dhigley@stanford.edu; Yuan, Edwin [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hirsch, Konstantin; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Jal, Emmanuelle; Lutman, Alberto A.; Coslovich, Giacomo; Hart, Philip; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Ohldag, Hendrik; Seaberg, Matthew; Stöhr, Joachim; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Reid, Alex H.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Schlotter, William F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Liu, Tianmin; MacArthur, James P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); and others

    2016-03-15

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy using an X-ray free electron laser is demonstrated with spectra over the Fe L{sub 3,2}-edges. The high brightness of the X-ray free electron laser combined with high accuracy detection of incident and transmitted X-rays enables ultrafast X-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of unprecedented sensitivity. This new capability is applied to a study of all-optical magnetic switching dynamics of Fe and Gd magnetic sublattices in a GdFeCo thin film above its magnetization compensation temperature.

  6. 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Julien; Ros, David; Zeitoun, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise of invited and contributed papers presented at the 13th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2012) which was held 11–15 June 2012 in Paris, in the famous Quartier Latin, inside the historical Center of Cordeliers. This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress towards practical devices and their applications are reported in these proceedings, including areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation. Recent achievements related to the increase of the repetition rate up to 100 Hz and shorter wavelength collisional plasma-based soft x-ray lasers down to about 7 nm are presented. Seeding the amplifying plasma with a femtosecond high-order harmonic of infrared laser was fore...

  7. AN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR TRANSIENT COLLISIONAL X-RAY LASERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YING-JUN; ZHANG JIE; TENG Al-PING

    2001-01-01

    A set of similarity equations is derived to describe the hydrodynamics of transient X-ray lasers from slab plasmas generated by combined irradiation of nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses. By separating nanosecond and picosecond laser heating processes into different periods, analytical solutions are obtained for the similarity equations. The calculated results are in agreement with numerical simulations and experimental data.

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Simulation Using Laser Pointers and Printers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a laser pointer to demonstrate the analogy between optical and X-ray diffraction and a laser printer with 600 or 1200 dot resolution to create and modify arrays, print them on transparencies, and illuminate them with laser pointers. Includes 14 references. (Author/YDS)

  10. Picosecond resolution soft x-ray laser plasma interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Ng, A; Shlyaptsev, V; Dunn, J; Hunter, J; Keenan, R; Marconi, M; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Smith, R

    2003-12-01

    We describe a soft x-ray laser interferometry technique that allows two-dimensional diagnosis of plasma electron density with picosecond time resolution. It consists of the combination of a robust high throughput amplitude division interferometer and a 14.7 nm transient inversion soft x-ray laser that produces {approx} 5 ps pulses. Due to its picosecond resolution and short wavelength scalability, this technique has potential for extending the high inherent precision of soft x-ray laser interferometry to the study of very dense plasmas of significant fundamental and practical interest, such as those investigated for inertial confined fusion. Results of its use in the diagnostics of dense large scale laser-created plasmas are presented.

  11. 11th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ciaran L. S; X-Ray Lasers 2008

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a thorough account of the current status of achievements made in the area of soft X-ray laser source development and of the increasingly diverse applications being demonstrated using such radiation sources. There is significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, short duration radiation sources in the X-ray spectral region – driven by the multitude of potential applications in all branches of science. This book contains updates on several different approaches for comparative purposes but concentrates on developments in the area of laser-produced plasmas, whereby transient population inversion and gain between ion states is pumped by optical lasers interacting with pre-formed plasmas. The most significant development here is the demonstrated increasing feasibility to produce useful soft X-ray laser beams with high repetition rates in a typical, small, university-class laboratory – as opposed to the requirement of access to a national facility some 20 years ago. Experimental progres...

  12. Laser X-ray Conversion and Electron Thermal Conductivity*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of electron thermal conductivity on the laser x-ray conversion in the coupling of 3ωo laser with Au plane target has been investigated by using a non-LTE radiation hydrodynamic code. The non-local electron thermal conductivity is introduced and compared with the other two kinds of the flux-limited Spitzer-Harm description. The results show that the non-local thermal conductivity causes the increase of the laser x-ray conversion efficiency andimportant changes of the plasma state and coupling feature

  13. X-ray Measurements of Laser Irradiated Foam Filled Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Siddharth; Mariscal, Derek; Goyon, Clement; Baker, Kevin; MacLaren, Stephan; Hammer, Jim; Baumann, Ted; Amendt, Peter; Menapace, Joseph; Berger, Bob; Afeyan, Bedros; Tabak, Max; Dixit, Sham; Kim, Sung Ho; Moody, John; Jones, Ogden

    2016-10-01

    Low-density foam liners are being investigated as sources of efficient x-rays. Understanding the laser-foam interaction is key to modeling and optimizing foam composition and density for x-ray production with reduced backscatter. We report on the experimental results of laser-irradiated foam liners filled with SiO2 and Ta2O5 foams at densities between 2 to 30mg/cc. The foam liners consist of polyimide tubes filled with low-density foams and sealed with a gold foil at one end. The open end of the tube is driven with 250J of 527nm laser light in a 2ns 2-step pulse using the Jupiter Laser Facility at LLNL. A full aperture backscatter system is used to diagnose the coupled energy and losses. A streaked x-ray camera and filtered x-ray pinhole cameras are used to measure laser penetration into the low-density foam for different mass densities. A HOPG crystal spectrometer is used to estimate a thermal electron temperature. Comparisons with beam propagation and x-ray emission simulations are presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, with funding support from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program under project 15.

  14. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J.

    1991-02-13

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

  15. Techniques for synchronization of X-Ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast X-Ray facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Doolittle, L.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2003-05-06

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to the signal initiating a process in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe schemes for achieving accurate timing of femtosecond x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses relative to a pump laser, where x-rays pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from the proposed LUX source based on a recirculating superconducting linac. We present a description of the timing signal generation and distribution systems to minimize timing jitter of the x-rays relative to the experimental lasers.

  16. Attosecond Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several schemes of soft X-ray and hard X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL and their progress are reviewed. Self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE schemes, the high gain harmonic generation (HGHG scheme and various enhancement schemes through seeding and beam manipulations are discussed, especially in view of the generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. Our recent work on the generation of attosecond hard X-ray pulses is also discussed. In our study, the enhanced SASE scheme is utilized, using electron beam parameters of an XFEL under construction at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL. Laser, chicane and electron beam parameters are optimized to generate an isolated attosecond hard X-ray pulse at 0.1 nm (12.4 keV. The simulations show that the manipulation of electron energy beam profile may lead to the generation of an isolated attosecond hard X-ray of 150 attosecond pulse at 0.1 nm.

  17. 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Nickles, P.V; X-Ray Lasers 2006

    2007-01-01

    The search for table-top and repetitive pump schemes during the last decade has been the driving force behind the spectacular advances demonstrated during the 10th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, organized in 2006 in Berlin. Since 1986, international experts have gathered every two years at this established conference to discuss the progress in theory, experiment and application of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers. Traditionally, the conference sessions devoted to complementary and alternative sources of short wavelength radiation, such as high harmonics, XFEL or incoherent X-rays are organized so as to emphasize the role of X-ray laser research in relation to the other short wavelength sources. Grazing incidence pumping (GRIP) and seeding with high harmonics were the dominant topics of the conference. High repetition rate and portable X-ray lasers were reported to have been applied in metrology and photochemistry for the first time. The proceedings of this series of conferences constitute a comprehen...

  18. Optical Shaping of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, A.; Coffee, R.; Vetter, S.; Hering, P.; West, G. N.; Gilevich, S.; Lutman, A. A.; Li, S.; Maxwell, T.; Galayda, J.; Fry, A.; Huang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this Letter we report the experimental demonstration of a new temporal shaping technique for x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). This technique is based on the use of a spectrally shaped infrared (IR) laser and allows optical control of the x-ray generation process. By accurately manipulating the spectral amplitude and phase of the IR laser, we can selectively modify the electron bunch longitudinal emittance thus controlling the duration of the resulting x-ray pulse down to the femtosecond time scale. Unlike other methods currently in use, optical shaping is directly applicable to the next generation of high-average power x-ray FELs such as the Linac Coherent Light Source-II or the European X-FEL, and it enables pulse shaping of FELs at the highest repetition rates. Furthermore, this laser-shaping technique paves the way for flexible tailoring of complex multicolor FEL pulse patterns required for nonlinear multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy as well as novel multicolor diffraction imaging schemes.

  19. Fully diagnosing the spatial properties of X-ray lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Matthews, D., Rosen, M., Brown, S. et al., X-ray laser research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Nova laser facility, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 987, 4(4): 575.[2]Wang, S., Guan, Y., Zhou, G. et al., Experimental investigation of high-gain Ne-like Ge soft-X-ray laser by double-massive-target coupling, Sci. in Chin. (in Chinese), Ser. A, 99, (2): 5.[3]Wang, S., Guan, Y., Zhou, G. et al., Experiment research on saturated-gain for soft X-ray laser from neon-like germanium plasma, Chin. Phys. Lett., 99, 8(2): 68.[4]Kodama, R., Neely, D., Kato, Y. et al., Generation of small-divergence soft X-ray laser by plasma waveguiding with a curved target, Phys. Rev. Lett., 994, 73(24): 325.[5]Carillon, A., Chen, H. Z., Dhez, P. et al., Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm, Phys. Rev. Lett., 992, 68(9): 297.[6]Nilsen, J., Moreno, J. C., Nearly monochromatic lasing at 182

  20. Pair creation and an x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofer, R; Hecht, M B; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Vinnik, D V

    2001-11-05

    Using a quantum kinetic equation we study the possibility that focused beams at proposed x-ray free electron laser facilities can initiate spontaneous electron-positron pair production from the QED vacuum. Under conditions reckoned achievable at planned facilities, repeated cycles of particle creation and annihilation will take place in tune with the laser frequency. The peak particle number density is insensitive to this frequency, and one can anticipate the production of a few hundred particle pairs per laser period.

  1. X-ray refractive index of laser-dressed atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Buth, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the complex index of refraction in the x-ray regime of atoms in laser light. The laser (intensity up to 10^13 W/cm^2, 800nm) modifies the atomic states but, by assumption, does not excite or ionize the atoms in their electronic ground state. Using quantum electrodynamics, we devise an ab initio theory to calculate the dynamic dipole polarizability and the photoabsorption cross section, which are subsequently used to determine the real and imaginary part, respectively, of the refractive index. The interaction with the laser is treated nonperturbatively; the x-ray interaction is described in terms of a one-photon process. We numerically solve the resolvents involved using a single-vector Lanczos algorithm. Finally, we formulate rate equations to copropagate a laser and an x-ray pulse through a gas cell. Our theory is applied to argon. We study the x-ray polarizability and absorption near the argon K edge over a large range of dressing-laser intensities. We find electromagnetically induced transp...

  2. Simulations of ultrafast x-ray laser experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmann-Grote, C.; Andreev, A. A.; Appel, K.; Branco, J.; Briggs, R.; Bussmann, M.; Buzmakov, A.; Garten, M.; Grund, A.; Huebl, A.; Jurek, Z.; Loh, N. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Samoylova, L.; Santra, R.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Sharma, A.; Steiniger, K.; Yakubov, S.; Yoon, C. H.; Yurkov, M. V.; Zastrau, U.; Ziaja-Motyka, B.; Mancuso, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Simulations of experiments at modern light sources, such as optical laser laboratories, synchrotrons, and free electron lasers, become increasingly important for the successful preparation, execution, and analysis of these experiments investigating ever more complex physical systems, e.g. biomolecules, complex materials, and ultra-short lived states of matter at extreme conditions. We have implemented a platform for complete start-to-end simulations of various types of photon science experiments, tracking the radiation from the source through the beam transport optics to the sample or target under investigation, its interaction with and scattering from the sample, and registration in a photon detector. This tool allows researchers and facility operators to simulate their experiments and instruments under real life conditions, identify promising and unattainable regions of the parameter space and ultimately make better use of valuable beamtime. In this paper, we present an overview about status and future development of the simulation platform and discuss three applications: 1.) Single-particle imaging of biomolecules using x-ray free electron lasers and optimization of x-ray pulse properties, 2.) x-ray scattering diagnostics of hot dense plasmas in high power laser-matter interaction and identification of plasma instabilities, and 3.) x-ray absorption spectroscopy in warm dense matter created by high energy laser-matter interaction and pulse shape optimization for low-isentrope dynamic compression.

  3. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    The technique of high-power laser-induced plasma acceleration can be used to generate a variety of diverse effects including the emission of X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons and radio-frequency radiation. A compact variable source of this nature could support a wide range of potential applications including single-sided through-barrier imaging, cargo and vehicle screening, infrastructure inspection, oncology and structural failure analysis. This paper presents a verified particle physics simulation which replicates recent results from experiments conducted at the Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, UK. The RAL experiment demonstrated the generation of backscattered X-rays from test objects via the bremsstrahlung of an incident electron beam, the electron beam itself being produced by Laser Wakefield Acceleration. A key initial objective of the computer simulation was to inform the experimental planning phase on the predicted magnitude of the backscattered X-rays likely from the test objects. This objective was achieved and the computer simulation was used to show the viability of the proposed concept (Laser-induced X-ray `RADAR'). At the more advanced stages of the experimental planning phase, the simulation was used to gain critical knowledge of where it would be technically feasible to locate key diagnostic equipment within the experiment. The experiment successfully demonstrated the concept of X-ray `RADAR' imaging, achieved by using the accurate timing information of the backscattered X-rays relative to the ultra-short laser pulse used to generate the electron beam. By using fast response X-ray detectors it was possible to derive range information for the test objects being scanned. An X-ray radar `image' (equivalent to a RADAR B-scan slice) was produced by combining individual X-ray temporal profiles collected at different points along a horizontal distance line scan. The same image formation process was used to generate

  4. Ultrafast x-ray diffraction of laser-irradiated crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, P. A.; Larsson, J.; Chang, Z.; Lindenberg, A.; Schuck, P. J.; Judd, E.; Padmore, H. A.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Lee, R. W.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Wark, J. S.; Falcone, R. W.

    1997-07-01

    An apparatus has been developed for measuring time-dependent x-ray diffraction. X-ray pulses from an Advanced Light Source bend magnet are diffracted by a sagittally-focusing Si (111) crystal and then by a sample crystal, presently InSb (111). Laser pulses with 100 fs duration and a repetition rate of 1 KHz irradiate the sample inducing a phase transition. Two types of detectors are being employed: an x-ray streak camera and an avalanche photodiode. The streak camera is driven by a photoconductive switch and has a 2 ps temporal resolution determined by trigger jitter. The avalanche photodiode has high quantum efficiency and sufficient time resolution to detect single x-ray pulses in ALS two bunch or `camshaft' operation. A beamline is under construction dedicated for time resolved and micro-diffraction experiments. In the new beamline a toroidal mirror collects 3 mrad horizontally and makes a 1:1 image of the bend magnet source in the x-ray hutch. A laser induced phase transition has been observed in InSb occurring within 70 ps.

  5. Liquid explosions induced by X-ray laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A.; Milathianaki, Despina; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; McQueen, Trevor A.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Koglin, Jason E.; Lane, Thomas J.; Hayes, Matt J.; Guillet, Serge A. H.; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L.; Willmott, Philip R.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Gumerlock, Karl L.; Botha, Sabine; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Shoeman, Robert L.; Stone, Howard A.; Boutet, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Explosions are spectacular and intriguing phenomena that expose the dynamics of matter under extreme conditions. We investigated, using time-resolved imaging, explosions induced by ultraintense X-ray laser pulses in water drops and jets. Our observations revealed an explosive vaporization followed by high-velocity interacting flows of liquid and vapour, and by the generation of shock trains in the liquid jets. These flows are different from those previously observed in laser ablation, owing to a simpler spatial pattern of X-ray absorption. We show that the explosion dynamics in our experiments is consistent with a redistribution of absorbed energy, mediated by a pressure or shock wave in the liquid, and we model the effects of explosions, including their adverse impact on X-ray laser experiments. X-ray laser explosions have predictable dynamics that may prove useful for controlling the state of pure liquids over broad energy scales and timescales, and for triggering pressure-sensitive molecular dynamics in solutions.

  6. The role of EBIT in X-ray laser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J

    2007-01-25

    Back in the early 1980's the X-ray laser program required a new level of understanding and measurements of the atomic physics of highly charged ions. The electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) was developed and built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the effort to understand and measure the cross sections and wavelengths of highly charged ions. In this paper we will discuss some of the early history of EBIT and how it was used to help in the development of X-ray lasers. EBIT's capability was unique and we will show some of the experimental results obtained over the years that were done related to X-ray lasers. As X-ray lasers have now become a table-top tool we will show some new areas of research that involve understanding the index of refraction in partially ionized plasmas and suggest new areas where EBIT may be able to contribute.

  7. Multilayer structures for X-ray laser cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglio, N. M.; Stearns, D. G.; Hawryluk, A. M.

    1985-08-01

    Recent demonstrations of the generation of amplified spontaneous emission at soft X-ray wavelenths have spurred interest in normal incidence multilayer structures for use as X-ray laser (XRL) cavity mirrors. Calculations indicate that cavity mirrors can provide significant enhancement of RXL output, and drive the oscillations to the saturation limit. Novel ideas for cavity output coupling may expand the versatility of XRL devices, while encouraging the marriage of lithographic and multilayer technologies to the general benefit of X-ray optics. Preliminary tests of a double pass cavity have already been conducted. These tests point out the importance of detailed cavity design issues such as precision mirror alignment, mirror damage dynamics, and detailed mirror calibration, to the future success of this field.

  8. Compact x-ray lasers in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, W.A.

    1988-10-03

    Compact x-ray lasers in the laboratory can be produced with ultrahigh gradient rf linacs based on recent advances in linac technology by an SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x rays in the range of 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers. Alternatively, the beam can pump a low density dielectric to produce x rays via recombination. Such linear light sources can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  10. Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

    2005-11-11

    A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

  11. Progress in the applicability of plasma X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, T., E-mail: T.Kuehl@gsi.de; Aurand, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Eisenbarth, U. [GSI (Germany); Guilbaud, O. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Fils, J.; Goette, S. [GSI (Germany); Habib, J. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Hochhaus, D.; Javorkova, D. [GSI (Germany); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, EMMI (Germany); Kazamias, S.; Pittman, M.; Ros, D. [Universite Paris Sud (France); Seres, J.; Spielmann, Ch. [Friedrich Schiller-University (Germany); Zielbauer, B.; Zimmer, D. [GSI (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Proposed as satellite-based weapons during the 1980s, X-ray lasing was for a long time only achieved with enormous amounts of pump energy in either nuclear explosions or at kilojoule-class laser installations. During the last few years a tremendous development was achieved, most visible in the realisation of the FEL lasers at DESY and SLAC. As important for a wider applicability is the enormous reduction in pump energy for laser pumped plasma X-ray lasers, which now brings such devices into the range of applications for diagnostics and spectroscopy even in smaller laboratories. Main developments were the transient excitation scheme and the optimized pumping concepts. This paper concentrates on developments at the GSI Helmholtzcenter at Darmstadt aiming towards reliable X-ray laser sources in the range from 50 to several 100 eV. The main driving forces for the laser development at GSI are the possible application for the spectroscopy of Li-like ions in the storage ring ESR and the future storage ring NESR at FAIR, and the interest in novel plasma diagnostics.

  12. Analysis of the transient collisional x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Moribayashi, Kengo; Zhidkov, Alexei; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Daido, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of the gain of a transient collisional x-ray lasers had been investigated using a plasma hydrodynamics code coupled with a detailed atomic kinetics code. The calculated gain of a Ni-like Ag laser pumped by two 100ps laser pulses agrees qualitatively with the experiment. Calculations for a thin foil target irradiated by two 2ps laser pulses shows that a high gain (>50/cm) can be obtained by adjusting the temporal interval between the two pump pulses. (author)

  13. Simulation of transient collisional x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Moribayashi, Kengo; Zhidkov, A.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a collisional radiative model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers. We calculate the ion abundance and soft x-ray gain for the Ne-like 3s-3p transition and Ni-like 4d-4p transition, in short pulse laser irradiated plasmas. We combine a detailed model using the atomic data calculated by the HULLAC code and the averaged model based on the screened hydrogenic approximation to develop a compact model. Effects of dielectronic recombination channels and radiation trapping of the lower laser level are investigated. The calculation of the transient gain is carried out using the plasma temperature and density obtained from a 1D hydrodynamics code. (author)

  14. 12th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Chang; Janulewicz, Karol

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the present status of achievements in the area of soft X-ray laser sources, supplemented by information about sources based on relativistic laser˗matter interaction and their future, and incoherent sources within a very broad spectral range. The diversity of demonstrated or planned applications presented in the book supports the thesis that such sources have now reached a mature stage of development. There is a significant effort worldwide to develop very bright, ultra-short duration, radiation sources in the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions, driven by a diversity of potential applications in nearly all branches of science. This book updates the status in this field and focuses on developments in laser plasma-based methods. The scheme of transient inversion proves its robustness by being dominant in the area of repetitive X-ray lasers pumped at grazing-incidence-geometry by optical lasers of moderate energy at increasing repetition rates – these ch...

  15. Liquid explosions induced by X-ray laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond; McQueen, Trevor; Milathianaki, Despina; Koglin, Jason; Lane, Thomas; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth; Hayes, Matt; Guillet, Serge; Botha, Sabine; Nass, Karol; Schlichting, Ilme; Shoeman, Robert; Stone, Howard; Boutet, Sébastien

    2015-11-01

    Sudden generation and release of enough energy to vaporize matter are encountered in systems that range from supernovae explosions and asteroid impacts to applications in fusion energy generation, materials processing, and laser surgery. Understanding these strong explosions is important to both fundamental science and technical applications. We studied a new type of microexplosion, induced by absorption of X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser in micron-sized drops and jets of water. These explosions are related to, but different from, those observed in experiments performed with optical lasers. Unlike explosions caused by optical lasers, X-ray laser explosions produce symmetric expansion patterns that are simpler to rationalize. The release of energy initially concentrated in a small region inside drops and jets leads to ballistic vapor flow and inertial liquid flow. The kinematics of these flows indicates that the conversion of the energy deposited by X-rays into flow has a scaling that is similar to the one encountered in shock waves.

  16. Coherent VUV- and X-ray generation with optical lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Sandner, W

    2000-01-01

    The laser concept, i.e. the active control over coherence properties of light, has partially transformed optical sciences into one of the most important key technologies of the next century. Consequently, various attempts have long been made to extend this concept towards VUV- and X-ray wavelengths, but have met considerable practical difficulties. Low-energy efficiency in inversion creation is one of the typical obstacles, extremely high-power requirements (e.g. for optical driver lasers) another. Only very recently several new, independent concepts have been successfully realized, and promise real breakthroughs in short-wavelength generation and application. Compact 'table-top' X-ray lasers have been operated in a saturated gain conditions, either through electric discharge pumping in a capillary or through short-pulse optical laser pumping in a transient inversion scheme. In addition, direct conversion of optical laser light into the VUV- and soft X-ray region has been accomplished. These new sources are r...

  17. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  18. X-ray calibration facility for plasma diagnostics of the MégaJoule laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Laser MégaJoule (LMJ located at CEA-CESTA will be equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors and cameras. To guarantee LMJ measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras need to be regularly calibrated. An x-ray laboratory is devoted to this task and performs absolute x-ray calibrations for similar x-ray cameras running on Laser Integration Line (LIL. This paper presents the x-ray calibration bench with its x-ray tube based High Energy x-ray Source (HEXS and some calibration results. By mean of an ingenious transposition system under vacuum absolute x-ray calibration of x-ray cameras, like streak and stripline ones, can be carried out. Coupled to a new collimation system with micrometric accuracy on aperture sensitivity quantum efficiency measurements can be achieved with reduced uncertainties.

  19. Properties and Applications of Laser Generated X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R F; Key, M H

    2002-02-25

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and x-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarizes, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Conclusions are drawn on areas where the development of laser based sources is most promising and competitive in terms of applications potential.

  20. Fully diagnosing the spatial properties of X-ray lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 孙今人; 王韬; 范滇元; 王世绩

    2001-01-01

    Based on the moiré effect and the Fresnel diffraction theory, a novel technique for diagnosing the beam properties is presented and analyzed, which is especially suitable for X-ray lasers. The method makes it possible, in a one-shot experimental measurement, to determine the beam quality factor M2, the effective radius of curvature, the beam width, the far-field divergence, and the waist location and radius as well as the spatial coherence and its evolution. Numerical simulation proves the validity of the method. Note that the novel moiré technique opens an efficient road, for the first time, to fully diagnose the spatial properties of X-ray lasers.

  1. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

    2002-05-30

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted from a synchrotron radiation source with respect to a pump laser exciting processes in the sample under study is critical for the investigation of structural dynamics in the femtosecond regime. We describe a scheme for synchronizing femtosecond x-ray pulses relative to a pump laser. X-ray pulses of <100 fs duration are generated from a proposed source based on a recirculating superconducting linac [1,2,3]. Short x-ray pulses are obtained by a process of electron pulse compression, followed by transverse temporal correlation of the electrons, and ultimately x-ray pulse compression. Timing of the arrival of the x-ray pulse with respect to the pump laser is found to be dominated by the operation of the deflecting cavities which provide the transverse temporal correlation of the electrons. The deflecting cavities are driven from a highly stable RF signal derived from a modelocked laser oscillator which is also the origin of the pump l aser pulses.

  2. Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.P.; Acremann, Y.; Scherz, A.; Burkhardt, M.; Stohr, J.; /SLAC; Beye, M.; Schlotter, W.F.; Beeck, T.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Pietzsch, A.; Wurth, W.; Fohlisch, A.; /Hamburg U.

    2009-12-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy on solids by means of femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL). Our experiments, carried out at the Free-Electron Laser at Hamburg (FLASH), used a special sample geometry, spectrographic energy dispersion, single shot position-sensitive detection and a data normalization procedure that eliminates the severe fluctuations of the incident intensity in space and photon energy. As an example we recorded the {sup 3}D{sub 1} N{sub 4,5}-edge absorption resonance of La{sup 3+}-ions in LaMnO{sub 3}. Our study opens the door for x-ray absorption measurements on future x-ray FEL facilities.

  3. Spallative ablation of dielectrics by X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Inogamov, N A; Faenov, A Ya; Khokhlov, V A; Shepelev, V V; Skobelev, I Yu; Kato, Y; Tanaka, M; Pikuz, T A; Kishimoto, M; Ishino, M; Nishikino, M; Fukuda, Y; Bulanov, S V; Kawachi, T; Petrov, Yu V; Anisimov, S I; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    Short laser pulse in wide range of wavelengths, from infrared to X-ray, disturbs electron-ion equilibrium and rises pressure in a heated layer. The case where pulse duration $\\tau_L$ is shorter than acoustic relaxation time $t_s$ is considered in the paper. It is shown that this short pulse may cause thermomechanical phenomena such as spallative ablation regardless to wavelength. While the physics of electron-ion relaxation on wavelength and various electron spectra of substances: there are spectra with an energy gap in semiconductors and dielectrics opposed to gapless continuous spectra in metals. The paper describes entire sequence of thermomechanical processes from expansion, nucleation, foaming, and nanostructuring to spallation with particular attention to spallation by X-ray pulse.

  4. European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (EXFEL): local implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    European X-Ray FEL - free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the "proof of principle" was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  5. Structural enzymology using X-ray free electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupitz, Christopher; Olmos, Jose L; Holl, Mark; Tremblay, Lee; Pande, Kanupriya; Pandey, Suraj; Oberthür, Dominik; Hunter, Mark; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew; Tenboer, Jason; Calvey, George; Katz, Andrea; Chen, Yujie; Wiedorn, Max O; Knoska, Juraj; Meents, Alke; Majriani, Valerio; Norwood, Tyler; Poudyal, Ishwor; Grant, Thomas; Miller, Mitchell D; Xu, Weijun; Tolstikova, Aleksandra; Morgan, Andrew; Metz, Markus; Martin-Garcia, Jose M; Zook, James D; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Nagaratnam, Nirupa; Meza, Domingo; Fromme, Raimund; Basu, Shibom; Frank, Matthias; White, Thomas; Barty, Anton; Bajt, Sasa; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Chapman, Henry N; Zatsepin, Nadia; Nelson, Garrett; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John; Schwander, Peter; Pollack, Lois; Fromme, Petra; Ourmazd, Abbas; Phillips, George N; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-07-01

    Mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) is a technique designed to image enzyme catalyzed reactions in which small protein crystals are mixed with a substrate just prior to being probed by an X-ray pulse. This approach offers several advantages over flow cell studies. It provides (i) room temperature structures at near atomic resolution, (ii) time resolution ranging from microseconds to seconds, and (iii) convenient reaction initiation. It outruns radiation damage by using femtosecond X-ray pulses allowing damage and chemistry to be separated. Here, we demonstrate that MISC is feasible at an X-ray free electron laser by studying the reaction of M. tuberculosis ß-lactamase microcrystals with ceftriaxone antibiotic solution. Electron density maps of the apo-ß-lactamase and of the ceftriaxone bound form were obtained at 2.8 Å and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. These results pave the way to study cyclic and non-cyclic reactions and represent a new field of time-resolved structural dynamics for numerous substrate-triggered biological reactions.

  6. Performance of Laser Megajoule's x-ray streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, C.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Fronty, J. P.; Gontier, D.; Goulmy, C.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Rubbelynck, C.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Trosseille, C.

    2016-11-01

    A prototype of a picosecond x-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to provide plasma-diagnostic support for the Laser Megajoule. We report on the measured performance of this streak camera, which almost fulfills the requirements: 50-μm spatial resolution over a 15-mm field in the photocathode plane, 17-ps temporal resolution in a 2-ns timebase, a detection threshold lower than 625 nJ/cm2 in the 0.05-15 keV spectral range, and a dynamic range greater than 100.

  7. X-ray optical diagnostic of laser produced plasmas for nuclear fusion and X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbach, R.

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, the conception, design and appliance of toroidally bent crystals for the X-ray optical diagnostics of laser produced plasmas is discussed. The first part of this work deals with the development, design and characterization of an X-Ray microscope for the observation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, which act against the confinement and ignition of the fuel in the inertial confinement fusion process. The aim of the second part of the present work was the diagnostic of the lasing medium for amplified spontaneous emission close to the water window. For this purpose, an one-dimensionally (1-D) imaging X-ray spectrometer based on toroidally bent quartz crystals was developed for the observation of the Ni-like 4f-3d transition of Yb, Hf, Ta, and W ions, which should be related to the amplified 4d-4p emission, since the 4f niveau is very close to the 4d niveau. Thus, the 4f-3d transition can serve as an indicator for the population of the 4d niveau. (orig.)

  8. X-ray emission simulation from hollow atoms produced by high intensity laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira; Zhidkov, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan); Suto, Keiko [Nara Women' s Univ., Graduate School of Human Culture, Nara (Japan); Kagawa, Takashi [Nara Women' s Univ., Department of Physics, Nara (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    We theoretically study the x-ray emission from hollow atoms produced by collisions of multiply charged ions accelerated by a short pulse laser with a solid or foil. By using the multistep-capture-and-loss (MSCL) model a high conversion efficiency to x-rays in an ultrafast atomic process is obtained. It is also proposed to apply this x-ray emission process to the x-ray source. For a few keV x-rays this x-ray source has a clear advantage. The number of x-ray photons increases as the laser energy becomes larger. For a laser energy of 10 J, the number of x-ray photons of 3x10{sup 11} is estimated. (author)

  9. Simulation of intense laser-dense matter interactions. X-ray production and laser absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueshima, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Tajima, Toshiki

    1998-03-01

    The development of short-pulse ultra high intensity lasers will enable us to generate short-pulse intense soft and hard X-rays. Acceleration of an electron in laser field generates intense illuminated located radiation, Larmor radiation, around KeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with 100 TW and 1 {mu}m wave length laser. The Coulomb interaction between rest ions and relativistic electron generates broad energy radiation, bremsstrahlung emission, over MeV at 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} with the same condition. These intense radiations come in short pulses of the same order as that of the irradiated laser. The generated intense X-rays, Larmor and bremsstrahlung radiation, can be applied to sources of short pulse X-ray, excitation source of inner-shell X-ray laser, position production and nuclear excitation, etc. (author)

  10. Self-photopumped neonlike x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Street, 01-489 Warsaw (Poland); Li, Y.; Lu, P.; Fill, E.E. [Max-Planck-Institut Fuer Quantenoptik, Postfach 1513, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    We propose a new x-ray laser mechanism that uses radiation from the strongest 3{ital d}{r_arrow}2{ital p} Ne-like resonance line in an optically thick plasma to radiatively drive population from the Ne-like ground state to the 3{ital d} state, which then lases to two 3{ital p} states. Collisional mixing of the 3{ital p} states with nearby 3{ital s} and 3{ital d} states depopulates the lower laser states. Modeling is presented for this mechanism in Ne-like Ar, and in experiments we observe one potential 3{ital d}{r_arrow}3{ital p} lasing transition at 45.1 nm in Ne-like Ar. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  11. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  12. In situ X-ray diffraction during pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonk, Vedran [Max-Planck-Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Huijben, Mark [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Driessen, Kurt; Rijnders, Guus; Blank, Dave; Harkema, Sybolt [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Graafsma, Heinz [Deutsches Elektronen- Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The use of in situ X-ray diffraction for the study of thin film growth enables in a straightforward way to derive the atomic structure, because the kinematical scattering approximation holds. Here we present the results of studying the heteroepitaxial growth by Pulsed Laser Deposition of complex oxides such as the High-T c superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and the insulator LaAlO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates. A special sample chamber has been constructed to be used with synchrotron X-rays. Detailed pictures of the growth kinetics and of the atomic interface structure at deposition conditions result from fitting quantitatively both the intensity growth oscillations and the crystal truncation rods. The growth of the complex oxide thin films presented here is characterized by substantial interlayer-mass transport and large deviations from the bulk room-temperature atomic structure. The results show the effects of the interplay between formation and diffusion energies on the processes of nucleation and kinetics during heteroepitaxial growth.

  13. Generation of soft x-ray radiation by laser irradiation of a gas puff xenon target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Plasmas produced from laser-irradiated gas puff xenon targets, created by pulsed injection of xenon with high-pressure solenoid valve, offer the possibility of realizing a debrisless x-ray point source for the x-ray lithography applications. In this paper the authors present results of the experimental investigations on the x-ray generation from a gas puff xenon target irradiated with nanosecond high-power laser pulses produced using two different laser facilities: a Nd:glass laser operating at 1.06 {micro}m, which generated 10--15 J pulses in 1 ns FWHM, and Nd:glass slab laser, producing pulses of 10 ns duration with energy reaching 12 J for a 0.53 {micro}m wavelength or 20 J for 1.05 {micro}m. To study the x-ray emission different x-ray diagnostic methods have been used. X-ray spectra were registered using a flat CsAP crystal spectrograph with an x-ray film or a curved KAP crystal spectrograph with a convex curvature to an x-ray CCD readout detector. X-ray images have been taken using pinhole cameras with an x-ray film or a CCD array. X-ray yield was measured with the use of semiconductor detectors (silicon photodiodes or diamond photoconductors).

  14. Sub-Picosecond Tunable Hard X-Ray Undulator Source for Laser/X-Ray Pump-Probe Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Johnson, S.; Streun, A.; Schmidt, T.; Abela, R.; Al-Adwan, A.; Abramsohn, D.; Böge, M.; Grolimund, D.; Keller, A.; Krasniqi, F.; Rivkin, L.; Rohrer, M.; Schilcher, T.; Schmidt, T.; Schlott, V.; Schulz, L.; van der Veen, F.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The FEMTO source under construction at the μXAS beamline is designed to enable tunable time-resolved laser/x-ray absorption and diffraction experiments in photochemistry and condensed matter with ps- and sub-ps resolution. The design takes advantage of (1) the highly stable operation of the SLS storage ring, (2) the reliable high harmonic operation of small gap, short period undulators to generate hard x-rays with energy 3-18 keV at 2.4 GeV beam energy, and (3) the progress in high power, high repetition rate fs solid-state laser technology to employ laser/e-beam `slicing' to reach a time resolution of ultimately 100 fs. The source will profit from the inherently synchronized pump (laser I: 100 fs, 2 mJ, 1 kHz) and probe (sliced X-rays, laser II: 50 fs, 5 mJ, 1 kHz) pulses, and from the excellent stability of the SLS storage ring which is operated in top-up mode and controlled by a fast orbit feedback (FOFB). Coherent radiation emitted at THz frequencies by the sliced 100 fs electron bunches will be monitored as on-line cross-correlation signal to keep the laser-electron beam interaction at optimum. The source is designed to provide at 8 keV (100 fs) a monochromized flux of 104 ph/s/0.01% bw (Si crystal monochromator) and 106 ph/s/1.5% bw (multilayer monochromator) at the sample. It is operated in parasitic mode using a hybrid bunch filling pattern. Because of the low intensity measurements are carried out repetitively over many shots using refreshing samples and gated detectors. `Diffraction gating' experiments will be used to characterize the sub-ps X-ray pulses.

  15. Single molecule imaging with longer x-ray laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Andrew V; Caleman, Carl; Quiney, Harry M

    2015-01-01

    In serial femtosecond crystallography, x-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes because Bragg diffraction exceeds the damage-induced background scattering for longer pulses ($\\sim$ 50--100 fs). This is due to a "self-gating pulse" effect whereby damage terminates Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if that diffraction were produced by a shorter pulse of equal fluence. We show here that a similar gating effect applies to single molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage ("damage noise"). Our results suggest that sub-nanometer single molecule imaging with longer pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The...

  16. Analyses of the short pulse laser pumped transient collisional excited X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Utsumi, T.; Moribayashi, K.; Zhidkov, A.; Kado, M.; Tanaka, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Kawachi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Osaka (Japan). Advanced Photon Research Center

    2001-07-01

    The soft X-ray gain of the transient collisional excited (TCE) Ni-like Ag laser is investigated using the plasma hydrodynamics and atomic kinetics codes. The gain is calculated for a plasma produced from two 100ps laser irradiated solid target to show qualitative agreement with the experiment. The calculation shows significant improvement of the gain using a thin foil target pumped by two short laser pulses, because of a better coupling of the pump laser energy into the gain region of the plasma. The codes will provide performance prediction as well as optimization of the experimental studies of the TCE X-ray lasers. (orig.)

  17. Laser-Plasma Sources for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Vanhonk, A.; Bastiaensen, R.; Platonov, Y. Y.; Shevelko, A. P.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Frowein, H.; Nikolaus, B.

    1994-01-01

    Results are reported concerning high-repetition-rate excimer lasers with average powers up to 415 W and their usage for generating laser-plasma soft X-ray sources. A conversion efficiency of laser light into monochromatized soft X-ray radiation of 0.7% at 13.5 nm (2% bandwidth) was achieved using an

  18. Laser-Plasma Sources for Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Vanhonk, A.; Bastiaensen, R.; Platonov, Y. Y.; Shevelko, A. P.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Frowein, H.; Nikolaus, B.

    1994-01-01

    Results are reported concerning high-repetition-rate excimer lasers with average powers up to 415 W and their usage for generating laser-plasma soft X-ray sources. A conversion efficiency of laser light into monochromatized soft X-ray radiation of 0.7% at 13.5 nm (2% bandwidth) was achieved using an

  19. Enhancement of laser to X-ray conversion by counter-propagating laser beams irradiating thin gold targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Ge, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Xu, B. B.; Ramis, R.

    2017-03-01

    X-ray emission from laser irradiating solid target is an important X-ray source for various potential applications. Counter-propagating (C-P) laser beams configuration is proposed to enhance the laser to X-ray conversion efficiency (CE) from laser irradiating solid targets. One-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations show that the total X-ray CE for the C-P lasers case is as high as 65%, which has a 13% improvement compared with the single laser case. The improvement is mainly caused by the enlarged radiation region, and the enhancement of X-ray emission is from soft X-ray. Detailed energy term distributions and influences of the foil thickness on the X-ray CEs for both cases are presented. It is found that the enhancement of radiation is attributed to lower thermal and kinetic energy of the C-P lasers scheme.

  20. The trickle before the torrent-diffraction data from X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Filipe R N C; Hajdu, Janos

    2016-08-01

    Today Scientific Data launched a collection of publications describing data from X-ray free-electron lasers under the theme 'Structural Biology Applications of X-ray Lasers'. The papers cover data on nanocrystals, single virus particles, isolated cell organelles, and living cells. All data are deposited with the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB) and available to the scientific community to develop ideas, tools and procedures to meet challenges with the expected torrents of data from new X-ray lasers, capable of producing billion exposures per day.

  1. The Laser-Driven X-ray Big Area Backlighter (BABL): Design, Optimization, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Kirk; DeVolder, Barbara; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Merritt, Elizabeth; Loomis, Eric; Capelli, Deanna; Schmidt, Derek; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    The Big Area BackLigher (BABL) has been developed for large area laser-driven x-ray backlighting on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which can be used for general High Energy Density (HED) experiments. The BABL has been optimized via hydrodynamic simulations to produce laser-to-x-ray conversion efficiencies of up to nearly 5%. Four BABL foil materials, Zn, Fe, V, and Cu, have been used for He-α x ray production.

  2. Observation of fs-laser spallative ablation using soft X-ray laser probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-03-01

    The initial stages of femtosecond laser ablation of gold were observed by single-shot soft X-ray laser interferometer and reflectometer. The ablation front surface and the spallation shell dome structure were observed from the results of the soft X-ray interferogram, reflective image, and shadowgraph. The formation and evolution of soft X-ray Newton's rings (NRs) were found by reflective imaging at the early stages of the ablation dynamics. The soft X-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer. The spallation layer was kept at the late timing of the ablation dynamics, and the height of that reached over 100 μm. The temporal evolution of the bulk ablated surface was observed in the ablation dynamics. From these results, we have succeeded in obtaining the temporal evolution of the ablation front exfoliated from the gold surface.

  3. Ultrafast Time Resolved X-ray Diffraction Studies of Laser Heated Metals and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peilin; Tomov, I. V.; Rentzepis, P. M.

    1998-03-01

    Time resolved hard x-ray diffraction has been employed to study the dynamics of lattice structure deformation. When laser pulse energy is deposited in a material it generates a non uniform transient temperature distribution, which alters the lattice structure of the crystal. The deformed crystal lattice will change the angle of diffraction for a monochromatic x-ray beam. We report picosecond and nanosecond time resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the lattice temperature distribution, transient structure and stress, in Pt (111) and GaAs (111) crystals, caused by pulsed UV laser irradiation. An ArF excimer laser operated at 300 Hz was used, both, to drive an x-ray diode with copper anode and heat the crystal. Bragg diffracted x-ray radiation was recorded by a direct imaging x-ray CCD. Changes in the diffraction patterns induced by a few millijouls pulse energy were observed at different time delays between the laser heating pulse and the x-ray probing pulse. A kinematical model for time resolved x-ray diffraction was used to analyze the experimental data. Good agreement between the measured and calculated scattered x-ray intensities profiles was achieved, indicating that detailed time resolved x-ray diffraction measurements can be made with nanosecond and picosecond resolution for small temperature changes. Our system can detect changes in the lattice spacing of about 10-3 A.

  4. Numerical Simulations of X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL)

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2014-11-04

    We study a nonlinear Schrödinger equation which arises as an effective single particle model in X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). This equation appears as a first principles model for the beam-matter interactions that would take place in an XFEL molecular imaging experiment in [A. Fratalocchi and G. Ruocco, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011), 105504]. Since XFEL are more powerful by several orders of magnitude than more conventional lasers, the systematic investigation of many of the standard assumptions and approximations has attracted increased attention. In this model the electrons move under a rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field, and the convergence of the problem to an effective time-averaged one is examined. We use an operator splitting pseudospectral method to investigate numerically the behavior of the model versus that of its time-averaged version in complex situations, namely the energy subcritical/mass supercritical case and in the presence of a periodic lattice. We find the time-averaged model to be an effective approximation, even close to blowup, for fast enough oscillations of the external field. This work extends previous analytical results for simpler cases [P. Antonelli, A. Athanassoulis, H. Hajaiej, and P. Markowich, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 211 (2014), pp. 711--732].

  5. High-resolution X-ray imaging in fast ignition experiment using Gekko and LFEX lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koga M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We improved diagnostic instruments to measure X-ray images in a hard X-ray harsh environment and succeeded in obtaining clear images with X-ray framing camera and X-ray streak camera in fast ignition experiment conducted in 2011 (FG-02 Experimental Campaign. We found that high-energy X-ray signals could be used as an indicator of the LFEX laser injection time relative to the imploded core. The LFEX laser injection time was estimated with better than 10 ps accuracy. Time-resolved 2D X-ray images suggested that shapes and motions of imploded core plasmas were improved by changing the configuration of the implosion lasers.

  6. Effect of Ultrashort Pulsed Laser and X-Ray Irradiation on Au~+ -Doped Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Au nanoparticles were precipitated inside Au+-doped glass samples after irradiation by femtosecond laser or x-ray. Femtosecond laser and X-ray irradiation result in decreasing of anneal temperature and critical size for the precipitation of Au nanoparticles.

  7. Effect of Ultrashort Pulsed Laser and X-Ray Irradiation on Au+ -Doped Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huidan Zeng; Jianrong Qiu; Xiongwei Jiang; Congshan Zhu; Fuxi Gan

    2003-01-01

    Au nanoparticles were precipitated inside Au+-doped glass samples after irradiation by femtosecond laser or x-ray. Femtosecond laser and X-ray irradiation result in decreasing of anneal temperature and critical size for the precipitation of Au nanoparticles.

  8. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a laser-pla

  9. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  10. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  11. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  12. Few-femtosecond time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, C; Decker, F-J; Ding, Y; Dolgashev, V A; Frisch, J; Huang, Z; Krejcik, P; Loos, H; Lutman, A; Maxwell, T J; Turner, J; Wang, J; Wang, M-H; Welch, J; Wu, J

    2014-04-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers, with pulse durations ranging from a few to several hundred femtoseconds, are uniquely suited for studying atomic, molecular, chemical and biological systems. Characterizing the temporal profiles of these femtosecond X-ray pulses that vary from shot to shot is not only challenging but also important for data interpretation. Here we report the time-resolved measurements of X-ray free-electron lasers by using an X-band radiofrequency transverse deflector at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We demonstrate this method to be a simple, non-invasive technique with a large dynamic range for single-shot electron and X-ray temporal characterization. A resolution of less than 1 fs root mean square has been achieved for soft X-ray pulses. The lasing evolution along the undulator has been studied with the electron trapping being observed as the X-ray peak power approaches 100 GW.

  13. Overview of Tabletop X-ray Laser Development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V; Nilsen, J; Smith, R; Keenan, R; Moon, S; Filevich, J; Rocca, J; Nelson, A; Hunter, J; Marconi, M; Li, Y; Osterheld, A; Shepherd, R; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Faenov, A Y; Pikuz, T; Zeitoun, P; Hubert, S; Jacquemot, S; Fajardo, M

    2006-11-03

    It is almost a decade since the first tabletop x-ray laser experiments were implemented at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The decision to pursue the picosecond-driven schemes at LLNL was largely based around the early demonstration of the tabletop Ne-like Ti x-ray laser at the Max Born Institute (MBI) as well as the established robustness of collisional excitation schemes. These picosecond x-ray lasers have been a strong growth area for x-ray laser research. Rapid progress in source development and characterization has achieved ultrahigh peak brightness rivaling the previous activities on the larger facilities. Various picosecond soft-x-ray based applications have benefited from the increased repetition rates. We will describe the activities at LLNL in this area.

  14. Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging of Chloroplasts from Cyanidioschyzon merolae by Using X-Ray Free Electron Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yuki; Inui, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lens-less technique for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with the dimensions of submicrometer to micrometer at a resolution of several tens of nanometers. We conducted cryogenic CXDI experiments at 66 K to visualize the internal structures of frozen-hydrated chloroplasts of Cyanidioschyzon merolae using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) as a coherent X-ray source. Chloroplast dispersed specimen disks at a number density of 7/(10×10 µm(2)) were flash-cooled with liquid ethane without staining, sectioning or chemical labeling. Chloroplasts are destroyed at atomic level immediately after the diffraction by XFEL pulses. Thus, diffraction patterns with a good signal-to-noise ratio from single chloroplasts were selected from many diffraction patterns collected through scanning specimen disks to provide fresh specimens into the irradiation area. The electron density maps of single chloroplasts projected along the direction of the incident X-ray beam were reconstructed by using the iterative phase-retrieval method and multivariate analyses. The electron density map at a resolution of 70 nm appeared as a C-shape. In addition, the fluorescence image of proteins stained with Flamingo™ dye also appeared as a C-shape as did the autofluorescence from Chl. The similar images suggest that the thylakoid membranes with an abundance of proteins distribute along the outer membranes of chloroplasts. To confirm the present results statistically, a number of projection structures must be accumulated through high-throughput data collection in the near future. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of XFEL-CXDI experiments in the structural analyses of cellular organelles. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Modeling of laser produced plasma and z-pinch x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J; Frati, M; Gonzales, J J; Kalashnikov, M P; Marconi, M C; Moreno, C H; Nickels, P V; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Sandner, W; Shlyaptsev, V N

    1999-02-07

    In this work we describe our theoretical activities in two directions of interest. First, we discuss progress in modeling laser produced plasmas mostly related to transient collisional excitation scheme experiments with Ne- and recently with Ni-like ions. Calculations related to the delay between laser pulses, transient gain duration and hybrid laser/capillary approach are described in more detail. Second, the capillary discharge plasma research, extended to wider range of currents and rise-times has been outlined. We have systematically evaluated the major plasma and atomic kinetic properties by comparing near- and far-field X-ray laser output with that for the capillary Argon X-ray laser operating under typical current values. Consistent with the experiment insight was obtained for the 469{angstrom} X-ray laser shadowgraphy experiments with very small kiloamp currents. At higher currents, as much as {approximately}200 kA we evaluated plasma temperature, density and compared x-ray source size and emitted spectra.

  16. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Christoph [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-05-05

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  17. Demonstration of X-ray Thomson Scattering on Shenguang-Ⅱ Laser Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡广月; 张小丁; 郑坚; 雷安乐; 沈百飞; 徐至展; 张继彦; 杨家敏; 杨国洪; 韦敏习; 李军; 丁永坤

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Thomson scattering technique for diagnosing dense plasma was demonstrated on Shenguang-Ⅱ laser facility. Laser plasma x-ray source of titanium He-a lines (-4.75 keV), generated by laser beam (1.5 kJ/527 nm/2 ns) heated titanium thin foil, was used as x-ray probe beam. The x-ray probe was then scattered by cold CH foam column of 1 g/cm^3 density. The scattered radiation at 90° was diffracted by polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystal and recorded on x-ray charge-coupled device. Well-defined scattering spectra were obtained with good signal to noise ratio.

  18. Temporal and Spectral Resolved Measurement of Soft X-ray From Ultrashort Pulse Laser Produced Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Theobald; L.Veisz; H.Schwoerer; R.Sauerbrey; X.Z.Tang

    2001-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse produced plasmas are powerful sources of incoherent XUV/soft X-ray radiation and have important applications range from microscopy to lithography. Adding a prepulse is one possible way to enhance soft X-ray emission. The experiment is performed on the Jena 10 TW laser system in IOQ, Germany. The main purpose is to measure the time-resolved soft X-ray spectrum, and study how a prepulse play an important role and enhance the X-ray emission as well as and pulse duration. We clarified the temporal behavior of X-ray emission from quartz plasma produced by intensive femtosecond 800 nm laser pulse, and obtained a quantitative pictures of the

  19. X-ray Sources Generated from Gas-Filled Laser-Heated Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C A; Grun, J; Decker, C D; Davis, J; Laming, J M; Feldman, U; Suter, L J; Landen, O L; Miller, M; Serduke, F; Wuest, C

    2000-06-06

    The X-ray sources in the 4-7 keV energy regime can be produced by laser-irradiating high-Z gas-filled targets with high-powered lasers. A series of experiments have been performed using underdense targets that are supersonically heated with {approx} 35 W of 0.35 {micro}m laser light. These targets were cylindrical Be enclosures that were filled with 1-2 atms of Xe gas. L-shell x-ray emission is emitted from the plasma and detected by Bragg crystal spectrometers and x-ray diodes. Absolute flux measurements show conversion efficiencies of {approx} 10% in the multi-kilovolt x-ray emission. These sources can be used as bright x-ray backlighters or for material testing.

  20. Nonlinear effects in propagation of radiation of X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, V. L.

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear effects accompanying the propagation of high-intensity beams of X-ray free-electron lasers are considered. It is shown that the X-ray wave field in the crystal significantly changes due to the formation of "hollow" atomic shells as a result of the photoelectric effect.

  1. Pile-up corrections in laser-driven pulsed x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    A formalism for treating the pile-up produced in laser-driven pulsed x-ray sources has been developed. It allows the direct use of x-ray spectroscopy without artificially decreasing the number of counts in the detector. The influence of the pile-up on the overestimation of temperature parameters is shown up.

  2. X-ray phase-contrast tomography with a compact laser-driven synchrotron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Loewen, Roderick; Ruth, Ronald D; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-05-05

    Between X-ray tubes and large-scale synchrotron sources, a large gap in performance exists with respect to the monochromaticity and brilliance of the X-ray beam. However, due to their size and cost, large-scale synchrotrons are not available for more routine applications in small and medium-sized academic or industrial laboratories. This gap could be closed by laser-driven compact synchrotron light sources (CLS), which use an infrared (IR) laser cavity in combination with a small electron storage ring. Hard X-rays are produced through the process of inverse Compton scattering upon the intersection of the electron bunch with the focused laser beam. The produced X-ray beam is intrinsically monochromatic and highly collimated. This makes a CLS well-suited for applications of more advanced--and more challenging--X-ray imaging approaches, such as X-ray multimodal tomography. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first results of a first successful demonstration experiment in which a monochromatic X-ray beam from a CLS was used for multimodal, i.e., phase-, dark-field, and attenuation-contrast, X-ray tomography. We show results from a fluid phantom with different liquids and a biomedical application example in the form of a multimodal CT scan of a small animal (mouse, ex vivo). The results highlight particularly that quantitative multimodal CT has become feasible with laser-driven CLS, and that the results outperform more conventional approaches.

  3. Development of low-energy x-ray fluorescence micro-distribution analysis using a laser plasma x-ray source and multilayer optics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuik, R.; Shmaenok, L. A.; Fledderus, H.; Andreev, S. S.; Shamov, E. A.; Zuev, S. Y.; Salashchenko, N. N.; F. Bijkerk,

    1999-01-01

    A new technique is presented for low-energy X-ray fluorescence micro-distribution analysis of low-Z elements at micrometer spatial resolutions. The technique is based on the use of a laser plasma X-ray source and spherically curved multilayer optics. A large collimator is used to focus the light fro

  4. Experimental Study of Short-Wavelength Li-like Soft X-ray Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐至展; 范品忠; 林礼煌; 李跃林; 王晓方; 陆培祥; 韩申生; 李儒新; 孙岚; 钱爱娣; 张正泉; 周锦智

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the results of the X-ray laser-gain experiments of Li-like K and Ca ions conducted recently at LF12 Laser Facility of SIOFM with KC1 and CaFi slab targets,will be presented.Also presented will be the space-resolved time history of ASE emission in the Li-like X-ray lasers and the in-situ calibration for the X-ray film used in the experiments.

  5. Damage threshold of coating materials on x-ray mirror for x-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takahisa; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Miura, Takanori; Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kim, Jangwoo; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yabashi, Makina; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Ohashi, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the damage threshold of coating materials such as Mo, Ru, Rh, W, and Pt on Si substrates, and that of uncoated Si substrate, for mirror optics of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). Focused 1 μm (full width at half maximum) XFEL pulses with the energies of 5.5 and 10 keV, generated by the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA), were irradiated under the grazing incidence condition. The damage thresholds were evaluated by in situ measurements of X-ray reflectivity degradation during irradiation by multiple pulses. The measured damage fluences below the critical angles were sufficiently high compared with the unfocused SACLA beam fluence. Rh coating was adopted for two mirror systems of SACLA. One system was a beamline transport mirror system that was partially coated with Rh for optional utilization of a pink beam in the photon energy range of more than 20 keV. The other was an improved version of the 1 μm focusing mirror system, and no damage was observed after one year of operation.

  6. Shielded radiography with a laser-driven MeV-energy X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Grigory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Miller, Cameron [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Haden, Daniel; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Baozhen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Umstadter, Donald, E-mail: donald.umstadter@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of experimental and numerical-simulation studies of shielded radiography using narrowband MeV-energy X-rays from a compact all-laser-driven inverse-Compton-scattering X-ray light source. This recently developed X-ray light source is based on a laser-wakefield accelerator with ultra-high-field gradient (GeV/cm). We demonstrate experimentally high-quality radiographic imaging (image contrast of 0.4 and signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1) of a target composed of 8-mm thick depleted uranium shielded by 80-mm thick steel, using a 6-MeV X-ray beam with a spread of 45% (FWHM) and 10{sup 7} photons in a single shot. The corresponding dose of the X-ray pulse measured in front of the target is ∼100 nGy/pulse. Simulations performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX accurately reproduce the experimental results. These simulations also demonstrate that the narrow bandwidth of the Compton X-ray source operating at 6 and 9 MeV leads to a reduction of deposited dose as compared to broadband bremsstrahlung sources with the same end-point energy. The X-ray beam’s inherently low-divergence angle (∼mrad) is advantageous and effective for interrogation at standoff distance. These results demonstrate significant benefits of all-laser driven Compton X-rays for shielded radiography.

  7. Observation of Reverse Saturable Absorption of an X-ray Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B. I.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Barbrel, B.; Engelhorn, K.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Ciricosta, O.; Dakovski, G. L.; Hájková, V.; Holmes, M.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Nam, Chang Hee; Rackstraw, D. S.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Zastrau, U.; Heimann, P. A.

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear absorber in which the excited state absorption is larger than the ground state can undergo a process called reverse saturable absorption. It is a well-known phenomenon in laser physics in the optical regime, but is more difficult to generate in the x-ray regime, where fast nonradiative core electron transitions typically dominate the population kinetics during light matter interactions. Here, we report the first observation of decreasing x-ray transmission in a solid target pumped by intense x-ray free electron laser pulses. The measurement has been made below the K -absorption edge of aluminum, and the x-ray intensity ranges are 1016 - 1017 W /cm2 . It has been confirmed by collisional radiative population kinetic calculations, underscoring the fast spectral modulation of the x-ray pulses and charge states relevant to the absorption and transmission of x-ray photons. The processes shown through detailed simulations are consistent with reverse saturable absorption, which would be the first observation of this phenomena in the x-ray regime. These light matter interactions provide a unique opportunity to investigate optical transport properties in the extreme state of matters, as well as affording the potential to regulate ultrafast x-ray free-electron laser pulses.

  8. Mapping the X-Ray Emission Region in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corde, S.; Thaury, C.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Lifschitz, A.; Lambert, G.; Faure, J.; Lundh, O.; Benveniste, E.; Ben-Ismail, A.; Arantchuk, L.; Marciniak, A.; Stordeur, A.; Brijesh, P.; Rousse, A.; Specka, A.; Malka, V.

    2011-11-01

    The x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators can be a powerful tool to understand the physics of relativistic laser-plasma interaction. It is shown here that the mapping of betatron x-ray radiation can be obtained from the x-ray beam profile when an aperture mask is positioned just beyond the end of the emission region. The influence of the plasma density on the position and the longitudinal profile of the x-ray emission is investigated and compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The measurement of the x-ray emission position and length provides insight on the dynamics of the interaction, including the electron self-injection region, possible multiple injection, and the role of the electron beam driven wakefield.

  9. Imaging Molecular Structure and Dynamics utilizing X-ray Free-Electron-Laser Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Küpper, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Imaging controlled molecules with ultrashort x- ray pulses from free-electron lasers enables the recording of “molecular movies”, i.e., snapshots of molecules at work, with spatial (picometer) and temporal (femtosecond) atomic resolution.

  10. Mapping chemical bonding of reaction intermediates with femtosecond X-ray laser spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wernet, P.; Beye, M.; de Groot, F.; Düsterer, S.; Grübel, S.; Gaffney, K.; Hartsock, R.; Hennies, F.; Josefsson, I.; Kennedy, B.; Kunnus, K.; Leitner, T.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.; Nordlund, D.; Odelius, M.; Quevedo, W.; Radcliffe, P.; Rajkovic, I.; Schlotter, B.; Scholz, M.; Schreck, S.; Suljoti, E.; Techert, S.; Turner, J.; Weniger, C.; Zhang, W.; Föhlisch, A.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the pathways in the photo-dissociation reactions of Fe(CO)5 both in the gas phase and in solution by mapping the valence electronic structure of the reaction intermediates with femtosecond X-ray laser spectroscopy.

  11. X-ray Free-Electron Lasers - Present and Future Capabilities [Invited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John; Ratner, John Arthur:a Daniel F.; White, William E.; /SLAC

    2011-11-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fsto500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  12. X-ray free-electron lasers--present and future capabilities [Invited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N.; Arthur, John; Ratner, Daniel F.; White, William E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The Linac Coherent Light Source is now in operation as an X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) user facility. It produces coherent pulses of 550-10,000 eV X-rays of duration adjustable from <10 fs to 500 fs. Typical peak power is in excess of 20 GW. The facility will soon be joined by several X-ray FELs under construction around the world. This article will provide an abridged history of free-electron lasers, a description of some basic physics regarding free-electron laser light amplification, and an overview of the rapidly growing list of examples in which lasers will be used in the control and operation of X-ray FELs.

  13. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10{sup 14} to 1.8 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data.

  14. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  15. Enhanced x-rays from resonant betatron oscillations in laser wakefield with external wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; Hong, W.; Yu, M. Y.; Deng, Z. G.; Teng, J.; He, S. K.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of ultra-short betatron x-rays by laser-accelerated electron beams is of great research interest as it has many applications. In this paper, we propose a scheme for obtaining bright betatron x-rays by applying external wiggler magnetic field in the laser wakefield to resonantly drive the betatron oscillations of the accelerated electrons therein. This results in a significant enhancement of the betatron oscillation amplitude and generation of bright x-rays with high photon energy. The scheme is demonstrated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and discussed using a simple analytical model.

  16. Pair Production from Vacuum at the Focus of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Ringwald, A.

    2001-01-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: One could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spo...

  17. Plasma-based X-ray laser speckle and its application on ferroelectric material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Ren-Zhong; NAMIKAWA Kazumichi

    2005-01-01

    A new type of soft X-ray source, i.e. a plasma-based X-ray laser, is found to be promising to conduct transient measurement. By means of picosecond X-ray laser speckles, the dynamic microscopic polarization clusters within cubic (paraelectric) BaTiO3 was directly observed and characterized in a microscopic scale for the first time.This opens a way to study this type of clusters, which usually manifest large external-field response for ferroelectric materials.

  18. Progress in compact soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ultra-high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. A crucial factor in the availability of these devices is their scale and cost. Recent breakthroughs in this field has brought closer the advent of table-top devices, suitable for applications to fields such as x-ray microscopy, chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography. In this article we review recent progress in the development of compact (table-top) soft x-ray lasers.

  19. Exploring the Potential of Table-Top X-Ray Lasers and Capillary Discharge for Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptev, V N; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A L; Kuba, J; Wootton, A J; Lee, R W; Rocca, J J; Rahman, A; Hammarsten, E; Filevich, J; Jankovska, E; Marconi, M C; Fornaciari, N; Buchenauer, D; Hender, H A; Kari,M S; Kanouff, M; Dimkoff, J; Kubiak, G; Shimkaveg, G; Silfvast, W T

    2003-05-08

    The advantages of using of table top x-ray lasers (XRLs) for different applications have been described. Examples of the first successful use of XRLs, the current efforts in applying them and the potential applications where an XRL can be used in future have been discussed. Modeling results showing the possibility of 3-4 times shorter wavelength capillary discharge x-ray lasers and calculated spectrum of Xe capillary EUV source are presented.

  20. Simulation of the fundamental and nonlinear harmonic output from an FEL amplifier with a soft x-ray seed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Li, Y.; Milton, S. V.

    2000-07-05

    A single-pass, high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) x-ray amplifier was simulated using the 3D, polychromatic simulation code MEDUSA. The seed for the system is a table-top, soft x-ray laser. The simulated fundamental and nonlinear harmonic x-ray output wavelengths are discussed.

  1. LUX: a design study for a linac-/laser-based ultrafast x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, John N.; Barletta, William A.; DeSantis, Stefano; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William M.; Heimann, Philip; Leone, Stephen; Lidia, Steven; Li, Derun; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Reinsch, Matheus; Schoenlein, Robert; Staples, John; Stover, Gregory; Virostek, Steve; Wan, Weishi; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Wolski, Andy; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2004-11-01

    We describe the design concepts for a potential future source of femtosecond x-ray pulses based on synchrotron radiation production in a recirculating electron linac. Using harmonic cascade free-electron lasers (FEL's) and spontaneous emission in short-period, narrow-gap insertion devices, a broad range of photon energies are available with tunability from EUV to hard x-ray regimes. Photon pulse durations are controllable and range from 10 fs to 200 fs, with fluxes 107-1012 photons per pulse. Full spatial and temporal coherence is obtained for EUV and soft X-rays. A fiber laser master oscillator and stabilized timing distribution scheme are proposed to synchronize accelerator rf systems and multiple lasers throughout the facility, allowing timing synchronization between sample excitation and X-ray probe of approximately 20-50 fs.

  2. Images of the laser entrance hole from the static x-ray imager at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M B; Jones, O S; Meezan, N B; Milovich, J L; Town, R P; Alvarez, S S; Beeler, R G; Bradley, D K; Celeste, J R; Dixit, S N; Edwards, M J; Haugh, M J; Kalantar, D H; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Moody, J D; Oberhelman, S K; Piston, K W; Pivovaroff, M J; Suter, L J; Teruya, A T; Thomas, C A; Vernon, S P; Warrick, A L; Widmann, K; Wood, R D; Young, B K

    2010-10-01

    The static x-ray imager at the National Ignition Facility is a pinhole camera using a CCD detector to obtain images of Hohlraum wall x-ray drive illumination patterns seen through the laser entrance hole (LEH). Carefully chosen filters, combined with the CCD response, allow recording images in the x-ray range of 3-5 keV with 60 μm spatial resolution. The routines used to obtain the apparent size of the backlit LEH and the location and intensity of beam spots are discussed and compared to predictions. A new soft x-ray channel centered at 870 eV (near the x-ray peak of a 300 eV temperature ignition Hohlraum) is discussed.

  3. Imaging Macromolecules with X-ray laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The short wavelength of X-rays allows us to resolve atoms, but in practise for biological materials the achievable resolution is limited by the destruction of the sample by the radiation that forms the image.  For over 100 years, the workaround to this problem of radiation damage has been to average signals from repeating copies of the object arranged in a large crystal.  It is now possible to overcome damage limits by using intense X-ray pulses that vaporise the sample, but which are short enough in duration to freeze any motion of the sample on the atomic scale.  With the advent of X-ray FELs we have been able to confirm this principle, and are now applying it to overcoming a major bottleneck for protein crystallography, which is the need for large well-diffracting crystals.  The intense pulses also open up opportunities to help solve the crystallographic phase problem.  In particular we have found that commonly-occurring disordered crystals that are usually not ...

  4. Ion and X-ray techniques used for study of laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowski, J.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Ryć, L.; Woryna, E.

    2015-04-01

    This review article describes apparatus for ion and X-ray diagnostics, which were used in experimental studies of laser-produced plasmas performed by the IPPLM's team in collaboration with other researchers at IPPLM and PALS Research Centre in Prague (the Czech Republic). The investigations of expanding laser-produced plasma properties in dependence on laser beam parameters were done by means of ion diagnostics devices: ion collectors (ICs), cylindrical ion energy analyzer (IEA) and the mass spectrograph of the Thomson type. At IPPLM, different types of detectors have been developed for measurement of X-ray emission. Properties of laser-produced beams of ions and X-ray radiation were analysed in the cooperative experiments performed with the use of a high-energy iodine laser PALS at the PALS Research Centre ASCR in the Czech Republic and the low-energy repetitive laser at IPPLM.

  5. Characteristics of ultrafast K line hard x-ray source from femtosecond terawatt laser-produced plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 陈建文; 高鸿奕; 陆培祥; 徐至展

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical studies and analytical scalings were carried out to find the optimized laser parameters and target conditions so that ultrashort hard x-ray pulses and high x-ray power could be achieved. The dependence of laser intensity and wavelength on the yield of K-shell x-ray emission was studied. We propose an optimal design for a foil target for producing high-yield hard x-ray pulses of customizing duration.

  6. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, M

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm{sup 2} onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained 120 refs, figs, tabs

  7. Theory of recombination x-ray lasers based on optical-field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, D.C.; Amendt, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; London, R.A.; Rosen, M.D.; Wilks, S.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Donnelly, T.D.; Falcone, R.W. [Univ. of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, high-intensity laser drivers have the potential for creating tabletop-size x-ray lasers by ionizing the target gas via the electric field of the laser pulse. For appropriate plasma conditions following ionization, lasing can occur during the subsequent rapid recombination. A review of the theory and modeling for these optical-field-ionized x-ray lasers is presented. Particular attention is given to the issues of electron beating and ionization-induced refraction. We summarize modeling in support of experiments where evidence of lasing in H-like Li at 135 {Angstrom} was obtained. In addition, we present modeling results for lasing in Li-like N at 247 {Angstrom}. We briefly discuss new applications appropriate for tabletop-size high-repetition-rate x-ray lasers.

  8. Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pollock, B. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaw, J. L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ralph, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chen, Y. -H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alessi, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.

  9. Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light

    CERN Document Server

    Seipt, D; Fritzsche, S

    2014-01-01

    The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

  10. Research of laser plasma X-ray spectrum from spherical targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparyan, P.D. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation); Gusikhina, I.A. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation); Lobanova, Yu.L. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation); Zhidkov, N.V. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation); Subbotin, A.N. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: subbotin@otd470.vniief.ru; Tsoi, E.S. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Mira Avenue 37, 607190 Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The paper describes the results of measurements carried out at VNIIEF on a laser facility ISKRA-5 with spherical targets of different type. Spectra of X-rays are measured with the aid of cylindrical Ni/C multilayer mirror (MM). To absolutely normalize the results of spectral measurements, there is additionally registered X-rays by semiconductor detectors with different filters. Detectors' serviceability at operation in the mode of deep current saturation is demonstrated. Experimental and calculation data of spectrum of target X-rays are presented and compared.

  11. Modeling of collisional excited x-ray lasers using short pulse laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Moribayashi, Kengo; Utsumi, Takayuki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A simple atomic kinetics model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers has been developed. The model consists of a collisional radiative model using the average ion model (AIM) and a detailed term accounting (DTA) model of Ni-like Ta. An estimate of plasma condition to produce gain in Ni-like Ta ({lambda}=44A) is given. Use of the plasma confined in a cylinder is proposed to preform a uniform high density plasma from 1-D hydrodynamics calculations. (author)

  12. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 1018 W/cm2. The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  13. Calibration Of A KrF Laser-Plasma Source For X-Ray Microscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, I. C. E.; O'Neill, F.; Zammit, U.; Al-Hadithi, Y.; Eason, R. W.; Rogayski, A. M.; Hills, C. P. B.; Michette, A. G.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma X-ray sources for biological microscopy in the water-window have been produced by focusing tige 200 3, 50 ns Sprit q KrF laser onto carbon targets at irradiance between 2.2 x 10" W/cm4 and 3.7 x 10i3W/cm. Absolute measurements of X-ray production have been made using a calibrated, vacuum X-ray diode detector. A peak conversion efficiency . 10% is measured from KrF laseri)Tight tcto wate-window X-rays at 280 eV < hv < 530 eV for a target irradiance . 1 x x 10 W/cm'. Some measurements with gold and tungsten targets give conversion efficiencies 2$25% at a similar laser irradiance.

  14. Fabrication of polycrystalline diamond refractive X-ray lens by femtosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononenko, T.V.; Ralchenko, V.G.; Ashkinazi, E.E.; Konov, V.I. [General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Polikarpov, M.; Ershov, P. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Functional Nanomaterials, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.; Yunkin, V. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Snigireva, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray planar compound refractive lenses were fabricated from a polycrystalline diamond plate grown by chemical vapor deposition, by precise through cutting with femtosecond laser pulses. The lens geometry and the surface morphology were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy, while the material structure modification was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The results of the preliminary lens test at 9.25-keV X-rays are presented. (orig.)

  15. Soft x-ray generation in gases with an ultrashort pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmire, Todd Raymond [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    An experimental investigation of soft x-ray production resulting from the interaction of intense near infra-red laser radiation with gases is presented in this thesis. Specifically, soft x-ray generation through high order harmonic generation or exploiting intense inverse bremsstrahlung heating is examined. Most of these studies are conducted with femtosecond, terawatt class Cr:LiSrAlF6 (LiSAF) laser, though results derived from studies with other laser systems are presented as well. The majority of this work is devoted to experimental investigations, however, theoretical and computational models are developed to interpret the data. These studies are motivated by the possibility of utilizing the physics of intense laser/matter interactions as a potential compact source of bright x-rays. Consequently, the thrust of many of the experiments conducted is aimed at characterizing the x-rays produced for possible use in applications. In general, the studies of this manuscript fall into three categories. First, a unique 130 fs, 8 TW laser that is based on chirped pulse amplification, is described, and its performance is evaluated. The generation of x-rays through high order harmonics is then discussed with emphasis on characterizing and optimizing harmonic generation. Finally, the generation of strong, incoherent x-ray radiation by the intense irradiation of large (>1,000 atom) clusters in gas jets, is explored. The physics of laser energy absorption by clusters illuminated with intensities of 1015 to 1017 W/cm2 is considered in detail. X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas that result from the irradiation of the clusters is conducted, and energy transport and kinetics issues in these plasmas are discussed.

  16. Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Microtomography from a Compact Laser Driven Betatron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Wenz, J; Khrennikov, K; Bech, M; Thibault, P; Heigoldt, M; Pfeiffer, F; Karsch, S

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called Betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present the first phase-contrast micro-tomogram revealing quantitative electron density values of a biological sample using betatron X-rays, and a comprehensive source characterization. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential fo...

  17. Scaling of X-ray emission and ion velocity in laser produced Cu plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Senecha, V. K.; Pant, H. C.; Kamath, M. P.; Solanki, G. S.; Tripathi, P. K.; Kulkarni, A. P.; Gupta, S.; Pareek, R.; Joshi, A. S.; Sreedhar, N.; Nigam, Sameer; Navathe, C. P.

    2000-11-01

    The x-ray emission from slab targets of copper irradiated by Nd:glass laser (1.054 m m, 5 and 15 ns) at intensities between 1012 and 1014 W/cm2 has been studied. The x-ray emissions were monitored with the help of high quantum efficiency x-ray silicon photo diodes and vacuum photo diodes, all covered with aluminium filters of different thickness. The x-ray intensity vs the laser intensity has a scaling factor of (1.2--1.92). The relative x-ray conversion efficiency follows an empirical relationship which is in close agreement with the one reported by Babonneau et al. The ion velocities were monitored using Langmuir probes placed at different angles and radial distances from the target position. The variation of the ion velocity with the laser intensity follows a scaling of the form Fb where b ~ 0.22 which is in good agreement with the reported scaling factor values. The results on the x-ray emission from Cu plasma are reported.

  18. [Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.

  19. Scaling of x-ray emission and ion velocity in laser produced Cu plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y B S R Prasad; V K Senecha; H C Pant; M P Kamath; G S Solanki; P K Tripathi; A P Kulkarni; S Gupta; R Pareek; A S Joshi; N Sreedhar; Sameer Nigam; C P Navathe

    2000-11-01

    The x-ray emission from slab targets of copper irradiated by Nd:glass laser (1.054 m, 5 and 15 ns) at intensities between 1012 and 1014W/cm2 has been studied. The x-ray emissions were monitored with the help of high quantum efficiency x-ray silicon photo diodes and vacuum photo diodes, all covered with aluminium filters of different thickness. The x-ray intensity vs the laser intensity has a scaling factor of (1.2–1.92). The relative x-ray conversion efficiency follows an empirical relationship which is in close agreement with the one reported by Babonneau et al. The ion velocities were monitored using Langmuir probes placed at different angles and radial distances from the target position. The variation of the ion velocity with the laser intensity follows a scaling of the form where ∼ 0.22 which is in good agreement with the reported scaling factor values. The results on the x-ray emission from Cu plasma are reported.

  20. A final report to the Laboratory Directed Research and Development committee on Project 93-ERP-075: ``X-ray laser propagation and coherence: Diagnosing fast-evolving, high-density laser plasmas using X-ray lasers``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ``X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,`` tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 {angstrom} as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas.

  1. X-ray beam source from a Self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Nuno; Albert, Felicie; Marsh, K. A.; Shaw, J. L.; King, P.; Patankar, S.; Ralph, J.; Pollock, B. B.; Martins, J. L.; Amorim, L. D.; Tsung, F. S.; Goyon, C.; Pak, A.; Moody, J. D.; Schumaker, W.; Fiuza, F.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hegelichand, B. M.; Saunders, A.; Flacone, R. W.; Joshi, C.

    2016-10-01

    To diagnose material properties under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure the development of a directional, small-divergence, small source size and short pulse duration x-ray source has become essential. In this work we explore through experiments and PIC simulations the betatron radiation generated in self-modulated laser-wakefield accelerators. The experiment was preformed at the Jupiter Laser Facility, LLNL where electrons with energies up to 200 MeV and Betatron x-rays with critical energies >10 keV were observed. OSIRIS 2D PIC simulations indicate that the x-ray critical energy directly scales with the a0 of the laser and can easily be increased to critical energies exceeding 50 keV using a laser with a0 of 3.

  2. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  3. Femtosecond laser-generated high-energy-density states studied by x-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsutsumi, M.; Appel, K.; Baehtz, C.; Chen, B.; Cowan, T. E.; Göde, S.; Konopkova, Z.; Pelka, A.; Priebe, G.; Schmidt, A.; Sukharnikov, K.; Thorpe, I.; Tschentscher, Th; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of powerful optical lasers and an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) provides unique capabilities to study the transient behaviour of matter in extreme conditions. The high energy density science instrument (HED instrument) at the European XFEL will provide the experimental platform on which an unique x-ray source can be combined with various types of high-power optical lasers. In this paper, we highlight selected scientific examples together with the associated x-ray techniques, with particular emphasis on femtosecond (fs)-timescale pump-probe experiments. Subsequently, we present the current design status of the HED instrument, outlining how the experiments could be performed. First user experiments will start at the beginning of 2018, after which various optical lasers will be commissioned and made available to the international scientific community.

  4. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  5. High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

  6. Reduced absorption of neon-like bromine X-ray laser radiation in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Fill, E. E.

    1999-10-01

    We have measured the absorption of the 19.47-nm neon like bromine (J=2-1) X-ray laser line in low-pressure helium. The experiment was motivated by the coincidence of this line with the low-absorption wing of an autoionizing transition in helium. We observe that, with 1 mbar of helium, the continuum background and another bromine X-ray laser line at 19.82 nm are strongly reduced, enhancing the relative strength of the 19.47-nm laser line. Increasing the helium pressure to 1.5 mbar makes the continuum virtually disappear, resulting in an almost monochromatic emission of the X-ray laser line. An estimate of the absorption cross section for the 19.47-nm line is given as ≈3.9×10-19 cm2 and for the nearby continuum as 0.9-1.3×10-18 cm2.

  7. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kurosawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), NMIJ, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Richter, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Sorokin, A. A. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, K. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tono, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  8. Nanosecond x-ray Laue diffraction apparatus suitable for laser shock compression experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggit, Matthew; Kimminau, Giles; Hawreliak, James; Remington, Bruce; Park, Nigel; Wark, Justin

    2010-08-01

    We have used nanosecond bursts of x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma, comprised of a mixture of mid-Z elements, to produce a quasiwhite-light spectrum suitable for performing Laue diffraction from single crystals. The laser-produced plasma emits x-rays ranging in energy from 3 to in excess of 10 keV, and is sufficiently bright for single shot nanosecond diffraction patterns to be recorded. The geometry is suitable for the study of laser-shocked crystals, and single-shot diffraction patterns from both unshocked and shocked silicon crystals are presented.

  9. Free-electron laser based resonant inelastic X-ray scattering on molecules and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunnus, Kristjan, E-mail: kkunnus@stanford.edu [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Schreck, Simon; Föhlisch, Alexander [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Femtosecond time-resolved RIXS can be used to follow charge, spin and structural dynamics of dilute solute molecules in solution. • Ultrashort X-ray pulses allow probing of highly radiation sensitive states of matter. • Nonlinear X-ray probes provide an enhanced selectivity and sensitivity as well as a path to control radiation damage and increase the photon yields in RIXS experiments. - Abstract: The unprecedented beam properties of free-electron laser based X-ray sources enable novel resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments. Femtosecond time-resolved RIXS can be used to follow charge, spin and structural dynamics of dilute solute molecules in solution. Ultrashort X-ray pulses allow probing of highly radiation sensitive states of matter such as the metastable phase of supercooled liquid water. Nonlinear X-ray probes like amplified spontaneous emission and stimulated resonant X-ray scattering provide an enhanced selectivity and sensitivity as well as a path to control radiation damage and increase the photon yields in RIXS experiments.

  10. Efficient Pumping Schemes for High Average Brightness Collisional X-ray Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V N; Smith, R F; Patel, P K; Price, D F

    2003-10-07

    Advances in transient collisional x-ray lasers have been demonstrated over the last 5 years as a technique for achieving tabletop soft x-ray lasers using 2-10 J of laser pump energy. The high peak brightness of these sources operating in the high output saturation regime, in the range of 10{sup 24}-10{sup 25} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s-1 (0.1% BW){sup -1}, is ideal for many applications requiring high photon fluence in a single short burst. However, the pump energy required for these x-ray lasers is still relatively high and limits the x-ray laser repetition rate to 1 shot every few minutes. Higher repetition rate collisional schemes have been reported and show some promise for high output in the future. We report a novel technique for enhancing the coupling efficiency of the laser pump into the gain medium that could lead to enhanced x-ray inversion with a factor of ten reduction in the drive energy. This has been applied to the collisional excitation scheme for Ni-like Mo at 18.9 nm and x-ray laser output has been demonstrated. Preliminary results show lasing on a single shot of the optical laser operating at 10 Hz and with 70 mJ in the short pulse. Such a proposed source would have higher average brightness, {approx}10{sup 14} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.1% BW){sup -1}, than present bending magnet 3rd generation synchrotron sources operating at the same spectral range.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  12. Measurements of laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas using x-ray laser refractometry (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, R.; Takahashi, K.; Tanaka, K.A.; Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Murai, K. [DMP, ONRI, Ikeda, Osaka 563 (Japan); Weber, F.; Barbee, T.W.; DaSilva, L.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    1999-01-01

    We developed a 19.6 nm laser x-ray laser grid-image refractometer (XRL-GIR) to diagnose laser-hole boring into overdense plasmas. The XRL-GIR was optimized to measure two-dimensional electron density perturbation on a scale of a few tens of {mu}m in underdense plasmas. Electron density profiles of laser-produced plasmas were obtained for 10{sup 20}{endash}10{sup 22}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} with the XRL-GIR and for 10{sup 19}{endash}10{sup 20}thinspcm{sup {minus}3} from an ultraviolet interferometer, the profiles of which were compared with those from hydrodynamic simulation. By using this XRL-GIR, we directly observed laser channeling into overdense plasmas accompanied by a bow shock wave showing a Mach cone ascribed to supersonic propagation of the channel front. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  14. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  15. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2009-01-01

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well.

  16. Soft x-ray source for nanostructure imaging using femtosecond-laser-irradiated clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Y.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Kando, M.; Kotaki, H.; Daito, I.; Ma, J.; Chen, L. M.; Homma, T.; Kawase, K.; Kameshima, T.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Tajima, T.; Kato, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-03-01

    The intense soft x-ray light source using the supersonic expansion of the mixed gas of He and CO2, when irradiated by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse, is observed to enhance the radiation of soft x-rays from the CO2 clusters. Using this soft x-ray emissions, nanostructure images of 100-nm-thick Mo foils in a wide field of view (mm2 scale) with high spatial resolution (800nm ) are obtained with high dynamic range LiF crystal detectors. The local inhomogeneities of soft x-ray absorption by the nanometer-thick foils is measured with an accuracy of less than ±3%.

  17. Development of an X-ray pixel detector with multi-port charge-coupled device for X-ray free-electron laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameshima, Takashi [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ono, Shun; Kudo, Togo; Ozaki, Kyosuke; Kirihara, Yoichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Inubushi, Yuichi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yabashi, Makina; Hatsui, Takaki, E-mail: hatsui@spring8.or.jp [JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Horigome, Toshio [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Holland, Andrew; Holland, Karen [XCam, Ltd, 2 Stone Circle Road, Round Spinney Industrial Estate, Northampton NN3 8RF (United Kingdom); Burt, David [e2v, 106 Waterhouse Lane, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 2QU (United Kingdom); Murao, Hajime [Meisei Electric Co. Ltd, Naganuma 2223, Isesaki, Gunma 372-8585 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10{sup 14} photon/mm{sup 2}. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status.

  18. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2000-03-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: One could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, A.

    2001-06-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: one could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this Letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism.

  20. Volume effect of laser produced plasma on X-ray emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Senecha; Y B S R Prasad; M P Kamath; A S Joshi; G S Solanki; A P Kulkarni; S Gupta; R Pareek; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An investigation of x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 1.054 m Nd:glass laser pulses of 5 ns duration, at 2 × 1012-2 × 1013 W cm-2 is reported. The x-ray emission has been studied as a function of target position with respect to the laser beam focus position. It has been observed that x-ray emissions from ns duration plasma show a volume effect similar to subnanosecond plasmas. Due to this effect the x-ray yield increases when target is moved away relative to the best focal plane of the laser beam. This result supports the theoretical model of Tallents and has also been testified independently using suitably modified theoretical model for our experimental conditions. While above result is in good agreement with similar experimental results obtained for sub-nanosecond laser produced plasmas, it differs from result claiming filamentation rather than pure geometrical effect leading to x-ray enhancement for ns plasmas.

  1. A bright point source of ultrashort hard x-rays from laser bioplasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, M; Lad, Amit D; Ahmad, Saima; Narayanan, V; Rajeev, R; Kundu, M; Kumar, G Ravindra; Ray, Krishanu

    2010-01-01

    Micro and nano structures scatter light and amplify local electric fields very effectively. Energy incident as intense ultrashort laser pulses can be converted to x-rays and hot electrons more efficiently with a substrate that suitably modifies the local fields. Here we demonstrate that coating a plain glass surface with a few micron thick layer of an ubiquitous microbe, {\\it Escherichia coli}, catapults the brightness of hard x-ray bremsstrahlung emission (up to 300 keV) by more than two orders of magnitude at an incident laser intensity of 10$^{16}$ W cm$^{-2}$. This increased yield is attributed to the local enhancement of electric fields around individual {\\it E. coli} cells and is reproduced by detailed particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This combination of laser plasmas and biological targets can lead to turnkey, multi-kilohertz and environmentally safe sources of hard x-rays.

  2. Target optimization for desired X-ray spectra produced by laser plasma accelerated electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobok, Maxim; Brantov, Andrey; Bychenkov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    Different regimes of electron acceleration from low-density targets are investigated using three-dimensional numerical simulations. Multiple spatial target density profiles were examined, including laser pre-pulse modified targets. The size of the plasma corona is shown to be one of the main parameters characterizing the temperature and number of hot electrons, which determine the yield of X-ray radiation and its hardness. The generation of X-ray radiation by laser accelerated electrons, which impact the converter target located behind the laser target, was studied. The X-ray spectra were computed using Monte-Carlo simulations. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research 16-02-00088-a.

  3. Population Inversion and Gain Measurements for Soft X-Ray Laser Development in a Magnetically Confined Plasma Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    INVERSION AND GAIN MEASUREMENTS FOR ’I SOFT X-RAY LASER DEVELOPMENT IN A MAGNET ICALLY CONFINED PLASMA COLUMN" For the Period: Nov. 1, 1983 t hr u Sept...proposal to AFOSR entitled "Population Inversion and Gain Measurements for X-Ray Laser Development in Magnetically Confined Plasma Column," Princeton, March...I* INTRODUCTION Extensive research on x-ray laser development has provided a number of interesting results for different schemes, e.g. recombination

  4. Measurements of X-ray doses and spectra produced by picosecond laser-irradiated solid targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Qiu, Rui; Yu, Minghai; Jiao, Jinlong; Lu, Wei; Yan, Yonghong; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhou, Weimin; Li, Junli; Zhang, Hui

    2017-02-09

    Experiments have shown that high-intensity laser interaction with a solid target can generate significant X-ray doses. This study was conducted to determine the X-ray doses and spectra produced for picosecond laser-irradiated solid targets. The photon doses and X-ray spectra in the laser forward and side directions were measured using an XG III ps 300 TW laser system. For laser intensities of 7×10(18)-4×10(19)W/cm(2), the maximum photon dose was 16.8 mSv at 50cm with a laser energy of ~153J on a 1-mm Ta target. The photon dose in the forward direction increased more significantly with increasing laser intensity than that in the side direction. For photon energies >300keV, the X-ray spectrum can be fit with an effective temperature distribution of the exponential form, dN/dE = k× exp(-E/Tx). The X-ray temperature Tx increased with the laser intensity in the forward direction with values of 0.46-0.75MeV. Tx was less strongly correlated with the laser intensity in the side direction with values of 0.29-0.32MeV. The escaping electron spectrum was also measured. The measured electron temperature was correlated with the electron temperature predicted by the ponderomotive law. The observations in this experiment were also investigated numerically. A good agreement was observed between the experimental and simulation results.

  5. Accelerator Layout and Physics of X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Decking, W

    2005-01-01

    X-ray Free-Electron Lasers facilities are planned or already under construction around the world. This talk covers the X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers LCLS (SLAC), European XFEL (DESY) and SCSS (Spring8). All aim for self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) FEL radiation of approximately 0.1 nm wavelengths. The required excellent electron beam qualities pose challenges to the accelerator physicists. Space charge forces, coherent synchrotron radiation and wakefields can deteriorate the beam quality. The accelerator physics and technological challenges behind each of the projects will be reviewed, covering the critical components low-emittance electron gun, bunch-compressors, accelerating structures and undulator systems.

  6. Exploration of the fragmentation of laser shock-melted aluminum using x-ray backlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Xue-Mei; Ye, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zu-Gen; Cheng, Jin-Ming; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2016-05-01

    The fragmentation of shock-melted metal material is an important scientific problem in shock physics and is suitable for experimentally investigating by the laser-driven x-ray backlighting technique. This letter reports on the exploration of laser shock-melted aluminum fragmentation by means of x-ray backlighting at the SGII high energy facility in China. High-quality and high-resolution radiographs with negligible motion blur were obtained and these images enabled analysis of the mass distribution of the fragmentation product.

  7. Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thøgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  8. Modulated method for efficient, narrow-bandwidth, laser Compton X-ray and gamma-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2017-07-11

    A method of x-ray and gamma-ray generation via laser Compton scattering uses the interaction of a specially-formatted, highly modulated, long duration, laser pulse with a high-frequency train of high-brightness electron bunches to both create narrow bandwidth x-ray and gamma-ray sources and significantly increase the laser to Compton photon conversion efficiency.

  9. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  10. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  11. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hai-En; Shaw, Joseph; Li, Zhengyan; Arefiev, Alexey V; Zhang, Xi; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Khudik, V; Shvets, G; Downer, M C

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the first tunable Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the easily aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The LPA is driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses, and produces high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams. A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit efficiently retro-reflects the LPA driving pulse with relativistic intensity into oncoming electrons to produce $2\\times10^{7}$ CBS x-ray photons per shot with 10-20 mrad angular divergence and 50 % (FWHM) energy spread without detectable bremsstrahlung background. The x-ray central energy is tuned from 75 KeV to 200 KeV by tuning the LPA e-beam central energy. Particle-in-cell simulations of the LPA, the drive pulse/PM interaction and CBS agree well with measurements.

  12. Elliptically-bent crystal spectrograph for X-ray diagnosis of laser-produced plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiancai Xiong(熊先才); Xianxin Zhong(钟先信); Shali Xiao(肖沙里); Guohong Yang(杨国洪); Jie Gao(高洁)

    2004-01-01

    In order to measure spatially and temporarily resolved laser-produced plasma X-ray spectra in 0.2 - 2nm region, a novel two-channel elliptically-bent crystal spectrograph has been developed. Dispersive elements are LiF, PET, Mica, and KAP crystals, which cover Bragg angles in the range of 30 - 67.5degrees. Eccentricity and focal distance of twin ellipses are 0.9586 and 1350 mm, respectively. Spatially resolved spectrum is photographically recorded with an X-ray film or X-CCD camera in one channel, and temporarily resolved one is photographically recorded with an X-ray streak camera in another channel,thus spatially and temporarily resolved spectra can be simultaneously obtained. Spectral images were acquired with X-CCD and PET in SHENGUANG-Ⅱ laser facility, and experimental results show that the spectral resolution of the spectrograph is about 0.002 nm.

  13. Obtaining attosecond x-ray pulses using a self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Zholents

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for the generation of a solitary attosecond x-ray pulse in a free-electron laser (FEL, via a process of self-amplified spontaneous emission. In this method, electrons experience an energy modulation upon interacting with laser pulses having a duration of a few cycles within single-period wiggler magnets. Two consecutive modulation sections, followed by compression in a dispersive section, are used to obtain a single, subfemtosecond spike in the electron peak current. This region of the electron beam experiences an enhanced growth rate for FEL amplification. After propagation through a long undulator, this current spike emits a ∼250   attosecond x-ray pulse whose intensity dominates the x-ray emission from the rest of the electron bunch.

  14. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  15. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  16. X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from hohlraum-driven spheres on the OMEGA laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A. M.; Jenei, A.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Kraus, D.; Kritcher, A.; Landen, O. L.; Nilsen, J.; Swift, D.

    2016-11-01

    X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is a powerful diagnostic for probing warm and hot dense matter. We present the design and results of the first XRTS experiments with hohlraum-driven CH2 targets on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics in Rochester, NY. X-rays seen directly from the XRTS x-ray source overshadow the elastic scattering signal from the target capsule but can be controlled in future experiments. From the inelastic scattering signal, an average plasma temperature is inferred that is in reasonable agreement with the temperatures predicted by simulations. Knowledge gained in this experiment shows a promising future for further XRTS measurements on indirectly driven OMEGA targets.

  17. Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Plasmas Measured with Soft X-Ray Laser Probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Kodama, R. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Tanaka, K. A. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Hashimoto, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Mima, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Yamada Oka 2-6, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, (Japan); Weber, F. A. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Barbee, T. W. Jr. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Da Silva, L. B. [University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2000-03-13

    A laser self-focused channel formation into overdense plasmas was observed using a soft x-ray laser probe system with a grid image refractometry (GIR) technique. 1.053 {mu}m laser light with a 100 ps pulse duration was focused onto a preformed plasma at an intensity of 2x10{sup 17} W /cm{sup 2} . Cross sections of the channel were obtained which show a 30 {mu}m diameter in overdense plasmas. The channel width in the overdense region was kept narrow as a result of self-focusing. Conically diverging density ridges were also observed along the channel, indicating a Mach cone created by a shock wave due to the supersonic propagation of the channel front. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Development of Compact Soft X-ray Source Based on Laser Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, S; Saitô, T; Ueyama, D; Washio, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on backward Compton scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser and 4 MeV high quality electron beam generated from rf gun system. The range of energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein’s coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. As a preliminary experiment, about 300 eV X-ray generation was carried out. As next step, soft X-ray optics with zone plate was proposed for Soft X-ray microscopy. In this conference, we will report details and results of the experiment.

  19. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K.-J.

    2015-03-01

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as 57Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as 181Ta or 45Sc.

  20. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Adams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as ^{57}Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as ^{181}Ta or ^{45}Sc.

  1. Femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid using a hard X-ray free electron laser in a dual-beam dispersive detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yuki; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kurahashi, Naoya; Karashima, Shutaro; Chiba, Yuhei; Isokawa, Yusuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Yabashi, Makina; Suzuki, Toshinori; Misawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-13

    We present femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aqueous solution using a hard x-ray free electron laser (SACLA) and a synchronized Ti:sapphire laser. The instrumental response time is 200 fs, and the repetition rate of measurement is 10 Hz. A cylindrical liquid beam 100 μm in diameter of aqueous ammonium iron(III) oxalate solution is photoexcited at 400 nm, and the transient X-ray absorption spectra are measured in the K-edge region of iron, 7.10 - 7.26 keV, using a dual X-ray beam dispersive detection method. Each of the dual beams has the pulse energy of 1.4 μJ, and pump-induced absorbance change on the order of 10(-3) is successfully detected. The photoexcited iron complex exhibits a red shifted iron K-edge with the appearance time constant of 260 fs. The X-ray absorption difference spectra, with and without the pump pulses, are independent of time delay after 1.5 ps up to 100 ps, indicating that the photoexcited species is long-lived.

  2. X-Ray Comb Generation from Nuclear-Resonance-Stabilized X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Fundamental Physics and Precision Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K. -J.

    2015-03-31

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as Fe-57 as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as Ta-181 or Sc-45.

  3. Controlled molecules for X-ray diffraction experiments at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Stephan

    2013-12-15

    X-ray diffractive imaging is at the very heart of materials science and has been utilized for decades to solve unknown molecular structures. Nowadays, it serves as the key method of structural biology to solve molecular structures of large biological molecules comprising several thousand or even millions of atoms. However, X-ray diffraction from isolated molecules is very weak. Therefore, the regular and periodic arrangement of a huge number of identical copies of a certain molecule of interest within a crystal lattice has been a necessary condition in order to exploit Bragg diffraction of X-rays. This results in a huge increase in scattered signal and a strongly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to diffraction from non-crystalline samples. The major bottleneck of structural biology is that many of biologically interesting molecules refuse to form crystals of sufficient size to be used at synchrotron X-ray lightsources. However, novel X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), which became operational very recently, promise to address this issue. X-ray pulses provided by XFELs are many orders of magnitude more intense than X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source and at the same time as short as only several tens of femtoseconds. Combined with wavelengths in the nm-pm range, XFELs are well-suited to study ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Additionally, the ultrashort pulses can be utilized to circumvent the damage threshold which set a limit to the incident intensity in X-ray diffraction experiments before. At XFELs, though eventually destroying the investigated sample, no significant sample deterioration happens on the ultrashort timescale of the XFEL pulse and the measured diffraction pattern is due to an (almost) unharmed sample. In the framework of this thesis, the approach of utilizing the highly intense XFEL pulses for X-ray diffraction of weakly-scattering non-crystalline samples was taken to the limit of small isolated molecules. X-ray diffraction was

  4. Chemical Structure by Laser-Produced X-Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-02

    replicating sub-micrometer line- width patterns. (2) Besides replicating test patterns, the tech- nique has been used to fabricare surface acoustic wave...infrared prepulse of 30ns width, which has been chipped off the main laser pulse is focused with a cylindrical lens onto a rectangular region comprising

  5. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2014-06-10

    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10(-18) s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum.

  6. Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Stephan; Holmegaard, Lotte; Filsinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Cohere...

  7. An advanced high resolution x-ray imager for laser-plasma interaction observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennetiere D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here the latest results obtained with our high resolution broadband X-ray microscope. These results, both spatial and spectral, were obtained in several facilities such as Berlin's synchrotron Bessy II and LULI's laser ELFIE 100TW. The results show clearly the opportunity in high resolution microscopy that offer mirror based diagnostics.

  8. Photoelectric effects in x-ray preionization for excimer laser gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarov, A.V.; Peters, P.J.M.; Boller, K.-J.

    2008-01-01

    We present detailed measurements on the x-ray preionization electron density in a discharge chamber filled with different gases relevant to discharge pumped high-pressure excimer lasers. By comparing experimental results with the theoretical electron densities, we conclude that the observed preioniz

  9. Grazing Incidence Pumping X-Ray Laser Scheme with Application of Paraboloid Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Quan-Li; YAN Fei; ZHANG Jie; ZHONG Jia-Yong; ZHAO Jing; SHENG Zheng-Ming; LI Han-Ming; LI Ying-Jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ A grazing incidence pumping x-ray laser scheme using JIGUANG Ⅱ is proposed. We investigate the characteristics of the focusing of parabolas, and obtain the optimal intensity distributions in the target surfaces with paraboloid mirrors of different parameters by the vectorial ray-tracing.

  10. Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Stephan; Holmegaard, Lotte; Filsinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Cohere...

  11. Excited state molecular structure determination in disordered media using laser pump/x-ray probe time-domain x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. X.; Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    Advances in X-ray technologies provide opportunities for solving structures of photoexcited state molecules with short lifetimes. Using X-ray pulses from a modern synchrotron source, the structure of a metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state of CuI(dmp)2+ (dmp 1/4 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) was investigated by laser pump/X-ray probe X-ray absorption fine structure (LPXP-XAFS) in fluid solution at room temperature on a nanosecond time scale. The experimental requirements for such pump-probe XAFS are described in terms of technical challenges: (1) conversion of optimal excited state population, (2) synchronization of the pump laser pulse and probe Xray pulse, and (3) timing of the detection. Using a laser pump pulse for the photoexcitation, a photoluminescent MLCT excited state of CuI(dmp)2(BArF), (dmp 1/4 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), BArF 1/4 tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl)borate) with a lifetime of 98{+-}5 ns was created. Probing the structure of this state at its optimal concentration using an X-ray pulse cluster with a total duration of 14.2 ns revealed that (1) a Cu{sup II} center was generated via a whole charge transfer; (2) the copper in the MLCT state bound an additional ligand to form a penta-coordinate complex with a likely trigonal bipyramidal geometry; and (3) the average Cu-N bond length increases in the MLCT excited state by 0.07 . In contrast to previously reported literature, the photoluminescence of this pentacoordinate MLCT state was not quenched upon ligation with the fifth ligand. On the basis of experimental results, we propose that the absorptive and emissive states have distinct geometries. The results represent X-ray characterization of a molecular excited state in fluid solution on a nanosecond time scale.

  12. LIGHT SOURCE: TW Laser system for Thomson scattering X-ray light source at Tsinghua University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xm; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Hua, Jian-Fei; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2009-06-01

    A TW (Tera Watt) laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source (TTX) is being built. Both UV (ultraviolet) laser pulse for driving the photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and the IR (infrared) laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system. Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.

  13. TW Laser system for Thomson scattering X-ray light source at Tsinghua University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Li-Xin; DU Ying-Chao; DU Qiang; LI Ren-Kai; HUA Jian-Fei; HUANG Wen-Hui; TANG Chuan-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    A TW(Tera Watt)laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source(TTX)is being built.Both UV(ultraviolet)laser pulse for driving the photocathode radiofrequency(RF)gun and the IR(infrared)laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system.Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.

  14. Ultrafast Coherent Diffraction Imaging with X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Barty, A; Benner, W; Bogan, M; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; London, R; Marchesini, S; Spiller, E; Szoke, A; Woods, B; Boutet, S; Hodgson, K; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Burmeister, F; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Maia, F; Seibert, M M; der Spoel, D v

    2006-08-22

    The ultrafast pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers will enable imaging of non-periodic objects at near-atomic resolution [1, Neutze]. These objects could include single molecules, protein complexes, or virus particles. The specimen would be completely destroyed by the pulse in a Coulomb explosion, but that destruction will only happen after the pulse. The scattering from the sample will give structural information about the undamaged object. There are many technical challenges that must be addressed before carrying out such experiments at an XFEL, which we are doing so with experiments at FLASH, the soft-X-ray FEL at DESY.

  15. State analysis of high power laser induced hot electrons by simulation of x-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou; Utsumi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Akira; Zhidkov, A. [Neyagawa Office, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    X-ray generation due to hot electrons induced by ultra-short pulse laser irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo Method. Mass attenuation coefficients of photons by scatter, photoelectric effect, or pair production, and stopping powers of hot electrons due to collisions and radiation are shown. The initial distribution of hot electrons is assumed to be Maxwellian, and the x-ray spectrum due to bremsstrahlung and the number of K{sub {alpha}} photons are calculated. As a result, the temperature of hot electrons could be estimated by comparing with the simulation results and the measurements. (author)

  16. Dose estimation and shielding calculation for X-ray hazard at high intensity laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; James, C. Liu; Sayed, H. Rokni; Michael, B. Woods; Li, Jun-Li

    2014-12-01

    An ionizing radiation hazard produced from the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets has been observed. Laser-plasma interactions create “hot” electrons, which generate bremsstrahlung X-rays when they interact with ions in the target. However, up to now only limited studies have been conducted on this laser-induced radiological protection issue. In this paper, the physical process and characteristics of the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets are analyzed. The parameters of the radiation sources are discussed, including the energy conversion efficiency from laser to hot electrons, hot electron energy spectrum and electron temperature, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray energy spectrum produced by hot electrons. Based on this information, the X-ray dose generated with high-Z targets for laser intensities between 1014 and 1020 W/cm2 is estimated. The shielding effects of common shielding items such as the glass view port, aluminum chamber wall and concrete wall are also studied using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study provides a reference for the dose estimation and the shielding design of high intensity laser facilities.

  17. Bright X-ray source from a laser-driven micro-plasma-waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Longqing

    2016-01-01

    Bright tunable x-ray sources have a number of applications in basic science, medicine and industry. The most powerful sources are synchrotrons, where relativistic electrons are circling in giant storage rings. In parallel, compact laser-plasma x-ray sources are being developed. Owing to the rapid progress in laser technology, very high-contrast femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities become available. These pulses allow for interaction with micro-structured solid-density plasma without destroying the structure by parasitic pre-pulses. The high-contrast laser pulses as well as the manufacturing of materials at micro- and nano-scales open a new realm of possibilities for laser interaction with photonic materials at the relativistic intensities. Here we demonstrate, via numerical simulations, that when coupling with a readily available 1.8 Joule laser, a micro-plasma-waveguide (MPW) may serve as a novel compact x-ray source. Electrons are extracted from the walls by the laser field and form a dense ...

  18. Advancements in time-resolved x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A J; Dunn, J; Widmann, K; Ao, T; Ping, Y; Hunter, J; Ng, A

    2005-07-28

    Time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the non-steady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultra-thin (50 nm) metal foils and bulk semiconductors. Single-shot soft x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy with picosecond time resolution was used in combination with optical measurements of the disassembly dynamics that have shown the existence of a metastable liquid phase in fs-laser heated metal foils persisting 4-5 ps. This metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.3-2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500 x 700 {micro}m{sup 2} spot to create heated conditions of 0.2-1.8 x 10{sup 12} W cm{sup -2} intensity. The unique LLNL COMET compact tabletop soft x-ray laser source provided the necessary high photon flux, highly monoenergetic, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for observing the evolution of changes in the valence band electronic structure of laser heated metals and semiconductors with picosecond time resolution. This work demonstrates the continuing development of a powerful new technique for probing reaction dynamics and changes of local order on surfaces on their fundamental timescales including phenomena such as non-thermal melting, chemical bond formation, intermediate reaction steps, and the existence of transient reaction products.

  19. Influence of the electron beam emittance on the polarization of a laser--electron X-ray generator

    CERN Document Server

    Artyukov, I A; Feshchenko, R M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the polarization of the X-ray radiation coming from laser--electron X-ray generator (LEXG). We obtain general relations connecting the polarization state of outgoing X-ray radiation to the polarization state of laser beam as well as to the parameters of electron beam. We demonstrate that finite electron beam emittance causes a partial depolarization of initially fully polarized X-ray radiation even when the laser beam is fully polarized. We demonstrate with a number of numerical experiments that finite electron beam emittance can in some cases fundamentally alter the polarization state of X-ray radiation as compared to the polarization state of X-ray radiation scattered by electron beam with a zero emittance. Possible applications of polarized LEXG's radiation are discussed.

  20. Laser-driven x-ray and neutron source development for industrial applications of plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, C. M.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Rusby, D. R.; Armstrong, C.; Alejo, A.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed beams of energetic x-rays and neutrons from intense laser interactions with solid foils are promising for applications where bright, small emission area sources, capable of multi-modal delivery are ideal. Possible end users of laser-driven multi-modal sources are those requiring advanced non-destructive inspection techniques in industry sectors of high value commerce such as aerospace, nuclear and advanced manufacturing. We report on experimental work that demonstrates multi-modal operation of high power laser-solid interactions for neutron and x-ray beam generation. Measurements and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations show that neutron yield is increased by a factor ~2 when a 1 mm copper foil is placed behind a 2 mm lithium foil, compared to using a 2 cm block of lithium only. We explore x-ray generation with a 10 picosecond drive pulse in order to tailor the spectral content for radiography with medium density alloy metals. The impact of using  >1 ps pulse duration on laser-accelerated electron beam generation and transport is discussed alongside the optimisation of subsequent bremsstrahlung emission in thin, high atomic number target foils. X-ray spectra are deconvolved from spectrometer measurements and simulation data generated using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. We also demonstrate the unique capability of laser-driven x-rays in being able to deliver single pulse high spatial resolution projection imaging of thick metallic objects. Active detector radiographic imaging of industrially relevant sample objects with a 10 ps drive pulse is presented for the first time, demonstrating that features of 200 μm size are resolved when projected at high magnification.

  1. Multi-keV X-Ray Conversion Efficiency in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C A; Landen, O L; Hammer, J H; Suter, L J; Miller, M C; Davis, J; Grun, J

    2002-10-31

    X-ray sources are created at the Nova and Omega laser by irradiating a confined volume of Ar, Xe, or Kr gas. The gas is heated by forty 0.35 {micro}m wavelength, 1-ns square laser beams to produce He-like ions that radiate K-shell emission over mm-sized dimensions. The targets are designed to be ''underdense'', meaning that the initial gas density is lower than the critical density of the laser, n{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The laser energy is primarily absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and a supersonic heat wave efficiently ionizes the gas. Results from time-resolved and time-integrated diagnostics over a range of experimental parameters are compared. This work represents an important, new method for development of efficient, large-area, tailored multi-keV x-ray sources.

  2. Operation of an Extremely Compact Capillary Discharge Soft X-Ray Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benware, B. R.; Moreno, C. H.; Burd, D. J.; Rocca, J. J.

    1996-11-01

    A major goal in ultrashort wavelength laser research is the development of practical laser sources that can impact applications. Of particular interest is the development of compact "table-top" amplifiers. We have previously reported the first observation of large soft x-ray amplification, at 46.9 nm in the J=0-1 line of Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca, V. Shlyaptsev, F. G. Tomasel, O. D. Cortazar, D. Hartshorn, and J. L. A. Chilla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 2192 (1994). Herein we report the successful operation of an extremely compact table-top discharge driven 46.9 nm laser. Measurement of the soft x-ray laser output pulse energy, pulse duration and beam divergence will be reported. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Key Laser Technologies for X-Ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaertner, Franz [MIT

    2013-08-31

    In the final project period, we demonstrated sub femtosecond timing distribution over a 1.2 km polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-optic link using balanced optical cross-correlators (BOCs) for link stabilization. By eliminating polarization mode dispersion, link operation for 16 days maintained 0.6 fs RMS timing drift and during a 3-day interval only 0.13 fs drift, which corresponds to a stability level of 10-21. To improve the overall system efficiency and robustness, we developed fiber-coupled, hybrid-integrated BOCs using waveguides in periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP). The measured second-harmonic conversion efficiency in the waveguides is a factor of 50 higher than that of bulk-optic crystals. Characterization of 1st-generation devices shows performance comparable to free-space BOCs, with the potential for significant improvement in future devices. For optical-to-RF conversion, we developed two balanced optical-microwave phase detectors (BOM-PD) based on the Sagnac and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF extraction using BOM-PDs in phase-locked loops yielded sub-10-fs residual timing jitter for locking bandwidths on the order of several hundred kHz. Finally, we characterized the timing jitter of ultralow-noise Ti:Sapphire oscillators, demonstrating an unprecedented 13 as of jitter integrated over the entire Nyquist band. Our measurements agreed well with theory, confirming our models for quantum-limited laser noise. Measurements of commercially available solid-state lasers at 1550 nm showed that there are laser sources already available with sufficiently low noise to achieve sub-femtosecond performance as master oscillators within a timing distribution system.

  4. Reflection of femtosecond pulses from soft X-ray free-electron laser by periodical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, D.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany); Hendel, S.; Bienert, F.; Sacher, M.D.; Heinzmann, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Recent experiments on a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) source (FLASH in Hamburg) have shown that multilayers (MLs) can be used as optical elements for highly intense X-ray irradiation. An effort to find most appropriate MLs has to consider the femtosecond time structure and the particular photon energy of the FEL. In this paper we have analysed the time response of 'low absorbing' MLs (e.g. such as La/B{sub 4}C) as a function of the number of periods. Interaction of a pulse train of Gaussian shaped sub-pulses using a realistic ML grown by electron-beam evaporation technique has been analysed in the soft-X-ray range. The structural parameters of the MLs were obtained by reflectivity measurements at BESSY II and subsequent profile fittings. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Two-dimensional imaging detectors for structural biology with X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Peter

    2014-07-17

    Our ability to harness the advances in microelectronics over the past decade(s) for X-ray detection has resulted in significant improvements in the state of the art. Biology with X-ray free-electron lasers present daunting detector challenges: all of the photons arrive at the same time, and individual high peak power pulses must be read out shot-by-shot. Direct X-ray detection in silicon pixel detectors--monolithic or hybrid--are the standard for XFELs today. For structural biology, improvements are needed for today's 10-100 Hz XFELs, and further improvements are required for tomorrow's 10+ kHz XFELs. This article will discuss detector challenges, why they arise and ways to overcome them, along with the current state of the art. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Emerging opportunities in structural biology with X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Ilme; Miao, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) produce X-ray pulses with extremely brilliant peak intensity and ultrashort pulse duration. It has been proposed that radiation damage can be “outrun” by using an ultra intense and short X-FEL pulse that passes a biological sample before the onset of significant radiation damage. The concept of “diffraction-before-destruction” has been demonstrated recently at the Linac Coherent Light Source, the first operational hard X-ray FEL, for protein nanocrystals and giant virus particles. The continuous diffraction patterns from single particles allow solving the classical “phase problem” by the oversampling method with iterative algorithms. If enough data are collected from many identical copies of a (biological) particle, its three-dimensional structure can be reconstructed. We review the current status and future prospects of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and single-particle coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with X-FELs. PMID:22922042

  7. Spectrometer for Hard X-Ray Free Electron Laser Based on Diffraction Focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, V G; Vartanyants, I A

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) generate sequences of ultra-short, spatially coherent pulses of x-ray radiation. We propose the diffraction focusing spectrometer (DFS), which is able to measure the whole energy spectrum of the radiation of a single XFEL pulse with an energy resolution of $\\Delta E/E\\approx 2\\times 10^{-6}$. This is much better than for most modern x-ray spectrometers. Such resolution allows one to resolve the fine spectral structure of the XFEL pulse. The effect of diffraction focusing occurs in a single crystal plate due to dynamical scattering, and is similar to focusing in a Pendry lens made from the metamaterial with a negative refraction index. Such a spectrometer is easier to operate than those based on bent crystals. We show that the DFS can be used in a wide energy range from 5 keV to 20 keV.

  8. Study on fundamental processes of laser welded metals observed with intense x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T.; Daido, H.; Shobu, T.; Takase, K.; Tsukimori, K.; Kureta, M.; Segawa, M.; Nishimura, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawachi, T.

    With use of photon techniques including visible light, soft and hard x-rays, precise fundamental laser welding processes in the repair and maintenance of nuclear plant engineering were reviewed mechanistically. We make discussions centered on the usefulness of an intense soft x-ray beams for evaluations of spatial residual strain distribution and welded metal convection behavior including the surface morphology. Numerical results obtained with a general purpose three-dimensional code SPLICE for the simulation of the welding and solidifying phenomena. Then it is concluded that the x-ray beam would be useful as one of the powerful tools for understanding the mechanisms of various complex phenomena with higher accuracy and higher resolution.

  9. Multilayer zone plates for X-ray focusing fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Florian; Eberl, Christian; Liese, Tobias; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    X-ray microscopy in the soft and hard regime is a highly useful technique for biological and materials sciences, polymer research, colloidal science and even earth science. One alternative approach for two-dimensional x-ray focusing is to prepare non-periodic multilayer structures. They can be designed in zone plate geometry by depositing high quality non-periodic multilayers on wires according to the Fresnel zone plate law. For this, ZrO{sub 2}/Ti and W/Si multilayers with high optical contrast in the soft and hard x-ray region, respectively, were pulsed laser deposited (PLD) at 248 nm. In this contribution, the growth of multilayers on flat and curved surfaces (studied by electron microscopy after focused ion beam preparation) is compared, and the fabrication steps of different zone plate structures are presented.

  10. Performance of the x-ray free-electron laser oscillator with crystal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lindberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL oscillator are presented that include the frequency-dependent Bragg crystal reflectivity and the transverse diffraction and focusing using the two-dimensional FEL code GINGER. A review of the physics of Bragg crystal reflectors and the x-ray FEL oscillator is made, followed by a discussion of its numerical implementation in GINGER. The simulation results for a two-crystal cavity and realistic FEL parameters indicate ∼10^{9} photons in a nearly Fourier-limited, ps pulse. Compressing the electron beam to 100 A and 100 fs results in comparable x-ray characteristics for relaxed beam emittance, energy spread, and/or undulator parameters, albeit in a larger radiation bandwidth. Finally, preliminary simulation results indicate that the four-crystal FEL cavity can be tuned in energy over a range of a few percent.

  11. High Efficiency, Multi-Terawatt X-ray free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We study high efficiency, multi-terawatt peak power, few angstrom wavelength, X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-ray FELs). To obtain these characteristics we consider an optimized undulator design: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. The peak power and efficiency depend on the transverse electron beam distribution and on time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. The last effect is identified as the main cause for reduction of electron beam microbunching and FEL peak power. We show that the optimal functional form for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile, yielding the maximum output power, depends significantly on these effects. The output power achieved when neglecting time dependent effects for an LCLS-like X-ray FEL with a 100 m lo...

  12. High resolution energy-angle correlation measurement of hard x rays from laser-Thomson backscattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, A; Irman, A; Bussmann, M; Couperus, J P; Cowan, T E; Debus, A D; Kuntzsch, M; Ledingham, K W D; Lehnert, U; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Seipt, D; Stöhlker, Th; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, A; Schramm, U

    2013-09-13

    Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright x-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator is performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enables, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard x-ray source PHOENIX (photon electron collider for narrow bandwidth intense x rays) and potential gamma-ray sources.

  13. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure with a table-top laser-induced soft x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühl, Frank-Christian, E-mail: Frank-christian.kuehl@mail.de; Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@llg-ev.de; Schellhorn, Meike; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Wieneke, Stefan [Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, Von-Ossietzky-Str 99, D-37085 Göttingen (Germany); Eusterhues, Karin [Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Fürstengraben 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The authors present a table-top soft x-ray absorption spectrometer, accomplishing investigations of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) in a laboratory environment. The system is based on a low debris plasma ignited by a picosecond laser in a pulsed krypton gas jet, emitting soft x-ray radiation in the range from 1 to 5 nm. For absorption spectroscopy in and around the “water window” (2.3–4.4 nm), a compact helium purged sample compartment for experiments at atmospheric pressure has been constructed and tested. NEXAFS measurements on CaCl{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4} samples were conducted at the calcium and manganese L-edges, as well as at the oxygen K-edge in air, atmospheric helium, and under vacuum, respectively. The results indicate the importance of atmospheric conditions for an investigation of sample hydration processes.

  14. The Mn₄Ca photosynthetic water-oxidation catalyst studied by simultaneous X-ray spectroscopy and crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Rosalie; Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Koroidov, Sergey; Hellmich, Julia; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sauter, Nicholas K; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2014-07-17

    The structure of photosystem II and the catalytic intermediate states of the Mn₄CaO₅ cluster involved in water oxidation have been studied intensively over the past several years. An understanding of the sequential chemistry of light absorption and the mechanism of water oxidation, however, requires a new approach beyond the conventional steady-state crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. In this report, we present the preliminary progress using an X-ray free-electron laser to determine simultaneously the light-induced protein dynamics via crystallography and the local chemistry that occurs at the catalytic centre using X-ray spectroscopy under functional conditions at room temperature.

  15. Experimental investigation of Ne-like Ti X-ray laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文忠; 尤永录; 淳于书泰; 张杰; 张启仁; 杨上金; 武德勇; 庄秀群; 谷渝秋; 刘淑萍; 杜凤英; 蔡玉琴; 袁晓东; 魏晓峰

    1996-01-01

    The experiment on Ne-like X-ray laser has been carried out successfully at the Xingguang Laser Facility by means of a transmission-reflection line focus system and a prepulse 5 ns before the main pulse. The TiXIII losing on 3s-3p J=0- 1 transition has been observed and the gain coefficient measured. The, dependence of the intensities, the divergences and defection angles of losing line on driving energies and prepulses are investigated.

  16. Laser and Pulsed Power Electron Density Imaging Through Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Stoeckl, Christian; Mileham, Chad; Begischev, Ildar; Theobald, Wolfgang; Bromage, Jake; Regan, Sean; Klein, Salee; Muñoz-Cordovez, Gonzalo; Vescovi, Milenko; Valenzuela-Villaseca, Vicente; Veloso, Felipe

    2016-10-01

    A Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer was deployed using laser driven and x-pinch x-ray backlighters. The Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer is an ideal electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas with the potential to simultaneously deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single image with source limited resolution. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 10-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using Cu foil targets at the Multi-TeraWatt facility. An areal electron density of 0.050 g/cm2 was obtained at the center of a fluoro-nylon fiber of 300 mm diameter with a source FWHM of 80 µm and resolution of 50 µm. Grating survival and Moiré pattern formation was demonstrated using a Cu x-pinch plasma of FWHM 27 µm, driven by the 350 kA, 350 ns Llampudken pulsed power generator. These results closely match simulations and laboratory results. It was demonstrated that the technique can detect both sharp and smooth density gradients in the range of 2x1023 to 2x1025 cm-3, thus allowing implementation of the electron density technique as a HED plasma diagnostic in both laser and pulsed power experiments U.S. DoE/NNSA and DE-NA0002955.

  17. Monochromatic computed tomography with a compact laser-driven X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterhold, K; Bech, M; Schleede, S; Potdevin, G; Ruth, R; Loewen, R; Pfeiffer, F

    2013-01-01

    A laser-driven electron-storage ring can produce nearly monochromatic, tunable X-rays in the keV energy regime by inverse Compton scattering. The small footprint, relative low cost and excellent beam quality provide the prospect for valuable preclinical use in radiography and tomography. The monochromaticity of the beam prevents beam hardening effects that are a serious problem in quantitative determination of absorption coefficients. These values are important e.g. for osteoporosis risk assessment. Here, we report quantitative computed tomography (CT) measurements using a laser-driven compact electron-storage ring X-ray source. The experimental results obtained for quantitative CT measurements on mass absorption coefficients in a phantom sample are compared to results from a rotating anode X-ray tube generator at various peak voltages. The findings confirm that a laser-driven electron-storage ring X-ray source can indeed yield much higher CT image quality, particularly if quantitative aspects of computed tomographic imaging are considered.

  18. Fresh-slice multicolour X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutman, Alberto A.; Maxwell, Timothy J.; MacArthur, James P.; Guetg, Marc W.; Berrah, Nora; Coffee, Ryan N.; Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; Marinelli, Agostino; Moeller, Stefan; Zemella, Johann C. U.

    2016-11-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide femtosecond X-ray pulses with a narrow energy bandwidth and unprecedented brightness. Ultrafast physical and chemical dynamics, initiated with a site-specific X-ray pulse, can be explored using XFELs with a second ultrashort X-ray probe pulse. However, existing double-pulse schemes are complicated, difficult to customize or provide only low-intensity pulses. Here we present the novel fresh-slice technique for multicolour pulse production, wherein different temporal slices of an electron bunch lase to saturation in separate undulator sections. This method combines electron bunch tailoring from a passive wakefield device with trajectory control to provide multicolour pulses. The fresh-slice scheme outperforms existing techniques at soft X-ray wavelengths. It produces femtosecond pulses with a power of tens of gigawatts and flexible colour separation. The pulse delay can be varied from temporal overlap to almost one picosecond. We also demonstrate the first three-colour XFEL and variably polarized two-colour pulses.

  19. X-ray laser-induced electron dynamics observed by femtosecond diffraction from nanocrystals of Buckminsterfullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Brian; Dilanian, Ruben A; Darmanin, Connie; Ryan, Rebecca A; Putkunz, Corey T; Martin, Andrew V; Wood, David; Streltsov, Victor; Jones, Michael W M; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hofmann, Felix; Williams, Garth J; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M Marvin; Williams, Sophie; Curwood, Evan; Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G; Nugent, Keith A; Quiney, Harry M

    2016-09-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) deliver x-ray pulses with a coherent flux that is approximately eight orders of magnitude greater than that available from a modern third-generation synchrotron source. The power density of an XFEL pulse may be so high that it can modify the electronic properties of a sample on a femtosecond time scale. Exploration of the interaction of intense coherent x-ray pulses and matter is both of intrinsic scientific interest and of critical importance to the interpretation of experiments that probe the structures of materials using high-brightness femtosecond XFEL pulses. We report observations of the diffraction of extremely intense 32-fs nanofocused x-ray pulses by a powder sample of crystalline C60. We find that the diffraction pattern at the highest available incident power significantly differs from the one obtained using either third-generation synchrotron sources or XFEL sources operating at low output power and does not correspond to the diffraction pattern expected from any known phase of crystalline C60. We interpret these data as evidence of a long-range, coherent dynamic electronic distortion that is driven by the interaction of the periodic array of C60 molecular targets with intense x-ray pulses of femtosecond duration.

  20. Membrane protein structural biology using X-ray free electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Richard; Brändén, Gisela; Schertler, Gebhard F X

    2015-08-01

    Membrane protein structural biology has benefitted tremendously from access to micro-focus crystallography at synchrotron radiation sources. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are linear accelerator driven X-ray sources that deliver a jump in peak X-ray brilliance of nine orders of magnitude and represent a disruptive technology with potential to dramatically change the field. Membrane proteins were amongst the first macromolecules to be studied with XFEL radiation and include proof-of-principle demonstrations of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), the observation that XFEL data can deliver damage free crystallographic structures, initial experiments towards recording structural information from 2D arrays of membrane proteins, and time-resolved SFX, time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering and time-resolved X-ray emission spectroscopy studies. Conversely, serial crystallography methods are now being applied using synchrotron radiation. We believe that a context dependent choice of synchrotron or XFEL radiation will accelerate progress towards novel insights in understanding membrane protein structure and dynamics.

  1. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  2. Application of soft X-ray lasers for probing high density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Cauble, R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The reliability and characteristics of collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers make them ideal for a wide variety of plasma diagnostics. These systems now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35 to 400 {Angstrom} and have output energies as high as 10 mJ in 150 ps pulses. The beam divergence of these lasers is less than 15 mrad and they have a typical linewidth of {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 10{sup -4} making them the brightest xuv sources available. In this paper we will describe the use of x-ray lasers to probe high density plasmas using a variety of diagnostic techniques. Using an x-ray laser and a multilayer mirror imaging system we have studied hydrodynamic imprinting of laser speckle pattern on directly driven thin foils with 1-2 {mu}m spatial resolution. Taking advantage of recently developed multilayer beamsplitters we have constructed and used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operating at 155 {Angstrom} to probe 1-3 mm size laser produced plasmas with peak electron densities of 4 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. A comparison of our results with computer simulations will be presented.

  3. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Richardson, M. C.; Faubel, M.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Siders, C. W.; Elsaesser, T.

    2002-04-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and Kα emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ~500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  4. Soft x-ray laser spectroscopy on trapped highly charged ions at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Brenner, G; Mäckel, V; Mokler, P H; Treusch, R; Kuhlmann, M; Yurkov, M V; Feldhaus, J; Schneider, J R; Wellhöfer, M; Martins, M; Wurth, W; Ullrich, J

    2007-05-04

    In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate high-resolution resonant laser excitation in the soft x-ray region at 48.6 eV of the 2 (2)S(1/2) to 2 (2)P(1/2) transition of Li-like Fe23+ ions trapped in an electron beam ion trap by using ultrabrilliant light from Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). High precision spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions at this and upcoming x-ray lasers with an expected accuracy gain up to a factor of a thousand, become possible with our technique, thus potentially yielding fundamental insights, e.g., into basic aspects of QED.

  5. Optimal main pulse angle for different preplasma conditions in transient collisionally pumped x-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursescu, Daniel; Zielbauer, Bernhard; Kuehl, Thomas; Neumayer, Paul; Pert, Geoff

    2007-04-01

    The effects of the incidence angle of the main pump (MP) pulse in non-normal pumping geometry and the influence of the MP duration are investigated experimentally and theoretically for a transient collisionally pumped (TCE) x-ray laser in Ni-like Zr at 45 degrees and 72 degrees incidence angle on the target. The way they transfer to the x-ray laser output depends on the preplasma conditions, most notably on the average ionization distribution at the arrival of the MP. Moreover, contrary to previous grazing incidence pumping results, it is found that the shortest attainable MP maximizes the output. Modeling of the experimental results is performed with EHYBRID code. The results are important for scaling high repetition-rate non-normal incidence pumped lasers to sub- 10nm wavelengths.

  6. High resolution X-ray spherically bent crystal spectrometer for laser-produced plasma diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shali Xiao; Hongjian Wang; Jun Shi; Changhuan Tang; Shenye Liu

    2009-01-01

    A new high spectral resolution crystal spectrometer is designed to measure very low emissive X-ray spectra of laser-produced plasma in 0.5 - 0.9 nm range. A large open aperture (30 x 20 (mm)) mica (002) spherically bent crystal with curvature radius R = 380 mm is used as dispersive and focusing element. The imaging plate is employed to obtain high spectral resolution with effective area of 30 x 80 (mm). The long designed path of the X-ray spectrometer beam is 980 mm from the source to the detector via the crystal. Experiment is carried out at a 20-J laser facility. X-ray spectra in an absolute intensity scale is obtained from Al laser produced plasmas created by laser energy of 6.78 J. Samples of spectra obtained with spectral resolution of up to E/鈻矱 ~ 1500 are presented. The results clearly show that the device is good to diagnose laser high-density plasmas.

  7. X-ray free-electron lasers principles, properties and applications f*9493

    CERN Document Server

    Stöhr, J

    2002-01-01

    Creating matter from the vacuum, taking an atomic scale motion picture of a chemical process in a time of a few femtoseconds (1 fs = 10 sup - sup 1 sup 5 sec) or unraveling the complex molecular structure of a single protein or virus. These are some of the new exciting experiments envisioned with a novel radiation source, the X-ray free-electron laser (FEL). John Madey and collaborators built the first FEL in the 1970s. It is a powerful and challenging combination of particle accelerator and laser physics and technology. Until recently FELs have been operating at infrared or near ultraviolet wavelengths. A combination of theoretical, experimental, and technological advances has made possible their extension to the X-ray region. X rays have allowed us to see the invisible for almost a century. With their help we have been making great progress in understanding the properties of materials and of living systems. Today the best sources of X rays utilize synchrotron radiation from relativistic electron beams in st...

  8. Development of an ultrashort table-top electron and x-ray source pumped by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau-Montaut, Jean-Pierre; Kiraly, Bela; Girardeau-Montaut, Claire; Leboutet, Hubert

    1999-09-01

    We report on the design of the CIBER-X source which is a new laser driven table-top ultrashort electron and x-ray source. X-ray pulses are produced by a three-step process which consists of the electron pulse production from a thin metallic photocathode illuminated by picosecond 213 nm laser pulses with 16 ps duration. The electrons are accelerated in the diode by a cw electric field of 11 MV/m, and the photoinjector produces a single 70 - 100 keV electron pulse of approximately 0,5 nC and approximately 20 A peak current at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The gun is a standard Pierce diode electrode type, the electrons leaving the diode through a hole made in the anode. The electrons are then transported along a path approximately 20 cm long, and are focused by two magnetic fields produced by electromagnetic coils. Finally, the x-rays are produced by the impact of electrons on a massive target of Tm. Simulations of geometrical and energetic characteristics of the complete source were done previously with assistance of the code PIXEL1. Finally, experimental performances of electron and x-ray bursts are discussed.

  9. Phase contrast micro-CT with an ultrafast laser-based x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, R.; Kieffer, J. C.; Krol, A.; Fourmaux, S.; Ozaki, T.; Ye, H.; Kincaid, R. E., Jr.; Rakhman, A.

    2005-08-01

    We investigated performance of ultrafast laser-based x-ray source for phase contrast imaging in 2D projection imaging and in enhanced micro-CT imaging. Good quality images were obtained, including images of small animals, in the single energy and multiple energy, in line phase-contrast enhancing geometry using x-ray line energy matching object thickness and density. Phase information has been inferred from images obtained at the same x-ray energy but at different object-to-detector distances and also from images obtained at the same object-to-detector distance but with different K-alpha line energies. Ultrafast laser-based, compact, x-ray source is a promising technique for micro-CT systems. Its utilization might result in faster scans with lower radiation dose, better spatial and contrast resolution and also femtosecond temporal resolution. In addition, it might allow practical implementation of dual-energy and phase-contrast imaging micro-CT that is not possible with conventional micro-CT.

  10. First set of gated x-ray imaging diagnostics for the Laser Megajoule facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, R.; Trosseille, C.; Caillaud, T.; Allouche, V.; Bourgade, J. L.; Briat, M.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Le Breton, J. P.; Llavador, P.; Loupias, B.; Miquel, J. L.; Oudot, G.; Perez, S.; Raimbourg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Rousseaux, C.; Rubbelynck, C.; Stemmler, P.; Troussel, P.; Ulmer, J. L.; Wrobel, R.; Beauvais, P.; Pallet, M.; Prevot, V.

    2016-03-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility located at CEA/CESTA started to operate in the early 2014 with two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target for the first experimental campaign. We present here the first set of gated x-ray imaging (GXI) diagnostics implemented on LMJ since mid-2014. This set consists of two imaging diagnostics with spatial, temporal, and broadband spectral resolution. These diagnostics will give basic measurements, during the entire life of the facility, such as position, structure, and balance of beams, but they will also be used to characterize gas filled target implosion symmetry and timing, to study x-ray radiography and hydrodynamic instabilities. The design requires a vulnerability approach, because components will operate in a harsh environment induced by neutron fluxes, gamma rays, debris, and shrapnel. Grazing incidence x-ray microscopes are fielded as far as possible away from the target to minimize potential damage and signal noise due to these sources. These imaging diagnostics incorporate microscopes with large source-to-optic distance and large size gated microchannel plate detectors. Microscopes include optics with grazing incidence mirrors, pinholes, and refractive lenses. Spatial, temporal, and spectral performances have been measured on x-ray tubes and UV lasers at CEA-DIF and at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY II synchrotron prior to be set on LMJ. GXI-1 and GXI-2 designs, metrology, and first experiments on LMJ are presented here.

  11. Open data set of live cyanobacterial cells imaged using an X-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schot, Gijs; Svenda, Martin; Maia, Filipe R N C; Hantke, Max F; DePonte, Daniel P; Seibert, M Marvin; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Kirian, Richard A; Liang, Mengning; Stellato, Francesco; Bari, Sadia; Iwan, Bianca; Andreasson, Jakob; Timneanu, Nicusor; Bielecki, Johan; Westphal, Daniel; Nunes de Almeida, Francisca; Odić, Duško; Hasse, Dirk; Carlsson, Gunilla H; Larsson, Daniel S D; Barty, Anton; Martin, Andrew V; Schorb, Sebastian; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Carron, Sebastian; Ferguson, Ken; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Epp, Sascha W; Foucar, Lutz; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Holl, Peter; Englert, Lars; Loh, N Duane; Chapman, Henry N; Andersson, Inger; Hajdu, Janos; Ekeberg, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    Structural studies on living cells by conventional methods are limited to low resolution because radiation damage kills cells long before the necessary dose for high resolution can be delivered. X-ray free-electron lasers circumvent this problem by outrunning key damage processes with an ultra-short and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse. Diffraction-before-destruction experiments provide high-resolution data from cells that are alive when the femtosecond X-ray pulse traverses the sample. This paper presents two data sets from micron-sized cyanobacteria obtained at the Linac Coherent Light Source, containing a total of 199,000 diffraction patterns. Utilizing this type of diffraction data will require the development of new analysis methods and algorithms for studying structure and structural variability in large populations of cells and to create abstract models. Such studies will allow us to understand living cells and populations of cells in new ways. New X-ray lasers, like the European XFEL, will produce billions of pulses per day, and could open new areas in structural sciences.

  12. Gain dynamics measurement in injection-seeded soft x-ray laser plasma amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, S.; Li, L.; Oliva, E.; Thuy Le, T. T.; Ros, D.; Berrill, M.; Dunn, J.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Yin, L.; Luther, B.; Rocca, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Herein we report the first measurement of the gain dynamics in a soft x-ray plasma amplifier seeded by high harmonic pulses. A sequence of two time-delayed spatially-overlapping high harmonic pulses was injected into a λ = 18.9 nm Ni-like Mo plasma amplifier to measure the regeneration of the population inversion that follows the gain depletion caused by the amplification of the first seed pulse. Collisional excitation is observed to re-establish population inversion depleted during the amplification of the seed pulse in about ~1.75 ps. The measured gain-recovery time is compared to model simulations to gain insight on the population inversion mechanisms that create the transient gain in these amplifiers. This result supports the concept of a soft x-ray laser amplification scheme based on the continuous extraction of energy from a soft x-ray plasma-based amplifier by an stretched seed pulse has the potential to generate ultra-intense fully phase-coherent soft x-ray laser pulses. Work supported by AMOS program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US DoE, and the NSF ERC Program with equipment developed under NSF Award MRI-ARRA 09-561, and by LASERLAB3-INREX European project and SHYLAX plus CIBORG RTRA `Triangle de la Physique.'

  13. High-Energy Density science with an ultra-bright x-ray laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    This talk will review recent progress in high-energy density physics using the world's brightest x-ray source, the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC's free electron x-ray laser. These experiments investigate laser-driven matter in extreme conditions where powerful x-ray scattering and imaging techniques have been applied to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and to visualize the formation of dense plasma states. Major research areas include dynamic compression experiments of solid targets to determine structural properties and to discover and characterize phase transitions at mega-bar pressures. A second area studies extreme fields produced by high-intensity radiation where fundamental questions of laboratory plasmas can be related to cosmological phenomena. Each of these areas takes advantage of the unique properties of the LCLS x-ray beam. They include small foci for achieving high intensity or high spatial resolution, high photon flux for dynamic structure factor measurements in single shots, and high spectral bandwidth to resolve plasmon (Langmuir) waves or ion acoustic waves in dense plasmas. We will further describe new developments of ultrafast pump-probe technique at high repetition rates. These include studies on dense cryogenic hydrogen that have begun providing fundamental insights into the physical properties of matter in extreme conditions that are important for astrophysics, fusion experiments and generation of radiation sources. This work was supported by DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  14. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  15. Pump-probe laser development for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Max J.; Pergament, Mikhail; Kellert, Martin; Mendez, Cruz

    2012-10-01

    The successful implementation of superconducting LINAC technology at the European XFEL will boost the time averaged X-RAY power density substantially above current values. In fact, the XFEL will operate at repetition rates of up to 4.5MHz. However, this high pulse rate occurs only during 600μs long bursts of 10Hz repetition rate, rendering up to 27000 pulses per second. Matching this peculiar burst mode operation is a requirement also for the pump-probe femtosecond laser used in experiments. There is currently no commercially available femtosecond laser technology offering this kind of output at close to mJ-level energies per pulse and sub-20fs pulse width. We will outline the scheme of the pump-probe laser currently under development at the European XFEL. The laser design is based on a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) which will be pumped by sub-picosecond pulses from a high power, frequency-doubled Yb:YAG slab amplifier, delivering up to 20kW of fundamental average power during a burst. The design aims at highest possible flexibility regarding intra-burst rep-rates and pulse energies. Also, the use of uncompressed as well as compressed NOPA pump pulses at fundamental wavelength will enhance the flexibility in experiments.

  16. Intrinsic beam emittance of laser-accelerated electrons measured by x-ray spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, G; Banerjee, S; Liu, C; Chen, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhang, P; Veale, M; Wilson, M; Seller, P; Umstadter, D

    2016-04-19

    The recent combination of ultra-intense lasers and laser-accelerated electron beams is enabling the development of a new generation of compact x-ray light sources, the coherence of which depends directly on electron beam emittance. Although the emittance of accelerated electron beams can be low, it can grow due to the effects of space charge during free-space propagation. Direct experimental measurement of this important property is complicated by micron-scale beam sizes, and the presence of intense fields at the location where space charge acts. Reported here is a novel, non-destructive, single-shot method that overcame this problem. It employed an intense laser probe pulse, and spectroscopic imaging of the inverse-Compton scattered x-rays, allowing measurement of an ultra-low value for the normalized transverse emittance, 0.15 (±0.06) π mm mrad, as well as study of its subsequent growth upon exiting the accelerator. The technique and results are critical for designing multi-stage laser-wakefield accelerators, and generating high-brightness, spatially coherent x-rays.

  17. X-ray emissions by inner-shell ionization in laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Nishiyama, H.; Masaki, T.; Moribayashi, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Li, J. Q.

    2006-10-01

    The dynamics of clusters irradiated by high intensity laser pulse has been interested due to its unique nature of the interaction different from other conventional targets and various applications have been proposed [1]. Specifically, an enhanced electric field that is more than one order of magnitude greater than the applied laser field is found to be produced due to the polarization effect near cluster surface. Generation of anomalously high charge state ions and associated short pulse X-rays were observed [2]. Based on simulation studies utilizing our particle code including atomic and relaxation processes [3] incorporated with a perturbation analyses of inner-shell ionization, we have investigated the properties of X-rays from F,O,N,C,B,Be,Li-like argon ions. With an increase of laser intensity, the X-ray pulse length becomes short, comparable to the order of incident laser pulse. [1] Y. Kishimoto et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 589 (2002) [2] Y. Fukuda et al., Laer and Particle Beams 22, 215 (2004) [3] Y. Fukuda et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 031201(R) (2006)

  18. Imaging live cell in micro-liquid enclosure by X-ray laser diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Shibuya, Akemi; Song, Changyong; Kim, Sangsoo; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Tamakoshi, Masatada; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Oshima, Tairo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Emerging X-ray free-electron lasers with femtosecond pulse duration enable single-shot snapshot imaging almost free from sample damage by outrunning major radiation damage processes. In bioimaging, it is essential to keep the sample close to its natural state. Conventional high-resolution imaging, however, suffers from severe radiation damage that hinders live cell imaging. Here we present a method for capturing snapshots of live cells kept in a micro-liquid enclosure array by X-ray laser diffraction. We place living Microbacterium lacticum cells in an enclosure array and successively expose each enclosure to a single X-ray laser pulse from the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser. The enclosure itself works as a guard slit and allows us to record a coherent diffraction pattern from a weakly-scattering submicrometre-sized cell with a clear fringe extending up to a 28-nm full-period resolution. The reconstructed image reveals living whole-cell structures without any staining, which helps advance understanding of intracellular phenomena. PMID:24394916

  19. Improved energy coupling into the gain region of the Ni-like Pd transient collisional x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R; Dunn, J; Filevich, J; Moon, S; Nilsen, J; Keenan, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Rocca, J; Hunter, J; Shepherd, R; Booth, R; Marconi, M

    2004-10-05

    We present within this paper a series of experiments, which yield new observations to further our understanding of the transient collisional x-ray laser medium. We use the recently developed technique of picosecond x-ray laser interferometry to probe the plasma conditions in which the x-ray laser is generated and propagates. This yields two dimensional electron density maps of the plasma taken at different times relative to the peak of the 600ps plasma-forming beam. In another experimental campaign, the output of the x-ray laser plasma column is imaged with a spherical multilayer mirror onto a CCD camera to give a two-dimensional intensity map of the x-ray laser output. Near-field imaging gives insights into refraction, output intensity and spatial mode structure. Combining these images with the density maps gives an indication of the electron density at which the x-ray laser is being emitted at (yielding insights into the effect of density gradients on beam propagation). Experimental observations coupled with simulations predict that most effective coupling of laser pump energy occurs when the duration of the main heating pulse is comparable to the gain lifetime ({approx}10ps for Ni-like schemes). This can increase the output intensity by more than an order of magnitude relative to the case were the same pumping energy is delivered within a shorter heating pulse duration (< 3ps). We have also conducted an experiment in which the output of the x-ray laser was imaged onto the entrance slit of a high temporal resolution streak camera. This effectively takes a one-dimensional slice of the x-ray laser spatial profile and sweeps it in time. Under some conditions we observe rapid movement of the x-ray laser ({approx} 3 {micro}m/ps) towards the target surface.

  20. Conversion Efficiency of Kilovolt X- Ray Line Emission in Laser-heated NaF Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令华; 淳于书泰; 何绍堂; 陈涵德; 杨向东; 李孝昌; 王永国

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the theoretical and experimental work on converting focused Nd-glass laser radiation of LI-11 facility into kilovolt X-ray line emission in laser-heated NaF plasma.This conversion efficiency ε turns out to he in the range from 0.2% to 1% for the laser (λ=1.06μm) power density changing from 10×1013 to 3.5×1013 W/cm2 The relationship between ε and λ has also been discussed.Simultaneously,theoretical results are compared with the experimental.

  1. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. S.; Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  2. Synchronizing femtosecond laser with x-ray synchrotron operating at arbitrarily different frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wonhyuk [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sooheyong, E-mail: sooheyong@gmail.com [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Intae, E-mail: neplus@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Landahl, Eric C. [Department of Physics, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois 60614 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ability to synchronize a femtosecond laser to x-ray pulses is crucial for performing ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering experiments at synchrotrons. Conventionally, the task has been achieved by locking a harmonic frequency of the laser oscillator to the storage ring master radio-frequency (RF). However, when the frequency mismatch between the two sources cannot be compensated by small adjustments to the laser cavity length, synchronization to a harmonic frequency requires modifying the optical components of the laser system. We demonstrate a novel synchronization scheme, which is a flexible alternative for synchronizing these two sources operating at arbitrarily different frequencies. First, we find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the two frequencies that is still within the limited tuning range of the laser cavity length. The GCD is generated by dividing down from the storage ring RF, and is separately multiplied up to provide a feedback signal for synchronizing the laser cavity. Unique to our scheme, the GCD also serves as a harmonic RF source for the laser amplifier such that only laser oscillator pulses at fixed integer multiples of the storage ring RF are selected for amplification and delivery to experiments. Our method is implemented at the Photon Test Facility beamline of Pohang Light Source where timing-jitter less than 4 ps (r.m.s.) is measured using a new shot-to-shot method.

  3. Calibration of X-ray spectrometers for opacity experiments at the Orion laser facility (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C.; Allan, P.; Brent, K.; Bruce, N.; Hoarty, D.; Meadowcroft, A.; Percival, J.; Opie, C.

    2016-11-01

    Accurately calibrated and characterised x-ray diagnostics are a key requirement in the fielding of experiments on the Orion laser where absolute measurements of x-ray emission are used to underpin the validity of models of emissivity and opacity. Diffraction crystals are used in spectrometers on Orion to record the dispersed spectral features emitted by the laser produced plasma to obtain a measurement of the plasma conditions. The ability to undertake diffraction crystal calibrations supports the successful outcome of these Orion experiments. This paper details the design and commissioning of a system to undertake these calibrations in the energy range 2.0 keV to approximately 8.5 keV. Improvements to the design are detailed which will extend the commissioned range of energies to below 1 keV.

  4. X-ray-boosted photoionization for the measurement of an intense laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yu-Cheng; He Hai-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Investigations show that X-ray-boosted photoionization (XBP) has the following advantages for in-situ measurements of ultrahigh laser intensity Ⅰ and field envelope F(t) (time t,pulse duration τL,carrier-envelope-phase Φ):accuracy,dynamic range,and rapidness.The calculated XBP spectra resemble inversely proportional functions of the photoelectron momentum shift.The maximum momentump9 and the observable value Q (defined as a double integration of a normalized photoelectron energy spectrum,PES) linearly depend on I1/2 and τL,respectively.Φ and F(t) can be determined from the PES cut-off energy and peak positions.The measurable laser intensity can be up to and over 1018 W/cm2 by using high energy X-rays and highly charged inert gases.

  5. 2D parameter optimization of Ne-like Cr x-ray laser on slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Tao; Li Ying-Jun; Meng Li-Min; Yuan Su-Ying; Zhang Jie

    2009-01-01

    A method of studying a non-equilibrium x-ray laser plasma is developed by extending the existing one-dimensional similarity equations to the case of two-dimensional plasma study in the directions perpendicular to the slab and along a focal line. With this method the characteristics of pre-plasma are optimized for transient neon-like Cr x-ray laser. It is found that when the duration and the intensity of 1.053 μm pre-pulse are 1.2 ns and 6.5 TW/cm2respectively with a delay time of 1.5 us, the temperature and the temperature discrepancy each approach a proper state, which will provide a uniform distribution of properly ionized neon-like Cr ions before the arrival of pumping pulse.

  6. Undulator commissioning by characterization of radiation in x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs where a long undulator composed of many segments is installed, there exist a number of error sources to reduce the FEL gain such as the trajectory error, K value discrepancy, and phase mismatch, which are related to the segmented-undulator structure. Undulator commissioning, which refers to the tuning and alignment processes to eliminate the possible error sources, is thus an important step toward realization of lasing. In the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA facility, the undulator commissioning has been carried out by means of characterization of x-ray radiation, i.e., measurements of the spatial and spectral profiles of monochromatized spontaneous undulator radiation as well as by probing the FEL intensity. The achieved tuning and alignment accuracies estimated from the statistics of actual measurements in SACLA show the effectiveness of this commissioning scheme.

  7. X-Ray Laser Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Single-State Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A J; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Hunter, J

    2004-07-14

    We demonstrate single-shot x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy on metal and semiconductor surfaces with picosecond time resolution. The LLNL COMET compact tabletop x-ray laser source provides the necessary high photon flux (>10{sup 12}/pulse), monochromaticity, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for probing ultrafast changes in the chemical and electronic structure of these materials. Static valence band and shallow core-level photoemission spectra are presented for ambient temperature polycrystalline Cu foils and Ge(100). Surface contamination was removed by UV ozone cleaning prior to analysis. The ultrafast nature of this technique lends itself to true single-state measurements of shocked and heated materials.

  8. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signaling to numerous G protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveal...

  9. Curved crystal spectrometer for the measurement of X-ray lines from laser-produced plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jun; XIAO Sha-li; WANG Hong-jian; TANG Chang-huan; LIU Shen-ye

    2008-01-01

    In order to diagnose the laser-produced plasmas, a focusing curved crystal spectrometer has been developed for measuring the X-ray lines radiated from a laser-produced plasmas. The design is based on the fact that the ray emitted from a source located at one focus of an ellipse will converge on the other focus by the reflection of the elliptical surface. The focal length and the eccentricity of the ellipse are 1350 mm and 0.9586, respectively. The spectrometer can be used to measure the X-ray lines in the wavelength range of 0.2-0.37 nm, and a LiF crystal (200) (2d = 0.4027 nm) is used as dispersive element covering Bragg angle from 30° to 67.5°. The spectrometer was tested on Shenguang-Ⅱ which can deliver laser energy of 60-80 J/pulse and the laser wavelength is 0.35 μm. Photographs of spectra including the 1s2p 1p1-1s2 1S0 resonance line(w),the 1s2p 3P2-1s2 1S0 magnetic quadrupole line(x), the 1s2p 3p1 1s2 1S0 intercombination lines(y), the 1s2p 3S1-1s2 1S0 forbidden line(z) in helium-like Ti X XI and the 1s2s2p 2P3/2-1s22s 2S1/2 line(q) in lithium-like Ti X X have been recorded with a X-ray CCD camera. The experimental result shows that the wavelength resolution(λ/△λ) is above 1000 and the elliptical crystal spectrometer is suitable for X-ray spectroscopy.

  10. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Oh, A. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge.

  11. Characteristics of radiation safety for synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2011-07-01

    Radiation safety problems are discussed for typical electron accelerators, synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. The radiation sources at the beamline of the facilities are SR, including XFEL, gas bremsstrahlung and high-energy gamma ray and photo-neutrons due to electron beam loss. The radiation safety problems for each source are compared by using 8 GeV class SR and XFEL facilities as an example.

  12. Spectrograph complex for laser plasma X-ray radiation research in ISKRA-4, ISKRA-5 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessarab, A.V.; Bel`kov, S.A.; Zhidkov, N.V.; Tokarev, V.A. [VNIIEF Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    A spectrograph complex, developed for the ISKRA-4 and ISKRA-5 facilities, is described. The complex was developed to study continuous and line spectra in the 0.06-3 keV range. It comprises diffraction-grating, multilayer-mirror, and grazing-incidence crystal spectrographs. Recorded laser plasma X-ray spectra are compared with the ones predicted by the gas-dynamical theory. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Modeling of fast capillary discharge for collisionally excited soft x-ray lasers: comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N.; Gerusov, Alexey V.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Rocca, Jorge J. G.; Cortazar, O. D.; Tomasel, Fernando G.; Szapiro, Benito T.

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we report results of a model of a fast capillary discharge (FCD) and discuss them in comparison with experiments. The overall good coincidence between theory and experiment and the observation of stable reproducible compression are beneficial properties of FCD which open the possibility for achieving X-ray laser action in a compact discharge device. The required discharge parameters for lasing in different atomic elements have been calculated.

  14. Three-dimensional single-particle imaging using angular correlations from X-ray laser data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiguang; Poon, Billy K; Saldin, Dilano K; Spence, John C H; Zwart, Peter H

    2013-07-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron laser sources make it feasible to conduct room-temperature solution scattering experiments far below molecular rotational diffusion timescales. Owing to the ultra-short duration of each snapshot in these fluctuation scattering experiments, the particles are effectively frozen in space during the X-ray exposure. In contrast to standard small-angle scattering experiments, the resulting scattering patterns are anisotropic. The intensity fluctuations observed in the diffraction images can be used to obtain structural information embedded in the average angular correlation of the Fourier transform of the scattering species, of which standard small-angle scattering data are a subset. The additional information contained in the data of these fluctuation scattering experiments can be used to determine the structure of macromolecules in solution without imposing symmetry or spatial restraints during model reconstruction, reducing ambiguities normally observed in solution scattering studies. In this communication, a method that utilizes fluctuation X-ray scattering data to determine low-resolution solution structures is presented. The method is validated with theoretical data calculated from several representative molecules and applied to the reconstruction of nanoparticles from experimental data collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

  15. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  16. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  17. Formation of x-ray Newton’s rings from nano-scale spallation shells of metals in laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Nishikino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the femtosecond (fs laser ablation process of gold, platinum, and tungsten were observed by single-shot soft x-ray imaging technique. The formation and evolution of soft x-ray Newton’s rings (NRs were found for the first time. The soft x-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer; they originate from the metal surface at pump energy fluence of around 1 J/cm2 and work as a flying soft x-ray beam splitter.

  18. Formation of x-ray Newton's rings from nano-scale spallation shells of metals in laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    The initial stages of the femtosecond (fs) laser ablation process of gold, platinum, and tungsten were observed by single-shot soft x-ray imaging technique. The formation and evolution of soft x-ray Newton's rings (NRs) were found for the first time. The soft x-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer; they originate from the metal surface at pump energy fluence of around 1 J/cm2 and work as a flying soft x-ray beam splitter.

  19. Use of x-ray radiation to preionize the active medium in high-pressure gas lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyrev, A.V.; Korolev, Y.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Novoselov, Y.N.; Prokhorov, A.M.; Skakun, V.S.; Tarasenko, V.F.; Genkin, S.A.

    1984-03-01

    Estimates are given of the ionization of a gas by x-ray radiation and it is shown that it is possible to lower the x-ray quantum energy to 50 keV with no significant loss in the utilization efficiency of the radiation. The results are given of an experimental investigation of an XeCl laser using x-ray preionization. The specific output energy obtained (>1 J/liter) confirmed the efficiency of using x rays for preionization. The state of the surfaces and of the electrode design influenced the output energy.

  20. Ultrafast laser-induced melting and ablation studied by time-resolved diffuse X-ray scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved diffuse X-ray scattering with 50 fs, 9.5 keV X-ray pulses from the Linear Coherent Light Source was used to study the structural dynamics in materials undergoing rapid melting and ablation after fs laser excitation.

  1. ULTRA-BRIGHT X-RAY GENERATION USING INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING OF PICOSECOND CO(2) LASER PLUSES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TSUNEMI,A.; ENDO,A.; POGORELSKY,I.; BEN-ZVI,I.; KUSCHE,K.; SKARITKA,J.; YAKIMENKO,V.; HIROSE,T.; URAKAWA,J.; OMORI,T.; WASHIO,M.; LIU,Y.; HE,P.; CLINE,D.

    1999-03-01

    Laser-Compton scattering with picosecond CO{sub 2} laser pulses is proposed for generation of high-brightness x-rays. The interaction chamber has been developed and the experiment is scheduled for the generation of the x-rays of 4.7 keV, 10{sup 7} photons in 10-ps pulse width using 50-MeV, 0.5-nC relativistic electron bunches and 6 GW CO{sub 2} laser.

  2. Direct and secondary nuclear excitation with x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunst, Jonas; Wu, Yuanbin, E-mail: yuanbin.wu@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Kumar, Naveen; Keitel, Christoph H.; Pálffy, Adriana, E-mail: Palffy@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The direct and secondary nuclear excitation produced by an x-ray free electron laser when interacting with a solid-state nuclear target is investigated theoretically. When driven at the resonance energy, the x-ray free electron laser can produce direct photoexcitation. However, the dominant process in that interaction is the photoelectric effect producing a cold and very dense plasma in which also secondary processes such as nuclear excitation by electron capture may occur. We develop a realistic theoretical model to quantify the temporal dynamics of the plasma and the magnitude of the secondary excitation therein. Numerical results show that depending on the nuclear transition energy and the temperature and charge states reached in the plasma, secondary nuclear excitation by electron capture may dominate the direct photoexcitation by several orders of magnitude, as it is the case for the 4.8 keV transition from the isomeric state of {sup 93}Mo, or it can be negligible, as it is the case for the 14.4 keV Mössbauer transition in {sup 57}Fe. These findings are most relevant for future nuclear quantum optics experiments at x-ray free electron laser facilities.

  3. QED and nuclear effects in strong optical and x-ray laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, A.; Pálffy, A.; Liao, W.-T.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.

    2011-06-01

    The possibility of employing strong optical and x-ray laser fields to investigate processes in the realm of classical and quantum electrodynamics as well as nuclear quantum optics is considered. In the first part we show on the theoretical side how modern strong optical laser fields can be employed to test the fundamental classical equations of motion of the electron which include radiation reaction, i.e., the effect of the radiation emitted by the electron on its own motion. Then, we clarify the quantum origin of radiation reaction and discuss a new radiation regime where both quantum and radiation effects dominate the electron dynamics. The second part is dedicated to the possibility of controlling nuclear transitions with coherent x-ray light. In particular, we investigate the resonant driving of nuclear transitions by super-intense x-ray laser fields considering parameters of upcoming high-frequency coherent light sources. As relevant application, the controlled pumping or release of energy stored in long-lived nuclear states is discussed.

  4. Generation of intense attosecond x-ray pulses using ultraviolet laser induced microbunching in electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scheme that combines the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique with the bunch compression and allows one to generate harmonic numbers of a few hundred in a microbunched beam through up-conversion of the frequency of an ultraviolet seed laser. A few-cycle intense laser is used to generate the required energy chirp in the beam for bunch compression and for selection of an attosecond x-ray pulse. Sending this beam through a short undulator results in an intense isolated attosecond x-ray pulse. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 1 nm x-ray pulse with peak power of a few hundred MW and duration as short as 20 attoseconds (FWHM can be generated from a 200 nm ultraviolet seed laser. The proposed scheme may enable the study of electronic dynamics with a resolution beyond the atomic unit of time (∼24 attoseconds and may open a new regime of ultrafast sciences.

  5. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S V; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Pinegin, A V; Suslov, N A [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-31

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 - 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s - 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p - 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  6. Experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in heated Al and Ge on the Iskra-5 laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, S. V.; Garanin, Sergey G.; Zhidkov, N. V.; Pinegin, A. V.; Suslov, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    We set forth the data of experimental investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients in the 1.1 — 1.6 keV photon energy range for Al and Ge specimens bulk heated by soft X-ray radiation. Two experimental techniques are described: with the use of one facility channel and the heating of specimens by the X-ray radiation from a plane burnthrough target, as well as with the use of four channels and the heating by the radiation from two cylindrical targets with internal input of laser radiation. The X-ray radiation absorption coefficients were studied by way of transmission absorption spectroscopy using backlighting X-ray radiation from a point source. The results of investigation of X-ray spectral absorption coefficients on the 1s — 2p transitions in Al atoms and the 2p — 3d transitions in Ge atoms are presented.

  7. Time Integrated Soft X-ray Imaging in High Intensity Laser Experiments (thesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    2009 marks a significant achievement and the dawn of a new era in high intensity laser research with the final commissioning of all 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NIF is a department of energy (DOE) funded project more than 10 years in the making located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The following research was done as one of many preliminary experiments done to prepare for these historic events. The primary focus of the experimental campaign this paper addresses is to test and develop a thermal x-radiation source using a short pulse laser. This data is hoped to provide information about the thermal transport mechanisms important in the development of prediction models in High Energy Density (HED) science. One of several diagnostics fielded was a soft x-ray imager (SXRI) which is detailed in this paper. The SXRI will be used to measure the relative size of the heated region and also the relative level of specific x-ray emissions among several shot and target configurations. The laser system used was the Titan laser located in the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Titan uses the JLF Janus Nd:glass laser west frontend system with a Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification (OPCPA) in place of the nanosecond oscillator. The system is capable of producing laser intensities of over a petawatt with several tens of joules delivered in the beam.

  8. Kilohertz sources of hard x rays and fast ions with femtosecond laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, A.; Richardson, M.; Korn, G.; Faubel, M.; Stiel, H.; Vogt, U.; Elsaesser, T.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new, stable, kilohertz femtosecond laser plasma source of hard-x-ray continuum and Kα emission that uses a microscopic liquid jet target that is continuous and debris free. Plasmas produced by ultrashort (50-fs) intense laser pulses from a fine (10-30-μm diameter) liquid Ga jet emit bright 9.3- and 10.3-keV Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multikilovolt bremmstrahlung continuum. Kilohertz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high-intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot to shot and debris free. Our target provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We show the hard-x-ray spectrum described above. The source was generated by a 50-fs-duration, 1-kHz, 2-W, high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. Using the same technology, we also generate forward-going sub-mega-electron-volt (sub-MeV) protons from a 10-μm liquid water target at 1-kHz repetition rates. Kilohertz sources of high-energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies and will lead to efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors in both the forward and the backward directions up to energies of ~500 keV. As the intensity of compact high-repetition-rate lasers sources increases, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency, and directionality to occur. The effect of these developments is discussed. As compact, high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser technology reaches focused intensities of ~1019 W/cm2, many new applications of high-repetition-rate hard-x-ray and MeV ion sources will become practical.

  9. A review of laser and synchrotron based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; Key, M.H. [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). LSAI; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The rapid development of laser technology and related progress in research using lasers is shifting the boundaries where laser based sources are preferred over other light sources particularly in the XUV and X-ray spectral region. Laser based sources have exceptional capability for short pulse and high brightness and with improvements in high repetition rate pulsed operation, such sources are also becoming more interesting for their average power capability. This study presents an evaluation of the current capabilities and near term future potential of laser based light sources and summarises, for the purpose of comparison, the characteristics and near term prospects of sources based on synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Relative comparisons are given within charts of peak brightness. (orig.)

  10. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  11. Experiment of X-ray Generations Using Laser-Compton Scattering at LINAC of SINAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Qiang-yan; XU Wang; LUO Wen; FAN Gong-tao; Yang Li-feng; Fan Guang-wei; LI Yong-jiang; XU Ben-ji; SHI Xiang-chun; LIN Guo-qiang; YAN Zhe; XU Yi; CHEN Jing-gen; GUO Wei; WANG Hong-wei; WANG Cheng-bin; XU Jia-qiang; Ma Yu-gang; CAI Xiang-zhou; ZHAO Ming-hua; SHEN Wen-qing

    2009-01-01

    Laser Compton scattering(LCS) can generate X-rays or y-rays with high brightness and easy controlled polarization by applying high-peak-power laser pulses to relativistic electron bunches.One of the most promising approaches to short pulsed X-ray sources is the laser synchrotron source.It is based on LCS between picoseconds relativistic electron bunches and picoseconds laser pulses.A project of Shanghai laser electron gamma source with LCS method has been proposed on Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility.Before that,a prototype has been developed in the beamline of the linear accelerator at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences.The LCS experiment was carried out by using the 107 MeV,5 Hz,1 ns,0.1 nC electron bunches from the linear accelerator and the 18 ns,10 MW peak power,Nd:YAG laser pulses.In this communication,we describe the details and report the first results of this experiment.

  12. Coherent X-ray and laser spectroscopy measurements of diffusion in concentrated alpha-crystallin solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, V. N. C.

    The mammalian eye lens is composed of a concentrated solution of water soluble proteins called crystallins. Alpha-crystallin, the most abundant protein found in the lens, plays a crucial role in maintaining lens transparency and lens accommodation. However, alpha-crystallins along with other ocular proteins suffer from irreversible processes such as oxidation. One cause of oxidation is radiation-induced radical formation which alters the inter-molecular interactions, thereby degrading the normal function of ocular proteins. The main goal of this thesis is to quantify molecular scale dynamics of concentrated solutions of alpha-crystallins using coherent X-rays and visible laser light. I believe a detailed analysis of the dynamics pertaining to alpha-crystallin will provide the foundation to understand molecular scale mechanisms that lead to conditions like cataract and presbyopia. I explore the dynamics of concentrated alpha-crystallin solutions by measuring diffusive motion over a range of length scales using Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). To a certain extent, the dynamical properties of crystallins obtained in this manner are consistent with established theories in colloidal physics. However, there are some deviations, which I will address in this thesis. In terms of X-ray data, I employed a new, efficient photon correlation technique to obtain the best possible signal, furthermore this technique is embedded in a stand-alone software program that has the ability to provide real time results, quickly and efficiently with the help of high performance computing resources available at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The technique has potential to be used by the coherent X-ray spectroscopy community in the future. In addition, by using X-ray scattering data, I probe potential modifications and or damage effects on alpha-crystallins due to radiation exposure. The damage analysis methodology described in this thesis

  13. Phase contrast imaging using Betatron x-ray beams produced by a 100 TW high intensity laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, Sylvain; Corde, Sebastien; Ta Phuoc, Kim; Lassonde, Philippe; Martin, Francois; Malka, Victor; Rousse, Antoine; Kieffer, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Development of x-ray phase contrast imaging applications with a laboratory scale source have been limited by the long exposure time needed to obtain one image. We demonstrate, using the Betatron x-ray radiation produced when electrons are accelerated and wiggled in the laser-wakefield cavity, the potential of Betatron x-ray radiation for femtosecond phase contrast imaging. We characterize the x-ray source using a knife edge technique and nylon wires for calibration. We then show that high-quality phase contrast images of complex objects located in air, can be obtained with only a single laser shot. The Betatron x-ray source used in this demonstration experiment has a source diameter of 1.7 microns and produces a synchrotron spectrum with critical energy Ec = 12 . 3 + / - 2 . 5 keV and 109 photons per shot in the whole spectrum.

  14. An X-ray Imaging System for Hard-to-Reach Facility Diagnosis Using Femtosecond Laser-Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Nakajima, Chikahito; Fujii, Takashi; Zhidkov, Alexei; Nemoto, Koshichi

    2010-04-01

    For hard-to-reach facility diagnosis, a radiographic testing system that consists of a compact laser-plasma X-ray (LPX) generator and a compact X-ray imaging sensor is shown to be competitive to that based on the isotope imaging. A 1-mm-thick CsI charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor supplied with a cooling system was developed to tolerate a long X-ray exposition. Even without optimization of X-ray yield from a Ta thin film irradiated by 230 mJ, 70 fs laser pulses, clear X-ray images of a SUS304 pipe (outer diameter 34 mm with 4.5 mm thickness) with an elbow were produced.

  15. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  16. Efficient multi-keV X-ray generation from high-contrast laser plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Kα line emission from Mo was experimentally and theoretically studied using clean, ultrahigh-intensity femtosecond laser pulses. The absolute yields of Kα x-rays at 17 keV from Mo were measured as a function of the laser pulse contrast ratio and irradiation intensity. Significantly enhanced Kα yields were obtained by employing high contrast ratio at optimum irradiance. Conversion efficiencies of 4.28 × 10−5/sr, the highest values obtained to date, was demonstrated with contrast ratios in the range of 10−10 to 10−11.

  17. Self-modulated laser wakefield accelerators as x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, N; Tsung, F S; Shaw, J L; Marsh, K A; Albert, F; Pollock, B B; Joshi, C

    2015-01-01

    The development of a directional, small-divergence, and short-duration picosecond x-ray probe beam with an energy greater than 50 keV is desirable for high energy density science experiments. We therefore explore through particle-in-cell (PIC) computer simulations the possibility of using x-rays radiated by betatron-like motion of electrons from a self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator as a possible candidate to meet this need. Two OSIRIS 2D PIC simulations with mobile ions are presented, one with a normalized vector potential a0 = 1.5 and the other with an a0 = 3. We find that in both cases direct laser acceleration (DLA) is an important additional acceleration mechanism in addition to the longitudinal electric field of the plasma wave. Together these mechanisms produce electrons with a continuous energy spectrum with a maximum energy of 300 MeV for a0 = 3 case and 180 MeV in the a0 = 1.5 case. Forward-directed x-ray radiation with a photon energy up to 100 keV was calculated for the a0 = 3 case and up t...

  18. Investigation of self-filtering unstable resonator for soft x-ray lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani-Moghadam, G.; Farahbod, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, it is proposed that the self-filtering unstable resonator (SFUR) is suitable for soft x-ray lasers which have active medium with a short-gain-lifetime. In order to evaluate the idea, we have analyzed the self-filtering unstable resonator in two dimensions with Ne-like Fe soft x-ray active medium for transitions 2p5 3 p → 2p5 3 s and 3d9 4 d → 3d9 4 p at 25.5 nm. The role of field-limiting aperture in mode propagation has been shown. Moreover, beam quality factor M2 has been calculated and output mode behavior studied and compared with a plane-parallel (PP) resonator of equal length. The calculations indicate that the M2 factor in SFUR resonator is smaller than PP resonator and therefore output beam divergence is lower and the mode quality is much better. It is expected that a high quality beam of soft x-ray laser with brightness of the order 1013 W / cm2 sr and energy more than 10 nJ may be achievable with a properly designed diffraction-filtered unstable resonator.

  19. X-ray laser experiments by using a gas puff target with the ASTERIX IV facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Fill, E.; Li, Y.; Pretzler, G.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-05-01

    We report the first X-ray laser experiments with the use of laser-irradiated gas puff targets. The targets, produced by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas from a high-pressure solenoid valve through a nozzle in a form of a slit, has been characterized by optical interferometry and X-ray backlighting. The formation of elongated hot plasma columns up to 30-mm long is demonstrated. The spatial uniformity of the column was monitored by means of an X-ray pinhole camera. XUV spectra measurements for SF{sub 6} gas puff targets show predominant 3{endash}2 line of hydrogenic fluorine ({lambda}=8.1 nm), however, only linear increasing of its intensity with the target length was observed. An inversion on the lithium-like 4{ital d}-3{ital p} line can be inferred from the relative intensities of the Li-like resonance lines. Results for Kr target indicate that the plasma temperature was too low to create Ne-like ions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, Michael J.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastien; /SLAC; Chapman, Henry N.; /DESY /Hamburg U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /LLNL, Livermore /TOFWERK AG; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bajt, Sasa; /DESY; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; /Uppsala U.; Schulz, Joachim; /DESY

    2011-08-22

    Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10{sub 12} photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

  1. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyash, I A; Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A; Thaury, C; Rax, J-M; Krushelnick, K; Malka, V

    2014-08-22

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas.

  2. Development of X-ray Emission Computed Tomography for Laser-Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao'En, Jiang; Zhongli, Liu; Nan, Li; Zhijian, Zheng; Dao'Yuan, Tang; Yongkun, Ding; Xin, Hu

    1996-11-01

    A computed tomography (CT) technique has been developed to diagnose laser produced plasma using X-ray emission. The three dimensional X-ray distribution was reconstructed by using a multiplicate algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. A three dimensional reconstruction program (CT3D) has been worked out, the accuracy of which reaches 92% and 86%, without and with noise (S/N-10), respectively. The experimental data, obtained from the ICF on the ``Xinguang-II'' facilities (λ = 0.35 μm, EL = 100J, τ = 700ps), are processed by using the CT3D program and good reconstruction results have been obtained.

  3. Sorting algorithms for single-particle imaging experiments at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, S A; Teslyuk, A B; Kurta, R P; Gorobtsov, O Yu; Yefanov, O M; Ilyin, V A; Senin, R A; Vartanyants, I A

    2015-11-01

    Modern X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) operating at high repetition rates produce a tremendous amount of data. It is a great challenge to classify this information and reduce the initial data set to a manageable size for further analysis. Here an approach for classification of diffraction patterns measured in prototypical diffract-and-destroy single-particle imaging experiments at XFELs is presented. It is proposed that the data are classified on the basis of a set of parameters that take into account the underlying diffraction physics and specific relations between the real-space structure of a particle and its reciprocal-space intensity distribution. The approach is demonstrated by applying principal component analysis and support vector machine algorithms to the simulated and measured X-ray data sets.

  4. Diffraction data of core-shell nanoparticles from an X-ray free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanxuan; Chiu, Chun-Ya; Wang, Hsiang-Ju; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Botha, Sabine; Shoeman, Robert L; Lawrence, Robert M; Kupitz, Christopher; Kirian, Richard; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Nelson, Garrett; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Hartmann, Elisabeth; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Foucar, Lutz M; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry; Liang, Mengning; Menzel, Andreas; Wang, Fenglin; Basu, Shibom; Fromme, Raimund; Doak, R Bruce; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Huang, Michael H; Spence, John C H; Schlichting, Ilme; Hogue, Brenda G; Liu, Haiguang

    2017-04-11

    X-ray free-electron lasers provide novel opportunities to conduct single particle analysis on nanoscale particles. Coherent diffractive imaging experiments were performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), SLAC National Laboratory, exposing single inorganic core-shell nanoparticles to femtosecond hard-X-ray pulses. Each facetted nanoparticle consisted of a crystalline gold core and a differently shaped palladium shell. Scattered intensities were observed up to about 7 nm resolution. Analysis of the scattering patterns revealed the size distribution of the samples, which is consistent with that obtained from direct real-space imaging by electron microscopy. Scattering patterns resulting from single particles were selected and compiled into a dataset which can be valuable for algorithm developments in single particle scattering research.

  5. Enhancement of x-ray yields from heteronuclear cluster plasmas irradiated by intense laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, J; Mathur, D; Krishnamurthy, M [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2005-09-28

    We report a new method to enhance the x-ray emission from nano-cluster plasmas formed upon irradiation by intense femtosecond-duration laser pulses. Our experiments demonstrate that when Ar clusters are doped with H{sub 2}O the time-integrated yield of Ar K x-ray emission is enhanced by approximately 12-fold in comparison to that obtained from pure Ar clusters under otherwise identical experimental conditions. A significant alteration in the time-dependent electron density is achieved by the presence of an H{sub 2}O dopant, and this could be the possible reason for the enhancement that is observed. (letter to the editor)

  6. Femtosecond powder diffraction with a laser-driven hard X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, F; Ansari, Z; Woerner, M; Elsaesser, T

    2010-01-18

    X-ray powder diffraction with a femtosecond time resolution is introduced to map ultrafast structural dynamics of polycrystalline condensed matter. Our pump-probe approach is based on photoexcitation of a powder sample with a femtosecond optical pulse and probing changes of its structure by diffracting a hard X-ray pulse generated in a laser-driven plasma source. We discuss the key aspects of this scheme including an analysis of detection sensitivity and angular resolution. Applying this technique to the prototype molecular material ammonium sulfate, up to 20 powder diffraction rings are recorded simultaneously with a time resolution of 100 fs. We describe how to derive transient charge density maps of the material from the extensive set of diffraction data in a quantitative way.

  7. Intense X-ray sources based on compton scattering in laser electron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Karnaukhov, I M

    2002-01-01

    The main problem of the designing of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage ring is associated with large steady-state electron beam energy spread. In paper the principles of the development of compact storage ring lattice with large RF-acceptance and negligible chromatic effects at interaction point are considered. The storage ring with electron beam energy over the range 100-400 MeV that allows generating intense VUV from bending magnets, X-ray up to 280 keV with rate up to 10 sup 1 sup 4 photons/s and gamma-beam up to 2.8 MeV for neutron generation on beryllium target is proposed.

  8. Undulator beamline optimization with integrated chicanes for X-ray free-electron-laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Eduard; Calvi, Marco; Ganter, Romain; Reiche, Sven; Schietinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    An optimization of the undulator layout of X-ray free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities based on placing small chicanes between the undulator modules is presented. The installation of magnetic chicanes offers the following benefits with respect to state-of-the-art FEL facilities: reduction of the required undulator length to achieve FEL saturation, improvement of the longitudinal coherence of the FEL pulses, and the ability to produce shorter FEL pulses with higher power levels. Numerical simulations performed for the soft X-ray beamline of the SwissFEL facility show that optimizing the advantages of the layout requires shorter undulator modules than the standard ones. This proposal allows a very compact undulator beamline that produces fully coherent FEL pulses and it makes possible new kinds of experiments that require very short and high-power FEL pulses.

  9. Generation of large-bandwidth x-ray free-electron-laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Saa Hernandez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs are modern research tools in disciplines such as biology, material science, chemistry, and physics. Besides the standard operation that aims at minimizing the bandwidth of the produced XFEL radiation, there is a strong scientific demand to produce large-bandwidth XFEL pulses for several applications such as nanocrystallography, stimulated Raman spectroscopy, and multiwavelength anomalous diffraction. We present a self-consistent method that maximizes the XFEL pulse bandwidth by systematically maximizing the energy chirp of the electron beam at the undulator entrance. This is achieved by optimizing the compression scheme and the electron distribution at the source in an iterative back-and-forward tracking. Start-to-end numerical simulations show that a relative bandwidth of 3.25% full-width can be achieved for the hard x-ray pulses in the SwissFEL case.

  10. Single-shot measurements of plasmons in compressed diamond with an x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamboa, E. J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Gauthier, M.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 72 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Zastrau, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 72 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); MacDonald, M. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 72 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Vorberger, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 72 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für die Physik Komplexer Systeme, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    Strong plasmon resonances characteristics of electron density fluctuations have recently been observed in dynamically compressed diamond for the first time at the Linac Coherent Light Source. These experiments observe the forward scattering spectra from 8 keV x-ray pulses at record peak brightness to probe laser-compressed diamond foils at the Matter in Extreme Conditions instrument. We demonstrate single-shot measurements of the x-ray scattering spectrum, which are sensitive to the temperatures and densities of the compressed samples. The inferred values from the inelastic scattering are compared to simulations, finding good agreement with the temperature and demonstrating the need to include solid state effects in the modeling of the plasmon oscillation.

  11. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, K.; Grozeva, M.; Malcheva, G.; Neykova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893-972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts.

  12. Performance Optimization of a High-Repetition-Rate KrF Laser Plasma X-Ray Source for Microlithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukerk, F; Louis, E; Turcu, E C; Tallents, G J; Batani, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop a high-intensity laser plasma x-ray source appropriate for industrial application of x-ray lithography, experiments have been carried out using a high-repetition-rate (up to 40 Hz) excimer laser (249 nm, 300 mJ) with a power density of 2 × 1013 W/ cm2 in the laser focus. In this study emphasis is given to remedying specific problems inherent in operating the laser plasma x-ray source at high repetition rates and in its prolonged operation. Two different methods of minimizing the production of target debris are investigated. First, the use of helium as a quenching gas results in a reduction of the amount of atomic debris particles by more than two orders of magnitude with negligible x-ray absorption. Second, a tape target as opposed to a solid target reduces the production of larger debris particles by a further factor of 100. Remaining debris is stopped by an aluminized plastic or beryllium filter used to avoid exposure of the resist by plasma ultraviolet radiation. The x-ray source has been used to image x-ray transmission mask structures down to 0.3 μm onto general purpose x-ray photo-resist. Results have been analyzed with SEM. The x-ray emission spectrum of the repetitive laser plasmas created from an iron target has been recorded and the conversion efficiency of the laser light into x-rays that contribute to exposure of the resist was measured to be 0.3% over 2π sr.

  13. Measurements of X-ray spectral opacity of dense plasma at Iskra-5 laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, V.I.; Bel' kov, S.A.; Bessarab, A.V.; Bondarenko, S.V.; Garanin, R.V.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Pinegin, A.V.; Suslov, N.A.; Zhidkov, N.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    The powerful iodine ISKRA-5 laser facility has been upgraded and now operates on the second harmonic. Experiments were performed to measure the X-ray spectral opacity of dense plasma of different materials. Sample of Al and Au material under study was fabricated as a thin plate with the 0.1-0.15 {mu}m thickness and was heated by the soft X-rays generated by irradiation of a thin film gold converter by one beam of the ISKRA-5 laser facility. Typical laser intensity on the converter was (1-5).10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and laser pulse duration was 0.5-0.6 ns. The effective temperature of sample under experimental conditions did not exceed 30-40 eV. The sample was tempered by about 1 {mu}m plastic layers on both sides to avoid its rarefaction during heating and to obtain a quasi-stationary layer of a dense plasma prepared to be probed by a back-lighter. The back-lighter was aluminum or dysprosium film irradiated by another beam of the ISKRA-5 laser facility with an intensity of 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Probe X-rays were registered by a Bragg spectrometer with spatial resolution. Comparison between experimental data and simulations is discussed. In the case of Al sample, 3 absorption lines corresponding to 1s-2p transition of the Al{sup +4}-Al{sup +6} ions are recorded. The absorption of the Au sample is very close to the absorption of the cold material. The theoretical simulations show that the temperature of the heated Al sample is about 20-25 eV, substantial amount of the Au sample remains unheated at a solid density.

  14. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjei, Daniel, E-mail: nana.adjeidan@gmail.com [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Vyšín, Luděk [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 152, Radzikowskiego Str., 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Pina, Ladislav [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Davídková, Marie [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Řež (Czech Republic); Juha, Libor [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray “water window” spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280–540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 10{sup 3} photons/μm{sup 2}/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms’ sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the “water window”, where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET – Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  15. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/μm2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  16. Towards possible opportunities in nuclear materials science and technology at an X-ray free electron laser research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froideval, A.; Badillo, A.; Bertsch, J.; Churakov, S.; Dähn, R.; Degueldre, C.; Lind, T.; Paladino, D.; Patterson, B. D.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and imaging of condensed matter have benefited greatly from the availability of intense X-ray beams from synchrotron sources, both in terms of spatial resolution and of elemental specificity. The advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-ray FEL) provides the additional features of ultra-short pulses and high transverse coherence, which greatly expand possibilities to study dynamic processes and to image non-crystalline materials. The proposed SwissFEL facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute is one of at present four X-ray FEL projects worldwide and is scheduled to go into operation in the year 2017. This article describes a selection of problems in nuclear materials science and technology that would directly benefit from this and similar X-ray FEL sources. X-ray FEL-based experiments are proposed to be conducted on nuclear energy-related materials using single-shot X-ray spectroscopy, coherent X-ray scattering and/or X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in order to address relevant scientific questions such as the evolution in time of the irradiation-induced damage processes, the deformation processes in nuclear materials, the ion diffusion processes in the barrier systems of geological repositories, the boiling heat transfer in nuclear reactors, as well as the structural characterization of graphite dust in advanced nuclear reactors and clay colloid aggregates in the groundwater near a radioactive waste repository.

  17. Optimization of X-Ray-Emission from a Laser-Produced Plasma in a Narrow Wavelength Band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorssen, G. E.; E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,

    1992-01-01

    The X-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas at an X-ray wavelength of approximately 10.4 nm was measured for Al and Gd target materials. The laser power density on the target surface was varied between 1.5 x 10(10) and 3 x 10(12) W/cm2 to obtain different electron temperatures. The output from th

  18. A compact tunable polarized X-ray source based on laser-plasma helical undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ji; Zeng, Ming; Vieira, Jorge; Yu, Lu-Le; Weng, Su-Ming; Silva, Luis O; Jaroszynski, Dino A; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators have great potential as the basis for next generation compact radiation sources because their accelerating gradients are three orders of magnitude larger than traditional accelerators. However, X-ray radiation from such devices still lacks of tunability, especially the intensity and polarization distribution. Here we propose a tunable polarized radiation source from a helical plasma undulator based on plasma channel guided wakefield accelerator. When a laser pulse is initially incident with a skew angle relative to the channel axis, the laser and accelerated electrons experience collective spiral motions, which leads to elliptically polarized synchrotron-like radiation with flexible tunability on radiation intensity, spectra and polarization. We demonstrate that a radiation source with millimeter size and peak brilliance of $2\\times10^{19} photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%$ bandwidth can be made with moderate laser and electron beam parameters. This brilliance is comparable with the ...

  19. Quantum effects with an x-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Vinnik, D V

    2002-10-07

    A quantum kinetic equation coupled with Maxwell's equation is used to estimate the laser power required at an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility to expose intrinsically quantum effects in the process of QED vacuum decay via spontaneous pair production. A 9 -TW-peak XFEL laser with photon energy of 8.3 keV could be sufficient to initiate particle accumulation and the consequent formation of a plasma of spontaneously produced pairs. The evolution of the particle number in the plasma will exhibit non-Markovian aspects of the strong-field pair production process, and the plasma's internal currents will generate an electric field whose interference with that of the laser leads to plasma oscillations.

  20. A Novel Spectrometer for Measuring Laser-Produced Plasma X-Ray in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental investigations of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-produced high-temperature plasma contains very abundant information, such as the electron temperature and density, ionization. In order to diagnose laser-plasma distribution in space and evolution in time, an elliptical curved crystal spectrometer has been developed and applied to diagnose X-ray of laser-produced plasma in 0.2~2.46 nm region. According to the theory of Bragg diffraction, four kinds of crystal including LiF, PET, MiCa, and KAP were chosen as dispersive elements. The distance of crystal lattice varies from 0.4 to 2.6 nm. Bragg angle is in the range of 30°~67.5°, and the spectral detection angle is in 55.4°~134°. The curved crystal spectrometer mainly consists of elliptical curved crystal analyzer, vacuum configuration, aligning device, spectral detectors and three-dimensional microadjustment devices. The spectrographic experiment was carried out on the XG-2 laser facility. Emission spectrum of Al plasmas, Ti plasma, and Au plasmas have been successfully recorded by using X-ray CCD camera. It is demonstrated experimentally that the measured wavelength is accorded with the theoretical value.

  1. Development of laser deposited multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Tobias; Radisch, Volker; Knorr, Inga [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Reese, Michael; Grossmann, Peter; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Krebs, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: krebs@ump.gwdg.de [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    As a novel approach, the combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam was applied to fabricate different types of multilayer zone plate structures for soft X-ray applications. For this purpose, high quality non-periodic ZrO{sub 2}/Ti multilayers were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on planar Si substrates and on rotating steel wires with layer thicknesses according to the Fresnel zone plate law. Linear focusing optics were fabricated by cutting slices out of the multilayers by focused ion beam and placing them directly over pinholes within Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} substrates. Additionally, it was shown that laser deposition of depth-graded multilayers on a wire is also a promising way for building up multilayer zone plates with point focus. First experiments using a table-top X-ray source based on a laser-induced plasma show that the determined focal length and spatial resolution of the fabricated multilayer Laue lens corresponds to the designed optic.

  2. Extreme ultraviolet resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at a seeded free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Angela, M.; Hieke, F.; Malvestuto, M.; Sturari, L.; Bajt, S.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Ratanapreechachai, J.; Caretta, A.; Casarin, B.; Glerean, F.; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Manzoni, G.; Cilento, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Simoncig, A.; Principi, E.; Masciovecchio, C.; Raimondi, L.; Mahne, N.; Svetina, C.; Zangrando, M.; Passuello, R.; Gaio, G.; Prica, M.; Scarcia, M.; Kourousias, G.; Borghes, R.; Giannessi, L.; Wurth, W.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-12-01

    In the past few years, we have been witnessing an increased interest for studying materials properties under non-equilibrium conditions. Several well established spectroscopies for experiments in the energy domain have been successfully adapted to the time domain with sub-picosecond time resolution. Here we show the realization of high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) with a stable ultrashort X-ray source such as an externally seeded free electron laser (FEL). We have designed and constructed a RIXS experimental endstation that allowed us to successfully measure the d-d excitations in KCoF3 single crystals at the cobalt M2,3-edge at FERMI FEL (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). The FEL-RIXS spectra show an excellent agreement with the ones obtained from the same samples at the MERIXS endstation of the MERLIN beamline at the Advanced Light Source storage ring (Berkeley, USA). We established experimental protocols for performing time resolved RIXS experiments at a FEL source to avoid X ray-induced sample damage, while retaining comparable acquisition time to the synchrotron based measurements. Finally, we measured and modelled the influence of the FEL mixed electromagnetic modes, also present in externally seeded FELs, and the beam transport with ~120 meV experimental resolution achieved in the presented RIXS setup.

  3. Femtosecond Diffractive Imaging with a Soft-X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Henry N.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; Barty, Anton: AUTHOR = Bogan, Michael J.; /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastian; /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC /Uppsala U., Biomed. Ctr.; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Marchesini, Stefano; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; Woods, Bruce W.; Bajt, Sasa; Benner, W.Henry; /LLNL, Livermore; London, Richard A.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis; Plonjes, Elke; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf; Dusterer, Stefan; Tschentscher, Thomas; Schneider, Jochen R.; /CERN; Spiller, Eberhard; /Spiller X-ray Optics, Livermore; Moller, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph; Hoener, Matthias; /Berlin, Tech. U.; Shapiro, David A.; /UC, Davis /SLAC /Uppsala U. /LLNL, Livermore /Uppsala U. /Uppsala U. /SLAC /Uppsala U.

    2010-10-07

    Theory predicts that with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus, or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} pulse, containing 10{sup 12} photons at 32 nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nano-structured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000 K. A novel X-ray camera assured single photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling, shows no measurable damage, and extends to diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one.

  4. X-ray free-electron lasers: from dreams to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, C.

    2016-12-01

    The brightness of x-ray sources has been increased one to ten billion times by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) that generate high intensity coherent photon pulses at wavelengths from nanometers to less than one angstrom and a duration of a few to 100 femtoseconds. For the first time XFELs allow for experimental exploration of the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems at the angstrom-femtosecond space and time scale, creating new opportunities for scientific research in physics, chemistry, biology, material science and high energy density physics. This paper reviews the history of this development, concentrating on the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first hard x-ray XFEL. It also presents the physical principles on which XFELs are based, their present status and future developments, together with some recent experimental results in physics, chemistry and biology. LCLS success has spurred the worldwide construction of more XFELs; SACLA in Japan, XFEL and FLASH in Germany, Swiss FEL, Korean XFEL, Fermi in Italy. The characteristics of these other sources are also discussed.

  5. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  6. Femtosecond Diffractive Imaging with a Soft-X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Bogan, M; Boutet, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S P; Marchesini, S; Woods, B; Bajt, S; Benner, W H; London, R; Ploenjes-Palm, E; Kuhlmann, M; Treusch, R; Dusterer, S; Tschentscher, T; Schneider, J; Spiller, E; Moller, T; Bostedt, C; Hoener, M; Shapiro, D; Hodgson, K O; der Spoel, D v; Burmeister, F; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Seibert, M; Maia, F; Lee, R; Szoke, A; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J

    2006-03-13

    Theory predicts that with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus, or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} pulse, containing 10{sup 12} photons at 32 nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nano-structured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000 K. A novel X-ray camera assured single photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling, shows no measurable damage, and extends to diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one.

  7. Structural biology at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarelli, Massimo; Mancuso, Adrian P

    2014-07-17

    The European X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility, under construction in the Hamburg region, will provide high-peak brilliance (greater than 10(33) photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) per 0.1% BW), ultrashort pulses (approx. 10 fs) of X-rays, with a high repetition rate (up to 27 000 pulses s(-1)) from 2016 onwards. The main features of this exceptional X-ray source, and the instrumentation developments necessary to exploit them fully, for application to a variety of scientific disciplines, are briefly summarized. In the case of structural biology, that has a central role in the scientific case of this new facility, the instruments and ancillary laboratories that are being planned and built within the baseline programme of the European XFEL and by consortia of users are also discussed. It is expected that the unique features of the source and the advanced features of the instrumentation will allow operation modes with more efficient use of sample materials, faster acquisition times, and conditions better approaching feasibility of single molecule imaging.

  8. A Simple X-ray Spectrometer and PC-based Data Acquisition System for Newly Developed X-ray Source Based on Laser Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wen; XU Wang; PAN Qiang-yan; XU Yi; FAN Gong-tao; FAN Guang-wei; YANG Li-feng; LI Yong-jiang; YAN Zhe; XU Ben-ji

    2009-01-01

    A simple X-ray spectrometer and a PC-Based Data Acquisition System(DAS) have been developed newly in Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics(SINAP),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) for the measurement of the X-ray source generated using laser Compton scattering.The system consists of liquid nitrogen cooled high resolution Si(Li) detector,electronics and a DAQ.The Si(Li) detector was designed and made by Center of Advanced Instruments in SINAP,CAS,it allows us to measure X-rays with the energy up to 60 keV and the energy resolution(FWHM) of 184 eV at 5.9 keV.We measured the system uncertainty was 0.2 eV and time drifting of detector was 0.05% both at 5.9 keV.The DAQ was based on Object-Oriented software LabVIEW 7.1,it has data on-line analysis and original data saved functions.

  9. Medieval glass from the Cathedral in Paderborn: a comparative study using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled laser ablation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hormes, J. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Roy, A.; Bovenkamp, G.L. [Louisiana State University, CAMD, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Simon, K. [University of Goettingen, Geochemistry, Centre for Geosciences, Goettingen (Germany); Kim, C.Y. [University of Saskatchewan, Canadian Light Source Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Boerste, N. [Faculty for Theology Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany); Gai, S. [LWL - Archaeologie fuer Westfalen, Muenster (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We have investigated four stained glass samples recovered from an archaeological excavation at the Cathedral in Paderborn (Germany) between 1978 and 1980. On two of the samples there are parts of paintings. Concentrations of major elements were determined using two independent techniques: LA-ICP-MS (a UV laser ablation microsampler combined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and synchrotron radiation X-ray excited X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF). The SR-XRF data were quantified by using the program package PyMCA developed by the software group of the ESRF in Grenoble. Significant differences were found between the concentrations determined by the two techniques that can be explained by concentration gradients near the surface of the glasses caused, for example, by corrosion/leaching processes and the different surface sensitivities of the applied techniques. For several of the elements that were detected in the glass and in the colour pigments used for the paintings X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded in order to determine the chemical speciation of the elements of interest. As was expected, most elements in the glass were found as oxides in their most stable form. Two notable exceptions were observed: titanium was not found as rutile - the most stable form of TiO{sub 2} - but in the form of anatase, and lead was not found in one defined chemical state but as a complex mixture of oxide, sulphate, and other compounds. (orig.)

  10. The vacuum system of the European X-ray free electron laser XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapfe, K; Boehnert, M; Hensler, O; Hoppe, D; Mildner, N; Nagorny, B; Rehlich, K; Remde, H; Wagner, A; Wohlenberg, T; Wojtkiewicz, J [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: kirsten.zapfe@desy.de

    2008-03-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser XFEL, a new international research facility, will be built at DESY/Hamburg. The XFEL will generate extremely brilliant and ultra short pulses of spatially coherent X-rays with tuneable wavelengths down to 0.1 nm, and exploit them for revolutionary scientific experiments at various disciplines. The basic process adopted to produce the X-ray pulses is SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission). Therefore electron bunches are produced in a high-brightness gun, brought to high energy of about 20 GeV through a superconducting linear accelerator, and transported to up to 250 m long undulators, where the X-rays are generated. The beam vacuum system of the accelerator contains sections operated at room temperature as well as at 2 K in the areas of the superconducting accelerating structures, thus requiring an insulating vacuum system. In addition to standard UHV requirements, the vacuum system for this facility needs to preserve the cleanliness of the superconducting cavity surfaces. Therefore the preparation of all vacuum components for the 1.6 km long main linac includes cleaning of the components in a clean room to remove particles, installation into the accelerator in local clean rooms, and special procedures for pump down and venting. Further challenges are the undulator vacuum chambers filling more than 700 m, where a high surface quality with respect to surface roughness and thickness of oxide layers is mandatory to reduce wake field effects, and the vacuum systems for the various beam dumps, where exit windows acting as vacuum barriers of sufficient reliability need to be developed. In addition, a large amount of about 1.7 km of transport beam lines is required. The layout of the various vacuum sections as well as experience with prototype components will be described.

  11. Dynamics of laser-imploded core plasmas observed by ultrafast two-dimensional x-ray imaging with animation display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Manabu; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Kyoko; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Takabe, Hideaki; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko; Mima, Kunioki [Osaka Univ., Inst. of Laser Engineering, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    In order to observe time-resolved, two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of x rays emitted from core plasmas at the final stage of the implosion, we have developed a multi-imaging x-ray streak camera (MIXS) and a multi-channel MIXS (McMIXS) methods as new ultrafast 2D x-ray imaging techniques. The observed time-resolved 2D x-ray and electron-temperature images of core plasmas, which are sequentially changing with time, have been displayed by using an animation method. Temporal evolutions of nonuniform structures, including shape, size, and movement of core plasmas can be observed instinctively with the animated display. The ultrafast 2D x-ray imaging with the animation display is a new powerful tool for understanding the dynamics of laser-imploded core plasmas. (author)

  12. X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from Small-Sized Kr Clusters Irradiated by 150-fs Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 程元丽; 赵永蓬; 夏元钦; 陈建新; 肖亦凡

    2003-01-01

    x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from Kr clusters irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at the peak laser intensity of 5×1015W/cm2 was experimentally investigated. Strong transitions (10nm-13nm) from Kr X and Kr 1X were observed and some spectral lines from Kr ⅩⅢ and Kr ⅩⅣ, which have been predicted to be not produced by optical-field-ionization at the laser intensity used, also appeared. The laser energy absorption and the intensity of x-ray emission started to grow remarkably above the backing pressure of 0.5 MPa and to decrease at the backing pressure of 3 MPa. It is suggested that an optimum backing pressure may exist for Kr clusters heated by 150 fs laser pulses at a certain laser intensity to produce x-ray emission.

  13. Demonstration experiment of a laser synchrotron source for tunable, monochromatic x-rays at 500 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, A.; Fischer, R.; Fisher, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS) was proposed to generate short-pulsed, tunable x-rays by Thomson scattering of laser photons from a relativistic electron beam. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed to generate x-ray photons of 20 eV. A demonstration experiment is being planned and constructed to generate x-ray photons in the range of {approximately}500 eV. Laser photons of {lambda}=1.06 {mu}m are Thomson backscattered by a 4.5 MeV electron beam which is produced by an S-band RF electron gun. The laser photons are derived from either (i) a 15 Joules, 3 nsec Nd:glass laser, (ii) the uncompressed nsec: pulse of the NRL table-top terawatt (T{sup 3}) laser, or (iii) the compressed sub-picosec pulse of the T{sup 3} laser. The RF electron gun is being constructed with initial operation using a thermionic cathode. It will be upgraded to a photocathode to produce high quality electron beams with high current and low emittance. The x-ray pulse structure consists of {approximately}10 psec within an envelope of a macropulse whose length depends on the laser used. The estimated x-ray photon flux is {approximately}10{sup 18} photons/sec, and the number of photons per macropulse is {approximately}10{sup 8}. Design parameters and progress of the experiment will be presented.

  14. Parameterization of x-ray production in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple and algebraically tractable model is developed for the efficiency of x-ray production in a certain spectral region by laser driven plasmas. The model is used as a interpolation/extrapolation device for experimental and theoretical results from three different target concepts. These tests indicate that it is of use in its intended capacity. Certain relationships between independent parameters and scaling laws also result from this construction. Most notable among these is the prediction that the efficiency for producing line radiation in a certain narrow energy range scales like the inverse square of this energy.

  15. X-ray online detection for laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Bu, Xing; Qin, Tao; Yu, Haisong; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-05-01

    In order to detect weld defects in laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy, a real-time X-ray image system is set up for quality inspection. Experiments on real-time radiography procedure of the weldment are conducted by using this system. Twin fillet welding seam radiographic arrangement is designed according to the structural characteristics of the weldment. The critical parameters including magnification times, focal length, tube current and tube voltage are studied to acquire high quality weld images. Through the theoretical and data analysis, optimum parameters are settled and expected digital images are captured, which is conductive to automatic defect detection.

  16. Femtosecond x-ray free electron laser pulse duration measurement from spectral correlation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lutman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for measuring the duration of femtosecond x-ray pulses from self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers by performing statistical analysis in the spectral domain. Analytical expressions of the spectral correlation function were derived in the linear regime to extract both the pulse duration and the spectrometer resolution. Numerical simulations confirmed that the method can be also used in the nonlinear regime. The method was demonstrated experimentally at the Linac Coherent Light Source by measuring pulse durations down to 13 fs FWHM.

  17. Hydrodynamics of Exploding Foil X-Ray Lasers with Time-Dependent Ionization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Su, Dandan; Li, Yingjun

    2016-12-01

    A simple modified model is presented based on R. A. London's self-similarity model on time-independent ionization hydrodynamics of exploding foil X-ray lasers. In our model, the time-dependent ionization effect is under consideration and the average ion charge depends on the temperature. Then we obtain the new scaling laws for temperature, scale length and electron density, which have better agreement with experimental results. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11574390, 11374360, 41472130) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CBA01504)

  18. Medical imaging using a laser-wakefield driven x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason; Wood, Jonathan; Lopes, Nelson; Poder, Kristjan; Kamperidis, Christos; Alatabi, Saleh; Bryant, Jonathan; Kneip, Stefan; Mecseki, Katalin; Norris, Dominic; Teboul, Lydia; Westerburg, Henrik; Abel, Richard; Jin, Andi; Symes, Dan; Mangles, Stuart; Najmudin, Zulfikar

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators driven by high-intensity laser pulses are a proven centimetre-scale source of GeV electron beams. One of the proposed uses for these accelerators is the driving of compact hard x-ray synchrotron light sources. Such sources have been shown to be bright, have small source size and high photon energy, and are therefore interesting for imaging applications. By doubling the focal length at the Astra-Gemini laser facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, we have significantly improved the average betatron x-ray flux compared to previous experiments. This fact, coupled to the stability of the radiation source, facilitated the acquisition of full 3D tomograms of hard bone tissue and soft mouse neonates, the latter requiring the recording of over 500 successive radiographs. Such multimodal performance is unprecedented in the betatron field and indicates the usefulness of these sources in clinical imaging applications, scalable to very high photon flux without compromising source size or photon energy.

  19. Compact X-ray Source using a High Repetition Rate Laser and Copper Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, W S; Brown, P; Carbajo, S; Dolgashev, V; Hong, K -H; Ihloff, E; Khaykovich, B; Lin, H; Murari, K; Nanni, E A; Resta, G; Tantawi, S; Zapata, L E; Kärtner, F X; Moncton, D E

    2014-01-01

    A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The accelerator is a novel high-efficiency standing-wave linac and RF photoinjector powered by a single ultrastable RF transmitter at x-band RF frequency. The high efficiency permits operation at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, which is further boosted to 100 kHz by operating with trains of 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns. The 100 kHz repetition rate is orders of magnitude beyond existing high brightness copper linacs. The entire accelerator is approximately 1 meter long and produces hard x-rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The colliding laser is a Yb:YAG solid-state amplifier producing 1030 nm, 100 mJ pulses at the same 1 kHz repetition rate as the accelerator. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and stored for m...

  20. Characterization of intense laser-produced fast electrons using hard x-rays via bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, H.; Sentoku, Y.; Bass, A.; Griffin, B.; Pandit, R.; Beg, F.; Chen, H.; McLean, H.; Link, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Energy distribution of high-power, short-pulse laser produced fast electrons was experimentally and numerically studied using high-energy bremsstrahlung x-rays. The hard x-ray photons and escaping electrons from various metal foils, irradiated by the 50 TW Leopard laser at Nevada Terawatt Facility, were recorded with a differential filter stack spectrometer that is sensitive to photons produced by mainly 0.5-2 MeV electrons and an electron spectrometer measuring >2 MeV electrons. The experimental bremsstrahlung and the slope of the measured escaped electrons were compared with an analytic calculation using an input electron spectrum estimated with the ponderomotive scaling. The result shows that the electron spectrum entering a Cu foil could be continuous single slope with the slope temperature of ˜1.5 MeV in the detector range. The experiment and analytic calculation were then compared with a 2D particle-in-cell code, PICLS, including a newly developed radiation transport module. The simulation shows that a two-temperature electron distribution is generated at the laser interaction region, but only the hot component of the fast electrons flow into the target during the interaction because the low energy electron component is trapped by self-generated magnetic field in the preformed plasma. A significant amount of the photons less than 100 keV observed in the experiment could be attributed to the low energy electrons entering the foil a few picoseconds later after the gating field disappears.

  1. Evolution of Elastic X-ray Scattering in Laser-Shocked Warm Dense Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Gregori, G; Bandyopadhyay, S; Brenner, C; Brown, C; Constantin, C; Glenzer, S H; Khattak, F; Kritcher, A L; Niemann, C; Otten, A; Pasley, J; Pelka, A; Roth, M; Spindloe, C; Riley, D

    2009-06-02

    We have studied the dynamics of warm dense Li with near-elastic x-ray scattering. Li foils were heated and compressed using shock waves driven by 4 ns long laser pulses. Separate 1 ns long laser pulses were used to generate a bright source of 2.96 keV Cl Ly-{alpha} photons for x-ray scattering, and the spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 120{sup o} using a HOPG crystal operated in the von Hamos geometry. A variable delay between the heater and backlighter laser beams measured the scattering time evolution. Comparison with radiation hydrodynamics simulations shows that the plasma is highly coupled during the first several nanoseconds, then relaxes to a moderate coupling state at later times. Near-elastic scattering amplitudes have been successfully simulated using the screened one-component plasma model. Our main finding is that the near-elastic scattering amplitudes are quite sensitive to the mean ionization state {bar Z}, and by extension to the choice of ionization model in the radiation-hydrodynamics simulations used to predict plasma properties within the shocked Li.

  2. Theory of x-ray absorption by laser-dressed atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Buth, C; Buth, Christian; Santra, Robin

    2006-01-01

    An ab initio theory is devised for the x-ray photoabsorption cross section of atoms in the field of a moderately intense optical laser (10^13 W/cm^2). The laser dresses the core-excited atomic states, which introduces a dependence of the cross section on the angle between the polarization vectors of the two linearly polarized radiation sources. We use the Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation to describe the atomic many-body problem in conjunction with a non-relativistic quantum-electrodynamic approach to treat the photon-electron interaction. The continuum wave functions of ejected electrons are treated with a complex absorbing potential that is derived from smooth exterior complex scaling. The solution to the two-color (x-ray plus laser) problem is discussed in terms of a direct diagonalization of the complex symmetric matrix representation of the Hamiltonian. Alternative treatments with time-independent and time-dependent non-Hermitian perturbation theories are presented that exploit the weak interaction stren...

  3. A laser-driven undulator x-ray source: simulation of image formation and dose deposition in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bernhard; Schlattl, Helmut; Grüner, Florian; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Since overcoming some of the inherent limitations of x-ray tubes becomes increasingly harder, it is important to consider new ways of x-ray generation and to study their applications in the field of medical imaging. In the present work we investigate a novel table-top-sized x-ray source, developed in a joint project within the Cluster of Excellence "Munich Center for Advanced Photonics". It uses laser-accelerated electrons emitting x-ray radiation in a short period undulator. This source has the potential to deliver tunable x-rays with a very narrow spectral bandwidth. The main purpose of this contribution is to investigate the performance of this source in the field of mammography and to compare it to that of conventional x-ray tubes. We simulated the whole imaging process from the electron beam dynamics through the generation of the synchrotron radiation in the undulator up to the x-ray-matter interaction and detection in the mammographic setting. A Monte Carlo simulation of the absorption and scattering processes based on the Geant4 software toolkit has been developed that uses a high-resolution voxel phantom of the female breast for the accurate simulation of mammography. We present simulated mammograms generated by using quasi-monochromatic undulator radiation and by using the polychromatic spectrum of a conventional x-ray tube.

  4. X-ray optical system for imaging laser plumes with a spatial resolution of up to 70 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechai, A. N.; Pestov, A. E.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Toropov, M. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.; Tsybin, N. N.; Shcherbakov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We consider an X-ray optical system which permits obtaining laser plume images at a wavelength of 13.5 nm with a resolution of up to 70 nm. The X-ray optical system comprises an X-ray Schwarzschild objective made up of two aspherical multilayer mirrors, a scintillator (YAG : Ce ceramics), which converts X-rays to the visible radiation, and a visible-optical system, which images the scintillator surface onto a CCD camera. The spatial resolution of the system is limited by the resolution of the optical system (0.7 μm) and the magnification (10×) of the X-ray objective and is as high as 70 nm. The effect of Schwarzschild objective mirror shapes on the spatial resolution is analysed. The profile of concave mirror aspherisation is considered, which provides the attainment of the diffraction-limited quality of the objective. Data are given for the quantum efficiency of the system at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. We describe the experimental test bench intended for studying the developed X-ray optical system and outline the first experimental data which illustrate its efficiency. Owing to the natural division into the 'X-ray' and 'visible' parts, the optical system under discussion permits an easy change of the magnification and the field of view without realigning the X-ray optical elements. The wavelength may be varied in a range between 3 and 40 nm by changing the multilayer mirrors.

  5. Compact X-ray free-electron laser based on an optical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacci, A.; Maroli, C. [Sezione di Milano INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Petrillo, V. [Sezione di Milano INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy)], E-mail: Petrillo@mi.infn.it; Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L. [Sezione di Milano INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tomassini, P. [Sezione di Milano INFN, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Via Buonarroti, 256127 Pisa (Italy)

    2008-03-21

    The interaction between a very high-brightness electron beam and a relativistically intense optical laser pulse produces X-rays via coherent Thomson back scattering with FEL collective amplification. The phenomenon is, however, very selective, so that the characteristics of both electron and laser beam must satisfy tight requirements in terms of beam current, emittance, energy spread and laser amplitude stability within the pulse. The three-dimensional equations governing the radiation phenomena have been studied in both linear and non-linear regime and solved numerically for the particularly interesting values of wavelengths of 1 A, 1 and 12 nm. The performance of the collective Thomson source has been compared with that of an equivalent static undulator. A set of scaling laws ruling the phenomenon is also presented.

  6. Probing vacuum birefringence using x-ray free electron and optical high-intensity lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum birefringence is one of the most striking predictions of strong field quantum electrodynamics: Probe photons traversing a strong field region can indirectly sense the applied "pump" electromagnetic field via quantum fluctuations of virtual charged particles which couple to both pump and probe fields. This coupling is sensitive to the field alignment and can effectively result in two different indices of refraction for the probe photon polarization modes giving rise to a birefringence phenomenon. In this article we perform a dedicated theoretical analysis of the proposed discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at a x-ray free electron laser/optical high-intensity laser facility. Describing both pump and probe laser pulses realistically in terms of their macroscopic electromagnetic fields, we go beyond previous analyses by accounting for various effects not considered before in this context. Our study facilitates stringent quantitative predictions and optimizations of the signal in an actual experim...

  7. Probing vacuum birefringence using x-ray free electron and optical high-intensity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix; Sundqvist, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Vacuum birefringence is one of the most striking predictions of strong field quantum electrodynamics: Probe photons traversing a strong field region can indirectly sense the applied "pump" electromagnetic field via quantum fluctuations of virtual charged particles which couple to both pump and probe fields. This coupling is sensitive to the field alignment and can effectively result in two different indices of refraction for the probe photon polarization modes giving rise to a birefringence phenomenon. In this article, we perform a dedicated theoretical analysis of the proposed discovery experiment of vacuum birefringence at an x-ray free electron laser/optical high-intensity laser facility. Describing both pump and probe laser pulses realistically in terms of their macroscopic electromagnetic fields, we go beyond previous analyses by accounting for various effects not considered before in this context. Our study facilitates stringent quantitative predictions and optimizations of the signal in an actual experiment.

  8. A New Gated X-Ray Detector for the Orion Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragonez, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Thomas N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Albert H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jorgenson, H. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mares, Danielle [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oades, Kevin [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Kemshall, Paul [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Thomas, Philip [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Young, Trevor [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Pederson, Neal [VI Control Systems

    2012-08-08

    Gated X-Ray Detectors (GXD) are considered the work-horse target diagnostic of the laser based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has constructed three new GXDs for the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom. What sets these three new instruments apart from the what has previously been constructed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is: improvements in detector head microwave transmission lines, solid state embedded hard drive and updated control software, and lighter air box design and other incremental mechanical improvements. In this paper we will present the latest GXD design enhancements and sample calibration data taken on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the newly constructed instruments.

  9. Testifying experiment of the multi-pulse phenomena of capillary discharge soft-X-ray laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bohan Luan; Yongpeng Zhao; Qi Wang; Yuanli Cheng; Yao Xie

    2008-01-01

    In a capillary discharge experiment for the neon-like argon lasing, we have proposed an experimental scheme to verify that the multi-spike of X-ray diode (XRD) signal is a multi-pulse laser or is a reflection of the laser pulse in the XRD.The ceramic capillary has an inner diameter of 3mm and a length of 200mm.At the gas pressure of 28Pa and discharge current of 27kA, stable lasing has been realized.The experimental results prove that the multi-spike of XRD signal is a reflection of the electromagnetic signal produced by the laser pulse in the XRD.The improved electrocircuit scheme of the XRD to minimize the reflection phenomena is also found.

  10. Macromolecular structures probed by combining single-shot free-electron laser diffraction with synchrotron coherent X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kim, Sunam; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Nam, Daewoong; Kim, Chan; Kim, Yoonhee; Noh, Do Young; Miyashita, Osamu; Tama, Florence; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Hatsui, Takaki; Tono, Kensuke; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Yabashi, Makina; Hasnain, S Samar; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong

    2014-05-02

    Nanostructures formed from biological macromolecular complexes utilizing the self-assembly properties of smaller building blocks such as DNA and RNA hold promise for many applications, including sensing and drug delivery. New tools are required for their structural characterization. Intense, femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers enable single-shot imaging allowing for instantaneous views of nanostructures at ambient temperatures. When combined judiciously with synchrotron X-rays of a complimentary nature, suitable for observing steady-state features, it is possible to perform ab initio structural investigation. Here we demonstrate a successful combination of femtosecond X-ray single-shot diffraction with an X-ray free-electron laser and coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron X-rays to provide an insight into the nanostructure formation of a biological macromolecular complex: RNA interference microsponges. This newly introduced multimodal analysis with coherent X-rays can be applied to unveil nano-scale structural motifs from functional nanomaterials or biological nanocomplexes, without requiring a priori knowledge.

  11. Development of a soft x-ray plasma camera with a Fresnel zone plate to image laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, M.; Mori, M.; Nishiuchi, M.; Ishino, M.; Kawachi, T.

    2009-09-01

    A soft x-ray plasma camera operated at 3.35nm in the water window x-ray region is developed and demonstrated imaging gas jet plasmas of several spices produced with a 10TW Ti: sapphire laser. The plasma camera consists of a 300nm thick Ag/Ti/Si3N4 x-ray band pass filter with bandwidth of 1.43nm to cut visible light and also to reduce colour aberration of the Fresnel zone plate, a Fresnel zone plate with diameter of 1mm and outermost zone width of 300nm, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The magnification of the plasma camera is 10. The soft x-ray plasma camera powered by a Fresnel zone plate is a very powerful tool to observe laser produced plasmas since it is 1000 times brighter and has 5 times higher spatial resolution comparing ordinary x-ray pinhole camera. The soft x-ray images of helium, nitrogen, argon, krypton, and xenon gas jet plasmas are obtained changing gas pressure from 0.01MPa to 1MPa.

  12. Single-molecule imaging with longer X-ray laser pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Martin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last five years, serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray laser pulses has been developed into a powerful technique for determining the atomic structures of protein molecules from micrometre- and sub-micrometre-sized crystals. One of the key reasons for this success is the `self-gating' pulse effect, whereby the X-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes. Instead, X-ray-induced damage terminates the Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if the Bragg diffraction were generated by a shorter pulse of equal intensity. As a result, serial femtosecond crystallography does not need to be performed with pulses as short as 5–10 fs, but can succeed for pulses 50–100 fs in duration. It is shown here that a similar gating effect applies to single-molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of the average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage (`damage noise'. The results suggest that sub-nanometre single-molecule imaging with 30–50 fs pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The theory presented opens up new experimental avenues to measure the impact of damage on single-particle diffraction, which is needed to test damage models and to identify optimal imaging conditions.

  13. A Compact Light Source: Design and Technical Feasibility Study of a Laser-Electron Storage Ring X-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, R

    2004-02-02

    Thomson scattering infrared photons off energetic electrons provides a mechanism to produce hard X-rays desirable for applied sciences research. Using a small, modest energy (25MeV) electron storage ring together with a resonantly-driven optical storage cavity, a narrow spectrum of hard X-rays could be produced with the quality and monochromatic intensity approaching that of beamline sources at large synchrotron radiation laboratories. The general design of this X-ray source as well as its technical feasibility are presented. In particular, the requirements of optical pulse gain enhancement in an external cavity are described and experimentally demonstrated using a CW mode-locked laser.

  14. Ultrafast coherent diffractive imaging of nanoparticles using X-ray free-electron laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassemeyer, Stephan

    2014-05-20

    Coherent diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FEL) promises high-resolution structure determination of single microscopic particles without the need for crystallization. The diffraction signal of small samples can be very weak, a difficulty that can not be countered by merely increasing the number of photons because the sample would be damaged by a high absorbed radiation dose. Traditional X-ray crystallography avoids this problem by bringing many sample particles into a periodic arrangement, which amplifies the individual signals while distributing the absorbed dose. Depending on the sample, however, crystallization can be very difficult or even impossible. This thesis presents algorithms for a new imaging approach using X-FEL radiation that works with single, non-crystalline sample particles. X-FELs can deliver X-rays with a peak brilliance many orders of magnitude higher than conventional X-ray sources, compensating for their weak interaction cross sections. At the same time, FELs can produce ultra-short pulses down to a few femtoseconds. In this way it is possible to perform ultra-fast imaging, essentially ''freezing'' the atomic positions in time and terminating the imaging process before the sample is destroyed by the absorbed radiation. This thesis primarily focuses on the three-dimensional reconstruction of single (and not necessarily crystalline) particles using coherent diffractive imaging at X-FELs: in order to extract three-dimensional information from scattering data, two-dimensional diffraction patterns from many different viewing angles must be combined. Therefore, the diffraction signal of many identical sample copies in random orientations is measured. The main result of this work is a globally optimal algorithm that can recover the sample orientations solely based on the diffraction signal, enabling three-dimensional imaging for arbitrary samples. The problem of finding three-dimensional orientations is

  15. The source of X-rays and high-charged ions based on moderate power vacuum discharge with laser triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhimova Mariya A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The source of X-ray radiation with the energy of quanta that may vary in the range hν = 1÷12 keV was developed for studies in X-ray interaction with matter and modification of solid surfaces. It was based on a vacuum spark discharge with the laser triggering. It was shown in our experiments that there is a possibility to adjust X-ray radiation spectrum by changing the configuration of the electrode system when the energy stored in the capacitor is varied within the range of 1÷17 J. A comprehensive study of X-ray imaging and quanta energy was carried out. These experiments were carried out for the case of both direct and reverse polarity of the voltage on the electrodes. Additionally, ion composition of plasma created in a laser-triggered vacuum discharge was analyzed. Highly charged ions Zn(+21, Cu(+20 and Fe(+18 were observed.

  16. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  17. Highly enhanced hard x-ray emission from oriented metal nanorod arrays excited by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Indrani; Ahmad, Saima; Carvalho, Daniel; Singh, Prashant; Lad, Amit D.; Narayanan, V.; Ayyub, Pushan; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Z. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a 43-fold enhancement in the hard x-ray emission (in the 150-300 keV range) from copper nanorod arrays (compared to a polished Cu surface) when excited by 30-fs, 800-nm laser pulses with an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. The temperature of the hot electrons that emit the x rays is 11 times higher. Significantly, the x-ray yield enhancement is found to depend on both the aspect ratio as well as the cluster size of the nanorods. We show that the higher yield arises from enhanced laser absorption owing to the extremely high local electric fields around the nanorod tips. Particle-in-cell plasma simulations reproduce these observations and provide pointers to further optimization of the x-ray emission.

  18. Scanning Transmission X-Ray, Laser Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscopy Mapping of the Exopolymeric Matrix of Microbial Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J. R.; Swerhone, G. D. W.; Leppard, G. G.; T. Araki; Zhang, X.; West, M. M.; A. P. Hitchcock

    2003-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to map the distribution of macromolecular subcomponents (e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) of biofilm cells and matrix. The biofilms were developed from river water supplemented with methanol, and although they comprised a complex microbial community, the biofilms were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. TEM provid...

  19. Direct and secondary nuclear excitation with x-ray free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Gunst, Jonas; Kumar, Naveen; Keitel, Christoph H; Pálffy, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The direct and secondary nuclear excitation produced by an x-ray free electron laser when interacting with a solid-state nuclear target is investigated theoretically. When driven at the resonance energy, the x-ray free electron laser can produce direct photoexcitation. However, the dominant process in that interaction is the photoelectric effect producing a cold and very dense plasma in which also secondary processes such as nuclear excitation by electron capture may occur. We develop a realistic model to quantify the temporal dynamics of the plasma and the magnitude of the secondary excitation therein. Numerical results show that depending on the nuclear transition energy and the temperature and charge states reached in the plasma, secondary nuclear excitation by electron capture may dominate the direct photoexcitation by several orders of magnitude, as it is the case for the 4.8 keV transition from the isomeric state of $^{93}$Mo, or it can be negligible, as it is the case for the 14.4 keV M\\"ossbauer trans...

  20. X-ray microtomography and laser ablation in the analysis of ink distribution in coated paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllys, M., E-mail: markko.myllys@jyu.fi [Department of Physics and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaskyla (Finland); Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J. [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaskyla (Finland); Backfolk, K. [Imatra Research Centre, Stora Enso Oyj, Tainionkoskentie 115, 55800 Imatra (Finland); Laboratory of Packaging Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Sirviö, P. [Imatra Research Centre, Stora Enso Oyj, Tainionkoskentie 115, 55800 Imatra (Finland); Timonen, J. [Department of Physics and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaskyla (Finland); ITMO University, Kronverkskii ave. 49, 197101 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-14

    A novel method was developed for studying the ink-paper interface and the structural variations of a deposited layer of ink. Combining high-resolution x-ray tomography with laser ablation, the depth profile of ink (toner), i.e., its varying thickness, could be determined in a paper substrate. X-ray tomography was used to produce the 3D structure of paper with about 1 μm spatial resolution. Laser ablation combined with optical imaging was used to produce the 3D structure of the printed layer of ink on top of that paper with about 70 nm depth resolution. Ablation depth was calibrated with an optical profilometer. It can be concluded that a toner layer on a light-weight-coated paper substrate was strongly perturbed by protruding fibers of the base paper. Such fibers together with the surface topography of the base paper seem to be the major factors that control the leveling of toner and its penetration into a thinly coated paper substrate.

  1. Impact of laser produced X-rays on the surface of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, Hamid [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan)], E-mail: h4hamidlatif@yahoo.com; Rafique, M. Shahid; Khaleeq-ur-Rahaman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Rawat, R.S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, NIE Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Sattar, Abdul [Department of Physics, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Naseem, Shahzad [MERC, Punjab University, Lahore (Pakistan); Lee, P. [Plasma Research Laboratory, NIE Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2008-09-15

    In the paper an attempt has been made to use the laser-induced plasma as an X-ray source for the growth of nanostructures on the surface of gold. For this purpose, an Nd:YAG laser operated at second harmonics ({lambda} = 532 nm, E = 400 mJ) is used to produce plasma from analytical grade 5N pure Al, Cu and W targets. An analytical grade (5N pure) gold substrate was irradiated by X-rays generated from Al, Cu and W plasma under the vacuum {approx}10{sup -4} Torr. The surface was analyzed by two techniques, XRD and AFM. The aberrations in the XRD peaks show that there are significant structural changes in the exposed gold, in terms of decreased reflection intensities, increased dislocation line density, changes in the d-spacing and disturbance in the periodicity of the planes. AFM used to explore the topography of the irradiated gold reveals that regardless of the source, nm sized hillocks have been produced on the gold surface. The roughness of the surface has increased due to the growth of these hillocks.

  2. Ultrabright x-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Doppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Galtier, E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagler, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fortmann, C. [QuantumWise A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mao, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Millot, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pak, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Turnbull, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chapman, D. A. [AWE plc, Reading (United Kingdom); Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Gericke, D. O. [AWE plc, Reading (United Kingdom); Vorberger, J. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); White, T. [Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wei, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Barbrel, B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Falcone, R. W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kao, C. -C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nuhn, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zastrau, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmhltzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hastings, J. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-03-23

    In megabar shock waves, materials compress and undergo a phase transition to a dense charged-particle system that is dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. This complex state, known as warm dense matter, exists in planetary interiors and many laboratory experiments (for example, during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions). Here, we apply record peak brightness X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (ångström) scale lengths and to determine their physical properties. Our in situ measurements characterize the compressed lattice and resolve the transition to warm dense matter, demonstrating that short-range repulsion between ions must be accounted for to obtain accurate structure factor and equation of state data. Additionally, the unique properties of the X-ray laser provide plasmon spectra that yield the temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micrometre-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments.

  3. Terawatt x-ray free-electron-laser optimization by transverse electron distribution shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence of the peak power of a 1.5 Å Terawatt (TW, tapered x-ray free-electron laser (FEL on the transverse electron density distribution. Multidimensional optimization schemes for TW hard x-ray free-electron lasers are applied to the cases of transversely uniform and parabolic electron beam distributions and compared to a Gaussian distribution. The optimizations are performed for a 200 m undulator and a resonant wavelength of λ_{r}=1.5  Å using the fully three-dimensional FEL particle code genesis. The study shows that the flatter transverse electron distributions enhance optical guiding in the tapered section of the undulator and increase the maximum radiation power from a maximum of 1.56 TW for a transversely Gaussian beam to 2.26 TW for the parabolic case and 2.63 TW for the uniform case. Spectral data also shows a 30%–70% reduction in energy deposited in the sidebands for the uniform and parabolic beams compared with a Gaussian. An analysis of the transverse coherence of the radiation shows the coherence area to be much larger than the beam spotsize for all three distributions, making coherent diffraction imaging experiments possible.

  4. Stimulated Raman scattering in helium with soft-x-ray laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, E. E.; van Enk, S. J.; Zhang, Jian; Lambropoulos, P.

    1996-12-01

    We report calculations for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with pump photons from a soft-x-ray laser. The Raman transitions from the 1 1S0 ground state to the 2 1S0 and 3 1S0 metastable states of helium at 20.6 and 22.9 eV, respectively, are considered. We calculate χ(3) for pump photons with an energy close to the autoionizing resonances (2s2p)1P at 60.15 eV and (sp,23+)1P at 63.66 eV. SRS gain coefficients are derived for x-ray laser lines in close resonance with the autoionizing levels, viz., the 3p(3/2,3/2)2-->3s(3/2,1/2)1 transition in neonlike selenium (λ=20.64 nm) and the analogous transition in neonlike bromine (λ=19.47 nm). It is shown that the Raman gain coefficient with experimentally realistic parameters is significant and that a high gain length product can be achieved even with pump intensities below 1011 W/cm2.

  5. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-07-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed.

  6. Data processing software suite SITENNO for coherent X-ray diffraction imaging using the X-ray free-electron laser SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging is a promising technique for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with dimensions of micrometers to sub-micrometers. Recently, X-ray free-electron laser sources have enabled efficient experiments in the ‘diffraction before destruction’ scheme. Diffraction experiments have been conducted at SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) using the custom-made diffraction apparatus KOTOBUKI-1 and two multiport CCD detectors. In the experiments, ten thousands of single-shot diffraction patterns can be collected within several hours. Then, diffraction patterns with significant levels of intensity suitable for structural analysis must be found, direct-beam positions in diffraction patterns determined, diffraction patterns from the two CCD detectors merged, and phase-retrieval calculations for structural analyses performed. A software suite named SITENNO has been developed to semi-automatically apply the four-step processing to a huge number of diffraction data. Here, details of the algorithm used in the suite are described and the performance for approximately 9000 diffraction patterns collected from cuboid-shaped copper oxide particles reported. Using the SITENNO suite, it is possible to conduct experiments with data processing immediately after the data collection, and to characterize the size distribution and internal structures of the non-crystalline particles. PMID:24763651

  7. Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Amane; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Okajima, Koji; Fukuda, Asahi; Oide, Mao; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through raster scanning the specimen disks to provide fresh specimen particles in the irradiation area. The efficiency of diffraction data collection in cryogenic experiments depends on the quality of the prepared specimens. Here, detailed procedures for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens, particularly thin membranes and devices developed in our laboratory, are reported. In addition, the quality of the frozen-hydrated specimens are evaluated by analyzing the characteristics of the collected diffraction patterns. Based on the experimental results, the internal structures of the frozen-hydrated specimens and the future development for efficient diffraction data collection are discussed. PMID:27359147

  8. X-ray diagnostics for laser matter interaction experiments; Diagnostics X pour les experiences d'interaction laser-matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph

    2000-07-01

    Advances in the field of laser-driven inertially confined thermonuclear fusion research since the early 1990's are reviewed. It covers the experimental techniques used to study the interaction of laser radiation with matter and high density plasma. A high performance instrumentation (diagnostics) for observation of X radiation (from a few eV to a few keV) will be required to understand the physical processes involved in the interaction. This paper is a three-part: first part, describes diagnostics metrology realized around different X-ray sources (synchrotron, laser plasma...); a second part, synthesizes theoretical and experimental X-ray optics studies and show the interest for direct applications as X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging around laser-produced plasma; a third part, is a review of high resolution X-ray imaging, performances of these optical system were summarized. (author)

  9. High-brightness laser plasma soft X-ray source using a double-stream gas puff target irradiated with the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Juha, L.; Jungwirth, K.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Kubat, P.; Pfeifer, M.; Pina, L.; Prchal, P.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Horvath, M.; Wawer, J

    2004-01-14

    High brightness laser plasma soft X-ray source based on a recently developed double-stream gas puff target irradiated with 0.5 ns laser pulses with energies up to 700 J from the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) is presented. The gas puff target was created by pulsed injection of xenon into a hollow stream of helium using an electromagnetic valve system with the double-nozzle setup. Soft X-ray emission was measured using the transmission grating spectrograph coupled to a CCD camera and the calibrated silicon photodiodes. The absolute soft X-ray production was determined to be 160 J for 540 J of laser energy, giving the soft X-ray conversion efficiency of about 30%. The source has been used in initial experiments on soft X-ray ablation of organic polymers and elemental solids.

  10. Time-resolved soft-x-ray studies of energy transport in layered and planar laser-driven targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1982-04-19

    New low-energy x-ray diagnostic techniques are used to explore energy-transport processes in laser heated plasmas. Streak cameras are used to provide 15-psec time-resolution measurements of subkeV x-ray emission. A very thin (50 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/) carbon substrate provides a low-energy x-ray transparent window to the transmission photocathode of this soft x-ray streak camera. Active differential vacuum pumping of the instrument is required. The use of high-sensitivity, low secondary-electron energy-spread CsI photocathodes in x-ray streak cameras is also described. Significant increases in sensitivity with only a small and intermittant decrease in dynamic range were observed. These coherent, complementary advances in subkeV, time-resolved x-ray diagnostic capability are applied to energy-transport investigations of 1.06-..mu..m laser plasmas. Both solid disk targets of a variety of Z's as well as Be-on-Al layered-disk targets were irradiated with 700-psec laser pulses of selected intensity between 3 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ and 1 x 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  11. Comparison of short pulse generation schemes for a soft x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I. P. S.; Bartolini, R.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the performance of two complementary short pulse generation schemes as applied to a soft x-ray free electron laser. The first scheme, recently proposed by Saldin et al., makes use of a laser pulse consisting of only a few optical cycles to give an energy chirp to a short section of an electron bunch and tapers the main radiator undulator in order to compensate the chirped region. The second scheme investigated takes a low-charge, high brightness electron bunch and compresses it to ˜1fs in order to operate in the so-called “single-spike” regime. We perform start-to-end simulations of both these schemes, assess the sensitivity of each scheme to realistic jitter sources, and provide a direct comparison of the respective strengths and drawbacks.

  12. Comparison of short pulse generation schemes for a soft x-ray free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. S. Martin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the performance of two complementary short pulse generation schemes as applied to a soft x-ray free electron laser. The first scheme, recently proposed by Saldin et al., makes use of a laser pulse consisting of only a few optical cycles to give an energy chirp to a short section of an electron bunch and tapers the main radiator undulator in order to compensate the chirped region. The second scheme investigated takes a low-charge, high brightness electron bunch and compresses it to ∼1  fs in order to operate in the so-called “single-spike” regime. We perform start-to-end simulations of both these schemes, assess the sensitivity of each scheme to realistic jitter sources, and provide a direct comparison of the respective strengths and drawbacks.

  13. Hydrodynamics driven by ultrashort laser pulse: simulations and the optical pump—X-ray probe experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamov, N. A.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.; Hasegawa, N.; Nishikino, M.; Yamagiwa, M.; Ishino, M.; Agranat, M. B.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Ilnitsky, D. K.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Migdal, K. P.; Pikuz, T. A.; Takayoshi, S.; Eyama, T.; Kakimoto, N.; Tomita, T.; Baba, M.; Minami, Y.; Suemoto, T.; Kawachi, T.

    2015-06-01

    Spatial structures of ablative mass flow produced by femtosecond laser pulses are studied. In experiments with a gold film, the Ti:sapp laser pulse having a focal size of 100 microns on a target was used, while a soft X-ray probe pulse was utilized for diagnostics. The experimental data are compared with simulated mass flows obtained by two-temperature hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics methods. Simulation shows evolution of a thin surface layer pressurized after electron-ion thermalization, which leads to melting, cavitation and formation of spallation liquid layer. The calculated asymptotic surface velocity of this layer as a function of fluence is in reasonably good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Probing electron acceleration and X-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Thaury, C; Corde, S; Brijesh, P; Lambert, G; Mangles, S P D; Bloom, M S; Kneip, S; Malka, V

    2013-01-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam is focused in the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  15. Recombination-Enhanced Surface Expansion of Clusters in Intense Soft X-Ray Laser Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Daniela; Flückiger, Leonie; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Krikunova, Maria; Müller, Jan Philippe; Müller, Maria; Oelze, Tim; Ovcharenko, Yevheniy; Röben, Benjamin; Sauppe, Mario; Schorb, Sebastian; Wolter, David; Mitzner, Rolf; Wöstmann, Michael; Roling, Sebastian; Harmand, Marion; Treusch, Rolf; Arbeiter, Mathias; Fennel, Thomas; Bostedt, Christoph; Möller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    We studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed the value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of excimer laser treated alumina films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Kolev, K.; Laude, L. D.; Mednikarov, B.; Starbov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous alumina layers are deposited on a single crystal Si substrate by a e-gun evaporation technique. These films are then thermally annealed in oxygen to be crystallized and, further, irradiated with an excimer laser beam. At each stage of the film preparation, an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis is performed at the film surface and in depth, upon ion beam grinding. Results give evidence for the formation of an aluminosilicate upon thermal annealing of the film in oxygen. At the surface itself, this compound is observed to decompose upon excimer laser irradiation at energy densities exceeding 1.75 J/cm2, giving rise to free Si atoms and SiO2, however with complete disappearance of Al atoms. Model photochemical reactions are proposed to explain such transformations.

  17. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: toward an ultra-bright, high repetition-rate x-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Altarelli

    2015-01-01

    The status of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser(European XFEL), under construction near Hamburg, Germany, is described. The start of operations of the LCLS at SLAC and of SACLA in Japan has already produced impressive scientific results. The European XFEL facility is powered by a 17.5 Ge V superconducting linear accelerator that,compared to these two operating facilities, will generate two orders of magnitude more pulses per second, up to 27 000.It can therefore support modes of operation switching the beam up to 30 times per second among three different experiments, providing each of them with thousands of pulses per second. The scientific possibilities opened up by these capabilities are briefly described, together with the current instrumental developments(in optics, detectors, lasers,etc.) that are necessary to implement this program.

  18. Diverse application platform for hard X-ray diffraction in SACLA (DAPHNIS): application to serial protein crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Nango, Eriko; Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Park, Jaehyun; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi; Ono, Shun; Hatsui, Takaki; Mizohata, Eiichi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Iwata, So; Yabashi, Makina

    2015-05-01

    An experimental system for serial femtosecond crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has been developed. It basically consists of a sample chamber, fluid injectors and a two-dimensional detector. The chamber and the injectors are operated under helium atmosphere at 1 atm. The ambient pressure operation facilitates applications to fluid samples. Three kinds of injectors are employed to feed randomly oriented crystals in aqueous solution or highly viscous fluid. Experiments on lysozyme crystals were performed by using the 10 keV XFEL of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA). The structure of model protein lysozyme from 1 µm crystals at a resolution of 2.4 Å was obtained.

  19. Evidence of High Harmonics from Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeding X-ray Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.

  20. Studies on high-quality electron beams and tunable x-ray sources produced by laser wakefield accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Luo, Ji; Chen, Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2016-11-01

    The applications of laser wake field accelerators (LWFA) rely heavily on the quality of produced high energy electron beams and X-ray sources. We present our recent progress on this issue. Firstly we propose a bichromatic laser ionization injection scheme for obtaining high quality electron beams. With the laser pulse combinations of 800 nm and 267 nm, or 2400 nm and 800 nm in wavelengths, electron beams with energy spread of 1% or lower can be produced. Secondly we propose polarization tunable X-ray sources based on LWFA. By shooting a laser pulse into a preformed plasma channel with a skew angle referring to the channel axis, the plasma channel can act as a helical undulator for elliptically polarized X-rays.

  1. Characterization of the 46.9-nm soft X-ray laser beam from a capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, S.; Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Sharma, M. L.; Kushwaha, R. P.; Tripathi, P. K.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2014-10-01

    Intense lasing had been obtained from argon plasma in the soft X-ray region from a capillary discharge plasma system. Different diagnostics have been used to characterize the lasing properties by recording the temporal, spatial, and spectral profiles of the emission. The divergence measurement indicates that the soft X-ray laser beam has good directionality with a divergence of 3.5 mrad. The spectrum of the laser beam measured using a transmission grating showed intense lasing line at 46.9 nm. Diffraction orders as high as 10th orders were observed. The temporal profile recorded with a vacuum diode showed a distinct laser peak with a pulse width ~1.2 ns (FWHM). In addition, the coherence of the X-ray laser beam was also confirmed from the high-contrast interference fringes (visibility ~85 %) recorded using double slits.

  2. Superhot-X-ray and -electron transport in high-intensity CO2-laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, G. D.; Burnett, N. H.

    1985-12-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the high-energy (70-400-keV) X-ray emission from CO2 laser-produced plasmas at intensities up to 3 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm has revealed the presence of a 'superhot' component. The intensity of this component scales very strongly with incident laser intensity. It is expected that for intensities greater than about 5 x 10 to the 15th W/sq cm energy balance in CO2-laser-produced plasmas would be dominated by the energetic electrons responsible for this high-energy X-ray emission.

  3. Transverse effects in the production of x rays with a free-electron laser based on an optical undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bacci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between high-brilliance electron beams and counterpropagating laser pulses produces x rays via Thomson backscattering. If the laser source is long and intense enough, the electrons of the beam can bunch on the scale of the emitted x-ray wavelength and a regime of collective effects can establish. In this case of dominating collective effects, the FEL instability can develop and the system behaves like a free-electron laser based on an optical undulator. Coherent x rays can be irradiated, with a bandwidth very much thinner than that of the corresponding incoherent emission. The emittance of the electron beam and the distribution nonuniformity of the laser energy are the principal quantities that limit the growth of the x-ray signal. In this work we analyze with a 3D code the transverse effects in the emission produced by a relativistic electron beam when it is under the action of an optical laser pulse and the x-ray spectra obtained. The scalings typical of the optical wiggler, characterized by very short gain lengths and overall time durations of the process, make possible considerable emission also in violation of the Pellegrini criterion for static wigglers. A generalized form of this criterion is validated on the basis of the numerical evidence.

  4. Creation and diagnosis of a solid-density plasma with an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, S M; Ciricosta, O; Cho, B I; Engelhorn, K; Chung, H-K; Brown, C R D; Burian, T; Chalupský, J; Falcone, R W; Graves, C; Hájková, V; Higginbotham, A; Juha, L; Krzywinski, J; Lee, H J; Messerschmidt, M; Murphy, C D; Ping, Y; Scherz, A; Schlotter, W; Toleikis, S; Turner, J J; Vysin, L; Wang, T; Wu, B; Zastrau, U; Zhu, D; Lee, R W; Heimann, P A; Nagler, B; Wark, J S

    2012-01-25

    Matter with a high energy density (>10(5) joules per cm(3)) is prevalent throughout the Universe, being present in all types of stars and towards the centre of the giant planets; it is also relevant for inertial confinement fusion. Its thermodynamic and transport properties are challenging to measure, requiring the creation of sufficiently long-lived samples at homogeneous temperatures and densities. With the advent of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, high-intensity radiation (>10(17) watts per cm(2), previously the domain of optical lasers) can be produced at X-ray wavelengths. The interaction of single atoms with such intense X-rays has recently been investigated. An understanding of the contrasting case of intense X-ray interaction with dense systems is important from a fundamental viewpoint and for applications. Here we report the experimental creation of a solid-density plasma at temperatures in excess of 10(6) kelvin on inertial-confinement timescales using an X-ray free-electron laser. We discuss the pertinent physics of the intense X-ray-matter interactions, and illustrate the importance of electron-ion collisions. Detailed simulations of the interaction process conducted with a radiative-collisional code show good qualitative agreement with the experimental results. We obtain insights into the evolution of the charge state distribution of the system, the electron density and temperature, and the timescales of collisional processes. Our results should inform future high-intensity X-ray experiments involving dense samples, such as X-ray diffractive imaging of biological systems, material science investigations, and the study of matter in extreme conditions.

  5. Selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction de novo phasing using an X-ray-free electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark S; Yoon, Chun Hong; DeMirci, Hasan; Sierra, Raymond G; Dao, E Han; Ahmadi, Radman; Aksit, Fulya; Aquila, Andrew L; Ciftci, Halilibrahim; Guillet, Serge; Hayes, Matt J; Lane, Thomas J; Liang, Meng; Lundström, Ulf; Koglin, Jason E; Mgbam, Paul; Rao, Yashas; Zhang, Lindsey; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Holton, James M; Boutet, Sébastien

    2016-11-04

    Structural information about biological macromolecules near the atomic scale provides important insight into the functions of these molecules. To date, X-ray crystallography has been the predominant method used for macromolecular structure determination. However, challenges exist when solving structures with X-rays, including the phase problem and radiation damage. X-ray-free electron lasers (X-ray FELs) have enabled collection of diffraction information before the onset of radiation damage, yet the majority of structures solved at X-ray FELs have been phased using external information via molecular replacement. De novo phasing at X-ray FELs has proven challenging due in part to per-pulse variations in intensity and wavelength. Here we report the solution of a selenobiotinyl-streptavidin structure using phases obtained by the anomalous diffraction of selenium measured at a single wavelength (Se-SAD) at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our results demonstrate Se-SAD, routinely employed at synchrotrons for novel structure determination, is now possible at X-ray FELs.

  6. Timing and low-level rf system for an x-ray laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Otake

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL, SACLA, designed to open up new science, was constructed for generating coherent x rays with a peak power of more than 10 GW and a very short pulse of below 30 fs. This feature demands a very highly short-term temporal stability of less than 50 fs to the acceleration rf field of SACLA. For this reason, we developed a timing and low-level rf (LLRF system for SACLA based on that of the SPring8 compact SASE source (SCSS test accelerator for verifying the feasibility of an XFEL. The performance of the system using the in-phase and quadrature rf manipulation method was improved from SCSS’s system. Since the facility length of SACLA is 700 m, which is 10 times longer than that of the SCSS test accelerator, a phase-stabilized optical-fiber system designed to transmit time standard rf signals with low loss was also developed and deployed. This optical-fiber system equips fiber optical-length feedback control in order to mitigate environmental effects, such as temperature and humidity changes. On the other hand, the demanded maximum rf temporal stability is less than 50 fs, which is almost 10 times smaller than that of the SCSS test accelerator. Hence, reducing electric noise and increasing the temperature stability around timing and LLRF instruments were necessary and realized with a very low-noise power supply and a hemathermal 19-inch enclosure. The short-term temporal performance of the timing LLRF system finally attained a temporal stability of less than 13.6 fs in rms measured by a beam arrival-time measurement. This stability greatly helps to achieve the stable x-ray lasing of SACLA for routine operation during user experiments.

  7. Pulsed X-ray radiography of a gas jet target for laser-matter interaction experiments with the use of a CCD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, R. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Bartnik, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Fiedorowicz, H. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: hfiedorowicz@wat.edu.pl; Jarocki, R. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Kostecki, J. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); MikoIajczyk, J. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szczurek, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Foeldes, I.B. [KFKI-Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Association EURATOM, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Zs. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged, Pf.: 406 (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Characterization of gas jet targets has been carried out using pulsed X-ray radiography. A laser-plasma X-ray source was applied for backlighting of the targets to obtain X-ray shadowgraphs registered with a CCD detector. From the shadowgraphs, characteristics of the targets were determined.

  8. X-ray measurement of residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, J.M.; van Brussel, B.A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Reed, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V, determined using X-ray diffraction methods. The principal result is that there is an increase in the transverse residual stress with each successive, overlapping laser track. The result can be used to explain the ob

  9. Investigations on femtosecond-pulse-driven soft X-ray lasers using a gas puff target irradiated with a Ti:sapphire laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Mocek, T.; Shin, H.J.; Cha, Y.H.; Lee, D.G.; Hong, K.H.; Nam, C.H. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Optoelectronics; Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Physics

    2001-07-01

    Experimental investigations on soft X-ray lasers based on optical field ionization of gases with an ultrashort-pulse terawatt laser system are presented. The X-ray laser active medium was created using an elongated gas puff target formed by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas from a high-pressure electromagnetic valve through a nozzle in the form of a slit. The target was irradiated with a laser pulses from a 20-fs. 50-mJ Ti:Sapphire (Ti:S) laser system. Both recombination and collisional soft X-ray laser scheme have been studied. Soft X-ray spectra from nitrogen, oxygen, and xenon targets are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Intense high repetition rate Mo Kα x-ray source generated from laser solid interaction for imaging application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.; Li, M. H.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Li, Y. F.; Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, X. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, J. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We report an efficient Mo Kα x-ray source produced by interaction of femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser pulses with a solid Molybdenum target working at 1 kHz repetition rate. The generated Mo Kα x-ray intensity reaches to 4.7 × 10{sup 10} photons sr{sup −1} s{sup −1}, corresponding to an average power of 0.8 mW into 2π solid angle. The spatial resolution of this x-ray source is measured to be 26 lp/mm. With the high flux and high spatial resolution characteristics, high resolving in-line x-ray radiography was realized on test objects and large size biological samples within merely half a minute. This experiment shows the possibility of laser plasma hard x-ray source as a new low cost and high resolution system for radiography and its ability of ultrafast x-ray pump-probe study of matter.

  11. Destruction-and-diffraction by X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin

    2016-09-01

    It is common knowledge that macromolecular crystals are damaged by the X-rays they are exposed to during conventional data collection. One of the claims made about the crystallographic data collection now being collected using X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) is that they are unaffected by radiation damage. XFEL data sets are assembled by merging data obtained from a very large number of crystals, each of which is exposed to a single femtosecond pulse of radiation, the duration of which is so short that diffraction occurs before the damage done to the crystal has time to become manifest, i.e. "diffraction-before-destruction." However, recent theoretical studies have shown that many of the elemental electronic processes that ultimately result in the destruction of such crystals occur during a single pulse. It is predicted that the amplitudes of atomic scattering factor could be reduced by as much as 75% within the first 5 femtoseconds of such pulses, and that different atoms will respond in different ways. Experimental evidence is provided here that these predictions are correct. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  12. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, M.; Freijo Martín, I.

    2016-05-01

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ṡ 1025 (photons s-1 mm-2 mrad-2)/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  13. Investigation by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction of the chemical composition of white clay ceramic tiles from Veliki Preslav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagoev, K., E-mail: kblagoev@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Grozeva, M., E-mail: margo@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Malcheva, G., E-mail: bobcheva@issp.bas.bg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Neykova, S., E-mail: sevdalinaneikova@abv.bg [National Institute of Archaeology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Saborna, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray powder diffraction in assessing the chemical and phase composition of white clay decorative ceramic tiles from the medieval archaeological site of Veliki Preslav, a Bulgarian capital in the period 893–972 AC, well-known for its original ceramic production. Numerous white clay ceramic tiles with highly varied decoration, produced for wall decoration of city's churches and palaces, were found during the archaeological excavations in the old capital. The examination of fourteen ceramic tiles discovered in one of the city's monasteries is aimed at characterization of the chemical profile of the white-clay decorative ceramics produced in Veliki Preslav. Combining different methods and comparing the obtained results provides complementary information regarding the white-clay ceramic production in Veliki Preslav and complete chemical characterization of the examined artefacts. - Highlights: ► LIBS, XRF and XRD analyses of medieval white-clay ceramic tiles fragments are done. ► Different elements and phases, presented in the ceramics fragments were determined. ► Differences in the tiles' raw material mineral composition are found. ► Information of the tiles' production process and the raw clay deposits is obtained.

  14. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, M; Freijo Martín, I

    2016-05-01

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10(25) (photons s(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2))/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  15. Opacity effects in a solid-density aluminium plasma created by photo-excitation with an X-ray laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackstraw, D. S.; Vinko, S. M.; Ciricosta, O.; Cho, B. I.; Engelhorn, K.; Chung, H.-K.; Brown, C. R. D.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Falcone, R. W.; Graves, C.; Hájková, V.; Higginbotham, A.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, H. J.; Messerschmidt, M.; Murphy, C.; Ping, Y.; Scherz, A.; Schlotter, W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J. J.; Vysin, L.; Wang, T.; Wu, B.; Zastrau, U.; Zhu, D.; Nagler, B.; Lee, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.; Wark, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    The intensities within the focal spots of the output of recently developed X-ray sources based on free-electron-laser (FEL) technology are so great that atoms within the focal region can potentially absorb several photons during the few tens of femtosecond X-ray pulse. Furthermore, the duration of the FEL X-ray pulse is comparable to the Auger decay times of inner-shell holes created by the X-rays themselves. We report here how such a scenario can lead to opacity broadening of the fluorescence radiation emitted by the hot, dense plasma, which is created as a result of the X-radiation focussed onto a solid target, and in particular present calculations of the broadening of the Kα emission in a solid-density aluminium target, produced when the FEL photon energy is tuned below the Al K-edge, but is resonant with the Kα transition.

  16. Design of Highly Directive Ni-Like Ag X-Ray Laser at 13.9 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; DONG Quan-Li; WANG Shou-Jun; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate a 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag x-ray laser using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic code coupled with an atomic physics data package. The population inversion is transiently pumped by a grazing incident 0.5 ps main pulse irradiating into an optimized plasma, which is generated by a normal incidence 300 ps pulse and a subsequent grazing incidence 300 ps pulse. The effect of the grazing-incidence angle on the source position of the output x-ray laser is investigated. Near zero deflecting angle is found for the peak output intensity of the Ni-like Ag x-ray lasers, with a small FWHM divergence of 5mrad. It is predicted that saturation can be achieved with a total pump energy of 165mJ.

  17. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, F.; Fedorov, N.; Lecherbourg, L.

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%-20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ˜1 mn and ˜100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  18. Single-shot radiography using X-rays from Compton-backscattering with laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Döpp, A; Thaury, C; Gautier, J; Andriyash, I; Lifschitz, A; Goddet, J-P; Tafzi, A; Malka, V; Rousse, A; Phuoc, K Ta

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the production of high energy femtosecond X-rays by Compton-backscattering of an intense femtosecond laser pulse with quasi-monoenergetic laser-accelerated electron beams using a plasma mirror. In our parameter regime electrons of $\\sim$ 150 MeV peak energy emit a high energy radiation beam with a broad spectrum extending up to $\\sim$ 500 keV. The photon yield from the source is sufficiently high to illuminate a centimeter-size sample placed 90 centimeters behind the source and record a single-shot radiograph. The small diameter of the laser-accelerated electron beams translates into a micrometer X-ray source size, making it a promising candidate for advanced X-ray imaging techniques as e.g. propagation-based phase contrast imaging.

  19. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchies, F; Fedorov, N; Lecherbourg, L

    2015-07-01

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%-20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  20. Experimental station for laser-based picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchies, F., E-mail: dorchies@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr; Fedorov, N.; Lecherbourg, L. [Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, Talence F-33405 (France)

    2015-07-15

    We present an experimental station designed for time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). It is based on ultrashort laser-plasma x-ray pulses generated from a table-top 100 mJ-class laser at 10 Hz repetition rate. A high transmission (10%–20%) x-ray beam line transport using polycapillary optics allows us to set the sample in an independent vacuum chamber, providing high flexibility over a wide spectral range from 0.5 up to 4 keV. Some XANES spectra are presented, demonstrating 1% noise level in only ∼1 mn and ∼100 cumulated laser shots. Time-resolved measurements are reported, indicating that the time resolution of the entire experimental station is 3.3 ± 0.6 ps rms.

  1. High-resolution X-ray focusing concave (elliptical) curved crystal spectrograph for laser-produced plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shali xiao(肖沙里); Yingjun Pan(潘英俊); Xianxin Zhong(钟先信); Xiancai Xiong(熊先才); Guohong Yang(杨国洪); Zongli Liu(刘宗礼); Yongkun Ding(丁永坤)

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum emitted from laser-produced plasma contains plentiful information.X-ray spectrometer is a powerful tool for plasma diagnosis and studying the information and evolution of the plasma.X-ray concave(elliptical)curved crystals analyzer was designed and manufactured to investigate the properties of laser-produced plasma.The experiment was carried out on Mianyang Xingguang-ⅡFacility and aimed at investigating the characteristics of a high density iron plasma.Experimental results using KAP,LIF,PET,and MICA curved crystal analyzers are described,and the spectra of Au,Ti laser-produced plasma are shown.The focusing crystal analyzer clearly gave an increase in sensitivity over a flat crystal.

  2. Compact X-ray Free Electron Laser from a Laser-plasma Accelerator using a Transverse Gradient Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; /SLAC; Schroeder, Carl B.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-09-13

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent FEL radiation generation. In this paper, we discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for SASE and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  3. Joint Experiments on X-ray/Particle Emission from Plasmas Produced by Laser Irradiating Nano Structured Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, H.; Allam, S. H.; Chaurasia, S.; Dhareshwar, L.; El-Sherbini, Th. M.; Kunze, H.-J.; Mank, G.; McDaniel, D. H.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Stewart, B.; Wolowski, J.; Abd El-Ghany, H.; Abd El-Latif, G.; Abd El-Rahim, F. M.; Bedrane, Z.; Diab, F.; Farrag, A.; Hedwig, R.; Helal, A.; Pardede, M.; Refaie, A.; Sharkawy, H.; El-khatim, A., Sir

    2008-04-01

    The 1st Joint (Host Laboratory) Experiment on laser plasma involving more than twenty scientists from eight countries has been carried out at the Laser and New Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt. It was co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and supported through the IAEA and the ICTP (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste). The main experimental programme was aimed at characterising the possible enhancement of x-ray and particle emission from plasmas produced by laser incidence on nano-structured targets. Laser beams at 1.064 μm of 250 mJ and 532 nm of 165 mJ focused at the target surface using a nanosecond laser type Quantel were used in the present study. In the present experiments nano-copper structures evaporated onto copper bulk disks and nano-gold structures evaporated onto gold ones were used. The thickness of the nano-materials on their bulk material was 1 μm. An ion collector and x-ray semiconductor diode were used to study the ion and x-ray emission, respectively. Both were positioned at the same port at 90° with respect to the target surface and at 90 cm from the surface in the case of the ion collector and 55 cm in the case of the x-ray detector. These experiments were performed at vacuum pressures of (5—8)×10-6 mbar. Comparison of both studies in the case of nano structured targets and bulk targets were performed at different laser fluencies (1×109-1×1012 W/cm2) on the target. A 20% increase of the X-ray emission for nano gold with respect to bulk gold was observed, however, the x-ray emission in the of nano copper and copper was the same.

  4. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.; Lindahl, A. O.; Knie, A.; Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Shevchuk, I.; Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Kazansky, A. K.; Liu, J.; Marinelli, A.; Mazza, T.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J.; Meyer, M.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M.

    2016-08-01

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O2 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  5. Circular dichroism measurements at an x-ray free-electron laser with polarization control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, G.; Shevchuk, I.; Walter, P.; Viefhaus, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lindahl, A. O. [PULSE at Stanford, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Knie, A. [Institut für Physik, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, 34132 Kassel (Germany); Hartmann, N.; Lutman, A. A.; MacArthur, J. P.; Glownia, J. M.; Helml, W.; Huang, Z.; Marinelli, A.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Moeller, S.; Coffee, R. N.; Ilchen, M., E-mail: markus.ilchen@xfel.eu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Buck, J.; Galler, A.; Liu, J. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-08-15

    A non-destructive diagnostic method for the characterization of circularly polarized, ultraintense, short wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) light is presented. The recently installed Delta undulator at the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) was used as showcase for this diagnostic scheme. By applying a combined two-color, multi-photon experiment with polarization control, the degree of circular polarization of the Delta undulator has been determined. Towards this goal, an oriented electronic state in the continuum was created by non-resonant ionization of the O{sub 2} 1s core shell with circularly polarized FEL pulses at hν ≃ 700 eV. An also circularly polarized, highly intense UV laser pulse with hν ≃ 3.1 eV was temporally and spatially overlapped, causing the photoelectrons to redistribute into so-called sidebands that are energetically separated by the photon energy of the UV laser. By determining the circular dichroism of these redistributed electrons using angle resolving electron spectroscopy and modeling the results with the strong-field approximation, this scheme allows to unambiguously determine the absolute degree of circular polarization of any pulsed, ultraintense XUV or X-ray laser source.

  6. Dipole-forbidden atomic transitions induced by superintense x-ray laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Førre, Morten

    2016-06-01

    A hydrogen atom, initially prepared in the 2 s and/or 2 p (m =±1 ) states, is assumed irradiated by 0.8 keV (1.5 nm) photons in pulses of 1 -250 fs duration and intensities in the range 1020 to 1023W /cm2 . Solving the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation from first principles, we show that the ionization and excitation dynamics of the laser-atom system is strongly influenced by interactions beyond the electric dipole approximation. A beyond-dipole two-photon Raman-like transition between the 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) states is found to completely dominate the underlying laser-matter interaction. It turns out that the large difference in the ionization rates of the 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) states is important in this context, effectively leading to a symmetry breaking in the corresponding (beyond-dipole) bound-bound dynamics with the result that a net population transfer between the states occurs throughout the laser-matter interaction period. Varying the x-ray exposure time as well as the laser intensity, we probe the phenomenon as the bound wave packet oscillates between having 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) character, eventually giving rise to a Rabi-like oscillation pattern in the populations.

  7. A spherical harmonic approach to single particle imaging with X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Flamant, Julien; Martin, Andrew V; Manton, Jonathan H

    2016-01-01

    In 3D single particle imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers, particle orientation is not recorded during measurement but is instead recovered as a necessary step in the reconstruction of a 3D image from the diffraction data. Here we use harmonic analysis on the sphere to cleanly separate the angu- lar and radial degrees of freedom of this problem, providing new opportunities to efficiently use data and computational resources. We develop the Expansion-Maximization-Compression algorithm into a shell-by-shell approach and implement an angular bandwidth limit that can be gradually raised during the reconstruction. We study the minimum number of patterns and minimum rotation sampling required for a desired angular and radial resolution. These extensions provide new av- enues to improve computational efficiency and speed of convergence, which are critically important considering the very large datasets expected from experiment.

  8. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimäki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR – Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  9. High-Resolving-Power, Streaked X-Ray Spectroscopy on the OMEGA EP Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J., III; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    A high-resolving-power, streaked x-ray spectrometer is being developed and tested on the OMEGA EP Laser System to study temperature-equilibration dynamics in rapidly heated solid matter. Temporal spectral shifts of the Cu Kα line in isochorically heated solid targets provide a fairly simple system where the spectrometer performance will be validated. The goal is to achieve a resolving power of several thousand and 2-ps temporal resolution. A time-integrating survey spectrometer has been developed and deployed on OMEGA EP to evaluate the throughput, focusing fidelity, and spectral resolution of two different crystal geometries. The results from these measurements will be presented and used to justify the down-selected time-resolved spectrometer design. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  10. Preparatory procedure and equipment for the European x-ray free electron laser cavity implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reschke, D.; Bandelmann, R.; Buettner, T.; Escherich, K.; Goessel, A.; v.d.Horst, B.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; Kreps, G.; Krupka, N.; Lilje, L.; /DESY /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    The European x-ray free electron laser is under construction at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). The electron beam energy of up to 17.5 GeV will be achieved by using superconducting accelerator technology. Final prototyping, industrialization, and new infrastructure are the actual challenges with respect to the accelerating cavities. This paper describes the preparation strategy optimized for the cavity preparation procedure in industry. For the industrial fabrication and preparation, several new hardware components have been already developed at DESY. The design and construction of a semiautomated rf-measurement machine for dumbbells and end groups are described. In a collaboration among FNAL, KEK, and DESY, an automatic cavity tuning machine has been designed and four machines are under construction. The functionality of these machines with special attention to safety aspects is described in this paper. A new high pressure rinsing system has been developed and is operational.

  11. Time-interleaved multienergy acceleration for an x-ray free-electron laser facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the demand from the growing number of user experiments, multi-beam-line operation with a wide spectral range is seriously considered in x-ray free-electron laser facilities. In a conventional design, the beam line of low photon energies branches off from the middle of the accelerator to take out low energy electron beams. Here in this paper, a novel method is proposed to deliver bunch-to-bunch energy changed electron beams at the end of the accelerator. Since all accelerator components are operated in steady state, this method enables quasisimultaneous operation of multi-beam-line in the same undulator hall without degrading the stability and performance of the electron beam.

  12. Phase matching strategy for the undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser is mainly comprised of 5-m long undulator segments and 1.1 m long intersections in between. The longitudinal component of the electrons' velocity is reduced when traveling inside an undulator due to the wiggle motion. Therefore the optical phase is detuned. The detune effect is also from the undulator fringe field where electron longitudinal speed also deviates from the oscillation condition. The total detune effect is compensated by a magnetic device called phase shifter, which is correspondingly set for a specific undulator gap. In this paper we investigate the homogeneity of the fringe field from different undulators. Different phase matching criteria are studied. The field fitting technique for the phase matching in high accuracy is demonstrated in detail. The impact by air coil is also studied. Eventually the matching test by spontaneous radiation simulation is made. A test method for high sensitivity to matching error is proposed.

  13. Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation Soft X-Ray Lasers and High-Order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeglé, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation, also referred to as soft X-rays or XUV, offers very special optical properties. The X-UV refractive index of matter is such that normal reflection cannot take place on polished surfaces whereas beam transmission through one micrometer of almost all materials reduces to zero. Therefore, it has long been a difficult task to imagine and to implement devices designed for complex optics experiments in this wavelength range. Thanks to new sources of coherent radiation - XUV-lasers and High Order Harmonics - the use of XUV radiation, for interferometry, holography, diffractive optics, non-linear radiation-matter interaction, time-resolved study of fast and ultrafast phenomena and many other applications, including medical sciences, is ubiquitous.

  14. Single-Molecule Imaging with X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers: Dream or Reality?

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-03-09

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) are revolutionary photon sources, whose ultrashort, brilliant pulses are expected to allow single-molecule diffraction experiments providing structural information on the atomic length scale of nonperiodic objects. This ultimate goal, however, is currently hampered by several challenging questions basically concerning sample damage, Coulomb explosion, and the role of nonlinearity. By employing an original ab initio approach, we address these issues showing that XFEL-based single-molecule imaging will be only possible with a few-hundred long attosecond pulses, due to significant radiation damage and the formation of preferred multisoliton clusters which reshape the overall electronic density of the molecular system at the femtosecond scale.

  15. Multiphoton Ionization as a clock to Reveal Molecular Dynamics with Intense Short X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, L; Murphy, B; Tarantelli, F; Kukk, E; Cryan, J P; Glownia, M; Bucksbaum, P H; Coffee, R N; Chen, M; Buth, C; Berrah, N

    2013-01-01

    We investigate molecular dynamics of multiple ionization in N2 through multiple core-level photoabsorption and subsequent Auger decay processes induced by intense, short X-ray free electron laser pulses. The timing dynamics of the photoabsorption and dissociation processes is mapped onto the kinetic energy of the fragments. Measurements of the latter allow us to map out the average internuclear separation for every molecular photoionization sequence step and obtain the average time interval between the photoabsorption events. Using multiphoton ionization as a tool of multiple-pulse pump-probe scheme, we demonstrate the modi?cation of the ionization dynamics as we vary the x-ray laser pulse duration.

  16. Demonstration of Single-Crystal Self-Seeded Two-Color X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutman, A. A.; Decker, F. -J; Arthur, J.; Chollet, M.; Feng, Y.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z.; Lemke, H.; Nuhn, H. -D.; Marinelli, A.; Turner, J. L.; Wakatsuki, S.; Welch, J.; Zhu, D.

    2014-12-18

    A scheme for generating two simultaneous hard-x-ray free-electron laser pulses with a controllable difference in photon energy is described and then demonstrated using the self-seeding setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The scheme takes advantage of the existing LCLS equipment, which allows two independent rotations of the self-seeding diamond crystal. The two degrees of freedom are used to select two nearby crystal reflections, causing two wavelengths to be present in the forward transmitted seeding x-ray pulse. The free-electron laser system must support amplification at both desired wavelengths.

  17. Observation of Laser Induced Magnetization Dynamics in Co/Pd Multilayers with Coherent X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Benny

    2012-04-05

    We report on time-resolved coherent x-ray scattering experiments of laser induced magnetization dynamics in Co/Pd multilayers with a high repetition rate optical pump x-ray probe setup. Starting from a multi-domain ground state, the magnetization is uniformly reduced after excitation by an intense 50 fs laser pulse. Using the normalized time correlation, we study the magnetization recovery on a picosecond timescale. The dynamic scattering intensity is separated into an elastic portion at length scales above 65 nm which retains memory of the initial domain magnetization, and a fluctuating portion at smaller length scales corresponding to domain boundary motion during recovery.

  18. Soft-x-ray imaging from an ultrashort-pulse laser-produced plasma using a multilayer coated optic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, J. R.; van Woerkom, L. D.

    1996-02-01

    Measurements are presented of soft-x-ray images from a plasma produced by a high-intensity ultrashort-pulse laser. For the intensity range of 1015-1016 W / cm2 the soft-x-ray source appears to follow the spatial profile of the driving laser. A curved multilayer coated optic is used to collect 13.5-nm light and form a magnified image of the plasma. Knife-edge scans have been performed in the image plane and show a geometrically limited spot size of 280 mu m.

  19. Quantum interference in laser-assisted photo-ionization excited by a femtosecond x-ray pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yu-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    The photoelectron energy spectra (PESs) excited by monochromatic femtosecond x-ray pulses in the presence of a femtosecond laser are investigated. APES is composed of a set of separate peaks, showing interesting comb-like structures. These structures result from the quantum interferences between photoelectron wave packets generated at different times. The width and the localization of each peak as well as the number of peaks are determined by all the laser and x-ray parameters. Most of peak heights of the PES are higher than the classical predictions.

  20. A reaction cell with sample laser heating for in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies under environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos; Jiang, Peng; Pach, Elzbieta; Borondics, Ferenc; West, Mark W; Tuxen, Anders; Chintapalli, Mahati; Carenco, Sophie; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel

    2013-05-01

    A miniature (1 ml volume) reaction cell with transparent X-ray windows and laser heating of the sample has been designed to conduct X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of materials in the presence of gases at atmospheric pressures. Heating by laser solves the problems associated with the presence of reactive gases interacting with hot filaments used in resistive heating methods. It also facilitates collection of a small total electron yield signal by eliminating interference with heating current leakage and ground loops. The excellent operation of the cell is demonstrated with examples of CO and H2 Fischer-Tropsch reactions on Co nanoparticles.

  1. Maxwell-Schrodinger Equation for X-Ray Laser Propagation and Interferometry Measurement of Plasma Electron Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承宜; 郭弘; 付喜泉; 胡巍; 喻松

    2001-01-01

    By starting with the Maxwell theory of x-ray laser propagation in collisionless plasmas, we study the phase difference of the probe and reference beams of x-ray laser interferometry in measuring the plasma electron density. The basic idea is to reduce the Maxwell equation to a Schrodinger-like equation. By using the quantum mechanical technique and introducing a novel picture, we obtain a modified relation between the phase and the electron density, where the phase corresponds to the interference of probe and reference light and the contribution of gradient of the electron density has been taken into account.

  2. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, John; Attwood, David; Byrd, John; Denes, Peter; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Leemans, Wim; Padmore, Howard; Prestemon, Soren; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Schroeder, Carl; Staples, John; Venturini, Marco; Warwick, Tony; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Zholent, Alexander; Adolphsen, Chris; Arthur, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Cai, Yunhai; Colby, Eric; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Fox, John; Frisch, Josef; Galayda, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Zhirong; Phinney, Nan; Rabedeau, Tom; Raubenheimer, Tor; Reis, David; Schmerge, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; White, Bill; Xiang, Dao

    2009-06-08

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft x-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility that is responsive to these requirements is now on the horizon. R&D in some critical areas is needed, however, to demonstrate technical performance, thus reducing technical risks and construction costs. Such a facility most likely will be based on a CW superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on experimental requirements, the individual FELs can be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded, or oscillator mode of operation, including the use of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enhanced harmonic generation (EEHG), harmonic cascade, or other configurations. In this White Paper we identify the overall accelerator R&D needs, and highlight the most important pre-construction R&D tasks required to value-engineer the design configuration and deliverables for such a facility. In Section 1.4 we identify the comprehensive R&D ultimately needed. We identify below the highest-priority requirements for understanding machine performance and reduce risk and costs at this pre-conceptual design stage. Details of implementing the required tasks will be the subject of future evaluation. Our highest-priority R&D program is the injector, which must be capable of delivering a beam with bunches up to a nanocoulomb at MHz repetition rate and with normalized emittance {le} 1 mm {center_dot} mrad. This will require integrated accelerating structure, cathode, and laser systems development. Cathode materials will impact the choice of laser technology in wavelength and energy per pulse, as well as vacuum requirements in the accelerating

  3. Resonant K-alpha spectroscopy of a hot dense plasma created by the LCLS x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byoung-Ick; Engelhorn, K.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.; Vinko, S. M.; Ciricosta, O.; Higginbotham, A.; Murphy, C.; Wark, J. S.; Chung, H.-K.; Brown, C. R. D.; Burian, T.; Vysin, L.; Juha, L.; Lee, H. J.; Messersmidt, M.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J.; Nagler, B.; Ping, Y.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.

    2011-10-01

    We present one of the first experimental studies of the interaction of high intensity x-ray free electron laser radiation with solid density matter. In the experiment performed at the LCLS, an intense 80 fs x-ray pulse at 1017 Wcm-2 with photon energies of 1480 ~ 1560 eV is focused on a thin Al foil and K-alpha emission spectra are observed. Although x-ray photon energy is lower than the absorption edge, because of its high intensity the sample is surprisingly heated up to 100 ~200 eV in the pulse duration and a hot dense plasma is created. Observed x-ray spectra indicate this dense plasma resonantly interacts with the x-ray photons. The emission spectra are also simulated using the collisional-radiative code, SCFLY which provides information about the electron temperature and density, the charge state distribution and opacity. The comparison of experiment and simulation provides a detailed description of a dense plasma resonantly interacting with an intense x-ray pulse.

  4. Methods development for diffraction and spectroscopy studies of metalloenzymes at X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jan; Hattne, Johan; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Laksmono, Hartawan; Gul, Sheraz; Sierra, Raymond G.; Rehanek, Jens; Erko, Alexei; Mitzner, Rolf; Wernet, Phillip; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new possibilities for X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples under close to physiological conditions. To facilitate these new X-ray sources, tailored experimental methods and data-processing protocols have to be developed. The highly radiation-sensitive photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a prime target for XFEL experiments aiming to study the mechanism of light-induced water oxidation taking place at a Mn cluster in this complex. We developed a set of tools for the study of PSII at XFELs, including a new liquid jet based on electrofocusing, an energy dispersive von Hamos X-ray emission spectrometer for the hard X-ray range and a high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometer based on a reflection zone plate. While our immediate focus is on PSII, the methods we describe here are applicable to a wide range of metalloenzymes. These experimental developments were complemented by a new software suite, cctbx.xfel. This software suite allows for near-real-time monitoring of the experimental parameters and detector signals and the detailed analysis of the diffraction and spectroscopy data collected by us at the Linac Coherent Light Source, taking into account the specific characteristics of data measured at an XFEL. PMID:24914169

  5. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  6. Electron acceleration and generation of high-brilliance x-ray radiation in kilojoule, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, J.; Davoine, X.; S. Y. Kalmykov; Lifschitz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup (“self...

  7. SMALL VOLUME LONG PULSE X RAY PREIONISED XeCl LASER WITH DOUBLE DISCHARGE AND FAST FERRITE MAGNETIC SWITCH

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hueber; Kobhio, M.; Fontaine, B.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Forestier, B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with a high efficiency small volume long pulse X-Ray preionised XeCl laser with double discharge and very fast ferrite magnetic switch are presented and compared with the results given by a new XeCl laser numerical self consistant model. The model takes into account most recent kinetic data and time variation of discharge impedence and switch inductance. There is a good agreement between experiment and model on electrical and laser parameters for typical conditions.

  8. Improved performances of CIBER-X: a new tabletop laser-driven electron and x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau-Montaut, Jean-Pierre; Kiraly, Bela; Girardeau-Montaut, Claire

    2000-11-01

    We present the most recent data concerning the performances of the table-top laser driven electron and x-ray source developed in our laboratory. X-ray pulses are produced by a three-step process which consists of the photoelectron emission from a thin metallic photocathode illuminated by 16 ps duration laser pulse at 213 nm. The e-gun is a standard pierce diode electrode type, in which electrons are accelerated by a cw electric fields of 12 MV/m. The photoinjector produced a train of 90 - 100 keV electron pulses of approximately 1 nC and 40 A peak current at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The electrons, transported outside the diode, are focused onto a target of thulium by magnetic fields produced by two electromagnetic coils to produce x-rays. Applications to low dose imagery of inert and living materials are also presented.

  9. Damage threshold of platinum/carbon multilayers under hard X-ray free-electron laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangwoo; Nagahira, Ayaka; Koyama, Takahisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Yabashi, Makina; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the irradiation damage induced by hard X-ray free-electron lasers to platinum/carbon multilayers intended for use in a focusing reflective mirror. In order to determine the damage threshold, we compared X-ray reflectivities before and after irradiation at the first-order Bragg angle using a focused X-ray free-electron laser with a beam size of approximately 1 μm and a pulse energy ranging from 0.01 to 10 μJ at a photon energy of 10 keV. We confirmed that the damage threshold of the platinum/carbon multilayer with a bilayer period of 3 nm was 0.051 μJ/μm(2), which is sufficiently higher than that in practical applications.

  10. Damage investigation on tungsten and diamond diffractive optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Fredrik; Nilsson, Daniel; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Schroer, Christian G; Seiboth, Frank; Patommel, Jens; Meier, Vivienne; Hoppe, Robert; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Krzywinski, Jacek; Sinn, Harald; Vogt, Ulrich

    2013-04-08

    Focusing hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation with extremely high fluence sets stringent demands on the x-ray optics. Any material placed in an intense x-ray beam is at risk of being damaged. Therefore, it is crucial to find the damage thresholds for focusing optics. In this paper we report experimental results of exposing tungsten and diamond diffractive optics to a prefocused 8.2 keV free-electron laser beam in order to find damage threshold fluence levels. Tungsten nanostructures were damaged at fluence levels above 500 mJ/cm(2). The damage was of mechanical character, caused by thermal stress variations. Diamond nanostructures were affected at a fluence of 59 000 mJ/cm(2). For fluence levels above this, a significant graphitization process was initiated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and µ-Raman analysis were used to analyze exposed nanostructures.

  11. K(alpha) x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, S; Serbanescu, C; Kincaid, R E; Krol, A; Kieffer, J C

    2008-12-12

    We report K(alpha) x-ray production with a high energy (110 mJ per pulse at 800 nm before compression/15 mJ at 400 nm after compression), high repetition rate (100 Hz), and high pulse contrast (better than 10(-9) at 400 nm) laser system. To develop laser-based x-ray sources for biomedical imaging requires to use high-energy and high-power ultra-fast laser system where compression is achieved under vacuum. Using this type of laser system, we demonstrate long-term stability of the x-ray yield, conversion efficiency higher than 1.5 x 10(-5) with a Mo target, and the x-ray spot size close to the optical focal spot. This high-repetition K(alpha) x-ray source can be very useful for x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  12. Investigation of laser produced x-ray plasma created from high pressure gas-puff target using Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki [School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Daido, Hiroyuki; Choi, I.W. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering] (and others)

    2000-03-01

    We characterize a laser produced gas puff plasma for soft x-ray generation. Strong emission in 11.4 nm wavelength region was observed, using krypton and xenon gas puff targets irradiated by a Nd:YAG laser with an energy of 0.7 J/8 ns. Space resolved x-ray spectral measurement indicated that the source size on the Rayleigh length and the gas density profile. (author)

  13. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fully coherent x rays can be generated by self-seeding x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs. Self-seeding by a forward Bragg diffraction (FBD monochromator has been recently proposed [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, and E. Saldin, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1391 (2011JMOPEW0950-034010.1080/09500340.2011.586473] and demonstrated [J. Amann et al., Nat. Photonics 6, 693 (2012NPAHBY1749-488510.1038/nphoton.2012.180]. Characteristic time T_{0} of FBD determines the power, spectral, and time characteristics of the FBD seed [Yu. Shvyd’ko and R. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 100702 (2012PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.100702]. Here we show that for a given electron bunch with duration σ_{e} the spectral flux of the self-seeding XFEL can be maximized, and the spectral bandwidth can be respectively minimized by choosing T_{0}∼σ_{e}/π and by optimizing the electron bunch delay τ_{e}. The choices of T_{0} and τ_{e} are not unique. In all cases, the maximum value of the spectral flux and the minimum bandwidth are primarily determined by σ_{e}. Two-color seeding takes place if T_{0}≪σ_{e}/π. The studies are performed, for a Gaussian electron bunch distribution with the parameters, close to those used in the short-bunch (σ_{e}≃5  fs and long-bunch (σ_{e}≃20  fs operation modes of the Linac Coherent Light Source XFEL.

  14. Maximizing spectral flux from self-seeding hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Fully coherent x rays can be generated by self-seeding x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). Self-seeding by a forward Bragg diffraction (FBD) monochromator has been recently proposed [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, and E. Saldin, J. Mod. Opt. 58, 1391 (2011)JMOPEW0950-034010.1080/09500340.2011.586473] and demonstrated [J. Amann , Nat. Photonics 6, 693 (2012)NPAHBY1749-488510.1038/nphoton.2012.180]. Characteristic time T0 of FBD determines the power, spectral, and time characteristics of the FBD seed [Yu. Shvyd’ko and R. Lindberg, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 100702 (2012)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.100702]. Here we show that for a given electron bunch with duration σe the spectral flux of the self-seeding XFEL can be maximized, and the spectral bandwidth can be respectively minimized by choosing T0˜σe/π and by optimizing the electron bunch delay τe. The choices of T0 and τe are not unique. In all cases, the maximum value of the spectral flux and the minimum bandwidth are primarily determined by σe. Two-color seeding takes place if T0≪σe/π. The studies are performed, for a Gaussian electron bunch distribution with the parameters, close to those used in the short-bunch (σe≃5fs) and long-bunch (σe≃20fs) operation modes of the Linac Coherent Light Source XFEL.

  15. Design Studies for a VUV--Soft X-ray Free-Electron Laser Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.; Baptiste, K.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Falcone, R.; Kirz, J.; McCurdy, W.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Qiang, J.; Robin, D.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturnini, M.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2009-08-04

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft X-ray light source [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility responsive to them is being studied at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) [6]. The facility is based on a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on the experimental requirements, the individualFELs may be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded highgain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG), or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds. This new light source would serve a broad community of scientists in many areas of research, similar to existing utilization of storage ring based light sources. To reduce technical risks and constructioncosts, accelerator research, development, and design studies at LBNL target the most critical components and systems of the facility. We are developing a high-repetition-rate low-emittance electron gun, high quantum efficiency photocathodes, and have embarked on design and optimization of the electron beam accelerator, FEL switchyard, and array of FELs. We continue our work on precision timing and synchronization systems critical for time-resolved experiments using pump-probe techniques.

  16. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin X.; Shelby, Megan L.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W.; Stickrath, Andrew B.; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were successfully measured for optically excited state at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(I) (π, 3dx2-y2) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  17. A K-alpha x-ray source using high energy and high repetition rate laser system for phase contrast imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Serbanescu, Cristina; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Kincaid, Russell; Krol, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    K-alpha x-ray sources from laser produced plasmas provide completely new possibilities for x-ray phase-contrast imaging applications. By tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses onto a solid target K-alpha x-ray pulses are generated through the interaction of energetic electrons created in the plasma with the bulk target. In this paper, we present a continuous and efficient Mo K-alpha x-ray source produced by a femtosecond laser system operating at 100 Hz repetition rate with maximum...

  18. Ultrastructural imaging and molecular modeling of live bacteria using soft x-ray contact microscopy with nanoseconds laser-plasma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Masataka; Richardson, Martin C.; Gaebel, Kai; Torres, David S.; Rajyaguru, Jayshree; Muszynski, Michael J.

    1995-09-01

    X-ray images of the various live bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and micromolecule such as chromosomal DNA from Escherichis coli, and Lipopolysacchride from Burkholderia cepacia, are obtained with soft x-ray contact microscopy. A compact tabletop type glass laser system is used to produce x-rays from Al, Si, and Au targets. The PMMA photoresists are used to record x-ray images. An AFM (atomic force microscope) is used to reproduce the x-ray images from the developed photoresists. The performance of the 50nm spatial resolutions are achieved and images are able to be discussed on the biological view.

  19. X-ray laser measurements of direct drive imprint on vulcan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Wolfrum, E.; Zhang, J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    High gain direct drive inertial confinement fusion requires very uniform irradiation of a hollow spherical shell with a layer of fusionable deuterium and tritium on its inner surface. The intensity of laser irradiation builds up in several nanoseconds from an initial `foot` at {approximately}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} to more than 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} during the main drive pulse. Laser ablation of the capsule surface produces a high pressure, accelerating the shell radially inward, and resulting in Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) growth of surface perturbations originating from both the initial surface roughness of the capsule and from imprint of spatial non- uniformities in the laser drive intensity early in the laser pulse. The uniformity of illumination on a direct drive implosion capsule is determined on a large scale by the multi-beam irradiation geometry, and on a small scale by beam smoothing techniques. By using a large number of beams (such as the 60 beams of the Omega laser or 48 beam clusters for the NIF), large scale non-uniformities due to the overlap of the laser focal spots are adequately reduced. Random phase plates (RPPs) are introduced to smooth the individual beam focal spots. The spatial intensity variations of the individual beam speckle patterns may be smoothed by spectral dispersion (SD) with induced spatial incoherence (ISI) or by using partially coherent light. We performed experiments to study the imprint under conditions simulating the low intensity foot of the pulse on an ignition target, such as designed for the NIF. We used a 0.53 micrometer laser wavelength, and considered the imprint in thin Al foils due to both a broadband distribution of modes such as those in smoothed speckle patterns, and a single mode optical intensity variation. We characterized the laser imprint using a Ge x-ray laser and multilayer imaging optics, as described previously. In this paper we summarize and compare the multiple and single mode imprinting results. 9 refs., 7

  20. Simulations of a Ne-like Ge X-ray laser and comparison with experiments in RFNC-VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starikov, F.A.; Abzaev, F.M.; Annenkov, V.I.; Bessarab, A.V.; Gasparyan, P.D.; Kalipanov, S.V.; Petrov, S.I.; Ryadov, A.V.; Suslov, N.A.; Tokarev, V.A.; Volkov, V.A.; Zhidkov, N.V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - VNIIEF, Novgorod Reg (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    The results of 3-dimensional simulations of the laboratory Ne-like Ge X-ray laser in RFNC-VNIIEF are in good agreement with the experimental data. Calculations show that considerable rise of brightness and transverse coherence length can be achieved under half-cavity conditions. (authors)

  1. German and U.S. laboratories to collaborate on the development of X-ray free electron lasers

    CERN Multimedia

    Calder, N

    2002-01-01

    Germany's leading particle physics and synchrotron radiation laboratory (DESY), and the U.S. Department of Energy's Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to establish a unique international collaboration for the development of X-ray free-electron lasers (1 page).

  2. PINPIN a-Si:H based structures for X-ray image detection using the laser scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M., E-mail: mfernandes@isel.pt [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept., ISEL, R.Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M. [Electronics Telecommunication and Computer Dept., ISEL, R.Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); CTS-UNINOVA Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • We present novel structure for X-ray image sensor based on the laser scanned technique. • Amorphous silicon based tandem structure characterization results are presented and discussed. • Results from preliminary tests of the imaging application are promising for very large area image sensing. - Abstract: Conventional film based X-ray imaging systems are being replaced by their digital equivalents. Different approaches are being followed by considering direct or indirect conversion, with the later technique dominating. The typical, indirect conversion, X-ray panel detector uses a phosphor for X-ray conversion coupled to a large area array of amorphous silicon based optical sensors and a couple of switching thin film transistors (TFT). The pixel information can then be readout by switching the correspondent line and column transistors, routing the signal to an external amplifier. In this work we follow an alternative approach, where the electrical switching performed by the TFT is replaced by optical scanning using a low power laser beam and a sensing/switching PINPIN structure, thus resulting in a simpler device. The optically active device is a PINPIN array, sharing both front and back electrical contacts, deposited over a glass substrate. During X-ray exposure, each sensing side photodiode collects photons generated by the scintillator screen (560 nm), charging its internal capacitance. Subsequently a laser beam (445 nm) scans the switching diodes (back side) retrieving the stored charge in a sequential way, reconstructing the image. In this paper we present recent work on the optoelectronic characterization of the PINPIN structure to be incorporated in the X-ray image sensor. The results from the optoelectronic characterization of the device and the dependence on scanning beam parameters are presented and discussed. Preliminary results of line scans are also presented.

  3. Imaging transient melting of a nanocrystal using an X-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse N; Beitra, Loren; Xiong, Gang; Fritz, David M; Lemke, Henrik T; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc M; Abbey, Brian; Harder, Ross J; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Wark, Justin S; Reis, David A; Robinson, Ian K

    2015-06-16

    There is a fundamental interest in studying photoinduced dynamics in nanoparticles and nanostructures as it provides insight into their mechanical and thermal properties out of equilibrium and during phase transitions. Nanoparticles can display significantly different properties from the bulk, which is due to the interplay between their size, morphology, crystallinity, defect concentration, and surface properties. Particularly interesting scenarios arise when nanoparticles undergo phase transitions, such as melting induced by an optical laser. Current theoretical evidence suggests that nanoparticles can undergo reversible nonhomogenous melting with the formation of a core-shell structure consisting of a liquid outer layer. To date, studies from ensembles of nanoparticles have tentatively suggested that such mechanisms are present. Here we demonstrate imaging transient melting and softening of the acoustic phonon modes of an individual gold nanocrystal, using an X-ray free electron laser. The results demonstrate that the transient melting is reversible and nonhomogenous, consistent with a core-shell model of melting. The results have implications for understanding transient processes in nanoparticles and determining their elastic properties as they undergo phase transitions.

  4. Optimization of soft x-ray line emission from laser-produced carbon plasma with laser intensity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chowdhury; R A Joshi; G P Gupta; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Absolute measurement for He- resonance (1s2 10-1s2p 11, at 40.2 Å) line emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been studied as a function of laser intensity. The optimum laser intensity is found to be ≈ 1.3 × 1012 W/cm2 for the maximum emission of 3.2 × 1013 photons sr-1 pulse-1. Since this line lies in the water window spectral region, it has potential application in x-ray microscopic imaging of biological sample in wet condition. Theoretical calculation using corona model for the emission of this line is also carried out with appropriate ionization and radiative recombination rate coefficients.

  5. Demonstration of a neonlike argon soft-x-ray laser with a picosecond-laser-irradiated gas puff target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Dunn, J; Smith, R F; Hunter, J; Nilsen, J; Osterheld, A L; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2001-09-15

    We demonstrate a neonlike argon-ion x-ray laser, using a short-pulse laser-irradiated gas puff target. The gas puff target was formed by pulsed injection of gas from a high-pressure solenoid valve through a nozzle in the form of a narrow slit and irradiated with a combination of long, 600-ps and short, 6-ps high-power laser pulses with a total of 10 J of energy in a traveling-wave excitation scheme. Lasing was observed on the 3p (1)S(0)?3s (1)P(1) transition at 46.9 nm and the 3d (1)P(1)?3p (1)P(1) transition at 45.1 nm. A gain of 11 cm(-1) was measured on these transitions for targets up to 0.9 cm long.

  6. Compact x-ray free-electron laser from a laser-plasma accelerator using a transverse-gradient undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhirong; Ding, Yuantao; Schroeder, Carl B

    2012-11-16

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators can produce high energy electron beams with low emittance, high peak current but a rather large energy spread. The large energy spread hinders the potential applications for coherent free-electron laser (FEL) radiation generation. We discuss a method to compensate the effects of beam energy spread by introducing a transverse field variation into the FEL undulator. Such a transverse gradient undulator together with a properly dispersed beam can greatly reduce the effects of electron energy spread and jitter on FEL performance. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission and seeded extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray FELs based on laser plasma accelerators.

  7. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia;

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast global...... conformational change that arises within picoseconds and precedes the propagation of heat through the protein. This provides direct structural evidence for a 'protein quake': the hypothesis that proteins rapidly dissipate energy through quake-like structural motions....

  8. A setup for resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on liquids at free electron laser light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Schreck, Simon; Foehlisch, Alexander [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Rajkovic, Ivan; Quevedo, Wilson; Gruebel, Sebastian; Scholz, Mirko [IFG Structural Dynamics of (Bio)chemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37070 Goettingen (Germany); Eckert, Sebastian; Beye, Martin; Suljoti, Edlira; Weniger, Christian; Wernet, Philippe [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kalus, Christian [Abteilung Betrieb Beschleuniger BESSYII, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Zhang, Wenkai; Hartsock, Robert W.; Gaffney, Kelly J. [PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kennedy, Brian [MAX-lab, PO Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); and others

    2012-12-15

    We present a flexible and compact experimental setup that combines an in vacuum liquid jet with an x-ray emission spectrometer to enable static and femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements from liquids at free electron laser (FEL) light sources. We demonstrate the feasibility of this type of experiments with the measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source FEL facility. At the FEL we observed changes in the RIXS spectra at high peak fluences which currently sets a limit to maximum attainable count rate at FELs. The setup presented here opens up new possibilities to study the structure and dynamics in liquids.

  9. High-brightness X-ray free-electron laser with an optical undulator by pulse shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Liang, Jinyang; Hei, Dongwei; Becker, Michael F; Tang, Kelei; Feng, Yiping; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Pellegrini, Claudio; Wu, Juhao

    2013-12-30

    A normal-incident flattop laser with a tapered end is proposed as an optical undulator to achieve a high-gain and high-brightness X-ray free electron laser (FEL). The synchronic interaction of an electron bunch with the normal incident laser is realized by tilting the laser pulse front. The intensity of the flattop laser is kept constant during the interaction time of the electron bunch and the laser along the focal plane of a cylindrical lens. Optical shaping to generate the desired flattop pulse with a tapered end from an original Gaussian pulse distribution is designed and simulated. The flattop laser with a tapered end can enhance the X-ray FEL beyond the exponential growth saturation power by one order to reach 1 Gigawatt as compared to that without a tapered end. The peak brightness can reach 1030 photons/mm2/mrad2/s/0.1% bandwidth, more than 10 orders brighter than the conventional incoherent Thompson Scattering X-ray source.

  10. Enhanced X-ray emission from laser-produced gold plasma by double pulses irradiation of nano-porous targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, R.

    2017-02-01

    Enhancement of the soft X-ray emission including free-free, free-bound and bound-bound emissions from Au nano-porous targets irradiated by single and double laser pulses is studied through numerical simulations. Laser pulses of duration 2 ns are used in calculations considering different prepulse intensities and a fixed intensity of 1013 Wcm-2 for the main pulse. The effects of prepulse intensity and time separation between laser pulses are studied for targets of different porosities. Results show that the X-ray yield can be enhanced significantly by a nano-porous target having optimum initial density. Such enhancement can be more improved when double laser pulses with appropriate delay time and intensities irradiate nano-porous targets. It is shown that the enhancement will be reduced when the prepulse intensity is greater than a specific value.

  11. Time-resolved structural studies at synchrotrons and X-ray free electron lasers: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Richard; Moffat, Keith

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are potentially revolutionary X-ray sources because of their very short pulse duration, extreme peak brilliance and high spatial coherence, features that distinguish them from today’s synchrotron sources. We review recent time-resolved Laue diffraction and time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) studies at synchrotron sources, and initial static studies at XFELs. XFELs have the potential to transform the field of time-resolved structural biology, yet many challenges arise in devising and adapting hardware, experimental design and data analysis strategies to exploit their unusual properties. Despite these challenges, we are confident that XFEL sources are poised to shed new light on ultrafast protein reaction dynamics. PMID:23021004

  12. Drop-on-demand sample delivery for studying biocatalysts in action at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Franklin D; Gul, Sheraz; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Burgie, E Sethe; Young, Iris D; Lebrette, Hugo; Srinivas, Vivek; Brewster, Aaron S; Michels-Clark, Tara; Clinger, Jonathan A; Andi, Babak; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Pastor, Ernest; de Lichtenberg, Casper; Hussein, Rana; Pollock, Christopher J; Zhang, Miao; Stan, Claudiu A; Kroll, Thomas; Fransson, Thomas; Weninger, Clemens; Kubin, Markus; Aller, Pierre; Lassalle, Louise; Bräuer, Philipp; Miller, Mitchell D; Amin, Muhamed; Koroidov, Sergey; Roessler, Christian G; Allaire, Marc; Sierra, Raymond G; Docker, Peter T; Glownia, James M; Nelson, Silke; Koglin, Jason E; Zhu, Diling; Chollet, Matthieu; Song, Sanghoon; Lemke, Henrik; Liang, Mengning; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Boal, Amie K; Bollinger, J Martin; Krebs, Carsten; Högbom, Martin; Phillips, George N; Vierstra, Richard D; Sauter, Nicholas K; Orville, Allen M; Kern, Jan; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko

    2017-04-01

    X-ray crystallography at X-ray free-electron laser sources is a powerful method for studying macromolecules at biologically relevant temperatures. Moreover, when combined with complementary techniques like X-ray emission spectroscopy, both global structures and chemical properties of metalloenzymes can be obtained concurrently, providing insights into the interplay between the protein structure and dynamics and the chemistry at an active site. The implementation of such a multimodal approach can be compromised by conflicting requirements to optimize each individual method. In particular, the method used for sample delivery greatly affects the data quality. We present here a robust way of delivering controlled sample amounts on demand using acoustic droplet ejection coupled with a conveyor belt drive that is optimized for crystallography and spectroscopy measurements of photochemical and chemical reactions over a wide range of time scales. Studies with photosystem II, the phytochrome photoreceptor, and ribonucleotide reductase R2 illustrate the power and versatility of this method.

  13. Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Kirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.

  14. Generating femtosecond X-ray pulses using an emittance-spoiling foil in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y., E-mail: ding@slac.stanford.edu; Coffee, R.; Decker, F.-J.; Emma, P.; Field, C.; Huang, Z.; Krejcik, P.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Lutman, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T. J.; Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Behrens, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Helml, W. [Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-09

    Generation of femtosecond to sub-femtosecond pulses is attracting much attention in X-ray free-electron laser user community. One method is to use a slotted, emittance-spoiling foil which was proposed before (P. Emma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 074801 (2004)) and has been widely used at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Direct experimental characterization of the slotted-foil performance was previously unfeasible due to a lack of appropriate diagnostics. With a recently installed X-band radio-frequency transverse deflector, we are able to characterize the electron bunch spoiling effect and X-ray pulse when using the slotted foil. We show that few-femtosecond X-ray pulses are generated with flexible control of the single-pulse duration or double-pulse separation with comparison to the theoretical model.

  15. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Joshua J., E-mail: joshuat@slac.stanford.edu; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hwang, Harold Y. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Staub, Urs [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Johnson, Steven [ETH Zurich, Institute for Quantum Electronics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mitra, Ankush; Swiggers, Michele; Noonan, Peter; Curiel, G. Ivan; Holmes, Michael [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-11

    This paper describes new instrumentation developments at the LCLS for materials studies using THz laser excitation and resonant soft X-ray scattering. This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm{sup −1} electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  16. Multiple defocused coherent diffraction imaging: method for simultaneously reconstructing objects and probe using X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Makoto; Shimomura, Kei; Suzuki, Akihiro; Burdet, Nicolas; Takahashi, Yukio

    2016-05-30

    The sample size must be less than the diffraction-limited focal spot size of the incident beam in single-shot coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) based on a diffract-before-destruction scheme using X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). This is currently a major limitation preventing its wider applications. We here propose multiple defocused CXDI, in which isolated objects are sequentially illuminated with a divergent beam larger than the objects and the coherent diffraction pattern of each object is recorded. This method can simultaneously reconstruct both objects and a probe from the coherent X-ray diffraction patterns without any a priori knowledge. We performed a computer simulation of the prposed method and then successfully demonstrated it in a proof-of-principle experiment at SPring-8. The prposed method allows us to not only observe broad samples but also characterize focused XFEL beams.

  17. Generation of bright attosecond x-ray pulse trains via Thomson scattering from laser-plasma accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W; Yu, T P; Chen, M; Song, Y M; Zhu, Z C; Ma, Y Y; Zhuo, H B

    2014-12-29

    Generation of attosecond x-ray pulse attracts more and more attention within the advanced light source user community due to its potentially wide applications. Here we propose an all-optical scheme to generate bright, attosecond hard x-ray pulse trains by Thomson backscattering of similarly structured electron beams produced in a vacuum channel by a tightly focused laser pulse. Design parameters for a proof-of-concept experiment are presented and demonstrated by using a particle-in-cell code and a four-dimensional laser-Compton scattering simulation code to model both the laser-based electron acceleration and Thomson scattering processes. Trains of 200 attosecond duration hard x-ray pulses holding stable longitudinal spacing with photon energies approaching 50 keV and maximum achievable peak brightness up to 1020 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1%BW for each micro-bunch are observed. The suggested physical scheme for attosecond x-ray pulse trains generation may directly access the fastest time scales relevant to electron dynamics in atoms, molecules and materials.

  18. Accurate prediction of X-ray pulse properties from a free-electron laser using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Micaelli, P.; Olivier, C.; Barillot, T. R.; Ilchen, M.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Achner, A.; Agåker, M.; Berrah, N.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J. D.; Buck, J.; Bucksbaum, P. H.; Montero, S. Carron; Cooper, B.; Cryan, J. P.; Dong, M.; Feifel, R.; Frasinski, L. J.; Fukuzawa, H.; Galler, A.; Hartmann, G.; Hartmann, N.; Helml, W.; Johnson, A. S.; Knie, A.; Lindahl, A. O.; Liu, J.; Motomura, K.; Mucke, M.; O'Grady, C.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Simpson, E. R.; Squibb, R. J.; Såthe, C.; Ueda, K.; Vacher, M.; Walke, D. J.; Zhaunerchyk, V.; Coffee, R. N.; Marangos, J. P.

    2017-06-01

    Free-electron lasers providing ultra-short high-brightness pulses of X-ray radiation have great potential for a wide impact on science, and are a critical element for unravelling the structural dynamics of matter. To fully harness this potential, we must accurately know the X-ray properties: intensity, spectrum and temporal profile. Owing to the inherent fluctuations in free-electron lasers, this mandates a full characterization of the properties for each and every pulse. While diagnostics of these properties exist, they are often invasive and many cannot operate at a high-repetition rate. Here, we present a technique for circumventing this limitation. Employing a machine learning strategy, we can accurately predict X-ray properties for every shot using only parameters that are easily recorded at high-repetition rate, by training a model on a small set of fully diagnosed pulses. This opens the door to fully realizing the promise of next-generation high-repetition rate X-ray lasers.

  19. Opportunities and challenges for time-resolved studies of protein structural dynamics at X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Richard

    2014-07-17

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are revolutionary X-ray sources. Their time structure, providing X-ray pulses of a few tens of femtoseconds in duration; and their extreme peak brilliance, delivering approximately 10(12) X-ray photons per pulse and facilitating sub-micrometre focusing, distinguish XFEL sources from synchrotron radiation. In this opinion piece, I argue that these properties of XFEL radiation will facilitate new discoveries in life science. I reason that time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography and time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering are promising areas of scientific investigation that will be advanced by XFEL capabilities, allowing new scientific questions to be addressed that are not accessible using established methods at storage ring facilities. These questions include visualizing ultrafast protein structural dynamics on the femtosecond to picosecond time-scale, as well as time-resolved diffraction studies of non-cyclic reactions. I argue that these emerging opportunities will stimulate a renaissance of interest in time-resolved structural biochemistry.

  20. Development, characterization and experimental performance of x-ray optics for the LCLS free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Pivovaroff, M J; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Gullikson, E M; Mc Carville, T J; Stefan, P M; Aquila, A L; Ayers, J; McKernan, M A; Bionta, R M

    2008-09-10

    This manuscript discusses the development of reflective optics for the x-ray offset mirror systems of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a 0.15-1.5 nm free-electron laser (FEL) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The unique properties (such as the high peak brightness) of the LCLS FEL beam translate to strict limits in terms of materials choice, thus leading to an x-ray mirror design consisting of a reflective coating deposited on a silicon substrate. Furthermore, the physics requirements for these mirrors result in stringent surface figure and finish specifications that challenge the state-of-the-art in x-ray substrate manufacturing, thin film deposition, and metrology capabilities. Recent experimental results on the development, optimization, and characterization of the LCLS soft x-ray mirrors are presented in this manuscript, including: precision surface metrology on the silicon substrates, and the development of boron carbide reflective coatings with reduced stress and thickness variation < 0.14 nm rms across the 175-mm clear aperture area of the LCLS soft x-ray mirrors.

  1. Opportunities and challenges for time-resolved studies of protein structural dynamics at X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are revolutionary X-ray sources. Their time structure, providing X-ray pulses of a few tens of femtoseconds in duration; and their extreme peak brilliance, delivering approximately 1012 X-ray photons per pulse and facilitating sub-micrometre focusing, distinguish XFEL sources from synchrotron radiation. In this opinion piece, I argue that these properties of XFEL radiation will facilitate new discoveries in life science. I reason that time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography and time-resolved wide angle X-ray scattering are promising areas of scientific investigation that will be advanced by XFEL capabilities, allowing new scientific questions to be addressed that are not accessible using established methods at storage ring facilities. These questions include visualizing ultrafast protein structural dynamics on the femtosecond to picosecond time-scale, as well as time-resolved diffraction studies of non-cyclic reactions. I argue that these emerging opportunities will stimulate a renaissance of interest in time-resolved structural biochemistry. PMID:24914150

  2. K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of laser produced aluminum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Channprit; Chaurasia, S.; Poswal, A. K.; Munda, D. S.; Rossall, A. K.; Deo, M. N.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of a laser produced plasma (LPP) X-ray source has been performed by analyzing K-shell emission spectra of Al plasma at a laser intensity of 1013-1014 W/cm2. The effect of varying the laser intensity on the emissivity of the K-shell resonance lines is studied and found to follow a power law, Ix =(IL) α with α=2.2, 2.3, 2.4 for Heβ, Heγ, Heδ respectively. The emission of these resonance lines has been found to be heavily anisotropic. A Python language based code has been developed to generate an intensity profile of K-shell spectral lines from the raw data. In theoretical calculations, the temperature is estimated by taking the ratio of the Li-like satellite (1s22p-1s2p3p) and the Heβ (1s2-1s3p) resonance line and the ratio of the He-like satellite (1s2p-2p2) and the Lyα (1s-2p) resonance line. To determine the plasma density, stark broadening of the Lyβ spectral line is used. Simulation was carried out using the FLYCHK code to generate a synthetic emission spectrum. The results obtained by FLYCHK are Te=160 eV, Th=1 keV, f=0.008, ne=5×1020 cm-3 and the analytical model resulted Te=260-419 eV and ne=3x1020 cm-3.

  3. Characterization of electrons and x-rays produced using chirped laser pulses in a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. Z.; Behm, K.; He, Z.-H.; Maksimchuk, A.; Nees, J. A.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.

    2016-11-01

    The electron injection process into a plasma-based laser wakefield accelerator can be influenced by modifying the parameters of the driver pulse. We present an experimental study on the combined effect of the laser pulse duration, pulse shape, and frequency chirp on the electron injection and acceleration process and the associated radiation emission for two different gas types—a 97.5% He and 2.5% N2 mixture and pure He. In general, the shortest pulse duration with minimal frequency chirp produced the highest energy electrons and the most charge. Pulses on the positive chirp side sustained electron injection and produced higher charge, but lower peak energy electrons, compared with negatively chirped pulses. A similar trend was observed for the radiant energy. The relationship between the radiant energy and the electron charge remained linear over a threefold change in the electron density and was independent of the drive pulse characteristics. X-ray spectra showed that ionization injection of electrons into the wakefield generally produced more photons than self-injection for all pulse durations/frequency chirp and had less of a spread in the number of photons around the peak x-ray energy.

  4. Three-dimensional manipulation of electron beam phase space for seeding soft x-ray free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Zhao, Zhentang

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, a simple technique is proposed to induce strong density modulation into the electron beam with small energy modulation. By using the combination of a transversely dispersed electron beam and a wave-front tilted seed laser, three-dimensional manipulation of the electron beam phase space can be utilized to significantly enhance the micro-bunching of seeded free-electron laser schemes, which will improve the performance and extend the short-wavelength range of a single-stage seeded free-electron laser. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in a soft x-ray free-electron laser.

  5. Three-dimensional manipulation of electron beam phase space for seeding soft x-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple technique is proposed to induce strong density modulation into the electron beam with small energy modulation. By using the combination of a transversely dispersed electron beam and a wave-front tilted seed laser, three-dimensional manipulation of the electron beam phase space can be utilized to significantly enhance the microbunching of seeded free-electron laser schemes, which will improve the performance and extend the short-wavelength range of a single-stage seeded free-electron laser. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in a soft x-ray free-electron laser.

  6. Elemental profiling of laser cladded multilayer coatings by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Filippov, M. N.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Filichkina, V. A.; Stavertiy, A. Ya.; Tretyakov, R. S.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Multilayer tungsten carbide wear resistant coatings were analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Coaxial laser cladding technique was utilized to produce tungsten carbide coating deposited on low alloy steel substrate with additional inconel 625 interlayer. EDX and LIBS techniques were used for elemental profiling of major components (Ni, W, C, Fe, etc.) in the coating. A good correlation between EDX and LIBS data was observed while LIBS provided additional information on light element distribution (carbon). A non-uniform distribution of tungsten carbide grains along coating depth was detected by both LIBS and EDX. In contrast, horizontal elemental profiling showed a uniform tungsten carbide particles distribution. Depth elemental profiling by layer-by-layer LIBS analysis was demonstrated to be an effective method for studying tungsten carbide grains distribution in wear resistant coating without any sample preparation.

  7. Fabrication of laser deposited high-quality multilayer zone plates for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, Christian; Döring, Florian; Liese, Tobias; Schlenkrich, Felix; Roos, Burkhard; Hahn, Matthias [Institut für Materialphysik, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Hoinkes, Thomas; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien – Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Osterhoff, Markus; Salditt, Tim [Institut für Röntgenphysik, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Krebs, Hans-Ulrich, E-mail: krebs@ump.gwdg.de [Institut für Materialphysik, University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Recently, we demonstrated unprecedented sub-5 nm point focusing of hard X-rays (at 7.9 keV) based on the combination of a high gain Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirror system and a high resolution W/Si multilayer zone plate (MZP). This MZP was prepared by the combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and focused ion beam (FIB). Despite the small focus size, the MZP's quality suffered from sufficient but comparatively low efficiency (2%). In this paper we discuss how to overcome limitations of MZP fabrication by PLD by investigating the material systems W/Si, W/ZrO{sub 2}, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2}. We give a detailed description on the optimization processes for the deposition of smooth multilayers with highly precise layer thicknesses on a rotating wire. Furthermore, we present our latest results regarding a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ZrO{sub 2} MZP, which has been proven already to be a system of high potential in the very first experiments as the efficiency reached 6.9% (at 18 keV).

  8. The RF-Station Interlock for the European X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Grevsmühl, T; Duval, P; Hensler, O; Kahl, J; Kaiser, F R; Kretzschmann, A; Rehlich, K; Schwendicke, U; Simrock, S; Weisse, S

    2004-01-01

    The RF-station interlock for the European X-ray laser will be based on a 19"- 3U crate incorporating a controller with the 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor (ALTERA). The main task of the interlock system is to prevent any damage from the components of the RF station and connected cavities. The interlock system must also guarantee a maximum time of operation of the RF stations which implies the implementation of self diagnostics and repair strategies on a module basis. Additional tasks are: collection and temporary storage of status information of the individual channels of the interlock system, transfer of this information to the control system, slow control functions (e.g. HV setting and monitoring) and control of inputs and outputs from and to other subsystems. In this paper we present the implementation using an ALTERA-FPGA running a 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor. Connection to the accelerator main control is provided by Ethernet using BSD-style socket routines based on ALTERA's plugs-library. The layout o...

  9. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  10. X-Ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analysis of Roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardini, L. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); El Hassan, A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G. [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale Firenze (Italy); Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University Giza (Egypt); Diaz Pace, D. [Institute of Physics ' Arroyo Seco' , Faculty of Science, Tandil (Argentina); Anabitarte Garcia, F. [Photonics Engineering Group, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Scuotto, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Palleschi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.palleschi@cnr.it [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR, Research Area of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Archeologiche, Via Galvani 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we present the results of a study performed on a large collection of silver Roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking connection between the 'quality' of the silver alloy and some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used to classify a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The comparison with other contemporary denarii disproves a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied a large collection of Roman republican silver denarii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRF and LIBS allowed to determine the precious metal content of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A correlation of the 'quality' of the alloy with some contemporary events was found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study allowed to controvert a recent theory on the so called 'serrated' denarii.

  11. Spatial Gradients in Particle Reinforced Polymers Characterized by X-Ray Attenuation and Laser Confocal Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAGASSE,ROBERT R.; THOMPSON,KYLE R.

    2000-06-12

    The goal of this work is to develop techniques for measuring gradients in particle concentration within filled polymers, such as encapsulant. A high concentration of filler particles is added to such materials to tailor physical properties such as thermal expansion coefficient. Sedimentation and flow-induced migration of particles can produce concentration gradients that are most severe near material boundaries. Therefore, techniques for measuring local particle concentration should be accurate near boundaries. Particle gradients in an alumina-filled epoxy resin are measured with a spatial resolution of 0.2 mm using an x-ray beam attenuation technique, but an artifact related to the finite diameter of the beam reduces accuracy near the specimen's edge. Local particle concentration near an edge can be measured more reliably using microscopy coupled with image analysis. This is illustrated by measuring concentration profiles of glass particles having 40 {micro}m median diameter using images acquired by a confocal laser fluorescence microscope. The mean of the measured profiles of volume fraction agrees to better than 3% with the expected value, and the shape of the profiles agrees qualitatively with simple theory for sedimentation of monodisperse particles. Extending this microscopy technique to smaller, micron-scale filler particles used in encapsulant for microelectronic devices is illustrated by measuring the local concentration of an epoxy resin containing 0.41 volume fraction of silica.

  12. Phase matching strategy for the undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser is mainly comprised of 5-m long undulator segments and 1.1 m long intersections in between. The longitudinal component of the electrons’ velocity is reduced when traveling inside an undulator due to the wiggle motion. Therefore the optical phase is detuned. The detune effect is also from the undulator fringe field where electron longitudinal speed also deviates from the oscillation condition. The total detune effect is compensated by a magnetic device called phase shifter, which is correspondingly set for a specific undulator gap. In this paper we investigate the homogeneity of the fringe field from different undulators. Different phase matching criteria are studied. The field fitting technique for the phase matching in high accuracy is demonstrated in detail. The impact by air coil is also studied. Eventually the matching test by spontaneous radiation simulation is made. A test method for high sensitivity to matching error is proposed.

  13. Time- and space-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum irradiated by a subpicosecond high-power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, S.; Audebert, P.; Renaudin, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J. P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Nagels, V.; Gary, S.; Shepherd, R.; Girard, F.; Matsushima, I.; Peyrusse, O.; Gauthier, J.-C.

    2006-05-01

    The ionization and recombination dynamics of transient aluminum plasmas was measured using point projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy. An aluminum plasma was produced with a subpicosecond beam of the 100-TW laser at the LULI facility and probed at different times with a picosecond X-ray backlighter created with a synchronized subpicosecond laser beam. Fourier-Domain-Interferometry (FDI) was used to measure the electron temperature at the peak of the heating laser pulse. Absorption X-ray spectra at early times are characteristic of a dense and rather homogeneous plasma, with limited longitudinal gradients as shown by hydrodynamic simulations. The shift of the Al K-edge was measured in the cold dense plasma located at the edge of the heated plasma. From the 1s 2p absorption spectra, the average ionization was measured as a function of time and was also modeled with a collisional-radiative atomic physics code coupled with hydrodynamic simulations.

  14. Towards simultaneous measurements of electronic and structural properties in ultra-fast x-ray free electron laser absorption spectroscopy experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, J; Fourment, C; Cho, B I; Engelhorn, K; Galtier, E; Harmand, M; Leguay, P M; Lee, H J; Nagler, B; Nakatsutsumi, M; Ozkan, C; Störmer, M; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, Th; Heimann, P A; Dorchies, F

    2014-04-17

    The rapidly growing ultrafast science with X-ray lasers unveils atomic scale processes with unprecedented time resolution bringing the so called "molecular movie" within reach. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is one of the most powerful x-ray techniques providing both local atomic order and electronic structure when coupled with ad-hoc theory. Collecting absorption spectra within few x-ray pulses is possible only in a dispersive setup. We demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved measurements of the LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge spectra of irreversibly laser excited Molybdenum using an average of only few x-ray pulses with a signal to noise ratio limited only by the saturation level of the detector. The simplicity of the experimental set-up makes this technique versatile and applicable for a wide range of pump-probe experiments, particularly in the case of non-reversible processes.

  15. A table-top x-ray FEL based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Kawakubo, T.; Nakanishi, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Ultrahigh-gradient electron acceleration has been confirmed owing to the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The laser wakefield acceleration makes it possible to build a compact electron linac capable of producing an ultra-short bunched electron beam. While the accelerator is attributed to longitudinal wakefields, transverse wakefields simultaneously generated by a short laser pulse can serve as a plasma undulator with a very short wavelength equal to a half of the plasma wavelength. We propose a new FEL concept for X-rays based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system driven by intense short laser pulses delivered from table-top terawatt lasers. The system is composed of the accelerator stage and the undulator stage in a table-top size. A low energy electron beam is accelerated an bunched into microbunches due to laser wakefields in the accelerator stage. A micro-bunched beam travelling to the opposite direction of driving laser pulses produces coherent X-ray radiation in the undulator stage. A practical configuration and its analyses are presented.

  16. Eight-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for multiframe x-ray imaging diagnostics in laser plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Fang, Zhiheng; Wang, Wei; Fu, Sizu

    2016-10-01

    Because grazing-incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes have better resolution and collection efficiency than pinhole cameras, they have been widely used for x-ray imaging diagnostics of laser inertial confinement fusion. The assembly and adjustment of a multichannel KB microscope must meet stringent requirements for image resolution and reproducible alignment. In the present study, an eight-channel KB microscope was developed for diagnostics by imaging self-emission x-rays with a framing camera at the Shenguang-II Update (SGII-Update) laser facility. A consistent object field of view is ensured in the eight channels using an assembly method based on conical reference cones, which also allow the intervals between the eight images to be tuned to couple with the microstrips of the x-ray framing camera. The eight-channel KB microscope was adjusted via real-time x-ray imaging experiments in the laboratory. This paper describes the details of the eight-channel KB microscope, its optical and multilayer design, the assembly and alignment methods, and results of imaging in the laboratory and at the SGII-Update.

  17. Table-top laser-driven ultrashort electron and X-ray source: the CIBER-X source project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardeau-Montaut, Jean-Pierre; Kiraly, Bélà; Girardeau-Montaut, Claire; Leboutet, Hubert

    2000-09-01

    We report on the development of a new laser-driven table-top ultrashort electron and X-ray source, also called the CIBER-X source . X-ray pulses are produced by a three-step process which consists of the photoelectron emission from a thin metallic photocathode illuminated by 16 ps duration laser pulses at 213 nm. The e-gun is a standard Pierce diode electrode type, in which electrons are accelerated by a cw electric field of ˜11 MV/m up to a hole made in the anode. The photoinjector produces a train of 70-80 keV electron pulses of ˜0.5 nC and 20 A peak current at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The electrons are then transported outside the diode along a path of 20 cm length, and are focused onto a target of thullium by magnetic fields produced by two electromagnetic coils. X-rays are then produced by the impact of electrons on the target. Simulations of geometrical, electromagnetic fields and energetic characteristics of the complete source were performed previously with the assistance of the code PIXEL1 also developed at the laboratory. Finally, experimental electron and X-ray performances of the CIBER-X source as well as its application to very low dose imagery are presented and discussed. source Compacte d' Impulsions Brèves d' Electrons et de Rayons X

  18. Ultrafast Dynamics of a Nucleobase Analogue Illuminated by a Short Intense X-ray Free Electron Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, K.; Motomura, K.; Kukk, E.; Fukuzawa, H.; Wada, S.; Tachibana, T.; Ito, Y.; Mondal, S.; Sakai, T.; Matsunami, K.; Koga, R.; Ohmura, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Kanno, M.; Rudenko, A.; Nicolas, C.; Liu, X.-J.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, J.; Anand, M.; Jiang, Y. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Kono, H.; Miron, C.; Yao, M.; Ueda, K.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding x-ray radiation damage is a crucial issue for both medical applications of x rays and x-ray free-electron-laser (XFEL) science aimed at molecular imaging. Decrypting the charge and fragmentation dynamics of nucleobases, the smallest units of a macro-biomolecule, contributes to a bottom-up understanding of the damage via cascades of phenomena following x-ray exposure. We investigate experimentally and by numerical simulations the ultrafast radiation damage induced on a nucleobase analogue (5-iodouracil) by an ultrashort (10 fs) high-intensity radiation pulse generated by XFEL at SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron Laser (SACLA). The present study elucidates a plausible underlying radiosensitizing mechanism of 5-iodouracil. This mechanism is independent of the exact composition of 5-iodouracil and thus relevant to other such radiosensitizers. Furthermore, we found that despite a rapid increase of the net molecular charge in the presence of iodine, and of the ultrafast release of hydrogen, the other atoms are almost frozen within the 10-fs duration of the exposure. This validates single-shot molecular imaging as a consistent approach, provided the radiation pulse used is brief enough.

  19. Eight-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for multiframe x-ray imaging diagnostics in laser plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Fang, Zhiheng; Wang, Wei; Fu, Sizu

    2016-10-01

    Because grazing-incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes have better resolution and collection efficiency than pinhole cameras, they have been widely used for x-ray imaging diagnostics of laser inertial confinement fusion. The assembly and adjustment of a multichannel KB microscope must meet stringent requirements for image resolution and reproducible alignment. In the present study, an eight-channel KB microscope was developed for diagnostics by imaging self-emission x-rays with a framing camera at the Shenguang-II Update (SGII-Update) laser facility. A consistent object field of view is ensured in the eight channels using an assembly method based on conical reference cones, which also allow the intervals between the eight images to be tuned to couple with the microstrips of the x-ray framing camera. The eight-channel KB microscope was adjusted via real-time x-ray imaging experiments in the laboratory. This paper describes the details of the eight-channel KB microscope, its optical and multilayer design, the assembly and alignment methods, and results of imaging in the laboratory and at the SGII-Update.

  20. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs, like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH, makes unprecedented research on matter at atomic length and ultrafast time scales possible. However, in order to take advantage of these unique light sources and to meet the strict requirements of many experiments in photon science, FEL photon pulse durations need to be known and tunable. This can be achieved by controlling the FEL driving electron beams, and high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics can be utilized to provide constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of soft x-ray pulse durations and electron bunch lengths at FLASH. The soft x-ray pulse durations were measured by FEL radiation pulse energy statistics and compared to electron bunch lengths determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range and time-domain longitudinal phase space measurements. The experimental results, theoretical considerations, and simulations show that high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics provide reasonable constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In addition, we demonstrated the generation of soft x-ray pulses with durations below 50 fs (FWHM after the implementation of the new uniform electron bunch compression scheme used at FLASH.

  1. Betatron x-rays from laser plasma accelerators: a new probe for warm dense matter at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Felicie

    2016-10-01

    Betatron x-ray radiation, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, has unique properties to probe high energy density (HED) plasmas and warm dense matter. Betatron radiation is produced when relativistic electrons oscillate in the plasma wake of a laser pulse. Its properties are similar to those of synchrotron radiation, with a 1000 fold shorter pulse. This presentation will focus on the experimental challenges and results related to the development of betatron radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of HED matter at large-scale laser facilities. A detailed presentation of the source mechanisms and characteristics in the blowout regime of laser-wakefield acceleration will be followed by a description of recent experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). At LCLS, we have recently commissioned the betatron x-ray source driven by the MEC short pulse laser (1 J, 40 fs). The source is used as a probe for investigating the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum at the K- or L-edge of iron and silicon oxide driven to a warm dense matter state (temperature of a few eV and solid densities). The driver is either LCLS itself or an optical laser. These experiments demonstrate the capability to study the electron-ion equilibration mechanisms in warm dense matter with sub-picosecond resolution. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by the Laboratory Directed research and development program under tracking codes 13-LW-076, 16-ERD-041 and by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under SCW1476 and SCW1569.

  2. X-ray High-resolution Spectroscopy for Laser-produced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, F.; Scarpellini, D.; Malizia, A.; Gaudio, P.; Richetta, M.; Antonelli, L.

    The study of the emission spectrum gives information about the material generating the spectrum itself and the condition in which this is generated. The wavelength spectra lines are linked to the specific element and plasma conditions (electron temperature, density), while their shape is influenced by several physical effects like Stark and Doppler ones. In this work we study the X-ray emission spectra of a copper laser-produced plasma by using a spherical bent crystal spectrometer to measure the electron temperature. The facility used is the laser TVLPS, at the Tor Vergata University in Rome. It consists of a Nd:Glass source (in first harmonic - 1064 nm) whose pulse parameters are: 8 J in energy, time duration of 15 ns and a focal spot diameter of 200 μm. The adopted spectrometer is based on a spherical bent crystal of muscovite. The device combines the focusing property of a spherical mirror with the Bragg's law. This allows to obtain a great power resolution but a limited range of analysis. In our case the resolution is on average 80 eV. As it is well-known, the position of the detector on the Rowland's circle is linked to the specific spectral range which has been studied. To select the area to be investigated, we acquired spectra by means of a flat spectrometer. The selected area is centered on 8.88 Å. To calibrate the spectrum we wrote a ray-tracing MATLAB code, which calculates the detector alignment parameters and calibration curve. We used the method of line ratio to measure the electron temperature. This is possible because we assumed the plasma to be in LTE condition. The temperature value was obtained comparing the experimental one, given by the line ratio, with the theoretical one, preceded by FLYCHK simulations.

  3. Three-dimensional structure determination protocol for noncrystalline biomolecules using x-ray free-electron laser diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-02-01

    Coherent and intense x-ray pulses generated by x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources are paving the way for structural determination of noncrystalline biomolecules. However, due to the small scattering cross section of electrons for x rays, the available incident x-ray intensity of XFEL sources, which is currently in the range of 10(12)-10(13) photons/μm(2)/pulse, is lower than that necessary to perform single-molecule diffraction experiments for noncrystalline biomolecules even with the molecular masses of megadalton and submicrometer dimensions. Here, we propose an experimental protocol and analysis method for visualizing the structure of those biomolecules by the combined application of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction methods. To compensate the small scattering cross section of biomolecules, in our protocol, a thin vitreous ice plate containing several hundred biomolecules/μm(2) is used as sample, a setup similar to that utilized by single-molecule cryoelectron microscopy. The scattering cross section of such an ice plate is far larger than that of a single particle. The images of biomolecules contained within irradiated areas are then retrieved from each diffraction pattern, and finally provide the three-dimensional electron density model. A realistic atomic simulation using large-scale computations proposed that the three-dimensional structure determination of the 50S ribosomal subunit embedded in a vitreous ice plate is possible at a resolution of 0.8 nm when an x-ray beam of 10(16) photons/500×500 nm(2)/pulse is available.

  4. Multiple ionization of atom clusters by intense soft X-rays from a free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnitz, H; Bittner, L; de Castro, A R B; Döhrmann, R; Gürtler, P; Laarmann, T; Laasch, W; Schulz, J; Swiderski, A; von Haeften, K; Möller, T; Faatz, B; Fateev, A; Feldhaus, J; Gerth, C; Hahn, U; Saldin, E; Schneidmiller, E; Sytchev, K; Tiedtke, K; Treusch, R; Yurkov, M

    2002-12-05

    Intense radiation from lasers has opened up many new areas of research in physics and chemistry, and has revolutionized optical technology. So far, most work in the field of nonlinear processes has been restricted to infrared, visible and ultraviolet light, although progress in the development of X-ray lasers has been made recently. With the advent of a free-electron laser in the soft-X-ray regime below 100 nm wavelength, a new light source is now available for experiments with intense, short-wavelength radiation that could be used to obtain deeper insights into the structure of matter. Other free-electron sources with even shorter wavelengths are planned for the future. Here we present initial results from a study of the interaction of soft X-ray radiation, generated by a free-electron laser, with Xe atoms and clusters. We find that, whereas Xe atoms become only singly ionized by the absorption of single photons, absorption in clusters is strongly enhanced. On average, each atom in large clusters absorbs up to 400 eV, corresponding to 30 photons. We suggest that the clusters are heated up and electrons are emitted after acquiring sufficient energy. The clusters finally disintegrate completely by Coulomb explosion.

  5. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  6. Analysis of x-ray emission and electron dynamics in a capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ju

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield inside a 30.5 mm long dielectric capillary tube is analyzed using radiation emitted in the x-ray range. 3D particle-in-cell simulations, performed with parameters close to the experimental ones, show that in long plasmas, the accelerated electrons catch up and finally overrun the driving laser owing to a higher velocity of the electrons in the plasma. The electrons are then transversely scattered by the laser pulse, and penetrate the capillary wall where they generate bremsstrahlung radiation, modeled using geant4 simulations. The signature of bremsstrahlung radiation is detected using an x-ray camera, together with the betatron radiation emitted during electron acceleration in the plasma bubble. The reflection of betatron radiation from the inner capillary surface also accounts for a fraction of the observed signal on the x-ray camera. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental ones and provide a detailed description of the electron and radiation properties, useful for the design of laser wakefield accelerators or radiation sources using long plasma media.

  7. Analysis of x-ray emission and electron dynamics in a capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, J.; Genoud, G.; Ferrari, H. E.; Dadoun, O.; Paradkar, B.; Svensson, K.; Wojda, F.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Andreev, N. E.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Cros, B.

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield inside a 30.5 mm long dielectric capillary tube is analyzed using radiation emitted in the x-ray range. 3D particle-in-cell simulations, performed with parameters close to the experimental ones, show that in long plasmas, the accelerated electrons catch up and finally overrun the driving laser owing to a higher velocity of the electrons in the plasma. The electrons are then transversely scattered by the laser pulse, and penetrate the capillary wall where they generate bremsstrahlung radiation, modeled using geant4 simulations. The signature of bremsstrahlung radiation is detected using an x-ray camera, together with the betatron radiation emitted during electron acceleration in the plasma bubble. The reflection of betatron radiation from the inner capillary surface also accounts for a fraction of the observed signal on the x-ray camera. The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental ones and provide a detailed description of the electron and radiation properties, useful for the design of laser wakefield accelerators or radiation sources using long plasma media.

  8. Characterization and Application of Hard X-Ray Betatron Radiation Generated by Relativistic Electrons from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Michael; Uschmann, Ingo; Jansen, Oliver; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The necessity for compact table-top x-ray sources with higher brightness, shorter wavelength and shorter pulse duration has led to the development of complementary sources based on laser-plasma accelerators, in contrast to conventional accelerators. Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas results in acceleration of electrons and in consequence in the emission of spatially coherent radiation, which is known in the literature as betatron radiation. In this article we report on our recent results in the rapidly developing field of secondary x-ray radiation generated by high-energy electron pulses. The betatron radiation is characterized with a novel setup allowing to measure the energy, the spatial energy distribution in the far-field of the beam and the source size in a single laser shot. Furthermore, the polarization state is measured for each laser shot. In this way the emitted betatron x-rays can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to retrieve very subtle information of t...

  9. Electron acceleration and generation of high-brilliance x-ray radiation in kilojoule, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, J.; Davoine, X.; Kalmykov, S. Y.; Lifschitz, A.

    2016-10-01

    Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup ("self-modulation") of the picosecond-scale laser pulse and excitation of a rapidly evolving broken plasma wake. It is found that electron beams with a charge of several tens of nC can be obtained, with a quasi-Maxwellian energy distribution extending to a few-GeV level. In the second scenario, at lower plasma densities, the pulse is shorter than the electron plasma period. The pulse blows out plasma electrons, creating a single accelerating cavity, while injection on the density downramp creates a nC quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch within the cavity. This bunch accelerates without degradation beyond 1 GeV. The x-ray sources in the self-modulated regime offer a high number of photons (˜1 012) with the slowly decaying energy spectra extending beyond 60 keV. In turn, quasimonoenergetic character of the electron beam in the blowout regime results in the synchrotron-like spectra with the critical energy around 10 MeV and a number of photons >1 09 . Yet, much smaller source duration and transverse size increase the x-ray brilliance by more than an order of magnitude against the self-modulated case, also favoring high spatial and temporal resolution in x-ray imaging. In all explored cases, accelerated electrons emit synchrotron x-rays of high brilliance, B >1 020 photons /s /mm2/mrad2/0.1 %BW . Synchrotron sources driven by picosecond kilojoule lasers may thus find an application in x-ray diagnostics on such facilities such as the LMJ or National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  10. Electron acceleration and generation of high-brilliance x-ray radiation in kilojoule, subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup (“self-modulation” of the picosecond-scale laser pulse and excitation of a rapidly evolving broken plasma wake. It is found that electron beams with a charge of several tens of nC can be obtained, with a quasi-Maxwellian energy distribution extending to a few-GeV level. In the second scenario, at lower plasma densities, the pulse is shorter than the electron plasma period. The pulse blows out plasma electrons, creating a single accelerating cavity, while injection on the density downramp creates a nC quasi-monoenergetic electron bunch within the cavity. This bunch accelerates without degradation beyond 1 GeV. The x-ray sources in the self-modulated regime offer a high number of photons (∼10^{12} with the slowly decaying energy spectra extending beyond 60 keV. In turn, quasimonoenergetic character of the electron beam in the blowout regime results in the synchrotron-like spectra with the critical energy around 10 MeV and a number of photons >10^{9}. Yet, much smaller source duration and transverse size increase the x-ray brilliance by more than an order of magnitude against the self-modulated case, also favoring high spatial and temporal resolution in x-ray imaging. In all explored cases, accelerated electrons emit synchrotron x-rays of high brilliance, B>10^{20}  photons/s/mm^{2}/mrad^{2}/0.1%BW. Synchrotron sources driven by picosecond kilojoule lasers may thus find an application in x-ray diagnostics on such facilities such as the LMJ or National

  11. Resonant soft X-ray emission and X-ray absorption studies on Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Satheesh [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Kennedy, Brian; McGee, Fintan; Venkatesan, M.; Coey, J.M.D.; Lunney, James G.; McGuinness, Cormac [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Learmonth, Timothy; Smith, Kevin E. [Department of Physilightlycs, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, MA 02215 (United States); Schmitt, Thorsten [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    In this study thin film samples of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates. X-ray diffraction measurements have confirmed these thin films exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. SQUID measurements show room temperature ferromagnetism of these dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). The techniques of X-ray absorption and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy at the N K-edge were used to study the changes in the unoccupied and occupied N 2p partial density of states respectively as a function of dopant concentration. These element and site specific spectroscopies allow us to characterise the electronic structure of these doped materials and reveal the influence of the Mn doping on the valence band as measured through the N 2p partial density of states. X-ray absorption measurements at the Mn L-edge confirm significant substitutional doping of Mn into Ga-sites. Finally, measurements of heavily Mn-doped films using both soft X-ray absorption and resonant soft X-ray emission at the N K edge reveal the presence of trapped molecular nitrogen. The trapped molecular nitrogen may be due to the high instantaneous deposition rate in the PLD process for these samples (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Optimization of laser hole drilling process on thick gold spherical hohlraums for intense X-ray generation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Patwa; S Jain; P K Tripathi; A S Joshi; P D Gupta

    2010-12-01

    Hohlraums of high- materials are used as soft X-ray sources to study indirect drive fusion, equation of state of materials etc. Here, we describe a method to develop spherical gold hohlraums of large wall thickness (∼ 70–80 m) on which laser entrance and diagnostics holes are drilled using a 10 Hz Nd:YLF laser. Holes of different diameters have been drilled with lenses of different focal lengths. The back wall of the hohlraum is protected from the damage by shutting off the laser at pre-determined hole drilling time.

  13. Optical afterburner for an x-ray free electron laser as a tool for pump-probe experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme for two-color operation of an x-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL. The scheme is based on an intrinsic feature of such a device: chaotic modulations of electron beam energy and energy spread on the scale of FEL coherence length are converted into large density modulations on the same scale with the help of a dispersion section, installed behind the x-ray undulator. Powerful radiation is then generated with the help of a dedicated radiator (like an undulator that selects a narrow spectral line, or one can simply use, for instance, broadband edge radiation. A typical radiation wavelength can be as short as a FEL coherence length, and can be redshifted by increasing the dispersion section strength. In practice it means the wavelength ranges from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared. The long-wavelength radiation pulse is naturally synchronized with the x-ray pulse and can be either directly used in pump-probe experiments or cross correlated with a high-power pulse from a conventional laser system. In this way experimenters overcome jitter problems and can perform pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution. Additional possibilities like on-line monitoring of x-ray pulse duration (making “optical replica” of an x-ray pulse are also discussed in the paper. The proposed scheme is very simple, cheap, and robust, and therefore can be easily realized in facilities like FLASH, European XFEL, LCLS, and SCSS.

  14. Beam monitor system for an x-ray free electron laser and compact laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A beam-monitor system for XFEL/SPring 8, “SACLA,” has been constructed. In order to maintain a stable self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE interaction, the straightness and overlap of the axes to within 3  μm between the electron beams and the radiated x rays for an undulator section of about 100 m length is necessary. This straightness means relative alignment to an experimental target sample. Furthermore, a temporal stability of 30 fs in order to maintain a constant peak beam current is also necessary to conduct stable SASE lasing. The monitor system was developed to satisfy these spatial and temporal stability and resolution criteria. The system comprises spatial monitors, such as cavity-type beam-position monitors and screen monitors, as well as temporal measurement instruments, such as current monitors, waveguide spectrometers, coherent synchrotron-radiation detectors, a streak camera, and an rf deflector. Commissioning of SACLA started from March 2011, and the monitors performed sufficient roles to tune the beams for lasing. The achieved overall performances of the system, including data acquisition, are: the beam position monitor has a spatial resolution of 600 nm in rms; the bunch-length monitors show ability to observe bunch lengths from 1 ns in an injector with velocity bunching to less than 30 fs after three-stage bunch compressors. The less than 3  μm spatial resolution of the screen monitor was also confirmed during practical beam operation. Owing to these fulfilled performances, such as the high spatial and temporal resolutions, stable lasing of SACLA has been achieved.

  15. X-ray analysis of mechanical and thermal effects induced by femtosecond laser treatment of aluminum single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette, S. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, Universite Jean Monnet, UMR CNRS 5516, 10 rue Barrouin 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)]. E-mail: stephane.valette@ec-lyon.fr; Le Harzic, R. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, Universite Jean Monnet, UMR CNRS 5516, 10 rue Barrouin 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Audouard, E. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, Universite Jean Monnet, UMR CNRS 5516, 10 rue Barrouin 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Huot, N. [Laboratoire Traitement du Signal et Instrumentation, Universite Jean Monnet, UMR CNRS 5516, 10 rue Barrouin 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Fillit, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Fortunier, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-04-30

    Surface marking of aluminum single crystal is performed with femtosecond laser pulses. X-ray analysis allows to measure thermal and mechanical effects induced by the femtosecond laser pulses. These effects are estimated by comparing the pole figures (crystallinity) and the broadening of the diffraction peaks (mechanical contribution) before and after the laser irradiation. The results show that the femtosecond laser treatment ensures a re-crystallization of the structure and the presence of mechanical residual stresses. The analysis of the pole figures provides the sign of a re-crystallization on smaller volumes compared to initial ones. After the laser irradiation, the crystallization is perfectly oriented like the (1 1 0) orientation of the massive sample. Moreover, following the laser treatment, we show that the crystallographic structure is purer than the initial one. We also prove that the laser effect is persistent on a typical scale of 10 {mu}m beyond the surface.

  16. High-Flux Femtosecond X-Ray Emission from Controlled Generation of Annular Electron Beams in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Z; Behm, K; Dong, C F; Davoine, X; Kalmykov, S Y; Petrov, V; Chvykov, V; Cummings, P; Hou, B; Maksimchuk, A; Nees, J A; Yanovsky, V; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K

    2016-08-26

    Annular quasimonoenergetic electron beams with a mean energy in the range 200-400 MeV and charge on the order of several picocoulombs were generated in a laser wakefield accelerator and subsequently accelerated using a plasma afterburner in a two-stage gas cell. Generation of these beams is associated with injection occurring on the density down ramp between the stages. This well-localized injection produces a bunch of electrons performing coherent betatron oscillations in the wakefield, resulting in a significant increase in the x-ray yield. Annular electron distributions are detected in 40% of shots under optimal conditions. Simultaneous control of the pulse duration and frequency chirp enables optimization of both the energy and the energy spread of the annular beam and boosts the radiant energy per unit charge by almost an order of magnitude. These well-defined annular distributions of electrons are a promising source of high-brightness laser plasma-based x rays.

  17. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J M; Wood, J C; Lopes, N C; Poder, K; Abel, R L; Alatabi, S; Bryant, J S J; Jin, A; Kneip, S; Mecseki, K; Symes, D R; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z

    2015-08-18

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications.

  18. Pb distribution in bones from the Franklin expedition: synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and laser ablation/mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ronald Richard; Naftel, Steven; Macfie, Sheila; Jones, Keith; Nelson, Andrew [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Synchrotron micro-X-ray Fluorescence has been used to map the metal distribution in selected bone fragments representative of remains associated with the Franklin expedition. In addition, laser ablation mass spectroscopy using a 25 {mu}m diameter circular spot was employed to compare the Pb isotope distributions in small regions within the bone fragments. The X-ray Fluorescence mapping shows Pb to be widely distributed in the bone while the Pb isotope ratios obtained by laser ablation within small areas representative of bone with different Pb exchange rates do not show statistically significant differences. These results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that faulty solder seals in tinned meat were the principle source of Pb in the remains of the expedition personnel. (orig.)

  19. Induction of the Adaptive Response in Mice Exposed to He-Ne Laser and X-Ray Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichkina, S I; Dyukina, A R; Rozanova, O M; Simonova, N B; Romanchenko, S P; Sorokina, S S; Zakrzhevskaya, D T; Yusupov, V I; Bagratashvili, V N

    2016-05-01

    We studied the dose-dependent induction of in vivo adaptive response in the bone marrow and blood of mice exposed to low-intensity radiation of He-Ne laser (633 nm) and X-ray radiation by the severity of cytogenetic injury and intensity of ROS production, respectively. Induction of the adaptive response in mice preexposed to He-Ne laser and X-ray radiation depended on the adaptive dose and the interval between the adaptive and main doses and correlated with changes in ROS generation. The adaptive response after exposure to low-intensity ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was observed in the same dose range, which attests to similar mechanisms of its induction.

  20. Laser-wakefield accelerators as hard x-ray sources for 3D medical imaging of human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. M.; Wood, J. C.; Lopes, N. C.; Poder, K.; Abel, R. L.; Alatabi, S.; Bryant, J. S. J.; Jin, A.; Kneip, S.; Mecseki, K.; Symes, D. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A bright μm-sized source of hard synchrotron x-rays (critical energy Ecrit > 30 keV) based on the betatron oscillations of laser wakefield accelerated electrons has been developed. The potential of this source for medical imaging was demonstrated by performing micro-computed tomography of a human femoral trabecular bone sample, allowing full 3D reconstruction to a resolution below 50 μm. The use of a 1 cm long wakefield accelerator means that the length of the beamline (excluding the laser) is dominated by the x-ray imaging distances rather than the electron acceleration distances. The source possesses high peak brightness, which allows each image to be recorded with a single exposure and reduces the time required for a full tomographic scan. These properties make this an interesting laboratory source for many tomographic imaging applications. PMID:26283308

  1. Single-State Electronic Structure Measurements Using Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A J; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Hunter, J

    2004-11-11

    We demonstrate single-shot x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy on semiconductor and metal surfaces with picosecond time resolution. The LLNL COMET compact tabletop x-ray laser source provides the necessary high photon flux (>10{sup 12}/pulse), monochromaticity, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for probing ultrafast changes in the city, chemical and electronic structure of these materials. Static valence band and shallow core-level photoemission spectra are presented for ambient temperature Ge(100) and polycrystalline Cu foils. Surface contamination was removed by UV ozone cleaning prior to analysis. In addition, the ultrafast nature of this technique lends itself to true single-state measurements of shocked and heated materials. Time-resolved electron time-of-flight photoemission results for ultra-thin Cu will be presented.

  2. 53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Klenke, Arno; Demmler, Stefan; Hoffmann, Armin; Gotschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 μJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.

  3. DOSIMETRIC EVALUATION OF LASER-DRIVEN X-RAY AND NEUTRON SOURCES UTILIZING XG-III PS LASER WITH PEAK POWER OF 300 TERAWATT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Qiu, Rui; Jiao, Jinlong; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhou, Weimin; Ma, Chi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli

    2017-04-13

    Current short-pulse high-intensity lasers can accelerate electrons and proton/ions to energies of giga-electron volts. For certain advanced applications, laser-accelerated electrons and protons are optimised for high-energy X-ray and neutron generation at the XG-III picosecond (ps) laser beamline. These energetic X-ray and neutron beams can significantly affect radiation safety at the facility; therefore, proper evaluation of the radiological hazards induced by laser-driven X-ray and neutron sources is required. This study presents a dosimetric evaluation of laser-driven X-ray and neutron sources at the XG-III ps laser beamline. The 'source terms' of the laser-accelerated electrons and protons are characterised utilising the particle-in-cell method and an analytical model, respectively. The Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used to calculate prompt and residual dose yields due to all radiation field components and the number of residual activated nuclei. Our results can provide a reference for radiation hazard analysis at short-pulse high-intensity laser facilities worldwide. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahige G. Abdallah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ∼4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also

  5. Generation of ultra-large-bandwidth X-ray free-electron-laser pulses with a transverse-gradient undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Eduard; Calvi, Marco; Reiche, Sven

    2016-07-01

    A new and simple method to generate X-ray free-electron-laser radiation with unprecedented spectral bandwidth above the 10% level is presented. The broad bandwidth is achieved by sending a transversely tilted beam through a transverse-gradient undulator. The extent of the bandwidth can easily be controlled by variation of the beam tilt or the undulator gradient. Numerical simulations confirm the validity and feasibility of this method.

  6. Data collection strategies for time-resolved X-ray free-electron laser diffraction, and 2-color methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chufeng; Schmidt, Kevin; Spence, John C

    2015-07-01

    We compare three schemes for time-resolved X-ray diffraction from protein nanocrystals using an X-ray free-electron laser. We find expressions for the errors in structure factor measurement using the Monte Carlo pump-probe method of data analysis with a liquid jet, the fixed sample pump-probe (goniometer) method (both diffract-and-destroy, and below the safe damage dose), and a proposed two-color method. Here, an optical pump pulse arrives between X-ray pulses of slightly different energies which hit the same nanocrystal, using a weak first X-ray pulse which does not damage the sample. (Radiation damage is outrun in the other cases.) This two-color method, in which separated Bragg spots are impressed on the same detector readout, eliminates stochastic fluctuations in crystal size, shape, and orientation and is found to require two orders of magnitude fewer diffraction patterns than the currently used Monte Carlo liquid jet method, for 1% accuracy. Expressions are given for errors in structure factor measurement for the four approaches, and detailed simulations provided for cathepsin B and IC3 crystals. While the error is independent of the number of shots for the dose-limited goniometer method, it falls off inversely as the square root of the number of shots for the two-color and Monte Carlo methods, with a much smaller pre-factor for the two-color mode, when the first shot is below the damage threshold.

  7. Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreasson, J.; Iwan, B.; Andrejczuk, A.; Abreu, E.; Bergh, M.; Caleman, C.; Nelson, A. J.; Bajt, S.; Chalupsky, J.; Chapman, H. N.; Faustlin, R. R.; Hajkova, V.; Heimann, P. A.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Juha, L.; Klinger, D.; Krzywinski, J.; Nagler, B.; Palsson, G. K.; Singer, W.; Seibert, M. M.; Sobicrajski, R.; Tolcikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Vinko, S. M.; Lee, R. W.; Hajdu, J.; Timneanu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray

  8. A K-alpha x-ray source using high energy and high repetition rate laser system for phase contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbanescu, Cristina; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Kincaid, Russell; Krol, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    K-alpha x-ray sources from laser produced plasmas provide completely new possibilities for x-ray phase-contrast imaging applications. By tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses onto a solid target K-alpha x-ray pulses are generated through the interaction of energetic electrons created in the plasma with the bulk target. In this paper, we present a continuous and efficient Mo K-alpha x-ray source produced by a femtosecond laser system operating at 100 Hz repetition rate with maximum pulse energy of 110 mJ before compression. The source has an x-ray conversion efficiency of greater than 10(-5) into K-alpha line emission. In preparation for phase contrast imaging applications, the size of the resultant K-alpha x-ray emission spot has been also characterized. The source exhibits sufficient spatial coherence to observe phase contrast. We observe a relatively small broadening of the K-alpha source size compared to the size of the laser beam itself. Detailed characterization of the source including the x-ray spectrum and the x-ray average yield along with phase contrast images of test objects will be presented.

  9. Single crystal silicon carbide detector of emitted ions and soft x rays from power laser-generated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Foti, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Puglisi, D.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Margarone, D.; Krasa, J.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, U.

    2009-06-01

    A single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) detector was used for measurements of soft x rays, electrons, and ion emission from laser-generated plasma obtained with the use of the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) at intensities of the order of 1016 W/cm2 and pulse duration of 300 ps. Measurements were performed by varying the laser intensity and the nature of the irradiated target. The spectra obtained by using the SiC detector show not only the photopeak due to UV and soft x-ray detection, but also various peaks due to the detection of energetic charged particles. Time-of-flight technique was employed to determine the ion kinetic energy of particles emitted from the plasma and to perform a comparison between SiC and traditional ion collectors. The detector was also employed by inserting absorber films of different thickness in front of the SiC surface in order to determine, as a first approximation, the mean energy of the soft x-ray emission from the plasma.

  10. Ultrahigh resolution and brilliance laser wakefield accelerator betatron x-ray source for rapid in vivo tomographic microvasculature imaging in small animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Krol, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    We are developing ultrahigh spatial resolution (FWHM animal models using optimized contrast agent. It exploits Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) betatron x-ray emission phenomenon. Ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse interacting with a supersonic gas jet produces an ion cavity ("bubble") in the plasma in the wake of the laser pulse. Electrons that are injected into this bubble gain energy, perform wiggler-like oscillations and generate burst of incoherent x-rays with characteristic duration time comparable to the laser pulse duration, continuous synchrotron-like spectral distribution that might extend to hundreds keV, very high brilliance, very small focal spot and highly directional emission in the cone-beam geometry. Such LWFA betatron x-ray source created in our lab produced 1021 -1023 photonsṡ shot-1ṡmrad-2ṡmm-2/0.1%bw with mean critical energy in the12-30 keV range. X-ray source size for a single laser shot was FWHM=1.7 μm x-ray beam divergence 20-30 mrad, and effective focal spot size for multiple shots FWHM= 2 μm. Projection images of simple phantoms and complex biological objects including insects and mice were obtained in single laser shots. We conclude that ultrahigh spatial resolution μCTA (FWHM 2 μm) requiring thousands of projection images could be accomplished using LWFA betatron x-ray radiation in approximately 40 s with our existing 220 TW laser and sub seconds with next generation of ultrafast lasers and x-ray detectors, as opposed to several hours required using conventional microfocal x-ray tubes. Thus, sub second ultrahigh resolution in vivo microtomographic microvasculature imaging (in both absorption and phase contrast mode) in small animal models of cancer and vascular diseases will be feasible with LWFA betatron x-ray source.

  11. Relativistically Self-Channeled Femtosecond Terawatt Lasers for High-Field Physics and X-Ray Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.B.; Boyer, K.; Cameron, S.M.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Nelson, T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Optical channeling or refractive guiding processes involving the nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond optical pulses with matter in the self-focussing regime has created exciting opportunities for next-generation laser plasma-based x-ray sources and directed energy applications. This fundamentally new form of extended paraxial electromagnetic propagation in nonlinear dispersive media such as underdense plasma is attributed to the interplay between normal optical diffraction and intensity-dependent nonlinear focussing and refraction contributions in the dielectric response. Superposition of these mechanisms on the intrinsic index profile acts to confine the propagating energy in a dynamic self-guiding longitudinal waveguide structure which is stable for power transmission and robust compression. The laser-driven channels are hypothesized to support a degree of solitonic transport behavior, simultaneously stable in the space and time domains (group velocity dispersion balances self-phase modulation), and are believed to be self-compensating for diffraction and dispersion over many Rayleigh lengths in contrast with the defining characteristics of conventional diffractive imaging and beamforming. By combining concentrated power deposition with well-ordered spatial localization, this phenomena will also create new possibilities for production and regulation of physical interactions, including electron beams, enhanced material coupling, and self-modulated plasma wakefields, over extended gain distances with unprecedented energy densities. Harmonious combination of short-pulse x-ray production with plasma channeling resulting from a relativistic charge displacement nonlinearity mechanism in the terawatt regime (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been shown to generate high-field conditions conducive to efficient multi-kilovolt x-ray amplification and peak spectral brightness. Channeled optical propagation with intense short-pulse lasers is expected to impact several

  12. Fast in situ phase and stress analysis during laser surface treatment: a synchrotron x-ray diffraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, V; Gibmeier, J; Wilde, F; Staron, P; Rössler, R; Wanner, A

    2012-11-01

    An in situ stress analysis by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction was carried out during laser surface hardening of steel. A single exposure set-up that based on a special arrangement of two fast silicon strip line detectors was established, allowing for fast stress analysis according to the sin(2)ψ x-ray analysis method. For the in situ experiments a process chamber was designed and manufactured, which is described in detail. First measurements were carried out at the HZG undulator imaging beamline (IBL, beamline P05) at the synchrotron storage ring PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg (Germany). The laser processing was carried out using a 6 kW high power diode laser system. Two different laser optics were compared, a Gaussian optic with a focus spot of ø 3 mm and a homogenizing optic with a rectangular spot dimension of 8 × 8 mm(2). The laser processing was carried out using spot hardening at a heating-/cooling rate of 1000 K/s and was controlled via pyrometric temperature measurement using a control temperature of 1150 °C. The set-up being established during the measuring campaign allowed for this first realization data collection rates of 10Hz. The data evaluation procedure applied enables the separation of thermal from elastic strains and gains unprecedented insight into the laser hardening process.

  13. Solving X-ray protein structures without a crystal: using X-ray Free Electron Laser, the fourth generation synchrotron light sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Huang

    2010-01-01

    @@ A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation artificially produced by specialized electron accelerators. Compared to the commonly used in-house X-ray sources, it is wavelength adjustable, much stronger and more focused. In the last two decades, synchrotron usage has become the mainstream for X-ray protein structure determination. Taking the advantage of micro-focus light beams of the third generation synchrotron, the size of a usable protein crystal for data collection decreases to micron level, which increases the rate of macromolecular structure determination to about 10 new protein data bank entries per day.

  14. Pair annihilation in laser pulses: Optical versus x-ray free-electron laser regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilderton, Anton; Johansson, Petter; Marklund, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the theory and phenomenology of pair annihilation, within an ultra-short laser pulse, to a single photon. The signature of this process is the uni-directional emission of single photons with a fixed energy. We show that the cross section is significantly larger than for two-photon pair annihilation in vacuum, with XFEL parameters admitting a much clearer signal than optical beams.

  15. Characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Moorti; A Raghuramaiah; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of a multi-keV monochromatic point x-ray source based on vacuum diode with laser-produced plasma as cathode are presented. Electrons from a laser-produced aluminium plasma were accelerated towards a conical point tip titanium anode to generate K-shell x-ray radiation. Approximately 1010 photons/pulse were generated in x-ray pulses of ∼ 18 to ∼ 28 ns duration from a source of ∼ 300 m diameter, at ℎ = 4.51 keV ( emission of titanium), with a brightness of ∼ 1020 photons/cm2 /s/sr. This was sufficient to record single-shot x-ray radiographs of physical objects on a DEF-5 x-ray film kept at a distance of up to ∼ 10 cm.

  16. Fluorescence imaging of reactive oxygen species by confocal laser scanning microscopy for track analysis of synchrotron X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator dose: X-ray pump-optical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae Kun; Han, Sung Mi; Kim, Jong Ki

    2016-09-01

    Bursts of emissions of low-energy electrons, including interatomic Coulomb decay electrons and Auger electrons (0-1000 eV), as well as X-ray fluorescence produced by irradiation of large-Z element nanoparticles by either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams, is referred to as the nanoradiator effect. In therapeutic applications, this effect can damage pathological tissues that selectively take up the nanoparticles. Herein, a new nanoradiator dosimetry method is presented that uses probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) incorporated into three-dimensional gels, on which macrophages containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are attached. This method, together with site-specific irradiation of the intracellular nanoparticles from a microbeam of polychromatic synchrotron X-rays (5-14 keV), measures the range and distribution of OH radicals produced by X-ray emission or superoxide anions ({\\rm{O}}_2^-) produced by low-energy electrons. The measurements are based on confocal laser scanning of the fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical probe 2-[6-(4'-amino)phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoic acid (APF) or the superoxide probe hydroethidine-dihydroethidium (DHE) that was oxidized by each ROS, enabling tracking of the radiation dose emitted by the nanoradiator. In the range 70 µm below the irradiated cell, ^\\bullet{\\rm{OH}} radicals derived mostly from either incident X-ray or X-ray fluorescence of ION nanoradiators are distributed along the line of depth direction in ROS gel. In contrast, {\\rm{O}}_2^- derived from secondary electron or low-energy electron emission by ION nanoradiators are scattered over the ROS gel. ROS fluorescence due to the ION nanoradiators was observed continuously to a depth of 1.5 mm for both oxidized APF and oxidized DHE with relatively large intensity compared with the fluorescence caused by the ROS produced solely by incident primary X-rays, which was limited to a depth of 600 µm, suggesting dose enhancement as well as more

  17. Prospects for laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions with high-harmonic XUV and soft x-ray sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Winters, Danyal; Kühl, Thomas; Stöhlker, Thomas; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present novel high photon flux XUV and soft x-ray sources based on high harmonic generation (HHG). The sources employ femtosecond fiber lasers, which can be operated at very high (MHz) repetition rate and average power (>100 W). HHG with such lasers results in similar to 10(13) photons s(-1) within a single harmonic line at similar to 40 nm (similar to 30 eV) wavelength, a photon flux comparable to what is typically available at synchrotron beam lines. In addition, resonant enhancement of ...

  18. Optimization of Drive Pulse Configuration for a High-Gain Transient X-Ray Laser at 19.6 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin; LI Ying-Jun; ZHANG Jie

    2001-01-01

    An Ne-like transient collisional excitation x-ray laser at 19.6nm (J = 0 → 1, 3p - 3s) was investigated numerically using a sophisticated hydrodynamic code for a l00μm thick Ge planar target irradiated by a nanosecond pre pulse followed by a picosecond main optical laser pulse. The simulations indicate that for a given peak intensity, the main pulse has an optimal duration to generate the maximum effective gain. An effective gain as high as 200 cma-1 was obtained for the optimized drive pulse configuration.

  19. A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard X-ray free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Katayama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a method for achieving advanced photon diagnostics of x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs under a quasi-noninvasive condition by using a beam-splitting scheme. Here, we used a transmission grating to generate multiple branches of x-ray beams. One of the two primary diffracted branches (+1st-order is utilized for spectral measurement in a dispersive scheme, while the other (−1st-order is dedicated for arrival timing diagnostics between the XFEL and the optical laser pulses. The transmitted x-ray beam (0th-order is guided to an experimental station. To confirm the validity of this timing-monitoring scheme, we measured the correlation between the arrival timings of the −1st and 0th branches. The observed error was as small as 7.0 fs in root-mean-square. Our result showed the applicability of the beam branching scheme to advanced photon diagnostics, which will further enhance experimental capabilities of XFEL.

  20. Laser-driven 6-16 keV x-ray imaging and backlighting with spherical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollmeier, M.; Rambo, P. K.; Schwarz, J.; Smith, I. C.; Porter, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-driven x-ray self-emission imaging or backlighting of High Energy Density Physics experiments requires brilliant sources with keV energies and x-ray crystal imagers with high spatial resolution of about 10 μ m. Spherically curved crystals provide the required resolution when operated at near-normal incidence, which minimizes image aberrations due to astigmatism. However, this restriction dramatically limits the range of suitable crystal and spectral line combinations. We present a survey of crystals and spectral lines for x-ray backlighting and self-emission imaging with energies between 6 and 16 keV. Ray-tracing simulations including crystal rocking curves have been performed to predict image brightness and spatial resolution. Results have been benchmarked to experimental data using both Sandia's 4 kJ, ns Z-Beamlet and 200 J, ps Z-Petawatt laser systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND NO. 2014-15552A.