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Sample records for nickel-iron battery subsystems

  1. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-07-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  2. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  3. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-06-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries conducted a literature search and experimental tests to characterize the generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen (GH2) and gaseous oxygen (GO2) from an electrical vehicle (EV) nickel iron battery system. The resulting gassing rates were used to experimentally evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent the propagation of flame within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen (GH2) and oxygen (GO2) gasses were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests have confirmed that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. Research of flame arrestor literature yielded little information regarding their operation with hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. It was indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel iron battery.

  4. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  6. Performance characterization of sintered iron electrodes in nickel/iron alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, P.; Ramesh Babu, B.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.

    A nickel/iron storage battery with a porous, sintered, iron negative electrode and a nickel positive electrode is a high power system by virtue of its low internal resistance. A dry-powder sintering procedure is used to fabricate negative and positive electrodes. Negative iron electrodes are activated with various salt solutions such as CdSO 4, BaCl 2, HgCl 2 and sulfur. Positive electrodes are impregnated with nickel hydroxide by a chemical method. Tests are performed in 10 Ah capacity nickel/iron cells and two types of activated iron electrodes are used. The present work deals with electrode fabrication, charge/discharge studies, self-discharge, temperature performance and cycle life. Finally, the best iron electrodes are coupled with nickel electrodes to obtain a 1.37 V, 75 Ah nickel/iron cell. The performance of this cell is discussed.

  7. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop a nickel-iron battery suitable for use in electric vehicles. Ultimately, it is expected that a number of these batteries will be demonstrated under the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act of 1976. The report presents the technical approach and a summary of the progress that was achieved under the contract. Work began 1 May 1978. The report covers the period through September 1978. (TFD)

  8. Performance and life evaluation of nickel/iron battery technology for dual shaft electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, W.

    1990-05-01

    As part of a cost-shared contract between the U.S. Department of Energy (Office of Transportation Systems) and Eaton Corp. to develop an advanced dual shaft electric propulsion (DSEP) vehicle, several nickel/iron (Ni/Fe) batteries were designed and procured from Eagle-Picher Industries (EPI) for evaluation and vehicle use. In March 1986, two individual 5-cell Ni/Fe modules and a 140-cell (28-module) battery pack were delivered to Argonne for evaluation. Performance characterization tests were conducted on the two modules and life testing performed on the battery pack. Module performance testing was completed in early 1987 after about 215 cycles of operation. Each module still retained approximately 90 percent of its initial 180-Ah capacity at the end of testing (approximately 163 Ah/970 Wh). Life evaluation of the 168-V, 28-kWh battery pack was conducted with driving profile discharges. A 1377-s power profile that represented the battery load in a DSEP vehicle undergoing a Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) was used. Testing was temporarily suspended in October 1987 after the battery pack had accumulated 502 cycles (209 cycles in 1986). After a three-month trickle charge (approximately 3 A), testing was resumed (January 1988) with driving profile discharges. In March 1988, battery performance was being limited by three modules. After 545 cycles, the three modules were removed from the pack. Battery performance, however, continued to decline and another four modules were removed in September 1988 (645 cycles). Several remaining modules started to exhibit a high self-discharge loss and a capacity of only 119 Ah (15.1 kWh) could be achieved. The life evaluation was halted in October 1988 after 661 cycles had been accumulated. This report outlines the test activities and presents the performance results of the individual modules and the battery pack involved in this technology evaluation.

  9. In-vehicle evaluation of the Globe EV 2300 lead-acid, Delco Remy 150 nickel-zinc, and Eagle-Picher NIF 270 nickel-iron battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, A. A.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-08-01

    Developmental versions of the Delco-Remy nickel-zinc,the Globe lead-acid, and the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery systems designed for electric-vehicle application were evaluated. The systems were tested with the Jet Industries Jet 750 pickup truck and the General Electric/Chrysler ETV 1-2 vehicle on a a chassis dynamometer. Performance of the batteries were determined under: (1) constant-speed; (2) cyclic drive profiles; and (3) continuous and segmented driving conditions. Data are presented on capacity, specific energy, discharge, internal resistance, and temperature characteristics. Maintenance features, such as the single-point watering and venting subsystems, and charging schemes, are addressed and results are discussed.

  10. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The FY 1980 program continued to involve full-size, prototype cell, module and battery fabrication and evaluation, aimed at advancing the technical capabilities of the nickel-iron battery, while simultaneously reducing its potential cost in materials and process areas. Improved Electroprecipitation Process (EPP) nickel electrodes of design thickness (2.5 mm) are now being prepared that display stable capacities of 23 to 25 Ah for the C/3 drain rate at 200+ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are delivering 24 Ah at the target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron electrodes are displaying capacity stability for > 1000 test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Finished cells have delivered 57 to 61 Wh/kg at C/3, and have demonstrated cyclic stability to 500+ cycles at 80% depth of discharge profiles at Westinghouse. A 6-cell module that demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 48 Wh/kg at the C/3 drain rate has also been evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory, ANL. It operated for 327 test cycles, to a level of 161 Ah at the C/3 rate, before being removed from test. Reduction in nickel electrode swelling (and concurrent stack starvation), to improve cycling, continues to be an area of major effort to reach the final battery cycle life objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes continue to show promise for meeting the life objectives while, simultaneously, providing a low manufacturing cost. Refinements have occurred in the areas of cell hardware, module manifolding and cell interconnections. These improvements have been incorporated into the construction and testing of the cells and modules for this program. Temperature tests at 0/sup 0/C were performed on a 6-cell module and showed a decrease in capacity of only 25% in Ah and .29% in Wh as compared to 25/sup 0/C performance. Additional tests are planned to demonstrate performance at -15/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C.

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The program has progressed to the stage of evaluating full-sized (220 Ah) cells, multicell modules, and 22 kWh batteries. Nickel electrodes that display stable capacities of up to 24 Ah/plate (at C/3 drain rate) at design thickness (2.5 mm) in tests at 200/sup +/ test cycles. Iron electrodes of the composite-type are also delivering 24 Ah/plate (at C/3) at target thickness (1.0 mm). Iron plates are displaying capacity stability for 300/sup +/ test cycles in continuing 3 plate cell tests. Best finished cells are delivering 57 to 63 Wh/kg at C/3, based on cell weights of the finished cells, and in the actual designed cell volume. 6-cell module (6-1) performance has demonstrated 239 Ah, 1735 Wh, 53 WH/kg at the C/3 drain rate. This module is now being evaluated at the National Battery Test Laboratory. The 2 x 4 battery has been constructed, tested, and delivered for engineering test and evaluation. The battery delivered 22.5 kWh, as required (199 Ah discharge at 113 V-bar) at the C/3 drain rate. The battery has performed satisfactorily under dynamometer and constant current drain tests. Some cell problems, related to construction, necessitated changing 3 modules, but the battery is now ready for further testing. Reduction in nickel plate swelling (and concurrent stack electrolyte starvation), to improve cycling, is one area of major effort to reach the final battery objectives. Pasted nickel electrodes are showing promise in initial full-size cell tests and will continue to be evaluated in finished cells, along with other technology advancements. 30 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability.

  13. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Research progress in the development of Ni/Fe batteries (electrodes in particular) for the period is described. The negative plate demonstrated a reliable lifetime of almost 1000 cycles; 20 mm positive plates were proved feasible; prototype cells yielded output at about 50 Wh/kg and 100 Wh/liter; program goals of 20% greater than these figures appear feasible. 27 figures, 20 tables. (RWR)

  14. Synthesis of novel spherical Fe3O4@Ni3S2 composite as improved anode material for rechargeable nickel-iron batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Litan; Shangguan, Enbo; Yue, Mingzhu; Xu, Min; Wang, Dong; Chang, Zhaorong; Li, Quanmin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 microspheres are fabricated through a facile method for the first time. • Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 is firstly proposed as alkaline anode materials for Ni/Fe batteries. • Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 shows enhanced high-rate capability and improved cycle stability. • Ni 3 S 2 can suppress the passivation and hydrogen evolution behavior of the iron anode. - Abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 microspheres as a novel alkaline anode material have been successfully fabricated through a four-step process for the first time. In this composite, Ni 3 S 2 nanoparticles are coated tightly on the surface of Fe 3 O 4 microspheres. Compared with the pure Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 @NiO microspheres, the proposed Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 delivers a significantly improved high-rate performance and enhanced cycling stability. At a high discharge rate of 1200 mA g −1 , the specific capacity of the Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 is ∼481.2 mAh g −1 in comparison with ∼83.7 mAh g −1 for the pure Fe 3 O 4 . After 100 cycles at 120 mA g −1 , the Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 can achieve a capacity retention of 95.1%, while the value for the pure Fe 3 O 4 electrode is only 52.5%. The favorable electrochemical performance of the Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 is mainly attributed to the beneficial impact of Ni 3 S 2 . The Ni 3 S 2 layer as a useful additive is significantly conducive to lessening the formation of Fe(OH) 2 passivation layer, enhancing the electronic conductivity, improving the reaction reversibility and suppressing the hydrogen evolution reaction of the alkaline iron anode. Owing to its outstanding electrochemical properties, we believe that the novel Fe 3 O 4 @Ni 3 S 2 composite is potentially a promising candidate for anode material of alkaline iron-based batteries.

  15. Nickel-hydrogen battery design for the Transporter Energy Storage Subsystem (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, John R.; Bourland, Deborah S.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on nickel hydrogen battery design for the transporter energy storage subsystem (TESS). Information is given on use in the Space Station Freedom, the launch configuration, use in the Mobile Servicing Center, battery design requirements, TESS subassembley design, proof of principle testing of a 6-cell battery, possible downsizing of TESS to support the Mobile Rocket Servicer Base System (MBS) redesign, TESS output capacity, and cell testing.

  16. Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamedes, Zoe

    1994-02-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

  17. Hydrometallurgical method for recycling rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries; Metodo hidrometalurgico para reciclagem de metais terras raras, cobalto, niquel, ferro e manganes de eletrodos negativos de baterias exauridas de Ni-MH de telefone celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vinicius Emmanuel de Oliveira dos; Lelis, Maria de Fatima Fontes; Freitas, Marcos Benedito Jose Geraldo de, E-mail: viniciusemmanuel@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Celante, Vinicius Guilherme [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Aracruz, ES (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    A hydrometallurgical method for the recovery of rare earth metals, cobalt, nickel, iron, and manganese from the negative electrodes of spent Ni-MH mobile phone batteries was developed. The rare earth compounds were obtained by chemical precipitation at pH 1.5, with sodium cerium sulfate (NaCe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O) and lanthanum sulfate (La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.H{sub 2}O) as the major recovered components. Iron was recovered as Fe(OH){sub 3} and FeO. Manganese was obtained as Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}.The recovered Ni(OH){sub 2} and Co(OH){sub 2} were subsequently used to synthesize LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and CoO, for use as cathodes in ion-Li batteries. The anodes and recycled materials were characterized by analytical techniques. (author)

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. Demonstration of new high-performance batteries in coal-mining scoops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosey, R.

    1982-03-01

    The program objective was to demonstrate the performance features of an improved battery system in underground coal haulage applicatons that might increase productivity for the equipment and lower operating costs for the mine operator. The program initiated with an investigation of several mine facilities to evaluate the operation of battery powered coal haulers. A design concept and specification for the nickel-iron battery was developed for use in a S and S Corporation CX-2 UNATRAC Coal Hauler. An 800 Ah, 132 VDC nickel-iron battery system was assembled and tested. Field tests were conducted at an aboveground test track to simulate actual mining environments. Test results indicated that the nickel-iron battery could provide a range of 40 to 70% additional trips per battery charge cycle. Auxiliary hardware functioned as designed and demonstrated the automatic battery maintenance features. A relatively high number of cell package failures occurred during this test period that precluded an underground demonstration.

  20. Cyclic Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Iron-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Adam Khan, M.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.

    2018-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of nickel-iron-based superalloy are studied at 900 ° and 1000 °C. The significant role of alloying elements with respect to the exposed medium is studied in detail. The mass change per unit area was catastrophic for the samples exposed at 1000 °C and gradual increase in mass change was observed at 900 °C for both the environments. The exposed samples were further investigated with SEM, EDS and XRD analysis to study the metallurgical characteristics. The surface morphology has expressed the in situ nature of the alloy and its affinity toward the environment. The EDS and XRD analysis has evidently proved the presence of protective oxides formation on prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. The predominant oxide formed during the exposure at high temperature has a major contribution toward the protection of the samples. The nickel-iron-based superalloy is less prone to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to the existing alloy in gas turbine engine simulating marine environment.

  1. Corrosive inorganic contamination on wafer surfaces after nickel-iron electroplating formation mechanisms and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritzer, P. [Freudenberg Nonwovens KG, Technical Nonwovens Div., Weinheim (Germany); Diel, W.; Barber, P.H. [IBM Speichersysteme Deutschland GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Romankiw, L.T. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Electroplating of Nickel-Iron alloys is widely used in the production of magnetic heads for storage systems. Usually, the plating process is performed in acidic, salt-containing solutions. After the plating step, a complete removal of the plating salts is necessary to receive a clean surface. In disadvantageous cases, a precipitation of sticky particles is observed that cannot be removed from the plated surface without damaging the surface. Some of these substances (esp. nickel sulfates) might lead to severe local corrosion and thus might act as ''time-bomb'' in the later product. Non-corrosive precipitations (i.e. nickel hydroxides) strongly hinder or even prevent the following production steps. In the present paper, the mechanisms of the origin of the different kinds of precipitation are described and the principle actions for their prevention are given. An outlook is given for other possible technical applications. (orig.)

  2. Porous Nickel-Iron Selenide Nanosheets as Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Li, Jiantao; Tian, Xiaocong; Wang, Xuanpeng; Yu, Yang; Owusu, Kwadwo Asare; He, Liang; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-08-03

    Exploring non-noble and high-efficiency electrocatalysts is critical to large-scale industrial applications of electrochemical water splitting. Currently, nickel-based selenide materials are promising candidates for oxygen evolution reaction due to their low cost and excellent performance. In this work, we report the porous nickel-iron bimetallic selenide nanosheets ((Ni0.75Fe0.25)Se2) on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) by selenization of the ultrathin NiFe-based nanosheet precursor. The as-prepared three-dimensional oxygen evolution electrode exhibits a small overpotential of 255 mV at 35 mA cm(-2) and a low Tafel slope of 47.2 mV dec(-1) and keeps high stability during a 28 h measurement in alkaline solution. The outstanding catalytic performance and strong durability, in comparison to the advanced non-noble metal catalysts, are derived from the porous nanostructure fabrication, Fe incorporation, and selenization, which result in fast charge transportation and large electrochemically active surface area and enhance the release of oxygen bubbles from the electrode surface.

  3. Carbon-encapsulated nickel-iron nanoparticles supported on nickel foam as a catalyst electrode for urea electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Jao, Chi-Yu; Chuang, Farn-Yih; Chen, Fang-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical process can purify the urea-rich wastewater, producing hydrogen gas. • Carbon-encapsulated nickel iron nanoparticles (CE-NiFe) are prepared by pyrolysis. • An ultra-thin layer of CE-NiFe nanoparticles is attached to the 3D Ni foam. • CE-NiFe nanoparticles escalate both the urea electrolysis and hydrogen evolution. - Abstract: A cyanide-bridged bimetallic coordination polymer, nickel hexacyanoferrate, could be pyrolyzed to form carbon-encapsulated nickel-iron (CE-NiFe) nanoparticles. The formation of nitrogen-doped spherical carbon shell with ordered mesoporous structure prevented the structural damage of catalyst cores and allowed the migration and diffusion of electrolyte into the hollow carbon spheres. An ultra-thin layer of CE-NiFe nanoparticles could be tightly attached to the three-dimensional macroporous nickel foam (NF) by electrophoretic deposition. The CE-NiFe nanoparticles could lower the onset potential and increase the current density in anodic urea electrolysis and cathodic hydrogen production as compared with bare NF. Macroporous NF substrate was very useful for the urea electrolysis and hydrogen production, which allowed for fast transport of electron, electrolyte, and gas products. The superior electrocatalytic ability of CE-NiFe/NF electrode in urea oxidation and water reduction made it favorable for versatile applications such as water treatment, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.

  4. High Energy Density Lithium Battery System with an Integrated Low Cost Heater Sub-System for Missions on Titan., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR project seeks to develop a 500 Wh/kg Lithium primary battery for intended application as the primary power source on landers and probes for future...

  5. Selective recovery of nickel over iron from a nickel-iron solution using microbial sulfate reduction in a gas-lift bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Helvoort, van P.J.; Dar, S.; Dopson, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Process streams with high concentrations of metals and sulfate are characteristic for the mining and metallurgical industries. This study aims to selectively recover nickel from a nickel-iron-containing solution at pH 5.0 using a single stage bioreactor that simultaneously combines low pH sulfate

  6. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  7. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  8. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  9. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  10. Facile synthesis of pyrite-type binary nickel iron diselenides as efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Jing-Qi; Shang, Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liang, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Dong, Bin, E-mail: dongbin@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, Xiao; Liu, Yan-Ru; Yan, Kai-Li [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Gao, Wen-Kun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Chai, Yong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Chen-Guang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Binary pyrite-type Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}/CFC was prepared by a facile two-step process. • The effect of Ni/Fe (Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1) on OER was investigated. • Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}/CFC (x = 0.5) possesses the better electrocatalytic activity for OER. • The enhanced activity may be attributed to binary Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} and CFC support. - Abstract: Pyrite-type binary nickel iron diselenides (Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}) supported on carbon fiber cloth (CFC) as electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been prepared by a facile two-step process. Firstly, binary Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5} hydroxide nanosheets have been electrodeposited on CFC. Secondly, a solvothermal selenization process has been used to convert Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}/CFC into Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}/CFC. XRD shows that Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} on CFC has the typically octahedral crystalline. XPS proves the existence and valence of Ni, Fe and Se. SEM images show that Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} has novel pyrite-type octahedral morphology with uniform size and good dispersion on the surface of CFC. SEM elemental mapping images confirm the good distribution of Ni, Fe, Se element on CFC. TEM and SAED provide the clear diffraction rings of octahedral Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}, which is consistent with the results of XRD. Furtherly, the effect of different ratio of Ni/Fe (Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1) on OER performances has been systematically investigated. The electrochemical measurements results show that Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}/CFC (x = 0.5) possesses the better electrocatalytic activity with the lower overpotential, Tafel slope and long-term stability than other samples. The enhanced activity of Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2}/CFC may be attributed to the intrinsic activity of binary Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5}Se{sub 2} and faster electron

  11. Development of near-term batteries for electric vehicles. Summary report, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, J.B. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The status and results through FY 1979 on the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Battery Project of the Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. This project conducts R and D on lead-acid, nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries with the objective of achieving commercialization in electric vehicles in the 1980's. Key results of the R and D indicate major technology advancements and achievement of most of FY 1979 performance goals. In the lead-acid system the specific energy was increased from less than 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate; the peak power density improved from 70 W/kg to over 110 W/kg at the 50% state of charge; and over 200 deep-discharge cycle life demonstrated. In the nickel/iron system a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg was achieved; a peak power of about 100 W/kg demonstrated and a life of 36 cycles obtained. In the nickel/zinc system, specific energies of up to 64 Wh/kg were shown; peak powers of 133 W/kg obtained; and a life of up to 120 cycles measured. Future R and D will emphasize increased cycle life for nickel/zinc batteries and increased cycle life and specific energy for lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. Testing of 145 cells was completed by NBTL. Cell evaluation included a full set of performance tests plus the application of a simulated power profile equivalent to the power demands of an electric vehicle in stop-start urban driving. Simplified test profiles which approximate electric vehicle demands are also described.

  12. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  13. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2016-01-14

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

  15. Magnetic Nickel iron Electroformed Trap (MagNET): a master/replica fabrication strategy for ultra-high throughput (>100 mL h−1) immunomagnetic sorting†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jina; Yelleswarapu, Venkata; Singh, Anup; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices can sort immunomagnetically labeled cells with sensitivity and specificity much greater than that of conventional methods, primarily because the size of microfluidic channels and micro-scale magnets can be matched to that of individual cells. However, these small feature sizes come at the expense of limited throughput (ϕ 10 mL whole blood. Here, we report a new approach to micromagnetic sorting that can achieve highly specific cell separation in unprocessed complex samples at a throughput (ϕ > 100 mL h−1) 100× greater than that of conventional microfluidics. To achieve this goal, we have devised a new approach to micromagnetic sorting, the magnetic nickel iron electroformed trap (MagNET), which enables high flow rates by having millions of micromagnetic traps operate in parallel. Our design rotates the conventional microfluidic approach by 90° to form magnetic traps at the edges of pores instead of in channels, enabling millions of the magnetic traps to be incorporated into a centimeter sized device. Unlike previous work, where magnetic structures were defined using conventional microfabrication, we take inspiration from soft lithography and create a master from which many replica electroformed magnetic micropore devices can be economically manufactured. These free-standing 12 µm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films contain micropores of arbitrary shape and position, allowing the device to be tailored for maximal capture efficiency and throughput. We demonstrate MagNET's capabilities by fabricating devices with both circular and rectangular pores and use these devices to rapidly (ϕ = 180 mL h−1) and specifically sort rare tumor cells from white blood cells. PMID:27170379

  16. Power processing subsystems for the 100-kWp solar-photovoltaic-power system at the Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, F. J.; Coleman, S. D.

    1982-06-01

    The power processing subsystem for the Natural Bridges National Monument photovoltaic power system including inverters, battery chargers, battery, diesel generator, site transfer switch, transformer in-rush controller, furnace loads, and load control equipment are described. Components and subsystem testing are also discussed. Also included are the solution to operational problems.

  17. Synthesis, structure and properties of nickel-iron-tungsten alloy electrodeposits - Part II: Effect of microstructure on hardness, electrical and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-iron-tungsten alloys were produced by electrodeposition from an ammoniacal citrate bath. The tungsten content of the alloy ranged from 0.8 wt.% to 11 wt.%, and the crystal grain size of the FCC phase of the solid solution of iron and tungsten in nickel was between 14 nm and 3.3 nm. The amorphous phase content of the alloy increases with decreasing crystal grain size. As the amorphous phase content increases, the magnetization, electrical conductivity and hardness of the alloy decrease. Annealing the alloy to crystallization temperature results in structural relaxation during which the alloy undergoes short-range ordering in conjunction with decreases in the density of chaotically distributed dislocations and internal microstrain level, which increases the exchange integral value, the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, the mean free path of electrons, the ordering and the mean size of cluster in the sliding plane and results in more uniform orientation of dipole moments of certain nanoparticles. These changes: a increase the mobility of magnetic domain walls, facilitate the orientation of domains in the external magnetic field and cause an increase in magnetization; b cause a decrease in electrical resistance, and c impede the sliding of grain boundaries and increase the hardness of the alloy. Annealing the alloys at temperatures above 400ºC results in amorphous phase crystallization and larger crystal grains of the FCC phase, along with a decrease in the density of chaotically distributed dislocations and a decrease in internal microstrain level. The formation of larger crystal grains reduces the hardness of the alloy, decreases its specific electrical resistance and impedes both the orientation of certain magnetic domains and the shift of walls of already oriented domains, thus inducing a decrease in magnetization. The heat released during the milling of Ni87.3Fe11.3W1.4 alloy with FCC-phase crystal grains 8

  18. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  19. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nikel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) seamless pipe and tube

  20. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045 and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) plate, sheet and strip

  1. Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    Standard specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten alloy (UNS N06674) rod, bar, and wire

  2. Robotics-Components and Subsystems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Robotics - Components and Subsystems. J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 76-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/12/0076-0082 ...

  3. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  4. Software Testbed for Developing and Evaluating Integrated Autonomous Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James; Remolina, Emilio; Prompt, Axel; Robinson, Peter; Sweet, Adam; Nishikawa, David

    2015-01-01

    To implement fault tolerant autonomy in future space systems, it will be necessary to integrate planning, adaptive control, and state estimation subsystems. However, integrating these subsystems is difficult, time-consuming, and error-prone. This paper describes Intelliface/ADAPT, a software testbed that helps researchers develop and test alternative strategies for integrating planning, execution, and diagnosis subsystems more quickly and easily. The testbed's architecture, graphical data displays, and implementations of the integrated subsystems support easy plug and play of alternate components to support research and development in fault-tolerant control of autonomous vehicles and operations support systems. Intelliface/ADAPT controls NASA's Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT), which comprises batteries, electrical loads (fans, pumps, and lights), relays, circuit breakers, invertors, and sensors. During plan execution, an experimentor can inject faults into the ADAPT testbed by tripping circuit breakers, changing fan speed settings, and closing valves to restrict fluid flow. The diagnostic subsystem, based on NASA's Hybrid Diagnosis Engine (HyDE), detects and isolates these faults to determine the new state of the plant, ADAPT. Intelliface/ADAPT then updates its model of the ADAPT system's resources and determines whether the current plan can be executed using the reduced resources. If not, the planning subsystem generates a new plan that reschedules tasks, reconfigures ADAPT, and reassigns the use of ADAPT resources as needed to work around the fault. The resource model, planning domain model, and planning goals are expressed using NASA's Action Notation Modeling Language (ANML). Parts of the ANML model are generated automatically, and other parts are constructed by hand using the Planning Model Integrated Development Environment, a visual Eclipse-based IDE that accelerates ANML model development. Because native ANML planners are currently

  5. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

    1980-12-01

    The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  6. MITS Data Acquisition Subsystem Acceptance Test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, R.

    1980-01-01

    This is an acceptance procedure for the Data Acquisition Subsystem of the Machine Interface Test System (MITS). Prerequisites, requirements, and detailed step-by-step instruction are presented for inspecting and performance testing the subsystem

  7. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  8. FLPP NGL Structural Subsystems Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaredson, D.; Ramusat, G.; Appel, S.; Cardone, T.; Persson, J.; Baiocco, P.; Lavelle, F.; Bouilly, Th.

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) is the basis for new paradigms, investigating the key elements, logic and roadmaps to prepare the development of the safe, reliable and low cost next European Launch Vehicle (LV) for access to space (dubbed NGL - Next Generation LV), with an initial operational capability mid-next decade. In addition to carry cargo to conventional GTO or SSO, the European NGL has to be flexible enough to cope with new pioneering institutional missions as well as the evolving commercial payloads market. This achievement is broached studying three main areas relevant to ELVs: System concepts, Propulsion and Core Technology During the preliminary design activity, a number of design alternatives concerning NGL main structural subsystems have been investigated. Technology is one of the ways to meet the NGL challenges to either improve the performances or to reduce the cost or both. The relevant requirements allow to steer a ‘top-down’ approach for their conception and to propose the most effective technologies. Furthermore, all these technology developments represent a significant ‘bottom-up’ approach investment and concern a large range of activities. The structural subsystems portfolio of the FLPP ‘Core Technology’ activity encompasses major cutting-edge challenges for maturation of the various subsystems leading to reduce overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic propellants, significantly reducing fabrication and operations cost, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of concurrent engineering methods will allow developments of performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost yielding to safe, low-risk technical approaches for a future development. Potential ability of these advanced structural LV technologies to satisfy the system requirements of the NGL and their current

  9. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alland, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  10. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  11. Galileo IOV Electrical Power Subsystem Relies On Li-Ion Batter Charge Management Controlled By Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douay, N.

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of GALILEO In-Orbit Validation program which is composed of 4 satellites, Thales Alenia Space France has designed, developed and tested the Electrical Power Subsystem. Besides some classical design choices like: -50V regulated main power bus provided by the PCDU manufactured by Terma (DK), -Solar array, manufactured by Dutch-Space (NL), using Ga-As triple junction technology from Azur Space Power Solar GmbH, -SAFT (FR) Lithium-ion Battery for which cell package balancing function is required, -Solar Array Drive Mechanism, provided by RUAG Space Switzerland, to transfer the power. This subsystem features a fully autonomous, failure tolerant, battery charge management able to operate even after a complete unavailability of the on-board software. The battery charge management is implemented such that priority is always given to satisfy the satellite main bus needs in order to maintain the main bus regulation under MEA control. This battery charge management principle provides very high reliability and operational robustness. So, the paper describes : -the battery charge management concept using a combination of PCDU hardware and relevant battery lines monitoring, -the functional aspect of the single point failure free S4R (Sequential Switching Shunt Switch Regulator) and associated performances, -the failure modes isolated and passivated by this architecture. The paper will address as well the autonomous balancing function characteristics and performances.

  12. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  13. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  14. Private quantum subsystems and quasiorthogonal operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W; Pereira, Rajesh; Jochym-O’Connor, Tomas; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recently discovered example of a private quantum subsystem to find private subsystems for Abelian subgroups of the n-qubit Pauli group, which exist in the absence of private subspaces. In doing so, we also connect these quantum privacy investigations with the theory of quasiorthogonal operator algebras through the use of tools from group theory and operator theory. (paper)

  15. LTE RF subsystem power consumption modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musiige, Deogratius; Vincent, Laulagnet; Anton, François

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new power consumption emulation model, for all possible scenarios of the RF subsystem, when transmitting a LTE signal. The model takes the logical interface parameters, Tx power, carrier frequency and bandwidth between the baseband and RF subsystem as inputs to compute...

  16. ACCESS Sub-system Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew J.; Aldoroty, Lauren Nicole; Godon, David; Pelton, Russell; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Kimble, Randy A.; Wright, Edward L.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Feldman, Paul D.; Moos, H. Warren; Riess, Adam G.; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana E.; Dixon, William Van Dyke; Sahnow, David J.; Lampton, Michael; Perlmutter, Saul

    2016-01-01

    ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to leverage significant technological advances in detectors, instruments, and the precision of the fundamental laboratory standards used to calibrate these instruments to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of laboratory absolute detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass.A cross wavelength calibration of the astrophysical flux scale to this level of precision over this broad a bandpass is relevant for the data used to probe fundamental astrophysical problems such as the SNeIa photometry based measurements used to constrain dark energy theories.We will describe the strategy for achieving this level of precision, the payload and calibration configuration, present sub-system test data, and the status and preliminary performance of the integration and test of the spectrograph and telescope. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX14AH48G supports this work.

  17. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-11-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  18. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation process was used to develop the U.S. daily range requirements for an electric vehicle from probability distributions of trip lengths and frequencies and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a car in the U.S. with a practical daily range of 82 miles (132 km) can meet the needs of the owner on 95% of the days of the year, or at all times other than his long vacation trips. Increasing the range of the vehicle beyond this point will not make it more useful to the owner because it will still not provide intercity transportation. A daily range of 82 miles can be provided by an intermediate battery technology level characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 watt-hours per pound (66 to 110 W-hr/kg). Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. The implication of these results for the research goals of far-term battery systems suggests a shift in emphasis toward lower cost and greater life and away from high energy density.

  19. The computer simulation of automobile use patterns for defining battery requirements for electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H.-J.

    1976-01-01

    The modeling process of a complex system, based on the calculation and optimization of the system parameters, is complicated in that some parameters can be expressed only as probability distributions. In the present paper, a Monte Carlo technique was used to determine the daily range requirements of an electric road vehicle in the United States from probability distributions of trip lengths, frequencies, and average annual mileage data. The analysis shows that a daily range of 82 miles meets to 95% of the car-owner requirements at all times with the exception of long vacation trips. Further, it is shown that the requirement of a daily range of 82 miles can be met by a (intermediate-level) battery technology characterized by an energy density of 30 to 50 Watt-hours per pound. Candidate batteries in this class are nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and iron-air. These results imply that long-term research goals for battery systems should be focused on lower cost and longer service life, rather than on higher energy densities

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. The electrical power subsystem design for the high energy solar physics spacecraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Milind

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) requirements, architecture, design description, performance analysis, and heritage of the components for two spacecraft concepts for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) Mission. It summarizes the mission requirements and the spacecraft subsystems and instrument power requirements, and it describes the EPS architecture for both options. A trade study performed on the selection of the solar cells - body mounted versus deployed panels - and the optimum number of panels is also presented. Solar cell manufacturing losses, array manufacturing losses, and the radiation and temperature effects on the GaAs/Ge and Si solar cells were considered part of the trade study and are included in this paper. Solar cell characteristics, cell circuit description, and the solar array area design are presented, as is battery sizing analysis performed based on the power requirements during launch and initial spacecraft operations. This paper discusses Earth occultation periods and the battery power requirements during this period as well as shunt control, battery conditioning, and bus regulation schemes. Design margins, redundancy philosophy, and predicted on-orbit battery and solar cell performance are summarized. Finally, the heritage of the components and technology risk assessment are provided.

  2. The evaluation subsystem of RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, C.; Treitz, M.; Geldermann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The evaluation subsystem (ESY) of the RODOS aims to rank countermeasure strategies according to their potential benefit and preference weights provided by the decision makers (DMS). In the previous version of the ESY, the structure of the decision problem (attributes, strategies, etc.) had to be largely defined by the early modules in the RODOS chain (ASY-CSYESY). For this reason, the ESY runs would be initiated with a list of strategies, a comprehensive attribute tree and a consequence table giving the impacts for each attribute under each strategy. The first sub-module of the ESY allows the user to select the attributes to be analyzed and then filters out the remaining attributes. For instance, the CSY module LCMT passes over 100 attributes to the ESY, from which one would expect the analyst/DMS to select maybe 10 to 15 for the evaluation. This sub-module also adds a sub-tree of subjective attributes (qualitative information) to the attribute tree provided by the CSY and allows the user to select which of these should be passed forward for further analysis. In addition, data from the economic and health modules (e.g. costs, health effects, etc.) can be grafted on as a sub-tree. The second sub-module performs the ranking of the alternative strategies and outputs a short list of best strategies. The last component of the ESY contains an explanation facility that uses a fine set of rules to reason about the ranking of the strategies. Due to the complexity of the nuclear emergency management and the wide range of DMS and stakeholders involved in the decision process, it is difficult to predetermine the range of strategies they will consider. The current strategies or groups of strategies included in the system are only driven by radiological factors. Research in the field of multicriteria decision aid has shown that value focused approaches could result in new sets of alternatives, new criteria to be considered or different decision tree structures

  3. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  4. Primary electric propulsion thrust subsystem definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, T. D.; Ward, J. W.; Kami, S.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of the current status of primary propulsion thrust subsystem (TSS) performance, packaging considerations, and certain operational characteristics. Thrust subsystem related work from recent studies by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL), Rockwell and Boeing is discussed. Existing performance for 30-cm thrusters, power processors and TSS is present along with projections for future improvements. Results of analyses to determine (1) magnetic field distributions resulting from an array of thrusters, (2) thruster emitted particle flux distributions from an array of thrusters, and (3) TSS element failure rates are described to indicate the availability of analytical tools for evaluation of TSS designs.

  5. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  6. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  7. Electronic Subsystems For Laser Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Catherine; Maruschak, John; Patschke, Robert; Powers, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Electronic subsystems of free-space laser communication system carry digital signals at 650 Mb/s over long distances. Applicable to general optical communications involving transfer of great quantities of data, and transmission and reception of video images of high definition.

  8. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optics subsystems SSDR 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements

  9. The Digital Electronic Subsystem of Marsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltecca, L.; Pecora, M.; Scandelli, L.

    MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding) is one of the Instrument of the ESA Mars Express mission, to be launched in June 2003 with a Soyuz/Fregate. Its primary objective is to map the distribution of water, both liquid and solid, in the upper portions of the crust of Mars. Secondary objectives are subsurface geologic probing, surface characterisation and ionosphere sounding. The MARSIS instrument is a low-frequency nadir-looking pulse limited radar sounder and altimeter with ground penetration capabilities, which uses synthetic aperture techniques and a secondary-receiving antenna to isolate subsurface reflections. Functionally and also from the responsibility point of view of each organisation involved in MARSIS, the instrument can be split into three subsystems: - Antenna: ANT - Radio Frequency Subsystem: RFS (TX+RX) - Digital Electronics Subsystem: DES MARSIS is an international co-operation between Italian Space Agency (ASI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The experiment has an Italian Principal investigator (from Infocom Dept. of University of Rome "La Sapienza"), an U.S. Co-PI (from Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and Co-I~@~Ys from Italy, the U.S. and other countries. Italy is the lead for the experiment definition with the participation of the U.S.. In particular Alenia Spazio/Rome is the Prime Contractor of the industrial team and also supplier of part of the RF subsystem. Laben (a company of Finmeccanica) is the supplier of the Digital Electronic Subsystem (DES), including its basic and application SW, as subcontractor of ALS. The purpose of this paper is to describe the DES from HW and SW point of view, including the Test Equipment and the special simulator developed used for DES validation.

  10. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  11. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery. Alternative Names Swallowing batteries References Hess JM, Lowell MJ. Esophagus, stomach and duodenum. In: Marx JA, ... Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  12. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  13. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)

  14. Optical Subsystems for Next Generation Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, J.A; Polo, V.; Schrenk, B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent optical technologies are providing higher flexibility to next generation access networks: on the one hand, providing progressive FTTx and specifically FTTH deployment, progressively shortening the copper access network; on the other hand, also opening fixed-mobile convergence solutions...... in next generation PON architectures. It is provided an overview of the optical subsystems developed for the implementation of the proposed NG-Access Networks....

  15. Space reactor system and subsystem investigations: assessment of technology issues for the reactor and shield subsystem. SP-100 Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, D.F.; Lillie, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    As part of Rockwell's effort on the SP-100 Program, preliminary assessment has been completed of current nuclear technology as it relates to candidate reactor/shield subsystems for the SP-100 Program. The scope of the assessment was confined to the nuclear package (to the reactor and shield subsystems). The nine generic reactor subsystems presented in Rockwell's Subsystem Technology Assessment Report, ESG-DOE-13398, were addressed for the assessment

  16. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified

  17. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  18. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements target area auxiliary subsystem SSDR 1.8.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems (WBS 1.8.6), which is part of the NIF Target Experimental System (WBS 1.8). This document responds directly to the requirements detailed in NIF Target Experimental System SDR 003 document. Key elements of the Target Area Auxiliary Subsystems include: WBS 1.8.6.1 Local Utility Services; WBS 1.8.6.2 Cable Trays; WBS 1.8.6.3 Personnel, Safety, and Occupational Access; WBS 1.8.6.4 Assembly, Installation, and Maintenance Equipment; WBS 1.8.6.4.1 Target Chamber Service System; WBS 1.8.6.4.2 Target Bay Service Systems

  19. Structure of the Galaxy and its subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.

    1979-01-01

    Current knowledge is summed up of the structure of our galaxy consisting of more than 100 thousand million stars of an overal mass of 10 44 g, and of interstellar dust and gas. The galaxy comprises several subsystems, the oldest of which being of a spherical shape while the younger ones are more-or-less oblate rotational ellipsoids. It is considered on the basis of visual and radio observations that the galaxy has a spiral structure with many arms, similar to other galaxies. The structure of the galaxy nucleus has not yet been fully explained. (Ha)

  20. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  1. Building the IOOS data management subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Beaujardière, J.; Mendelssohn, R.; Ortiz, C.; Signell, R.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss progress to date and plans for the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Data Management and Communications (DMAC) subsystem. We begin by presenting a conceptual architecture of IOOS DMAC. We describe work done as part of a 3-year pilot project known as the Data Integration Framework and the subsequent assessment of lessons learned. We present work that has been accomplished as part of the initial version of the IOOS Data Catalog. Finally, we discuss near-term plans for augmenting IOOS DMAC capabilities.

  2. Power Subsystem Approach for the Europa Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa-Severino Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NASA is planning to launch a spacecraft on a mission to the Jovian moon Europa, in order to conduct a detailed reconnaissance and investigation of its habitability. The spacecraft would orbit Jupiter and perform a detailed science investigation of Europa, utilizing a number of science instruments including an ice-penetrating radar to determine the icy shell thickness and presence of subsurface oceans. The spacecraft would be exposed to harsh radiation and extreme temperature environments. To meet mission objectives, the spacecraft power subsystem is being architected and designed to operate efficiently, and with a high degree of reliability.

  3. The Sentinel 4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.

  4. Local subsystems in gauge theory and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William; Freidel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of defining localized subsystems in gauge theory and gravity. Such systems are associated to spacelike hypersurfaces with boundaries and provide the natural setting for studying entanglement entropy of localized subsystems. We present a general formalism to associate a gauge-invariant classical phase space to a spatial slice with boundary by introducing new degrees of freedom on the boundary. In Yang-Mills theory the new degrees of freedom are a choice of gauge on the boundary, transformations of which are generated by the normal component of the nonabelian electric field. In general relativity the new degrees of freedom are the location of a codimension-2 surface and a choice of conformal normal frame. These degrees of freedom transform under a group of surface symmetries, consisting of diffeomorphisms of the codimension-2 boundary, and position-dependent linear deformations of its normal plane. We find the observables which generate these symmetries, consisting of the conformal normal metric and curvature of the normal connection. We discuss the implications for the problem of defining entanglement entropy in quantum gravity. Our work suggests that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy may arise from the different ways of gluing together two partial Cauchy surfaces at a cross-section of the horizon.

  5. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  6. Electroplating and characterization of cobalt-nickel-iron and nickel-iron for magnetic microsystems applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of pulse reverse (PR) electroplated CoNiFe and DC electroplated NiTe are presented. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density (B-s) and a low coercivity (H-c). A new bath formulation has...... by comparison to measurements performed with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)....

  7. Electroplating and characterization of cobalt-nickel-iron and nickel-iron for magnetic microsystems applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of pulse reverse (PR) electroplated CoNiFe and DC electroplated NiTe are presented. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density (B-s) and a low coercivity (H-c). A new bath formulation has...... been developed, which by means of PR electroplating makes it possible to deposit high B-s CoNiFe with a low residual stress level. The magnetic properties have been determined using a new simple measurement setup that allows for wafer level characterization. The results have been validated...

  8. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  9. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  10. An Update on the Performance of Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries on Mars Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumara, Bugga V.; Smart, M. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Ewell, R. C.; Surampudi, S.; Puglia, F.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity have been exploring the surface of Mars for the last thirty months, far exceeding the primary mission life of three months, performing astounding geological studies to examine the habitability of Mars. Such an extended mission life may be attributed to impressive performances of several subsystems, including power subsystem components, i.e., solar array and batteries. The novelty and challenge for this mission in terms of energy storage is the use of lithium-ion batteries, for the first time in a major NASA mission, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. The use of Li-ion batteries has considerably enhanced or even enabled these rovers, by providing greater mass and volume allocations for the payload and wider range of operating temperatures for the power subsystem and thus reduced thermal management. After about 800 days of exploration, there is only marginal change in the end-of discharge (EOD) voltages of the batteries or in their capacities, as estimated from in-flight voltage data and corroborated by ground testing of prototype batteries. Enabled by such impressive durability from the Li-ion batteries, both from a cycling and calendar life stand point, these rovers are poised to extend their exploration well beyond 1000 sols, though other components have started showing signs of decay. In this paper, we will update the performance characteristics of these batteries on both Spirit and Opportunity.

  11. Does Normal Processing Provide Evidence of Specialised Semantic Subsystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Laura R.; Olson, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    Category-specific disorders are frequently explained by suggesting that living and non-living things are processed in separate subsystems (e.g. Caramazza & Shelton, 1998). If subsystems exist, there should be benefits for normal processing, beyond the influence of structural similarity. However, no previous study has separated the relative…

  12. Subsystem cost data for the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Rexroth, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Details of subsystem costs are among the questions most frequently asked about the $14.4 million Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper presents a breakdown of cost components for each of the 20 major subsystems of TSTA. Also included are details to aid in adjusting the costs to other years, contracting conditions, or system sizes

  13. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    The system description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem establishes the system boundaries and describes the interface of the DST Monitor and Control Subsystem with new and existing systems that are required to accomplish the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission

  14. Subsystem cost data for the tritium systems test assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Rexroth, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Details of subsystem costs are among the questions most frequently asked about the $14.4 million Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper presents a breakdown of cost components for each of the 20 major subsystems of TSTA. Also included are details to aid in adjusting the costs to other years, contracting conditions, or system sizes.

  15. Thermal energy storage subsystems. A collection of quarterly reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The design, development, and progress toward the delivery of three subsystems is discussed. The subsystem used a salt hydrate mixture for thermal energy storage. The program schedules, technical data, and other program activities from October 1, 1976, through December 31, 1977 are presented.

  16. Giada improved calibration of measurement subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.; Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.

    2014-12-01

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator) is an in-situ instrument devoted to measure the dynamical properties of the dust grains emitted by the comet. An Extended Calibration activity using the GIADA Flight Spare Model has been carried out taking into account the knowledge gained through the analyses of IDPs and cometary samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2. GIADA consists of three measurement subsystems: Grain Detection System, an optical device measuring the optical cross-section for individual dust; Impact Sensor an aluminum plate connected to 5 piezo-sensors measuring the momentum of impacting single dust grains; Micro Balance System measuring the cumulative deposition in time of dust grains smaller than 10 μm. The results of the analyses on data acquired with the GIADA PFM and the comparison with calibration data acquired during the pre-launch campaign allowed us to improve GIADA performances and capabilities. We will report the results of the following main activities: a) definition of a correlation between the 2 GIADA Models (PFM housed in laboratory and In-Flight Model on-board ROSETTA); b) characterization of the sub-systems performances (signal elaboration, sensitivities, space environment effects); c) new calibration measurements and related curves by means of the PFM model using realistic cometary dust analogues. Acknowledgements: GIADA was built by a consortium led by the Univ. Napoli "Parthenope" & INAF-Oss. Astr. Capodimonte, IT, in collaboration with the Inst. de Astrofisica de Andalucia, ES, Selex-ES s.p.a. and SENER. GIADA is presently managed & operated by Ist. di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali-INAF, IT. GIADA was funded and managed by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, IT, with a support of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science MEC, ES. GIADA was developed from a University of Kent, UK, PI proposal; sci. & tech. contribution given by CISAS, IT, Lab. d'Astr. Spat., FR, and Institutions from UK, IT, FR, DE and USA. We thank

  17. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  18. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  19. Simulating the Various Subsystems of a Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Okolnishnikov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of simulation models of various subsystems of a coal mine was developed with the help of a new visual interactive simulation system of technological processes. This paper contains a brief description of this simulation system and its possibilities. The main possibilities provided by the simulation system are: the quick construction of models from library elements, 3D representation, and the communication of models with actual control systems. These simulation models were developed for the simulation of various subsystems of a coal mine: underground conveyor network subsystems, pumping subsystems and coal face subsystems. These simulation models were developed with the goal to be used as a quality and reliability assurance tool for new process control systems in coal mining.

  20. Presence in the IP Multimedia Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP to bridge the gap between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks and consolidate both sides into on single all-IP network for all services. In this paper, we provide an insight into the limitation of the presence service, one of the fundamental building blocks of the IMS. Our prototype-based study is unique of its kind and helps identifying the factors which limit the scalability of the current version of the presence service (3GPP TS 23.141 version 7.2.0 Release 7 [1], which will in turn dramatically limit the performance of advanced IMS services. We argue that the client-server paradigm behind the current IMS architecture does not suite the requirements of the IMS system, which defies the very purpose of its introduction. We finally elaborate on possible avenues for addressing this problem.

  1. Subsystem response analysis for the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, T.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the state-of-the-art of seismic qualification methods of subsystem has been completed. This task assesses the accuracy of seismic analysis techniques to predict dynamic response, and also identifies and quantifies sources of random and modeling undertainty in subsystem response determination. The subsystem has been classified as two categories according to the nature of support: multiply supported subsystems (e.g., piping systems) and singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.). The mutliply supported piping systems are analyzed by multisupport input time history method. The input motions are the responses of major structures. The dynamic models of the subsystems identified by the event/fault tree are created. The responses calculated by multisupport input time history method are consistent with the fragility parameters. These responses are also coordinated with the event/fault tree description. The subsystem responses are then evaluated against the fragility curves of components and systems and incorporated in the event/fault tree analysis. (orig./HP)

  2. On-Orbit NiH2 Battery Performance and Problem Solving on the APEX Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Machlis, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics eXperiments (APEX) spacecraft, launched in August 1994, contained an Electrical Power Subsystem which included two 10 Common Pressure Vessel nickel hydrogen batteries manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. The spacecraft bus has fully supported over 18 months of on-orbit payload operations, well exceeding the mission requirement. Over the duration of the mission, three fundamentally different battery charging algorithms were used, as necessitat...

  3. Ni3FeN-Supported Fe3Pt Intermetallic Nanoalloy as a High-Performance Bifunctional Catalyst for Metal-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiming; Fu, Gengtao; Li, Yutao; Goodenough, John B

    2017-08-07

    Electrocatalysts for both the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER) are vital for the performances of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, we report an advanced bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst consisting of porous metallic nickel-iron nitride (Ni 3 FeN) supporting ordered Fe 3 Pt intermetallic nanoalloy. In this hybrid catalyst, the bimetallic nitride Ni 3 FeN mainly contributes to the high activity for the OER while the ordered Fe 3 Pt nanoalloy contributes to the excellent activity for the ORR. Robust Ni 3 FeN-supported Fe 3 Pt catalysts show superior catalytic performance to the state-of-the-art ORR catalyst (Pt/C) and OER catalyst (Ir/C). The Fe 3 Pt/Ni 3 FeN bifunctional catalyst enables Zn-air batteries to achieve a long-term cycling performance of over 480 h at 10 mA cm -2 with high efficiency. The extraordinarily high performance of the Fe 3 Pt/Ni 3 FeN bifunctional catalyst makes it a very promising air cathode in alkaline electrolyte. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem design and flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.

  5. Subsystem response review. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Wesley, D. A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models.

  6. Subsystem response review. Seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.; Kamil, H.; Gantayat, A.; Vasudevan, R.

    1981-07-01

    A study was conducted to document the state of the art in seismic qualification of nuclear power plant components and subsystems by analysis and testing and to identify the sources and magnitude of the uncertainties associated with analysis and testing methods. The uncertainties are defined in probabilistic terms for use in probabilistic seismic risk studies. Recommendations are made for the most appropriate subsystem response analysis methods to minimize response uncertainties. Additional studies, to further quantify testing uncertainties, are identified. Although the general effect of non-linearities on subsystem response is discussed, recommendations and conclusions are based principally on linear elastic analysis and testing models. (author)

  7. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  8. ngVLA Cryogenic Subsystem Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al; Urbain, Denis; Grammer, Wes; Durand, S.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA’s success over 35 years of operations stems in part from dramatically upgraded components over the years. The time has come to build a new array to lead the radio astronomical science into its next 40 years. To accomplish that, a next generation VLA (ngVLA) is envisioned to have 214 antennas with diameters of 18m. The core of the array will be centered at the current VLA location, but the arms will extend out to 1000km.The VLA cryogenic subsystem equipment and technology have remained virtually unchanged since the early 1980s. While adequate for a 27-antenna array, scaling the current system for an array of 214 antennas would be prohibitively expensive in terms of operating cost and maintenance. The overall goal is to limit operating cost to within three times the current level, despite having 8 times the number of antennas. To help realize this goal, broadband receivers and compact feeds will be utilized to reduce both the size and number of cryostats required. The current baseline front end concept calls for just two moderately-sized cryostats for the entire 1.2-116 GHz frequency range, as opposed to 8 in the VLA.For the ngVLA cryogenics, our objective is a well-optimized and efficient system that uses state-of-the-art technology to minimize per-antenna power consumption and maximize reliability. Application of modern technologies, such as variable-speed operation for the scroll compressors and cryocooler motor drives, allow the cooling capacity of the system to be dynamically matched to thermal loading in each cryostat. Significantly, power savings may be realized while the maintenance interval of the cryocoolers is also extended.Finally, a receiver designed to minimize thermal loading can produce savings directly translating to lower operating cost when variable-speed drives are used. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) on radiation shields and improved IR filters on feed windows can significantly reduce heat loading.Measurements done on existing cryogenic

  9. Development of Pattern Recognition Options for Combining Safeguards Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Thomas L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24

    This talk reviews project progress in combining process monitoring data and nuclear material accounting data to improve the over nuclear safeguards system. Focus on 2 subsystems: (1) nuclear materials accounting (NMA); and (2) process monitoring (PM).

  10. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — T3RSS is the system engineer's tool that allows a systematic approach to ensuring that even if one or more failures occur in a single component or subsystem, then...

  11. Advanced batteries for load-leveling - The utility perspective on system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonaco, J. L.; Lewis, P. A.; Roman, H. T.; Zemkoski, J.

    1982-09-01

    Rechargeable battery systems for applications as utility load-leveling units, particularly in urban areas, are discussed. Particular attention is given to advanced lead-acid, zinc-halogen, sodium-sulfer, and lithium-iron sulfide battery systems, noting that battery charging can proceed at light load hours and requires no fuel on-site. Each battery site will have a master site controller and related subsystems necessary for ensuring grid-quality power output from the batteries and charging when feasible. The actual interconnection with the grid is envisioned as similar to transmission, subtransmission, or distribution systems similar to cogeneration or wind-derived energy interconnections. Analyses are presented of factors influencing the planning economics, impacts on existing grids through solid-state converters, and operational and maintenance considerations. Finally, research directions towards large scale battery implementation are outlined.

  12. The In-Orbit Battery Reconditioning Experience On Board the Orion 1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, S. A.; Daughtridge, S.; Johnson, P. J.; King, S. T.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion 1 spacecraft is a three-axis stabilized geostationary earth orbiting commercial communications satellite which was launched on November 29, 1994 aboard an Atlas II launch vehicle. The power subsystem is a dual bus, dual battery semi-regulated system with one 78 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen battery per bus. The batteries were built and tested by Eagle Picher Industries, Inc., of Joplin, MO and were integrated into the spacecraft by its manufacturer, Matra Marconi Space UK Ltd. This paper presents the results obtained during the first four in-orbit reconditioning cycles and compares the battery performance to ground test data. In addition, the on-station battery management strategy and implementation constraints are described. Battery performance has been nominal throughout each reconditioning cycle and subsequent eclipse season.

  13. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubica Floreková; Ján Terpák; Marcela Čarnogurská

    2006-01-01

    Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what), operation (how) and structure (why). Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirem...

  14. Opto-mechanical subsystem with temperature compensation through isothemal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An opto-mechanical subsystem for supporting a laser structure which minimizes changes in the alignment of the laser optics in response to temperature variations is described. Both optical and mechanical structural components of the system are formed of the same material, preferably beryllium, which is selected for high mechanical strength and good thermal conducting qualities. All mechanical and optical components are mounted and assembled to provide thorough thermal coupling throughout the subsystem to prevent the development of temperature gradients.

  15. An Algorithm for Integrated Subsystem Embodiment and System Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kemper

    1997-01-01

    Consider the statement,'A system has two coupled subsystems, one of which dominates the design process. Each subsystem consists of discrete and continuous variables, and is solved using sequential analysis and solution.' To address this type of statement in the design of complex systems, three steps are required, namely, the embodiment of the statement in terms of entities on a computer, the mathematical formulation of subsystem models, and the resulting solution and system synthesis. In complex system decomposition, the subsystems are not isolated, self-supporting entities. Information such as constraints, goals, and design variables may be shared between entities. But many times in engineering problems, full communication and cooperation does not exist, information is incomplete, or one subsystem may dominate the design. Additionally, these engineering problems give rise to mathematical models involving nonlinear functions of both discrete and continuous design variables. In this dissertation an algorithm is developed to handle these types of scenarios for the domain-independent integration of subsystem embodiment, coordination, and system synthesis using constructs from Decision-Based Design, Game Theory, and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization. Implementation of the concept in this dissertation involves testing of the hypotheses using example problems and a motivating case study involving the design of a subsonic passenger aircraft.

  16. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  17. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  18. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  19. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  20. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  1. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, the social subsystem, thetechnical subsystem, the informative subsystem. The relationship between those subsystems leads to the continuous improvement of quality in health services.

  2. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  3. The definition of input parameters for modelling of energetic subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short review and a basic description of mathematical models of renewable energy sources which present individual investigated subsystems of a system created in Matlab/Simulink. It solves the physical and mathematical relationships of photovoltaic and wind energy sources that are often connected to the distribution networks. The fuel cell technology is much less connected to the distribution networks but it could be promising in the near future. Therefore, the paper informs about a new dynamic model of the low-temperature fuel cell subsystem, and the main input parameters are defined as well. Finally, the main evaluated and achieved graphic results for the suggested parameters and for all the individual subsystems mentioned above are shown.

  4. The definition of input parameters for modelling of energetic subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is a short review and a basic description of mathematical models of renewable energy sources which present individual investigated subsystems of a system created in Matlab/Simulink. It solves the physical and mathematical relationships of photovoltaic and wind energy sources that are often connected to the distribution networks. The fuel cell technology is much less connected to the distribution networks but it could be promising in the near future. Therefore, the paper informs about a new dynamic model of the low-temperature fuel cell subsystem, and the main input parameters are defined as well. Finally, the main evaluated and achieved graphic results for the suggested parameters and for all the individual subsystems mentioned above are shown.

  5. The complete Heyting algebra of subsystems and contextuality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourdas, A. [Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The finite set of subsystems of a finite quantum system with variables in Z(n), is studied as a Heyting algebra. The physical meaning of the logical connectives is discussed. It is shown that disjunction of subsystems is more general concept than superposition. Consequently, the quantum probabilities related to commuting projectors in the subsystems, are incompatible with associativity of the join in the Heyting algebra, unless if the variables belong to the same chain. This leads to contextuality, which in the present formalism has as contexts, the chains in the Heyting algebra. Logical Bell inequalities, which contain “Heyting factors,” are discussed. The formalism is also applied to the infinite set of all finite quantum systems, which is appropriately enlarged in order to become a complete Heyting algebra.

  6. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  7. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  8. Optomechanical design of TMT NFIRAOS Subsystems at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Grenier, Martin; Cottin, Pierre; Leclerc, Mélanie; Martin, Olivier; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Boucher, Marc-André; Nash, Reston; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Hill, Alexis; Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Herriot, Glen; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    The adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is the Narrow-Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). Recently, INO has been involved in the optomechanical design of several subsystems of NFIRAOS, including the Instrument Selection Mirror (ISM), the NFIRAOS Beamsplitters (NBS), and the NFIRAOS Source Simulator system (NSS) comprising the Focal Plane Mask (FPM), the Laser Guide Star (LGS) sources, and the Natural Guide Star (NGS) sources. This paper presents an overview of these subsystems and the optomechanical design approaches used to meet the optical performance requirements under environmental constraints.

  9. Interconnection of subsystems in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The focus in this paper is analysis of stability and controller design for interconnected systems. This includes both the case with known and unknown interconnected sub-system. The key element in both the stability analysis and controller design is the application of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kuce......The focus in this paper is analysis of stability and controller design for interconnected systems. This includes both the case with known and unknown interconnected sub-system. The key element in both the stability analysis and controller design is the application of the Youla...

  10. Novel Design Aspects of the Space Technology 5 Mechanical Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; McGill, William

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several novel design elements of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft mechanical subsystem. The spacecraft structure itself takes a significant step in integrating electronics into the primary structure. The deployment system restrains the spacecraft during launch and imparts a predetermined spin rate upon release from its secondary payload accommodations. The deployable instrument boom incorporates some traditional as well as new techniques for lightweight and stiffness. Analysis and test techniques used to validate these technologies are described. Numerous design choices were necessitated due to the compact spacecraft size and strict mechanical subsystem requirements.

  11. Ground test facility for nuclear testing of space reactor subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Watts, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two major reactor facilities at the INEL have been identified as easily adaptable for supporting the nuclear testing of the SP-100 reactor subsystem. They are the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) and the Loss of Fluid Test Reactor (LOFT). In addition, there are machine shops, analytical laboratories, hot cells, and the supporting services (fire protection, safety, security, medical, waste management, etc.) necessary to conducting a nuclear test program. This paper presents the conceptual approach for modifying these reactor facilities for the ground engineering test facility for the SP-100 nuclear subsystem. 4 figs

  12. Analysis of spacecraft battery charger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong J.; Cho, Bo H.

    In spacecraft battery charger systems, switching regulators are widely used for bus voltage regulation, charge current regulation, and peak power tracking. Small-signal dynamic characteristics of the battery charging subsystem of direct energy transfer (DET) and peak power tracking (PPT) systems are analyzed to facilitate design of the control loop for optimum performance and stability. Control loop designs of the charger in various modes of operation are discussed. Analyses are verified through simulations. It is shown that when the charger operates in the bus voltage regulation mode, the control-to-voltage transfer function has a negative DC gain and two LHP zeros in both the DET and PPT systems. The control-to-inductor current transfer function also has a negative DC gain and a RHP zero. Thus, in the current-mode control, the current loop can no longer be used to stabilize the system. When the system operates in the charge current regulation mode, the charger operates with a fixed duty cycle which is determined by the regulated bus voltage and the battery voltage. Without an input filter, the converter becomes a first-order system. When the peak power tracker is inactive, the operating point of the solar array output moves to the voltage source region. Thus, the solar array behaves as a stiff voltage source to a constant power load.

  13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase 1. Project V. Structural sub-system response: subsystem response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelquist, J.; Kaul, M.K.; Koppe, R.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.; Thailer, H.; Uffer, R.

    1980-03-01

    This project is directed toward a portion of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program which includes one link in the seismic methodology chain. The link addressed here is the structural subsystem dynamic response which consists of those components and systems whose behavior is often determined decoupled from the major structural response. Typically the mathematical model utilized for the major structural response will include only the mass effects of the subsystem and the main model is used to produce the support motion inputs for subsystem seismic qualification. The main questions addressed in this report have to do with the seismic response uncertainty of safety-related components or equipment whose seismic qualification is performed by (a) analysis, (b) tests, or (c) combinations of analysis and tests, and where the seismic input is assumed to have no uncertainty

  14. Modeling and simulation of a 100 kWe HT-PEMFC subsystem integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    electrical power output of 100 kWe. The heat exhausted to the absorption chiller subsystem is 107 kW and can satisfy a cooling duty of up to 128 or 64.5 kW for a LiBr-water double-effect system or a water-NH3 single-effect system, respectively. Finally, the projected total cost is comparable to conventional......A 100 kWe liquid-cooled HT-PEMFC subsystem is integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem to provide electricity and cooling. The system is designed, modeled and simulated to investigate the potential of this technology for future novel energy system applications. Liquid-cooling can provide...

  15. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  16. Communication Regarding Sustainability: Conceptual Perspectives and Exploration of Societal Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rieckmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues are typically characterized by high complexity and uncertainty. In light of this, communication plays a crucial role in coping with these challenges. The previous debate on sustainability communication has largely focused on how to communicate sustainability issues to others. Sustainability communication, however, involves more than sender oriented communication to persuade others (“communication of sustainability”; it also embraces processes of dialogue and discourse (“communication about sustainability”. Based on this distinction, we develop a typology of communication modes, including communication for sustainability. Inspired by the notion of functional communication systems, we explore sustainability communication in six societal subsystems, applying the typology of communication modes. Drawing mostly on examples from Germany, we find a shift from “communication of” towards “communication about” sustainability in most subsystems. While communication subsystems have a tendency towards operational closure, a variety of interlinkages exist. We discuss three key areas of “opening up” communication subsystems, leading to transdisciplinarity, societal deliberation and governance, each meeting one of sustainability’s core challenges.

  17. Electric Propulsion Electronics And Thrusters As A Satellite Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollor, Matthais

    2011-10-01

    The integration of electrical thrusters with an electronic into a subsystem and with this establishing an integrated design providing full function and performance is critical task. It starts with the proper specification of the electrical interfaces between thrusters and electronics, including a proper definition of the thrusters as an electric load. Furthermore the use of high voltage needs specific knowledge in design and is increasing the subsystem complexity due to obsolesce of suitable disconnect-able harness and of redundancy switching means. EMC is rising to a couple of questions, i.e. about possible interference of magnetic field emission with the satellites attitude control system or about the thruster plasma affecting RF transmission of communication links. End-to-end testing of the propulsion subsystem is limited as it is not possible to run the thruster together with the spacecraft in a vacuum facility. Therefore testing of the subsystem has to be "sliced": typically, the thruster is first characterized with the aid of lab power supplies and is later tested coupled with the "space" electronics. Finally system checkout on satellite level is performed with the using simulators.

  18. Subsystem Design Guidelines for Extensible General-Purpose Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Magee, J.N.; Perry, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss subsystem design for extensible general-purpose information systemswe extract guidelines from a case study of the redesign and extension of an advanced workflow management system and place them into the context of existing software engineering research. Key aspect is the distinction

  19. The prison subsystem culture: its attitudinal effects on operatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The penal institutions subsystems; the justice, the police, prison yard and the operatives ways of administering justice is believed to bring about breeding and enhancing criminal behavior and recidivicists than serving; deterrence, repentance, reformatory and reconciliatory attitudes between ex-convicts and people in free ...

  20. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  1. A Generic Multi-node State Monitoring Subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, James A

    2003-06-02

    The BaBar online data acquisition (DAQ) system includes approximately fifty Unix systems that collectively implement the level-three trigger. These systems all run the same code. Each of these systems has its own state, and this state is expected to change in response to changes in the overall DAQ system. A specialized subsystem has been developed to initiate processing on this collection of systems, and to monitor them both for error conditions and to ensure that they all follow the same state trajectory within a specifiable period of time. This subsystem receives start commands from the main DAQ run control system, and reports major coherent state changes, as well as error conditions, back to the run control system. This state monitoring subsystem has the novel feature that it does not know anything about the state machines that it is monitoring, and hence does not introduce any fundamentally new state machine into the overall system. This feature makes it trivially applicable to other multi-node subsystems. Indeed it has already found a second application beyond the level-three trigger, within the BaBar experiment.

  2. Emerging Network Storage Management Standards for Intelligent Data Storage Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices and subsystems that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks and techniques and metadata to verify stored data on optical tapes developed by the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) Optical Tape Committee.

  3. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  4. Subsystems in Nearby Solar-type Wide Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Hartung, Markus; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2010-08-01

    We conducted a deep survey of resolved subsystems among wide binaries with solar-type components within 67 pc of the Sun. Images of 61 stars in the K and H bands were obtained with the Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager adaptive-optics instrument on the 8 m Gemini-South telescope. Our maximum detectable magnitude difference is about 5 mag and 7.8 mag at 0farcs15 and 0farcs9 separations, respectively. This enables a complete census of subsystems with stellar companions in the projected separation range from 5 to 100 AU. Out of seven such companions found in our sample, only one was previously known. We determine that the fraction of subsystems with projected separations above 5 AU is 0.12 ± 0.04 and that the distribution of their mass ratio is flat, with a power-law index of 0.2 ± 0.5. Comparing this with the properties of closer spectroscopic subsystems (separations below 1 AU), it appears that the mass-ratio distribution does not depend on the separation. The frequency of subsystems in the separation ranges below 1 AU and between 5 and 100 AU is similar, about 0.15. Unbiased statistics of multiplicity higher than 2, advanced by this work, provide constraints on star formation theory. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (Program ID GS-2009B-Q-49), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  5. Characterization of the power and efficiency of Stirling engine subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, D.; González, M.A.; Prieto, J.I.; Herrero, S.; López, S.; Mesonero, I.; Villasante, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration. • We also investigate the V161 solar engine. • The possible margin of improvement is evaluated for each subsystem. • The procedure is based on similarity models and thermodynamic models. • The procedure may be of general interest for other prototypes. - Abstract: The development of systems based on Stirling machines is limited by the lack of data about the performance of the various subsystems that are located between the input and output power sections. The measurement of some of the variables used to characterise these internal subsystems presents difficulties, particularly in the working gas circuit and the drive mechanism, which causes experimental reports to rarely be comprehensive enough for analysing the whole performance of the machine. In this article, we review experimental data from a V160 engine developed for cogeneration to evaluate the general validity; we also investigate one of the most successful prototypes used in dish-Stirling systems, the V161 engine, for which a seemingly small mechanical efficiency value has been recently predicted. The procedure described in this article allows the possible margin of improvement to be evaluated for each subsystem. The procedure is based on similarity models, which have been previously developed through experimental data from very different prototypes. Thermodynamic models for the gas circuit are also considered. Deduced characteristic curves show that both prototypes have an advanced degree of development as evidenced by relatively high efficiencies for each subsystem. The analyses are examples that demonstrate the qualities of dimensionless numbers in representing physical phenomena with maximum generality and physical meaning

  6. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  7. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  8. On battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrids: Investigation of the combined hybrid capacitors/hydrogen alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Piromalis, Dimitrios D.; Arvanitis, Konstantinos G.; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Papadakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A battery-less autonomous polygeneration microgrid is technically feasible. • Laboratory testing of hybrid capacitors. • Investigation of hybrid capacitors utilization along with hydrogen subsystem. - Abstract: The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology aims to cover holistically the needs in remote areas as far as electrical power, potable water through desalination, fuel for transportation in the form of hydrogen, heating and cooling are concerned. Deep discharge lead acid batteries are mostly used in such systems, associated with specific disadvantages, both technical and environmental. This paper investigated the possibility of replacing the battery bank from a polygeneration microgrid with a hybrid capacitor bank and more intensive utilization of a hydrogen subsystem. Initially commercial hybrid capacitors were tested under laboratory conditions and based on the respective results a case study was performed. The optimized combination of hybrid capacitors and higher hydrogen usage was then investigated through simulations and compared to a polygeneration microgrid featuring deep discharge lead acid batteries. From the results it was clear that it is technically possible to exchange the battery bank with a hybrid capacitor bank and higher hydrogen utilization. From the economic point of view, the current cost of the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components is high which leads to higher overall cost in comparison with deep discharge lead acid batteries. Taking into account, though, the decreasing cost prospects and trends of both the hybrid capacitors and the hydrogen components it is expected that this approach will become economically competitive in a few years

  9. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  12. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  13. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  14. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  15. System integration of marketable subsystems. [for residential solar heating and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: systems integration of marketable subsystems; development, design, and building of site data acquisition subsystems; development and operation of the central data processing system; operation of the MSFC Solar Test Facility; and systems analysis.

  16. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Pump Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Transfer Pump Subsystem consists of a pump for supernatant and/or slurry transfer for the DSTs that will be retrieved during the Phase 1 WFD operations. This system is used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. It also will deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  17. Subsystem software for TSTA [Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.W.; Claborn, G.W.; Nielson, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Subsystem Control Software at the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) must control sophisticated chemical processes through the physical operation of valves, motor controllers, gas sampling devices, thermocouples, pressure transducers, and similar devices. Such control software has to be capable of passing stringent quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide for the safe handling of significant amounts of tritium on a routine basis. Since many of the chemical processes and physical components are experimental, the control software has to be flexible enough to allow for trial/error learning curve, but still protect the environment and personnel from exposure to unsafe levels of radiation. The software at TSTA is implemented in several levels as described in a preceding paper in these proceedings. This paper depends on information given in the preceding paper for understanding. The top level is the Subsystem Control level

  18. Measurement system as a subsystem of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Floreková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.

  19. [The innovative dynamic of the mechanics, electronics and materials subsystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Laís Silveira; Vargas, Marco

    2012-12-01

    The mechanics, electronics and materials subsystem, one of the subsystems of the health care productive complex, encompasses different activities, usually clustered in what is called the medical, hospital and dental equipment and materials industry. This is a strategic area for health care, since it represents a continuous source of changes in care practices, and influences the provision of health care services. It has, moreover, potential for promoting the progress of Brazil's system of innovation and for increasing the competitiveness of the industry as a whole, given that it articulates future technologies. Despite the significant growth of this industry in Brazil in recent years, such equipment and materials have been presenting a growing deficit in the balance of trade. This incompatibility between national health care needs and the productive and innovative basis of the industry points to structural fragilities in the system. Using the framework of political economy, the article aims to discuss the development of this industry in Brazil and its challenges.

  20. Electrical power generation subsystem for Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, M. F.; Owens, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities, and design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power generation (EPG) subsystem are presented. The Orbiter EPG subsystem is designed to have the flexibility to supply the basic Orbiter electrical loads and the power requirements of the payloads which, in some cases, are completely dependent on the Orbiter for both power and heat rejection. These needs are supplied by three hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powerplants (FCPs), having the capability of providing a total of 14 kW average and up to 24 kW peak in the basic Orbiter configuration. Kits permit dedication of one FCP to the payload by providing an additional reactant tank pair for a seven-day mission and additional heat rejection capability.

  1. Frozen density embedding with non-integer subsystems' particle numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Laricchia, Savio; Della Sala, Fabio

    2014-03-21

    We extend the frozen density embedding theory to non-integer subsystems' particles numbers. Different features of this formulation are discussed, with special concern for approximate embedding calculations. In particular, we highlight the relation between the non-integer particle-number partition scheme and the resulting embedding errors. Finally, we provide a discussion of the implications of the present theory for the derivative discontinuity issue and the calculation of chemical reactivity descriptors.

  2. Functional Analysis for Double Shell Tank (DST) Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-08-22

    This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only.

  3. Stability of subsystem solutions in agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2018-01-01

    The fact that relatively simple entities, such as particles or neurons, or even ants or bees or humans, give rise to fascinatingly complex behaviour when interacting in large numbers is the hallmark of complex systems science. Agent-based models are frequently employed for modelling and obtaining a predictive understanding of complex systems. Since the sheer number of equations that describe the behaviour of an entire agent-based model often makes it impossible to solve such models exactly, Monte Carlo simulation methods must be used for the analysis. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among agents that describe systems in biology, sociology or the humanities often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. This begets the question: when can we be certain that an observed simulation outcome of an agent-based model is actually stable and valid in the large system-size limit? The latter is key for the correct determination of phase transitions between different stable solutions, and for the understanding of the underlying microscopic processes that led to these phase transitions. We show that a satisfactory answer can only be obtained by means of a complete stability analysis of subsystem solutions. A subsystem solution can be formed by any subset of all possible agent states. The winner between two subsystem solutions can be determined by the average moving direction of the invasion front that separates them, yet it is crucial that the competing subsystem solutions are characterised by a proper composition and spatiotemporal structure before the competition starts. We use the spatial public goods game with diverse tolerance as an example, but the approach has relevance for a wide variety of agent-based models.

  4. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyov, S.P.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels

  5. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  6. Photovoltaic subsystem optimization and design tradeoff study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.J.

    1982-03-01

    Tradeoffs and subsystem choices are examined in photovoltaic array subfield design, power-conditioning sizing and selection, roof- and ground-mounted structure installation, energy loss, operating voltage, power conditioning cost, and subfield size. Line- and self-commutated power conditioning options are analyzed to determine the most cost-effective technology in the megawatt power range. Methods for reducing field installation of flat panels and roof mounting of intermediate load centers are discussed, including the cost of retrofit installations.

  7. CAMAC subsystem and user context utilities in ngdp framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The ngdp framework advanced topics are described. Namely, we consider work with CAMAC hardware, 'selfflow' nodes for the data acquisition systems with the As-Soon-As-Possible policy, ng m m(4) as an alternative to ng s ocket(4), the control subsystem, user context utilities, events representation for the ROOT package, test and debug nodes, possible advancements for netgraph(4), etc. It is shown that the ngdp is suitable for building lightweight DAQ systems to handle CAMAC

  8. Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, K.; Raffaelli, C.; Aleksic, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the framework of the EU-funded e-Photon/ONe + network of excellence, Virtual Department on Optical Switching. Technology aspects of photonics in switching and, in particular, recent...... advances in wavelength conversion, ring resonators, and packet switching and processing subsystems are presented as the building blocks for the implementation of a high-performance router for the next-generation Internet....

  9. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  10. Requirements for Risk Assessment Tools for Aircraft Electrical Interconnection Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    vieillissants et le controle] [Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the...safety analysis prior to an aircraft’s introduction to service, changing service profiles, subsystem modification , and unanticipated failure modes may...action may come in the form of operational restrictions, maintenance or inspection requirements, or aircraft modification . In any case, the remedy must

  11. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  12. Deep diode atomic battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, T.R.; Cline, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A deep diode atomic battery is made from a bulk semiconductor crystal containing three-dimensional arrays of columnar and lamellar P-N junctions. The battery is powered by gamma rays and x-ray emission from a radioactive source embedded in the interior of the semiconductor crystal

  13. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  14. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  15. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  16. On DESTINY Science Instrument Electrical and Electronics Subsystem Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept

  17. Process for fabricating articles of tungsten--nickel--iron alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northcutt, W.G. Jr.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A high density W--Ni--Fe alloy of composition 85 to 96 percent by weight W and the remainder Ni and Fe in a wt. ratio of 5:5 to 8:2 having enhanced mechanical properties is prepared by compacting the mixed powders, sintering the compact in reducing atmosphere to near theoretical density followed by further sintering at a temperature where a liquid phase is present, vacuum annealing, and cold working to achieve high uniform hardness. 7 claims

  18. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  19. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  20. Systems and methods for an integrated electrical sub-system powered by wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan [Ballston Lake, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-06-24

    Various embodiments relate to systems and methods related to an integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system including a wind power source, an electrically-powered sub-system coupled to and at least partially powered by the wind power source, the electrically-powered sub-system being coupled to the wind power source through power converters, and a supervisory controller coupled to the wind power source and the electrically-powered sub-system to monitor and manage the integrated electrically-powered sub-system and wind power system.

  1. National Ignition Facility, subsystem design requirements beam control and laser diagnostics SSDR 1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Alignment subsystem (WBS 1.7.1), Beam Diagnostics (WBS 1.7.2), and the Wavefront Control subsystem (WBS 1.7. 3) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3). These three subsystems are collectively referred to as the Beam Control ampersand Laser Diagnostics Subsystem. The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Battery equalization active methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  3. Metal Oxide Nanostructures Generated from In Situ Sacrifice of Zinc in Bimetallic Textures as Flexible Ni/Fe Fast Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Liu, Zhifang; Zhang, Zitong; Xiao, Bangqing; Jin, Yong

    2017-08-04

    An "in situ sacrifice" process was devised in this work as a room-temperature, all-solution processed electrochemical method to synthesize nanostructured NiO x and FeO x directly on current collectors. After electrodepositing NiZn/FeZn bimetallic textures on a copper net, the zinc component is etched and the remnant nickel/iron are evolved into NiO x and FeO x by the "in situ sacrifice" activation we propose. As-prepared electrodes exhibit high areal capacities of 0.47 mA h cm -2 and 0.32 mA h cm -2 , respectively. By integrating NiO x as the cathode, FeO x as the anode, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-KOH gel as the separator/solid-state electrolyte, the assembled quasi-solid-state flexible battery delivers a volumetric capacity of 6.91 mA h cm -3 at 5 mA cm -2 , along with a maximum energy density of 7.40 mWh cm -3 under a power density of 0.27 W cm -3 and a maximum tested power density of 3.13 W cm -3 with a 2.17 mW h cm -3 energy density retention. Our room-temperature synthesis, which only consumes minute electricity, makes it a promising approach for large-scale production. We also emphasize the in situ sacrifice zinc etching process used in this work as a general strategy for metal-based nanostructure growth for high-performance battery materials. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A subsystem identification method based on the path concept with coupling strength estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrans, Francesc Xavier; Poblet-Puig, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    For complex geometries, the definition of the subsystems is not a straightforward task. We present here a subsystem identification method based on the direct transfer matrix, which represents the first-order paths. The key ingredient is a cluster analysis of the rows of the powers of the transfer matrix. These powers represent high-order paths in the system and are more affected than low-order paths by damping. Once subsystems are identified, the proposed approach also provides a quantification of the degree of coupling between subsystems. This information is relevant to decide whether a subsystem may be analysed in a computer model or measured in the laboratory independently of the rest or subsystems or not. The two features (subsystem identification and quantification of the degree of coupling) are illustrated by means of numerical examples: plates coupled by means of springs and rooms connected by means of a cavity.

  5. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  6. Development of the CsI Calorimeter Subsystem for AMEGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Eric; Woolf, Richard; Johnson, W. Neil; Phlips, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    We report on the development of the thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) calorimeter subsystem for the All-Sky Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO). The CsI calorimeter is one of the three main subsystems that comprise the AMEGO instrument suite; the others include the double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) tracker/converter and a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) calorimeter. Similar to the LAT instrument on Fermi, the hodoscopic calorimeter consists of orthogonally layered CsI bars. Unlike the LAT, which uses PIN photodiodes, the scintillation light readout from each end of the CsI bar is done with recently developed large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. We currently have an APRA program to develop the calorimeter technology for a larger, future space-based gamma-ray observatory. Under this program, we are building and testing a prototype calorimeter consisting of 24 CsI bars (16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 100 mm) arranged in 4 layers with 6 bars per layer. The ends of each bar are read out with a 2 x 2 array of 6 mm x 6 mm SensL J series SiPMs. Signal readout and processing is done with the IDEAS SIPHRA (IDE3380) ASIC. Performance testing of this prototype will be done with laboratory sources, a beam test, and a balloon flight in conjunction with the other subsystems led by NASA GSFC. Additionally, we will test 16.7 mm x 16.7 mm x 450 mm CsI bars with SiPM readout to understand the performance of longer bars in advance of the developing the full instrument.Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored by the Chief of Naval Research (CNR) and NASA-APRA (NNH15ZDA001N-APRA).

  7. Architecture of the software for LAMOST fiber positioning subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaobo; Xing, Xiaozheng; Hu, Hongzhuan; Zhai, Chao; Li, Weimin

    2004-09-01

    The architecture of the software which controls the LAMOST fiber positioning sub-system is described. The software is composed of two parts as follows: a main control program in a computer and a unit controller program in a MCS51 single chip microcomputer ROM. And the function of the software includes: Client/Server model establishment, observation planning, collision handling, data transmission, pulse generation, CCD control, image capture and processing, and data analysis etc. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which different parts of the software can communicate. Also software techniques for multi threads, SOCKET programming, Microsoft Windows message response, and serial communications are discussed.

  8. Data Management Applications for the Service Preparation Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Ivy P.; Chang, George W.; Bui, Tung; Allen, Christopher; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie C.; Bui, Bach X.; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Kim, Rachel Y.; Zendejas, Silvino C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    These software applications provide intuitive User Interfaces (UIs) with a consistent look and feel for interaction with, and control of, the Service Preparation Subsystem (SPS). The elements of the UIs described here are the File Manager, Mission Manager, and Log Monitor applications. All UIs provide access to add/delete/update data entities in a complex database schema without requiring technical expertise on the part of the end users. These applications allow for safe, validated, catalogued input of data. Also, the software has been designed in multiple, coherent layers to promote ease of code maintenance and reuse in addition to reducing testing and accelerating maturity.

  9. Bistatic passive radar simulator with spatial filtering subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossa, Robert; Szlachetko, Boguslaw; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Górski, Maksymilian

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the structure and features of the developed virtual passive FM radar implemented in Matlab system of numerical computations and to present many alternative ways of its performance. An idea of the proposed solution is based on analytic representation of transmitted direct signals and reflected echo signals. As a spatial filtering subsystem a beamforming network of ULA and UCA dipole configuration dedicated to bistatic radar concept is considered and computationally efficient procedures are presented in details. Finally, exemplary results of the computer simulations of the elaborated virtual simulator are provided and discussed.

  10. Information measuring subsystem oil pumping station “Parabel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyashina Galina S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information-measurement subsystem oil pumping station (OPS “Parabel”, located on the site of the main pipeline “Alexandrov-Anzhero” (OJSC “AK” Transneft "”. Developed on the basis of a modern microprocessor equipment, automation, as well as high-speed digital data channels. The simple solution to meet the requirements set out in the guidance document "Automation and remote control of trunk pipelines. «General provisions» (RD-35.240.0000-KTN-207-08.

  11. The New York Public Library Automated Book Catalog Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michael Malinconico

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive automated bibliographic control system has been developed by the New York Public Library. This system is unique in its use of an automated authority system and highly sophisticated machine filing algorithms. The primary aim was the rigorous control of established forms and their cross-reference structure. The original impetus for creation of the system, and its most highly visible product, is a photocomposed book catalog. The book catalog subsystem supplies automatic punctuation of condensed entries and contains the ability to pmduce cumulation/ supplement book catalogs in installments without loss of control of the crossreferencing structure.

  12. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  13. The F1 Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) : a Power Subsystem Enabler for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Moreno, Victor; Zimmerman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft carrying the Curiosity rover launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on November 26, 2011. Following an 8.5-month cruise and after a successful Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase, the Curiosity rover arrived at the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012 UTC. At the core of the Curiosity rover power subsystem is the F1 Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) supplied by the Department of Energy. Integration of the F1 MMRTG into the MSL spacecraft has provided the first opportunity to architect a power subsystem that also included a Solar Array (during the cruise phase of the mission and up to the initial stage of the EDL phase) and secondary Li-ion batteries for operation during the planned one Martian year surface phase of the mission. This paper describes the F1 MMRTG functional features as an enabler of the MSL mission and as a novel component of the MSL power subsystem architecture.

  14. Revealing electronic open quantum systems with subsystem TDDFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtal, Alisa; Pavanello, Michele

    2016-03-28

    Open quantum systems (OQSs) are perhaps the most realistic systems one can approach through simulations. In recent years, describing OQSs with Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a prominent avenue of research with most approaches based on a density matrix partitioning in conjunction with an ad-hoc description of system-bath interactions. We propose a different theoretical approach to OQSs based on partitioning of the electron density. Employing the machinery of subsystem DFT (and its time-dependent extension), we provide a novel way of isolating and analyzing the various terms contributing to the coupling between the system and the surrounding bath. To illustrate the theory, we provide numerical simulations on a toy system (a molecular dimer) and on a condensed phase system (solvated excimer). The simulations show that non-Markovian dynamics in the electronic system-bath interactions are important in chemical applications. For instance, we show that the superexchange mechanism of transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is a non-Markovian interaction between the donor-acceptor (OQS) with the bridge (bath) which is fully characterized by real-time subsystem time-dependent DFT.

  15. Optimisation study of a vehicle bumper subsystem with fuzzy parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, L.; Moens, D.; Donders, S.; Vandepitte, D.

    2012-10-01

    This paper deals with the design and optimisation for crashworthiness of a vehicle bumper subsystem, which is a key scenario for vehicle component design. The automotive manufacturers and suppliers have to find optimal design solutions for such subsystems that comply with the conflicting requirements of the regulatory bodies regarding functional performance (safety and repairability) and regarding the environmental impact (mass). For the bumper design challenge, an integrated methodology for multi-attribute design engineering of mechanical structures is set up. The integrated process captures the various tasks that are usually performed manually, this way facilitating the automated design iterations for optimisation. Subsequently, an optimisation process is applied that takes the effect of parametric uncertainties into account, such that the system level of failure possibility is acceptable. This optimisation process is referred to as possibility-based design optimisation and integrates the fuzzy FE analysis applied for the uncertainty treatment in crash simulations. This process is the counterpart of the reliability-based design optimisation used in a probabilistic context with statistically defined parameters (variabilities).

  16. Subsystem eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for entanglement entropy in CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song; Lin, Feng-Li; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2017-08-01

    We investigate a weak version of subsystem eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for a two-dimensional large central charge conformal field theory by comparing the local equivalence of high energy state and thermal state of canonical ensemble. We evaluate the single-interval Rényi entropy and entanglement entropy for a heavy primary state in short interval expansion. We verify the results of Rényi entropy by two different replica methods. We find nontrivial results at the eighth order of short interval expansion, which include an infinite number of higher order terms in the large central charge expansion. We then evaluate the relative entropy of the reduced density matrices to measure the difference between the heavy primary state and thermal state of canonical ensemble, and find that the aforementioned nontrivial eighth order results make the relative entropy unsuppressed in the large central charge limit. By using Pinsker's and Fannes-Audenaert inequalities, we can exploit the results of relative entropy to yield the lower and upper bounds on trace distance of the excited-state and thermal-state reduced density matrices. Our results are consistent with subsystem weak ETH, which requires the above trace distance is of power-law suppression by the large central charge. However, we are unable to pin down the exponent of power-law suppression. As a byproduct we also calculate the relative entropy to measure the difference between the reduced density matrices of two different heavy primary states.

  17. APPLICATION OF SUBSYSTEMS CHANGE RANKING METHODOLOGY IN AIRCRAFT REDESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairuz Izzuddin Romli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Redesigning an aircraft is hardly a straightforward task. Due to its high susceptibility to change effects propagation, it becomes very important to select the right initiating change components to minimize redesign development risks. With realization that there are often several different ways to redesign an existing aircraft for satisfying similar requirements, designers might require assistance in selecting suitable initiating change components in their redesign plan. A methodology that systematically ranks the subsystems of the chosen baseline design according to their estimated redesign risk is proposed here. It is strongly believed that making this information available to designers during the early redesign stages will help them to make a better redesign plan. KEY WORDS: subsystems ranking, aircraft redesign, redesign plan ABSTRAK: Reka semula sesebuah pesawat udara bukanlah satu tugas yang jelas dan mudah. Memandangkan ia mudah rentan terhadap perubahan rambatan, amatlah penting untuk memilih penukaran komponen yang sesuai pada peringkat awal untuk mengurangkan masalah pembangunan reka semula. Menyedari bahawa terdapat beberapa cara untuk mereka semula pesawat udara yang sedia ada, demi memperolehi keputusan keperluan yang serupa dan memberansangkan, pereka wajar mendapatkan bantuan dari segi penukaran komponen yang sesuai pada peringkat awal pembangunan reka semula yang menepati rangka pelan reka bentuk mereka. Metodologi yang sistematik meletakkan subsistem dasar reka bentuk yang dipilih, berdasarkan anggaran risiko reka bentuk semula dicadangkan di dalam kertas kerja ini. Adalah diyakini bahawa dengan memperolehi informasi ini di peringkat permulaan reka bentuk, ia dapat menolong pereka merangka pelan reka cipta yang lebih baik.

  18. On the subsystem formulation of linear-response time-dependent DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Michele

    2013-05-28

    A new and thorough derivation of linear-response subsystem time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is presented and analyzed in detail. Two equivalent derivations are presented and naturally yield self-consistent subsystem TD-DFT equations. One reduces to the subsystem TD-DFT formalism of Neugebauer [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 134116 (2007)]. The other yields Dyson type equations involving three types of subsystem response functions: coupled, uncoupled, and Kohn-Sham. The Dyson type equations for subsystem TD-DFT are derived here for the first time. The response function formalism reveals previously hidden qualities and complications of subsystem TD-DFT compared with the regular TD-DFT of the supersystem. For example, analysis of the pole structure of the subsystem response functions shows that each function contains information about the electronic spectrum of the entire supersystem. In addition, comparison of the subsystem and supersystem response functions shows that, while the correlated response is subsystem additive, the Kohn-Sham response is not. Comparison with the non-subjective partition DFT theory shows that this non-additivity is largely an artifact introduced by the subjective nature of the density partitioning in subsystem DFT.

  19. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  20. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Internet use during childhood and the ecological techno-subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Marie Johnson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research findings suggest both positive and negative developmental consequences of Internet use during childhood (e.g., playing video games have been associated with enhanced visual skills as well as increased aggression. Several studies have concluded that environmental factors mediate the developmental impact of childhood online behaviour. From an ecological perspective, we propose the techno-subsystem, a dimension of the microsystem (i.e., immediate environments. The techno-subsystem includes child interaction with both living (e.g., peers and nonliving (e.g., hardware elements of communication, information, and recreation technologies in direct environments. By emphasizing the role of technology in child development, the ecological techno-subsystem encourages holistic exploration of the developmental consequences of Internet use (and future technological advances during childhood. L’usage d’Internet chez les enfants et le sous-système Techno écologique Résumé : Les résultats de recherche semblent indiquer que l’usage d’Internet chez les enfants aurait des conséquences développementales qui soit à la fois positives et négatives (ex. : l’usage des jeux vidéo auraient été associés à un accroissement des habileté visuelles ainsi qu’à un accroissement de l’agressivité. Plusieurs études ont aussi conclue que l’impact du comportement des enfants quand il sont en ligne sur leur développement serait affecté par des facteurs environnementaux. Dans une perspective écologique, nous proposons le sous-système Techno, une dimension du microsystème (ex :. les environnements immédiats. Le sous-système Techno comprend l’interaction de l’enfant avec des éléments vivants (e. : les paires et non vivants (ex; les ordinateurs de communication, d’information et de technologie de jeux dans des environnements directes.

  2. A development and integration analysis of commercial and in-house control subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.M.; Dalesio, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    The acquisition and integration of commercial automation and control subsystems in physics research is becoming more common. It is presumed these systems present lower risk and less cost. This paper studies four subsystems used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) resonance-control cooling subsystem (RCCS), the high-power RF subsystem and the RFQ vacuum subsystem were outsourced; the low-level RF (LLRF) subsystem was developed in-house. Based on the authors experience a careful evaluation of the costs and risks in acquisition, implementation, integration, and maintenance associated with these approaches is given

  3. The Main Subsystems Involved in Defining the Quality Management System in a Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrea Valentina Alina

    2010-01-01

    The hospital is the most important organization in health field, so they have to improve the quality in all the activities deployed. A very suitable way to show the hospital’s preoccupation for quality of health services is the quality management system certificate according ISO 9001/2000. In understanding the architecture of the hospital quality management system is necessary to decompose this system in subsystems and analyze each separately: the managerial subsystem, the human subsystem, th...

  4. Circulating current battery heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  5. Advanced battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications.

  6. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  7. FireSignal application Node for subsystem control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duarte, A.S.; Santos, B.; Pereira, T.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Neto, A.; Janky, Filip; Cahyna, Pavel; Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 496-499 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Subsystems * CODAC * FireSignal * Java * Remote operation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-4YYGPR8-4&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=899631b6e2f4d05b21b04bde3cfb8e65&searchtype=a

  8. Analysis of subsystems in wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai

    2001-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology together with optical amplification has created a new era for optical communication. Transmission capacity is greatly increased by adding more and more wavelength channels into a single fiber, as well as by increasing the line rate of each channel....... WDM not only can be used to increase transmission capacity, but also to introduce a new dimension to design and implement flexible, reliable, cost effective optical networks. Optical signals may pass through several nodes in the optical network without being terminated and converted into an electrical...... signal. The impairments from the subsystems in an optical network, such as interferometric crosstalk, filtering effect, dispersion in optical components, fiber dispersion and non-linearity, will accumulate and degrade the signal, hence limit the size of the network. Therefore, the study...

  9. Progress report for the scintillator plate calorimeter subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report covers the work completed in FY90 by ANL staff and those of Westinghouse STC and BICRON Corporation under subcontract to ANL towards the design of a compensating calorimeter based on the use of scintillator plate as the sensitive medium. It is presented as five task sections dealing with respectively mechanical design; simulation studies; optical system design; electronics development; development of rad hard plastic scintillator and wavelength shifter and a summary. The work carried out by the University of Tennessee under a subcontract from ANL is reported separately. Finally, as principal institution with responsibility for the overall management of this subsystem effort, the summary here reports the conclusions resulting from the work of the collaboration and their impact on our proposed direction of effort in FY91. This proposal, for obvious reasons is given separately.

  10. Design and construction of the 'Solar One' thermal storage subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friefeld, J. M.; Moore, A. E.; Morgan, G. R.

    The Solar One solar tower power plant thermal storage subsystem for generation during clouded periods and in the evening is detailed. A sensible heat storage technique was selected from various candidates, and consists of a low-cost, stationary rock bed. Charging proceeds by pumping the lower temperature heat transfer fluid (Caloria HT 43) from the bottom of the bed, routing it through a heat exchanger to gain thermal energy from the receiver steam, and returning the fluid to the top of the tank. Temperatures in the tank are maintained at 425-575 F with a pressure of 1465 psia. Design goals include a 148 MWt storage, with a capacity to alloy 7 MWe generation for 4 hr. The tank is 63 ft in diam, 44 ft tall, and contains granite rocks and sand. The flow rate can be varied by a factor of 20 through the use of variable speed pumps. Shakedown tests were being run in 1982.

  11. Mid Infrared Instrument cooler subsystem test facility overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Zan, J.; Hannah, B.; Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Weilert, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Cryocooler for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides cooling at 6.2K on the instrument interface. The cooler system design has been incrementally documented in previous publications [1][2][3][4][5]. It has components that traverse three primary thermal regions on JWST: Region 1, approximated by 40K; Region 2, approximated by 100K; and Region 3, which is at the allowable flight temperatures for the spacecraft bus. However, there are several sub-regions that exist in the transition between primary regions and at the heat reject interfaces of the Cooler Compressor Assembly (CCA) and Cooler Control Electronics Assembly (CCEA). The design and performance of the test facility to provide a flight representative thermal environment for acceptance testing and characterization of the complete MIRI cooler subsystem are presented.

  12. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O'Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal

  13. Fragmented network subsystem with traffic filtering for microkernel environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Urievna Budkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The TCP/IP stack in a microkernel operating system executed in a user space, which requires the development of a distributed network infrastructure within a single software environment. Its functions are the organization of interaction between the components of the stack with different processes, as well as the organization of filtering mechanisms and routing of internal network traffic. Use of architectural approaches applicable in monolithic-modular systems is impossible, because the network stack is not a shareable component of the system. As a consequence, the microkernel environment requires development of special network subsystem. In this work we provide overview of major conceptions of network architectures in microkernel environments. Also, we provide own architecture which supports filtering of internal network traffic. We evaluate the architecture by development of high-performance "key-value" store.

  14. An inverter/controller subsystem optimized for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, R. L.; Merrill, W. C.; Osullivan, G.

    1978-01-01

    Conversion of solar array dc power to ac power stimulated the specification, design, and simulation testing of an inverter/controller subsystem tailored to the photovoltaic power source characteristics. This paper discusses the optimization of the inverter/controller design as part of an overall Photovoltaic Power System (PPS) designed for maximum energy extraction from the solar array. The special design requirements for the inverter/controller include: (1) a power system controller (PSC) to control continuously the solar array operating point at the maximum power level based on variable solar insolation and cell temperatures; and (2) an inverter designed for high efficiency at rated load and low losses at light loadings to conserve energy. It must be capable of operating connected to the utility line at a level set by an external controller (PSC).

  15. LightNVM: The Linux Open-Channel SSD Subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Gonzalez, Javier; Bonnet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    resource utilization. We propose that SSD management trade-offs should be handled through Open-Channel SSDs, a new class of SSDs, that give hosts control over their internals. We present our experience building LightNVM, the Linux Open-Channel SSD subsystem. We introduce a new Physical Page Ad- dress I....../O interface that exposes SSD parallelism and storage media characteristics. LightNVM integrates into traditional storage stacks, while also enabling storage engines to take advantage of the new I/O interface. Our experimental results demonstrate that LightNVM has modest host overhead, that it can be tuned...... to limit read latency variability and that it can be customized to achieve predictable I/O latencies....

  16. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  17. Battery venting system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  18. Functional Performance of an Enabling Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Architecture for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Roman, Monsi C.; Takada, Kevin C.; Miller, Lee A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    A subsystem architecture derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) has been functionally demonstrated. This ISS-derived architecture features re-arranged unit operations for trace contaminant control and carbon dioxide removal functions, a methane purification component as a precursor to enhance resource recovery over ISS capability, operational modifications to a water electrolysis-based oxygen generation assembly, and an alternative major atmospheric constituent monitoring concept. Results from this functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during ground-based testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  19. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume V. Thermal storage subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Design, specifications, and diagrams for the thermal storage subsystem for the 10-MW pilot tower focus power plant are presented in detail. The Honeywell thermal storage subsystem design features a sensible heat storage arrangement using proven equipment and materials. The subsystem consists of a main storage containing oil and rock, two buried superheater tanks containing inorganic salts (Hitec), and the necessary piping, instrumentation, controls, and safety devices. The subsystem can provide 7 MW(e) for three hours after twenty hours of hold. It can be charged in approximately four hours. Storage for the commercial-scale plant consists of the same elements appropriately scaled up. Performance analysis and tradeoff studies are included.

  20. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  1. Battery Monitoring and Charging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thivierge, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    A battery monitoring device for a battery having cells grouped in modules. The device includes a monitoring circuit for each module which monitors the voltage in each cell and the overall module voltage...

  2. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  3. Impact resistant battery enclosure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo; Feng, Yuezhong; Chen, Weinong Wayne; Siegmund, Thomas Heinrich

    2017-10-31

    Battery enclosure arrangements for a vehicular battery system. The arrangements, capable of impact resistance include plurality of battery cells and a plurality of kinetic energy absorbing elements. The arrangements further include a frame configured to encase the plurality of the kinetic energy absorbing elements and the battery cells. In some arrangements the frame and/or the kinetic energy absorbing elements can be made of topologically interlocked materials.

  4. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  5. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  6. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  7. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  8. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  9. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  10. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  11. Approaches and Tools Used to Teach the Computer Input/Output Subsystem: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraza-Mendiluze, Edurne; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys how the computer input/output (I/O) subsystem is taught in introductory undergraduate courses. It is important to study the educational process of the computer I/O subsystem because, in the curricula recommendations, it is considered a core topic in the area of knowledge of computer architecture and organization (CAO). It is…

  12. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN Subsystem, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    1986-01-01

    Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.

  13. Independent operation by subsystems: Strategic behavior for the Brazilian electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido Tapia Carpio, Lucio; Olimpio Pereira, Amaro

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the competitive strategies of the subsystems in the Brazilian electricity sector. The objective is to present a model in which the operation of each subsystem is managed independently. As the subsystems correspond to the country's geographic regions, the adoption of this model creates conditions for each region to develop according to its own peculiarities. The decision-making process is described based Game Theory. As such, the players or operators of each subsystem carry out their strategies based on the quantities produced, which results in Nash-Cournot equilibrium. In this model, the importance of the proper transmission line dimensioning is highlighted. It determines the competition level among subsystems and allows for optimization of the whole system without requiring arrangements for managing the congestion of the energy transportation grid. The model was programmed in FORTRAN, using IBM's optimization subroutine library (OSL) package

  14. The Design and Analysis Program for the Development of LEO Satellite Electrical Power Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kon Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and analysis of satellite power subsystem is an important driver for the mass, size, and capability of the satellite. Every other satellite subsystem is affected by the power subsystem, and in particular, important issues such as launch vehicle selection, thermal design, and structural design are largely influenced by the capabilities and limitations of the power system. This paper introduces a new electrical power subsystem design program for the rapid development of LEO satellite and shows an example of design results using other LEO satellite design data. The results shows that the proposed design program can be used the optimum sizing and the analytical prediction of the on-orbit performance of satellite electrical power subsystem.

  15. Default Mode Network Subsystems are Differentially Disrupted in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Danielle R; Hayes, Scott M; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Lafleche, Ginette; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2017-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by debilitating re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms following trauma exposure. Recent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD show disrupted functional connectivity in the default mode network, an intrinsic network that consists of a midline core, a medial temporal lobe (MTL) subsystem, and a dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) subsystem. The present study examined whether functional connectivity in these subsystems is differentially disrupted in PTSD. Sixty-nine returning war Veterans with PTSD and 44 trauma-exposed Veterans without PTSD underwent resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). To examine functional connectivity, seeds were placed in the core hubs of the default mode network, namely the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and anterior medial PFC (aMPFC), and in each subsystem. Compared to controls, individuals with PTSD had reduced functional connectivity between the PCC and the hippocampus, a region of the MTL subsystem. Groups did not differ in connectivity between the PCC and dMPFC subsystem or between the aMPFC and any region within either subsystem. In the PTSD group, connectivity between the PCC and hippocampus was negatively associated with avoidance/numbing symptoms. Examination of the MTL and dMPFC subsystems revealed reduced anticorrelation between the ventromedial PFC (vMPFC) seed of the MTL subsystem and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the PTSD group. Our results suggest that selective alterations in functional connectivity in the MTL subsystem of the default mode network in PTSD may be an important factor in PTSD pathology and symptomatology.

  16. Custom electronic subsystems for the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Rowe, J.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Zimmermann, S.D. (TeleRobotics International, Inc., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program presents new opportunities for the application of telerobotic and robotic systems. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) is a highly advanced 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) telerobotic/robotic manipulator. It was developed and built for the Automation Technology Branch at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) for work in research and to demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware and software systems for future NASA applications in the hazardous environment of space. The LTM manipulator uses an embedded wiring design with all electronics, motor power, and control and communication cables passing through the pitch-yaw differential joints. This design requires the number of cables passing through the pitch/yaw joint to be kept to a minimum. To eliminate the cables needed to carry each pitch-yaw joint's sensor data to the VME control computers, a custom-embedded electronics package for each manipulator joint was developed. The electronics package collects and sends the joint's sensor data to the VME control computers over a fiber optic cable. The electronics package consist of five individual subsystems: the VME Link Processor, the Joint Processor and the Joint Processor power supply in the joint module, the fiber optics communications system, and the electronics and motor power cabling. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Verification of the SENTINEL-4 Focal Plane Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williges, C.; Hohn, R.; Rossmann, H.; Hilbert, S.; Uhlig, M.; Buchwinkler, K.; Reulke, R.

    2017-05-01

    The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS) on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs), one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm), the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm). In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM) which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM) verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC) for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.

  18. VERIFICATION OF THE SENTINEL-4 FOCAL PLANE SUBSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Williges

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs, one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm, the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm. In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.

  19. Global Chassis Control System Using Suspension, Steering, and Braking Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vivas-Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Global Chassis Control (GCC system based on a multilayer architecture with three levels: top: decision layer, middle: control layer, and bottom: system layer is presented. The main contribution of this work is the development of a data-based classification and coordination algorithm, into a single control problem. Based on a clustering technique, the decision layer classifies the current driving condition. Afterwards, heuristic rules are used to coordinate the performance of the considered vehicle subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking using local controllers hosted in the control layer. The control allocation system uses fuzzy logic controllers. The performance of the proposed GCC system was evaluated under different standard tests. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed system compared to an uncontrolled vehicle and a vehicle with a noncoordinated control. The proposed system decreases by 14% the braking distance in the hard braking test with respect to the uncontrolled vehicle, the roll and yaw movements are reduced by 10% and 12%, respectively, in the Double Line Change test, and the oscillations caused by load transfer are reduced by 7% in a cornering situation.

  20. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2010-10-20

    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  1. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  2. Upgrade of ESO's FIERA CCD Controller and PULPO Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Moreno, J.; Geimer, C.; Balestra, A.; Haddad, N.

    An overview of FIERA is presented with emphasis on its recent upgrade to PCI. The PCI board hosts two DSPs, one for real time control of the camera and another for on-the-fly processing of the incoming video data. In addition, the board is able to make DMA transfers, to synchronize to other boards alike, to be synchronized by a TIM bus and to control PULPO via RS232. The design is based on the IOP480 chip from PLX, for which we have developed a device driver for both Solaris and Linux. One computer is able to host more than one board and therefore can control an array of FIERA detector electronics. PULPO is a multifunctional subsystem widely used at ESO for the housekeeping of CCD cryostat heads and for shutter control. The upgrade of PULPO is based on an embedded PC running Linux. The upgraded PULPO is able to handle 29 temperature sensors, control 8 heaters and one shutter, read out one vacuum sensor and log any combination of parameters.

  3. Remote Operations of the Deep Space Network Radio Science Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetta, J.; Asmar, S.; Abbate, S.; Connally, M.; Goltz, G.

    1998-04-01

    The capability for scientists to remotely control systems located at the Deep Space Network facilities only recently has been incorporated in the design and implementation of new equipment. However, time lines for the implementation, distribution, and operational readiness of such systems can extend much farther into the future than the users can wait. The Radio Science Systems Group was faced with just that circumstance; new hardware was not scheduled to become operational for several years, but the increasing number of experiments and configurations for Cassini, Galileo, Mars missions, and other flight projects made that time frame impractical because of the associated increasing risk of not acquiring critical data. Therefore, a method of interfacing with the current radio science subsystem has been developed and used with a high degree of success, although with occasional problems due to this capability not having been originally designed into the system. This article discusses both the method and the problems involved in integrating this new (remote) method of control with a legacy system.

  4. Gauge subsystems, separability and robustness in autonomous quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Quantum error correction provides a fertile context for exploring the interplay of feedback control, microscopic physics and non-commutative probability. In this paper we deepen our understanding of this nexus through high-level analysis of a class of quantum memory models that we have previously proposed, which implement continuous-time versions of well-known stabilizer codes in autonomous nanophotonic circuits that require no external clocking or control. We demonstrate that the presence of the gauge subsystem in the nine-qubit Bacon–Shor code allows for a loss-tolerant layout of the corresponding nanophotonic circuit that substantially ameliorates the effects of optical propagation losses, argue that code separability allows for simplified restoration feedback protocols, and propose a modified fidelity metric for quantifying the performance of realistic quantum memories. Our treatment of these topics exploits the homogeneous modeling framework of autonomous nanophotonic circuits, but the key ideas translate to the traditional setting of discrete time, measurement-based quantum error correction. (paper)

  5. The RAST Server: Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Ross A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of prokaryotic genome sequences becoming available is growing steadily and is growing faster than our ability to accurately annotate them. Description We describe a fully automated service for annotating bacterial and archaeal genomes. The service identifies protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes, assigns functions to the genes, predicts which subsystems are represented in the genome, uses this information to reconstruct the metabolic network and makes the output easily downloadable for the user. In addition, the annotated genome can be browsed in an environment that supports comparative analysis with the annotated genomes maintained in the SEED environment. The service normally makes the annotated genome available within 12–24 hours of submission, but ultimately the quality of such a service will be judged in terms of accuracy, consistency, and completeness of the produced annotations. We summarize our attempts to address these issues and discuss plans for incrementally enhancing the service. Conclusion By providing accurate, rapid annotation freely to the community we have created an important community resource. The service has now been utilized by over 120 external users annotating over 350 distinct genomes.

  6. Modeling for Battery Prognostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Goebel, Kai; Khasin, Michael; Hogge, Edward; Quach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For any battery-powered vehicles (be it unmanned aerial vehicles, small passenger aircraft, or assets in exoplanetary operations) to operate at maximum efficiency and reliability, it is critical to monitor battery health as well performance and to predict end of discharge (EOD) and end of useful life (EOL). To fulfil these needs, it is important to capture the battery's inherent characteristics as well as operational knowledge in the form of models that can be used by monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic algorithms. Several battery modeling methodologies have been developed in last few years as the understanding of underlying electrochemical mechanics has been advancing. The models can generally be classified as empirical models, electrochemical engineering models, multi-physics models, and molecular/atomist. Empirical models are based on fitting certain functions to past experimental data, without making use of any physicochemical principles. Electrical circuit equivalent models are an example of such empirical models. Electrochemical engineering models are typically continuum models that include electrochemical kinetics and transport phenomena. Each model has its advantages and disadvantages. The former type of model has the advantage of being computationally efficient, but has limited accuracy and robustness, due to the approximations used in developed model, and as a result of such approximations, cannot represent aging well. The latter type of model has the advantage of being very accurate, but is often computationally inefficient, having to solve complex sets of partial differential equations, and thus not suited well for online prognostic applications. In addition both multi-physics and atomist models are computationally expensive hence are even less suited to online application An electrochemistry-based model of Li-ion batteries has been developed, that captures crucial electrochemical processes, captures effects of aging, is computationally efficient

  7. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  8. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  9. The nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.; Rosinger, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work. 19 refs

  10. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  11. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  12. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  13. Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. III. Thermal energy storage subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, A.Z.; Sokolow, B.B.; Daniels, J.; Hurt, P.

    1979-10-01

    The effects of the use of thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems in solar thermal power systems (STPS) on operating failures and on worker health and safety are examined. Revelant near- and medium-term designs for TES subsystems are reviewed. Generic failure events are considered by an event tree methodology. Three generic categories of initiating events are identified which can lead to release of storage fluids and other hazards. Three TES subsystem designs are selected for, and subjected to, analysis. A fluid release event tree for a sensible heat TES subsystem using mixed media organic oil/crushed rock and sand, designed for the Barstow, CA, 10 MWe pilot plant, is developed. Toxicology and flammability hazards are considered. The effect of component failures, including ullage and fluid maintenance units, on subsystem safety is considered. A latent heat subsystem using NaNO/sub 3//NaOH as the working medium is studied, and relevant failure events delineated. Mechanical equipment failures including the scraped wall heat exchangers, are examined. Lastly, a thermochemical TES subsystem using SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ interconversion is considered. Principle hazards identified include mechanical failures and storage fluid release. The integrity of the system is found to depend on catalyst and heat exchanger reliability. Dynamic response to off-normal system events is considered.

  14. A Review of Singing Voice Subsystem Interactions-Toward an Extended Physiological Model of "Support".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T

    2017-03-01

    During phonation, the respiratory, the phonatory, and the resonatory parts of the voice organ can interact, where physiological action in one subsystem elicits a direct effect in another. Here, three major subsystems of these synergies are reviewed, creating a model of voice subsystem interactions: (1) Vocal tract adjustments can influence the behavior of the voice source via nonlinear source-tract interactions; (2) The type and degree of vocal fold adduction controls the expiratory airflow rate; and (3) The tracheal pull caused by the respiratory system affects the vertical larynx position and thus the vocal tract resonances. The relevance of the presented model is discussed, suggesting, among others, that functional voice building work concerned with a particular voice subsystem may evoke side effects or benefits on other subsystems, even when having a clearly defined and isolated physiological target. Finally, four seemingly incongruous historic definitions of the concept of singing voice "support" are evaluated, showing how each of these pertain to different voice subsystems at various levels of detail. It is argued that presumed discrepancies between these definitions can be resolved by putting them into the wider context of the subsystem interaction model presented here, thus offering a framework for reviewing and potentially refining some current and historical pedagogical approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Simple Estimation of Coupling Loss Factors for Two Flexible Subsystems Connected via Discrete Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple formula is proposed to estimate the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA coupling loss factors (CLFs for two flexible subsystems connected via discrete interfaces. First, the dynamic interactions between two discretely connected subsystems are described as a set of intermodal coupling stiffness terms. It is then found that if both subsystems are of high modal density and meanwhile the interface points all act independently, the intermodal dynamic couplings become dominated by only those between different subsystem mode sets. If ensemble- and frequency-averaged, the intermodal coupling stiffness terms can simply reduce to a function of the characteristic dynamic properties of each subsystem and the subsystem mass, as well as the number of interface points. The results can thus be accommodated within the theoretical frame of conventional SEA theory to yield a simple CLF formula. Meanwhile, the approach allows the weak coupling region between the two SEA subsystems to be distinguished simply and explicitly. The consistency and difference of the present technique with and from the traditional wave-based SEA solutions are discussed. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the good performance of the present technique.

  16. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  17. Superconducting Super Collider silicon tracking subsystem research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Thompson, T.C.; Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The Alamos National Laboratory Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division has been investigating silicon-based elementary particle tracking device technology as part of the Superconducting Super Collider-sponsored silicon subsystem collaboration. Structural, materials, and thermal issues have been addressed. This paper explores detector structural integrity and stability, including detailed finite element models of the silicon wafer support and predictive methods used in designing with advanced composite materials. The current design comprises a magnesium metal matrix composite (MMC) truss space frame to provide a sparse support structure for the complex array of silicon detectors. This design satisfies the 25-μm structural stability requirement in a 10-Mrad radiation environment. This stability is achieved without exceeding the stringent particle interaction constraints set at 2.5% of a radiation length. Materials studies have considered thermal expansion, elastic modulus, resistance to radiation and chemicals, and manufacturability of numerous candidate materials. Based on optimization of these parameters, the MMC space frame will possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) near zero to avoid thermally induced distortions, whereas the cooling rings, which support the silicon detectors and heat pipe network, will probably be constructed of a graphite/epoxy composite whose CTE is engineered to match that of silicon. Results from radiation, chemical, and static loading tests are compared with analytical predictions and discussed. Electronic thermal loading and its efficient dissipation using heat pipe cooling technology are discussed. Calculations and preliminary designs for a sprayed-on graphite wick structure are presented. A hydrocarbon such as butane appears to be a superior choice of heat pipe working fluid based on cooling, handling, and safety criteria

  18. System, subsystem, hive: boundary problems in computational theories of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Fekete

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A computational theory of consciousness should include a quantitative measure of consciousness, or MoC, that (i would reveal to what extent a given system is conscious, (ii would make it possible to compare not only different systems, but also the same system at different times, and (iii would be graded, because so is consciousness. However, unless its design is properly constrained, such an MoC gives rise to what we call the boundary problem: an MoC that labels a system as conscious will do so for some – perhaps most – of its subsystems, as well as for irrelevantly extended systems (e.g., the original system augmented with physical appendages that contribute nothing to the properties supposedly supporting consciousness, and for aggregates of individually conscious systems (e.g., groups of people. This problem suggests that the properties that are being measured are epiphenomenal to consciousness, or else it implies a bizarre proliferation of minds. We propose that a solution to the boundary problem can be found by identifying properties that are intrinsic or systemic: properties that clearly differentiate between systems whose existence is a matter of fact, as opposed to those whose existence is a matter of interpretation (in the eye of the beholder. We argue that if a putative MoC can be shown to be systemic, this ipso facto resolves any associated boundary issues. As test cases, we analyze two recent theories of consciousness in light of our definitions: the Integrated Information Theory and the Geometric Theory of consciousness.

  19. Nuclear battery materials and application of nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Shaochang; Lu Zhenming; Fu Xiaoming; Liang Tongxiang

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea, polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized. (authors)

  20. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I final report - Subsystem response (Project V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, L.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    This document reports on (1) the computation of the responses of subsystems, given the input subsystem support motion for components and systems whose failure can lead to an accident sequence (radioactive release), and (2) the results of a sensitivity study undertaken to determine the contributions of the several links in the seismic methodology chain (SMC) - seismic input (SI), soil-structure interaction (SSI), structure response (STR), and subsystem response (SUB) - to the uncertainty in subsystem response. For the singly supported subsystems (e.g., pumps, turbines, electrical control panels, etc.), we used the spectral acceleration response of the structure at the point where the subsystem components were mounted. For the multiple supported subsystems, we developed 13 piping models of five safety-related systems, and then used the pseudostatic-mode method with multisupport input motion to compute the response parameters in terms of the parameters used in the fragility descriptions (i.e., peak resultant accelerations for valves and peak resultant moments for piping). Damping and frequency were varied to represent the sources of modeling and random uncertainty. Two codes were developed: a modified version of SAPIV which assembles the piping supports into groups depending on the support's location relative to the attached structure, and SAPPAC a stand-alone modular program from which the time-history analysis module is extracted. On the basis of our sensitivity study, we determined that the variability in the combined soil-structure interaction, structural response, and subsystem response areas contribute more to uncertainty in subsystem response than does the variability in the seismic input area, assuming an earthquake within the limited peak ground acceleration range, i.e., 0.15 to 0.30g. The seismic input variations were in terms of different earthquake time histories. (author)

  1. Age Differences in the Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Default Network Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eCampbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the default mode network (DMN includes two core regions, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and several unique subsystems that are functionally distinct. These include a medial temporal lobe (MTL subsystem, active during remembering and future projection, and a dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC subsystem, active during self-reference. The PCC has been further subdivided into ventral (vPCC and dorsal (dPCC regions that are more strongly connected with the DMN and cognitive control networks, respectively. The goal of this study was to examine age differences in resting state functional connectivity within these subsystems. After applying a rigorous procedure to reduce the effects of head motion, we used a multivariate technique to identify both common and unique patterns of functional connectivity in the MTL vs. the dmPFC, and in vPCC vs. dPCC. All four areas had robust functional connectivity with other DMN regions, and each also showed distinct connectivity patterns in both age groups. Young and older adults had equivalent functional connectivity in the MTL subsystem. Older adults showed weaker connectivity in the vPCC and dmPFC subsystems, particularly with other DMN areas, but stronger connectivity than younger adults in the dPCC subsystem, which included areas involved in cognitive control. Our data provide evidence for distinct subsystems involving DMN nodes, which are maintained with age. Nevertheless, there are age differences in the strength of functional connectivity within these subsystems, supporting prior evidence that DMN connectivity is particularly vulnerable to age, whereas connectivity involving cognitive control regions is relatively maintained. These results suggest an age difference in the integrated activity among brain networks that can have implications for cognition in older adults.

  2. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  3. Work Plan for Updating Double Shell Tank (DST) Sub-System Specifications (TBR 120.020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRENARD, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The DST System stores waste from the processing of nuclear material at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The program to dispose of this waste has been divided into several phases with Phase 1 being the demonstration of the waste disposal technology by a private contractor. Subsystem specifications are being prepared providing requirements for the subsystems that are necessary for the continued safe storage of waste in the DST System and the removal of selected waste for processing by the privatized facility during Phase 1. This document provides the detailed plans for updating subsystem specifications developed during EY99

  4. Spectrometer control subsystem with high level functionality for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    We have developed a subsystem capable of controlling stepping motors in a wide variety of vuv and x-ray spectrometers to be used at the National Sychrotron Light Source. The subsystem is capable of controlling up to 15 motors with encoder readback and ramped acceleration/deceleration. Both absolute and incremental encoders may be used in any mixture. Function commands to the subsystem are communicated via ASCII characters over an asynchronous serial link in a well-defined protocol in decipherable English. Thus the unit can be controlled via write statements in a high-level language. Details of hardware implementation will be presented

  5. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  6. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  7. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  8. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    company, Yardney Technical Products, is a potential supplier of lithium systems to the military but, to date, has not produced any batteries . The...small,3 single pimary cell batteries used in commercial electoic devices. Yardney Technical Products, Inc. and BST Systems are the North Americ-m...primary reserve silver zinc batteries , there are three main suppliers - Yardney , Whittaker, and Eagle-Picher. Commercial primary silver zinc cells are

  9. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  11. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  12. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  13. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery...

  14. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  15. Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat...... exchangers with superior performance for further analysis. In this work, the on-design performances of the 4 heat exchangers are more thoroughly assessed on their corresponding optimized subsystem configurations. Afterward, their off-design performances are compared on the whole working range of the fuel...... modules are now connected into branches. The procedures of designing and optimizing this TE exhaust heat recovery subsystem are drawn out. The contribution of TE exhaust heat recovery to the HT-PEM fuel cell power system is preliminarily concluded. Its feasibility is also discussed....

  16. General-purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem with standard asynchronous serial-line interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.; Alberi, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A general-purpose mechanical positioning subsystem for open-loop control of experiment devices which have their positions established and read out by stepping motor-encoder combinations has been developed. The subsystem is to be used mainly for experiments to be conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The subsystem unit has been designed to be compatible with a wide variety of stepping motor and encoder types. The unit may be operated by any device capable of driving a standard RS-232-C asynchronous serial communication line. An informal survey has shown that several experiments at the Light Source will use one particular type of computer, operating system, and programming language. Accordingly, a library of subroutines compatible with this combination of computer system elements has been written to facilitate driving the positioning subsystem unit

  17. Feasibility Studies of Surveillance, Communication, and Data Processing Subsystems for Advanced Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Analyses are made of waveforms, parameters, codes, error rates, and multi-access noise for proposed communications and surveillance subsystems to be useful for air traffic control in the 1990-2000 time period. The systems represented in these analyse...

  18. A membrane-based subsystem for very high recoveries of spacecraft waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Roderick J.; Retzlaff, Sandra E.; Radke-Mitchell, Lyn; Newbold, David D.; Price, Donald F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of a membrane-based subsystem designed to recover up to 99.5 percent of the water from various spacecraft waste waters. Specifically discussed are: (1) the design and fabrication of an energy-efficient reverse-osmosis (RO) breadboard subsystem; (2) data showing the performance of this subsystem when operated on a synthetic wash-water solution - including the results of a 92-day test; and (3) the results of pasteurization studies, including the design and operation of an in-line pasteurizer. Also included in this paper is a discussion of the design and performance of a second RO stage. This second stage results in higher-purity product water at a minimal energy requirement and provides a substantial redundancy factor to this subsystem.

  19. VG2 URANUS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER SUBSYSTEM 3 RDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reformatted records derived from data returned by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer Subsystem on board Voyager 2 during the Uranus...

  20. Failure data analysis of the SuperHILAC radio frequency subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.K.

    1978-12-01

    This report is a continuation of an earlier report by Liang with emphasis now on the Radio Frequency subsystem and its components, using current and improved data. It was stated in Liang's report that improvement in overall SuperHILAC availability, which must be very high for medical purposes, is best made by improving subsystems that are needed in all modes of operation. Two such subsystems were Radio Frequency (RF) and Other, with relatively low availabilities of .96 and .93 respectively. Since subsystem Other is not well defined, the RF became the object of this investigation. It was hoped that the components of the RF would show properties that were obscured at the higher level. The analytic procedure of this report is essentially identical to that in the earlier report, except that an operating period analysis is added

  1. VG2 NEPTUNE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER SUBSYSTEM 3 RDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reformatted records derived from data returned by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer Subsystem on board Voyager 2 during the Neptune...

  2. An optical scanning subsystem for a UAS-enabled hyperspectral radiometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hyperspectral radiometers will be integrated with an optical scanning subsystem to measure remote sensing reflectance spectra over the ocean.  The entire scanning...

  3. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional construction of digital dynamic system simulations often involves collecting differential equations that model each subsystem, arran g them to a standard form, and obtaining their numerical gin solution as a single coupled, total-system simultaneous set. Simulation by numerical coupling of independent stand-alone subsimulations is a fundamentally different approach that is attractive because, among other things, the architecture naturally facilitates high fidelity, broad scope, and discipline independence. Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a candidate approach to multidiscipline dynamic system simulation by numerical coupling of self-contained, single-discipline subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Distributed and centralized implementations of coupling have been considered. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  4. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  5. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the system lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. ...

  6. Behavioral modelling and identification of power electronics converters and subsystems based on transient response

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia Guerrero, Virgilio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, electrical engineers face significant changes in the way the electrical energy is generated and distributed to the consumers. On the one hand, the number of electronic and electrical loads in power distribution systems is continuously growing. Developments in power electronics technology during last decades have enabled the use of power-electronics-based subsystems as an alternative to mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic subsystems, looking for more reliable and light systems, and a...

  7. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem Definition Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The description of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem presented in this document was developed to establish its boundaries. The DST Maintenance and Recovery Subsystem consists of new and existing equipment and facilities used to provide tank farm operators logistic support and problem resolution for the DST System during operations. This support will include evaluating equipment status, performing preventive and corrective maintenance, developing work packages, managing spares and consumables, supplying tooling, and training maintenance and operations personnel

  8. Assessment of airframe-subsystems synergy on overall aircraft performance in a Collaborative Design Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Prakasha, Prajwal; Ciampa, Pier Davide

    2016-01-01

    A Collaborative Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology is presented, which uses physics based analysis to evaluate the correlations between the airframe design and its sub-systems integration from the early design process, and to exploit the synergies within a simultaneous optimization process. Further, the disciplinary analysis modules involved in the optimization task are located in different organization. Hence, the Airframe and Subsystem design tools are integrated within...

  9. Policy Subsystem Portfolio Management: A Neural Network Model of the Gulf of Mexico Program

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, George Richard

    1999-01-01

    This study provides insights into the behavior of an environmental policy subsystem. The study uses neural network theory to model the Gulf of Mexico Program's allocation of implementation funds. The Gulf of Mexico Program is a prototype effort to institutionalize a policy subsystem. A project implementation fund is at the core of the Gulf of Mexico Program. The United States Environmental Protection Agency provides the implementation fund and the Mexico Program Office (GMPO) administers it. ...

  10. Protective and control relays as coal-mine power-supply ACS subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, V. N.; Minakova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents instantaneous selective short-circuit protection for the cabling of the underground part of a coal mine and central control algorithms as a Coal-Mine Power-Supply ACS Subsystem. In order to improve the reliability of electricity supply and reduce the mining equipment down-time, a dual channel relay protection and central control system is proposed as a subsystem of the coal-mine power-supply automated control system (PS ACS).

  11. Exploring relationships of human-automation interaction consequences on pilots: uncovering subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Stearman, Eric J; Morrow, Daniel G; Mosier, Kathleen L; Fischer, Ute; Pop, Vlad L; Feigh, Karen M

    2015-05-01

    We attempted to understand the latent structure underlying the systems pilots use to operate in situations involving human-automation interaction (HAI). HAI is an important characteristic of many modern work situations. Of course, the cognitive subsystems are not immediately apparent by observing a functioning system, but correlations between variables may reveal important relations. The current report examined pilot judgments of 11 HAI dimensions (e.g., Workload, Task Management, Stress/Nervousness, Monitoring Automation, and Cross-Checking Automation) across 48 scenarios that required airline pilots to interact with automation on the flight deck. We found three major clusters of the dimensions identifying subsystems on the flight deck: a workload subsystem, a management subsystem, and an awareness subsystem. Relationships characterized by simple correlations cohered in ways that suggested underlying subsystems consistent with those that had previously been theorized. Understanding the relationship among dimensions affecting HAI is an important aspect in determining how a new piece of automation designed to affect one dimension will affect other dimensions as well. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Design and implementation of the GPS subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangelo, Sara C.; Bennett, Matthew W.; Meinzer, Daniel C.; Klesh, Andrew T.; Arlas, Jessica A.; Cutler, James W.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) subsystem for the Radio Aurora eXplorer (RAX) CubeSat. The GPS subsystem provides accurate temporal and spatial information necessary to satisfy the science objectives of the RAX mission. There are many challenges in the successful design and implementation of a GPS subsystem for a CubeSat-based mission, including power, size, mass, and financial constraints. This paper presents an approach for selecting and testing the individual and integrated GPS subsystem components, including the receiver, antenna, low noise amplifier, and supporting circuitry. The procedures to numerically evaluate the GPS link budget and test the subsystem components at various stages of system integration are described. Performance results for simulated tests in the terrestrial and orbital environments are provided, including start-up times, carrier-to-noise ratios, and orbital position accuracy. Preliminary on-orbit GPS results from the RAX-1 and RAX-2 spacecraft are presented to validate the design process and pre-flight simulations. Overall, this paper provides a systematic approach to aid future satellite designers in implementing and verifying GPS subsystems for resource-constrained small satellites.

  13. Hornets Have It: A Conserved Olfactory Subsystem for Social Recognition in Hymenoptera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Couto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eusocial Hymenoptera colonies are characterized by the presence of altruistic individuals, which rear their siblings instead of their own offspring. In the course of evolution, such sterile castes are thought to have emerged through the process of kin selection, altruistic traits being transmitted to following generation if they benefit relatives. By allowing kinship recognition, the detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs might be instrumental for kin selection. In carpenter ants, a female-specific olfactory subsystem processes CHC information through antennal detection by basiconic sensilla. It is still unclear if other families of eusocial Hymenoptera use the same subsystem for sensing CHCs. Here, we examined the existence of such a subsystem in Vespidae (using the hornet Vespa velutina, a family in which eusociality emerged independently of ants. The antennae of both males and female hornets contain large basiconic sensilla. Sensory neurons from the large basiconic sensilla exclusively project to a conspicuous cluster of small glomeruli in the antennal lobe, with anatomical and immunoreactive features that are strikingly similar to those of the ant CHC-sensitive subsystem. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings further show that sensory neurons within hornet basiconic sensilla preferentially respond to CHCs. Although this subsystem is not female-specific in hornets, the observed similarities with the olfactory system of ants are striking. They suggest that the basiconic sensilla subsystem could be an ancestral trait, which may have played a key role in the advent of eusociality in these hymenopteran families by allowing kin recognition and the production of altruistic behaviors toward relatives.

  14. Batteries: Polymers switch for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Ensuring safety during operation is a major issue in the development of lithium-ion batteries. Coating the electrode current collector with thermoresponsive polymer composites is now shown to rapidly shut the battery down when it overheats, and to quickly resume its function when normal operating conditions return

  15. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  16. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  17. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Argent-Katwala, Ashok; Dingle, Nicholas J.; Harder, Uli

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  18. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  19. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  20. Integrated sizing and scheduling of wind/PV/diesel/battery isolated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malheiro, André

    2015-05-22

    In this paper we address the optimal sizing and scheduling of isolated hybrid systems using an optimization framework. The hybrid system features wind and photovoltaic conversion systems, batteries and diesel backup generators to supply electricity demand. A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming formulation is used to model system behavior over a time horizon of one year, considering hourly changes in both the availability of renewable resources and energy demand. The optimal solution is achieved with respect to the minimization of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) over a lifetime of 20 years. Results for a case study show that the most economical solution features all four postulated subsystems. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Lead/acid battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.; Peters, K.; Prengaman, R. D.; Valeriote, E. M.

    Following the schedule of previous Asian Battery Conferences, the Proceedings closed with an expert panel of battery scientists and technologists who answered questions put by the assembled delegates. The subjects under consideration were as follows. Grid alloys: grain structure of lead-calcium and lead-calcium-tin alloys; dross problems; control of calcium content; cast-on-strap; terminal-post attack; porosity/acid-wicking problems; effect of silver; lead-cadmium alloys. Leady oxide: α-PbO:β-PbO ratio; influence on plate-processing and battery performance. Paste-mixing and curing: influence of amorphous material. Plate formation: black/powdery plates; effect of acid concentration; charge level. Valve-regulated batteries: mass balances; grid thickness; shelf life. Battery charging: overcharge effects; fast charging; temperature effects; string configurations; sodium sulfate additive.

  2. Battery selection for space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  3. The Soil Degradation Subsystem of the Hungarian Environmental Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, József; Pirkó, Béla; Szabóné Kele, Gabriella; Dombos, Miklós; László, Péter; Koós, Sándor; Bakacsi, Zsófia; Laborczi, Annamária; Pásztor, László

    2013-04-01

    Regular data collection on the state of agricultural soils has not been in operation in Hungary for more than two decades. In the meantime, mainly thanks to the Hungarian Soil Strategy and the planned Soil Framework Directive, the demand for the information on state of Hungarian soils and the follow up of the harmful changes in their conditions and functioning has greatly increased. In 2010 the establishment of a new national soil monitoring system was supported by the Environment and Energy Operational Programme for Informatics Development. The aim of the project was to collect, manage, analyse and publish soil data related to the state of soils and the environmental stresses attributed to the pressures due to agriculture; setting up an appropriate information system in order to fulfil the directives of the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. Further objective was the web-based publication of soil data as well as information to support the related public service mission and to inform publicity. The developed information system operates as the Soil Degradation Subsystem of the National Environmental Information System being compatible with its other elements. A suitable representative sampling method was elaborated. The representativity is meant for soil associations, landuse, agricultural practices and typical degradation processes. Soil data were collected on county levels led by regional representatives but altogether they are representative for the whole territory of Hungary. During the project, about 700,000 elementary data were generated, close to 2,000 parcels of 285 farms were surveyed resulting more than 9,000 analysis, 7,000 samples and 28,000 pictures. The overall number of the recorded parcels is 4500, with a total area of about 250,000 hectares. The effect of agricultural land use on soils manifests in rapid changes -related to natural processes- in qualitative and quantitative soil parameters. In intensively used agricultural areas, particularly

  4. Battery Aging, Battery Charging and the Kinetic Battery Model : A First Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Bertrand, Nathalie; Bortolussi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are omnipresent and will be used more and more, for instance for wearables devices, electric vehicles or domestic energy storage. However, batteries can deliver power only for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  6. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  7. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  8. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  9. Photovoltaic / Diesel / Battery Hybrid Power Supply System

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................................. 62 5.3 Sizing the battery ................................................................................................ 65 5.4 Specifications for the battery bank ..................................................................... 67 5... of the system, the specific components required may include major components such as a DC-AC power inverter, battery bank, system and battery controller, auxiliary energy sources and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances) The performance...

  10. Cell for making secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  11. Predicting Early Bulbar Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Speech Subsystem Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panying Rong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop a predictive model of speech loss in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS based on measures of respiratory, phonatory, articulatory, and resonatory functions that were selected using a data-mining approach. Method. Physiologic speech subsystem (respiratory, phonatory, articulatory, and resonatory functions were evaluated longitudinally in 66 individuals with ALS using multiple instrumentation approaches including acoustic, aerodynamic, nasometeric, and kinematic. The instrumental measures of the subsystem functions were subjected to a principal component analysis and linear mixed effects models to derive a set of comprehensive predictors of bulbar dysfunction. These subsystem predictors were subjected to a Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the time until speech loss. Results. For a majority of participants, speech subsystem decline was detectible prior to declines in speech intelligibility and speaking rate. Among all subsystems, the articulatory and phonatory predictors were most responsive to early bulbar deterioration; and the resonatory and respiratory predictors were as responsive to bulbar decline as was speaking rate. Conclusions. The articulatory and phonatory predictors are sensitive indicators of early bulbar decline due to ALS, which has implications for predicting disease onset and progression and clinical management of ALS.

  12. Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on the Deterioration of Individual Speech Subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Panying; Yunusova, Yana; Wang, Jun; Zinman, Lorne; Pattee, Gary L; Berry, James D; Perry, Bridget; Green, Jordan R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms of speech intelligibility impairment due to neurologic impairments, intelligibility decline was modeled as a function of co-occurring changes in the articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems. Sixty-six individuals diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were studied longitudinally. The disease-related changes in articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems were quantified using multiple instrumental measures, which were subjected to a principal component analysis and mixed effects models to derive a set of speech subsystem predictors. A stepwise approach was used to select the best set of subsystem predictors to model the overall decline in intelligibility. Intelligibility was modeled as a function of five predictors that corresponded to velocities of lip and jaw movements (articulatory), number of syllable repetitions in the alternating motion rate task (articulatory), nasal airflow (resonatory), maximum fundamental frequency (phonatory), and speech pauses (respiratory). The model accounted for 95.6% of the variance in intelligibility, among which the articulatory predictors showed the most substantial independent contribution (57.7%). Articulatory impairments characterized by reduced velocities of lip and jaw movements and resonatory impairments characterized by increased nasal airflow served as the subsystem predictors of the longitudinal decline of speech intelligibility in ALS. Declines in maximum performance tasks such as the alternating motion rate preceded declines in intelligibility, thus serving as early predictors of bulbar dysfunction. Following the rapid decline in speech intelligibility, a precipitous decline in maximum performance tasks subsequently occurred.

  13. Integration & Validation of LCU with Different Sub-systems for Diacrode based amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnish, Kumar; Verma, Sriprakash; Soni, Dipal; Patel, Hriday; Suthar, Gajendra; Dalicha, Hrushikesh; Dhola, Hitesh; Patel, Amit; Upadhayay, Dishang; Jha, Akhil; Patel, Manoj; Trivedi, Rajesh; Machchhar, Harsha; Singh, Raghuraj; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2017-04-01

    ITER-India is responsible to deliver nine (8+1 spare) ICH & CD Power Sources to ITER. Each power source is capable to deliver 2.5 MW at 35 to 65 MHz frequency range with a load condition up to VSWR 2:1. For remote operation of different subsystems, Local Control Unit (LCU) is developed. LCU is developed using PXI hardware and Schneider PLC with Lab VIEW-RT developmental environment. All the protection function of the amplifier is running on PXI 7841 R module that ensures hard wired protection logic. There are three level of protection function- first by power supply itself that detects overcurrent/overvoltage and trips itself and generate trip signal for further action. There are some direct hardwired signal interfaces between power supplies to protect the amplifier. Second level of protection is generated through integrated controller of amplifier i.e. Command Control Embedded (CCE) against arc and Anode over current. Third level of Protection is through LCU where different fault signals are received and processed to generate off command for different sub-systems. Before connecting different subsystem with High power RF amplifiers (Driver & Final stage), each subsystem is individually tested through LCU. All protection functions are tested before hooking up the subsystems with main amplifier and initiating RF operation.

  14. Multi-criteria selection of UPPT subsystems by a social community: The 'Beovoz' case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Dubravka R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper considers the issue of multi-criteria selection of urban public passenger transport (UPPT subsystems by a social community, where possible solutions are as follows: (1 implementation of a new one, (2 replacement of the existing with a new one, (3 keeping the existing UPPT subsystem. In order to reach the specific solution for this issue, a new algorithm is proposed, which is heuristic, three phased and relatively simple. The aim of the algorithm is to choose the UPPT subsystem between possible options in the specific traffic corridor. To test the algorithm, the 'Beovoz' case study was made, which includes the analysis of six options of the UPPT subsystem (four of which with railway technology, from which stood out the following alternatives2: bus and railway. The conclusion is that the railway can be used in a modern city, however only for high-volume traffic corridors. The bus subsystem can be used in corridors with lower volume and those that supplement the railway.

  15. Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on the Deterioration of Individual Speech Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Wang, Jun; Zinman, Lorne; Pattee, Gary L.; Berry, James D.; Perry, Bridget; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the mechanisms of speech intelligibility impairment due to neurologic impairments, intelligibility decline was modeled as a function of co-occurring changes in the articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems. Method Sixty-six individuals diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were studied longitudinally. The disease-related changes in articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems were quantified using multiple instrumental measures, which were subjected to a principal component analysis and mixed effects models to derive a set of speech subsystem predictors. A stepwise approach was used to select the best set of subsystem predictors to model the overall decline in intelligibility. Results Intelligibility was modeled as a function of five predictors that corresponded to velocities of lip and jaw movements (articulatory), number of syllable repetitions in the alternating motion rate task (articulatory), nasal airflow (resonatory), maximum fundamental frequency (phonatory), and speech pauses (respiratory). The model accounted for 95.6% of the variance in intelligibility, among which the articulatory predictors showed the most substantial independent contribution (57.7%). Conclusion Articulatory impairments characterized by reduced velocities of lip and jaw movements and resonatory impairments characterized by increased nasal airflow served as the subsystem predictors of the longitudinal decline of speech intelligibility in ALS. Declines in maximum performance tasks such as the alternating motion rate preceded declines in intelligibility, thus serving as early predictors of bulbar dysfunction. Following the rapid decline in speech intelligibility, a precipitous decline in maximum performance tasks subsequently occurred. PMID:27148967

  16. Operator quantum error-correcting subsystems for self-correcting quantum memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The most general method for encoding quantum information is not to encode the information into a subspace of a Hilbert space, but to encode information into a subsystem of a Hilbert space. Recently this notion has led to a more general notion of quantum error correction known as operator quantum error correction. In standard quantum error-correcting codes, one requires the ability to apply a procedure which exactly reverses on the error-correcting subspace any correctable error. In contrast, for operator error-correcting subsystems, the correction procedure need not undo the error which has occurred, but instead one must perform corrections only modulo the subsystem structure. This does not lead to codes which differ from subspace codes, but does lead to recovery routines which explicitly make use of the subsystem structure. Here we present two examples of such operator error-correcting subsystems. These examples are motivated by simple spatially local Hamiltonians on square and cubic lattices. In three dimensions we provide evidence, in the form a simple mean field theory, that our Hamiltonian gives rise to a system which is self-correcting. Such a system will be a natural high-temperature quantum memory, robust to noise without external intervening quantum error-correction procedures

  17. Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on the Deterioration of Individual Speech Subsystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panying Rong

    Full Text Available To determine the mechanisms of speech intelligibility impairment due to neurologic impairments, intelligibility decline was modeled as a function of co-occurring changes in the articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems.Sixty-six individuals diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS were studied longitudinally. The disease-related changes in articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems were quantified using multiple instrumental measures, which were subjected to a principal component analysis and mixed effects models to derive a set of speech subsystem predictors. A stepwise approach was used to select the best set of subsystem predictors to model the overall decline in intelligibility.Intelligibility was modeled as a function of five predictors that corresponded to velocities of lip and jaw movements (articulatory, number of syllable repetitions in the alternating motion rate task (articulatory, nasal airflow (resonatory, maximum fundamental frequency (phonatory, and speech pauses (respiratory. The model accounted for 95.6% of the variance in intelligibility, among which the articulatory predictors showed the most substantial independent contribution (57.7%.Articulatory impairments characterized by reduced velocities of lip and jaw movements and resonatory impairments characterized by increased nasal airflow served as the subsystem predictors of the longitudinal decline of speech intelligibility in ALS. Declines in maximum performance tasks such as the alternating motion rate preceded declines in intelligibility, thus serving as early predictors of bulbar dysfunction. Following the rapid decline in speech intelligibility, a precipitous decline in maximum performance tasks subsequently occurred.

  18. Subsystem-DFT potential-energy curves for weakly interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüns, Danny; Klahr, Kevin; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Visscher, Lucas; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2015-06-14

    Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) within the local-density approximation (LDA) or the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) is known to fail for the correct description of London dispersion interactions. Often, not even bound potential-energy surfaces are obtained for van der Waals complexes, unless special correction schemes are employed. In contrast to that, there has been some evidence for the fact that subsystem-based density functional theory produces interaction energies for weakly bound systems which are superior to Kohn-Sham DFT results without dispersion corrections. This is usually attributed to an error cancellation between the approximate exchange-correlation and non-additive kinetic-energy functionals employed in subsystem DFT. Here, we investigate the accuracy of subsystem DFT for weakly interacting systems in detail, paying special attention to the shape of the potential-energy surfaces (PESs). Our test sets include the extensive S22x5 and S66x8 data sets. Our results indicate that subsystem DFT PESs strongly vary depending on the functional. LDA results are usually quite good, but behave differently from their KS counterparts. GGA results from the popular Perdew-Wang (PW91) set of functionals produce PESs that are often, but not in general overbinding. Results from Becke-Perdew (BP86) GGAs, by contrast, show the typical problems known from the corresponding KS results. We provide some preliminary results for empirical corrections for both PW91 and BP86 in subsystem DFT.

  19. On Using Ilities of Non-Functional Properties for Subsystems and Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Y. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of ilities for systems engineering of subsystems and components is investigated. Prior work on ilities has emphasized or restricted their application to system level, non-functional properties. The premise of this work is that ilities can be applied with benefit, and in some cases out of necessity, to lower levels of systems as well. The veracity of this premise is established by providing examples that demonstrate how some ilities are passed and used as a non-functional property of electrical and structural subsystems in aircraft. It is further demonstrated that flowing ilities down to the subsystem level is not only a useful practice for systems engineers, it can also be an essential step to ensure that customer needs are actually met by the system under design or service. Systems engineers often lack the detailed knowledge of the subsystems or components required to translate ilities into functional requirements. Thus, the system ilities are passed down and translated from non-functional to functional requirements by subject matter experts. We first discuss the definition, characteristics and scope of ilities. Then, we formulate the application of ilities at a subsystem level. Next, we show aircraft engineering examples for ilities applications. The application process is formalized with diagrams, and ilities’ relation to system architecture engineering is discussed. The work concludes with a summary and suggestions for future work.

  20. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  1. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  2. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Acceptance Testing for Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper will provide a summary of the Node 1 ECLS THC subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for this subsystem.

  3. A zinc paste primary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, R.; McCarron, R.; Brilmyer, G.

    1983-03-01

    It is pointed out that zinc/air batteries could, in principle, be used to power electric vehicles. One concept for enhancing the practical performance of this battery system involves the separation of energy density factors from power density factors. This concept can be implemented by employing the active negative plate material in the form of a zinc slurry, which is circulated from a reservoir through the negative electrode compartment. An extension of this fuel cell-battery concept is related to the utilization of the active material as a pumpable paste rather than as a slurry. The present investigation is concerned with preliminary experiments on formulating and characterizing pumpable zinc/zinc oxide pastes in the context of a primary zinc/oxygen battery. A 'paste' is defined as a thick viscous mass of solid, uniformly and semipermanently dispersed in a liquid phase. Attention is given to the physical basis for predicting which solid/liquid mixtures will provide pumpable pastes.

  4. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  5. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) subsystem and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this subsystem and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs. 1

  7. Exponential Stability of Time-Switched Two-Subsystem Nonlinear Systems with Application to Intermittent Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tingwen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of a class of periodically time-switched nonlinear systems. Three cases of such systems which are composed, respectively, of a pair of unstable subsystems, of both stable and unstable subsystems, and of a pair of stable systems, are considered. For the first case, the proposed result shows that there exists periodically switching rule guaranteeing the exponential stability of the whole system with (sufficient small switching period if there is a Hurwitz linear convex combination of two uncertain linear systems derived from two subsystems by certain linearization. For the second case, we present two general switching criteria by means of multiple and single Lyapunov function, respectively. We also investigate the stability issue of the third case, and the switching criteria of exponential stability are proposed. The present results for the second case are further applied to the periodically intermittent control. Several numerical examples are also given to show the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  8. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume III. Collector subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell collector subsystem features a low-profile, multifaceted heliostat designed to provide high reflectivity and accurate angular and spatial positioning of the redirected solar energy under all conditions of wind load and mirror attitude within the design operational envelope. The heliostats are arranged in a circular field around a cavity receiver on a tower halfway south of the field center. A calibration array mounted on the receiver tower provides capability to measure individual heliostat beam location and energy periodically. This information and weather data from the collector field are transmitted to a computerized control subsystem that addresses the individual heliostat to correct pointing errors and determine when the mirrors need cleaning. This volume contains a detailed subsystem design description, a presentation of the design process, and the results of the SRE heliostat test program.

  9. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.

  10. Development of a six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide collection subsystem for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Life Systems, working with NASA, has developed an electrochemical, six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem (CX-6) designed to normally remove 13.2 lb/day of CO2 while maintaining the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of the cabin atmosphere at 3 mm Hg or less. The CX-6 was subjected to extensive parametric and endurance testing. The effects of operating conditions on CO2 removal and electrical efficiencies were determined, including effects of hydrogen (H2) flow rate, process airflow rate, pCO2, operating temperature and current density. A total of 209 days of operation was accumulated. The subsystem was designed with self-contained electronic control and monitoring instrumentation. The CX-6 was redesigned and repackaged into the CO2 collection subsystem for the air revitalization group of the space station prototype.

  11. Power, Avionics and Software - Phase 1.0:. [Subsystem Integration Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This report covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies to exchange messages and to perform audio testing of both inbound and outbound channels. This report describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success. PMID:27391085

  13. Evaluation of an Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem for Deep Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Conrad, Ruth E.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Greenwood, Zachary W.; Kayatin, Matthew J.; Knox, James C.; Newton, Robert L.; Parrish, Keith J.; Takada, Kevin C.; hide

    2015-01-01

    An Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) suitable for deployment aboard deep space exploration mission vehicles has been developed and functionally demonstrated. This modified ARS process design architecture was derived from the International Space Station's (ISS) basic ARS. Primary functions considered in the architecture include trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, carbon dioxide reduction, and oxygen generation. Candidate environmental monitoring instruments were also evaluated. The process architecture rearranges unit operations and employs equipment operational changes to reduce mass, simplify, and improve the functional performance for trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide removal, and oxygen generation. Results from integrated functional demonstration are summarized and compared to the performance observed during previous testing conducted on an ISS-like subsystem architecture and a similarly evolved process architecture. Considerations for further subsystem architecture and process technology development are discussed.

  14. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  15. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  16. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  17. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  18. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  19. Optimization of station battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  20. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  1. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  2. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Summary test results of the particle-beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.; Sellyey, W.; Patterson, D.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    During the first half of 1994, a number of the diagnostic systems for measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been installed and tested. The particle beams eventually will involve 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats. The first test and commissionin results for beam profiles, beam position monitors, loss rate monitors, current monitors, and synchrotron radiation photon monitors hve been obtained using 200- to 350-MeV electron beams injected into the subsystems. Data presented are principally from the transport lines and the positron accumulator ring

  4. Artificial Intelligence Applications To Command, Control, And Communications Systems/Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Syama P.; Agrawal, Rajiv

    1989-09-01

    This paper has focussed on the artificial intelligence applications to command, control, and communications systems/subsystems. The overall objective of this project is to investigate sources of airborne target identification information available from various equipment (airborne, land-based, or space-based) and to develop an automatic target recognition (ATR) system design for integrating the data from these target identification subsystems. The entire project is divided into two phases: Phase I and Phase II. This paper details the results derived from the Phase I study.

  5. Optimum dry-cooling sub-systems for a solar air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L. S.; Namkoong, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dry-cooling sub-systems for residential solar powered Rankine compression air conditioners were economically optimized and compared with the cost of a wet cooling tower. Results in terms of yearly incremental busbar cost due to the use of dry-cooling were presented for Philadelphia and Miami. With input data corresponding to local weather, energy rate and capital costs, condenser surface designs and performance, the computerized optimization program yields design specifications of the sub-system which has the lowest annual incremental cost.

  6. Controlling computers and apparatus of the automation subsystems of the ''Del'fin'' facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allin, A.P.; Belen'kii, Y.M.; Borzyak, Y.V.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the controlling computer assembly (CCA) of the ''Del'fin'' facility, the apparatus, and the software of the system are considered. The apparatus of the ''supply'' automation system controls the energy supply to the amplifier module on the basis of a capacitor bank with 2.5-mJ energy. The elemental base of the ''adjustment'' automation subsystem is developed. It includes the mounts for the mirrors actuated by stepper motors (SM), the drivers of the stepper motors, the optical heads with coordinate-sensitive receivers, logic blocks, and other elements. The trends in the development of CCA and of automation subsystems are considered

  7. Galactic Subsystems on the Basis of Cumulative Distribution of Space Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample containing $4,614$ stars with available space velocities and high-quality kinematical data from the Arihip Catalogue is formed. For the purpose of distinguishing galactic subsystems the cumulative distribution of space velocities is studied. The fractions of the three subsystems are found to be: thin disc 92\\%, thick disc 6\\% and halo 2\\%. These results are verified by analysing the elements of velocity ellipsoids and the shape and size of the galactocentric orbits of the sample stars, i.e. the planar and vertical eccentricities of the orbits.

  8. ALARM-subsystem of automation control system (ASUS) of high current phasotron (''F'' installation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosov, V.N.; Krug, H.

    1982-01-01

    A component of automation control system (ASUS) - so-called ALARM subsystem - of JINR high current phasotron is described. The system consists of high speed scanning system (SSS), the de-- vice for preliminary conversion of signals of accelerotor monitors (APOS) and of appropriate software. SSS ALARM subsystems consist of CAMAC modules of Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, and of ''Electronika 60'' microcomputers. Execution time of its parameters is 0.5 ms by normal regime and 1.0 ms for refusals it finds. Principles of ALARM data processing are general applicable for control of multiparameter systems [ru

  9. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  10. Proper battery system design for GAS experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Stephen A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the GAS experimenter to design a battery system that meets mission success requirements while at the same time reducing the hazards associated with the battery system. Lead-acid, silver-zinc and alkaline chemistry batteries will be discussed. Lithium batteries will be briefly discussed with emphasis on back-up power supply capabilities. The hazards associated with different battery configurations will be discussed along with the controls necessary to make the battery system two-fault tolerant.

  11. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  12. Part-task simulator for a WWER-440 nuclear power plant subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, B.K.

    1988-07-01

    PC-based part-task simulators for simulating subsystems of nuclear power plants are low cost tools for operator training. In the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, a simulator system has been developed to facilitate fast development of such simulators. The first application simulates the Neutron Flux Monitoring System of WWER-440 nuclear power plants. (author) 9 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Shuttle to Shuttle 2: Subsystem weight reduction potential (estimated 1992 technology readiness date)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macconochie, Ian O.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study was to make estimates of the weight savings that might be realized on all the subsystems on an advanced rocket-powered shuttle (designated Shuttle 2) by using advanced technologies having a projected maturity date of 1992. The current Shuttle with external tank was used as a baseline from which to make the estimates of weight savings on each subsystem. The subsystems with the greatest potential for weight reduction are the body shell and the thermal protection system. For the body shell, a reduction of 5.2 percent in the weight of the vehicle at main engine cutoff is projected through the application of new technologies, and an additional configuration-based reduction of 5 percent is projected through simplification of body shape. A reduction of 5 percent is projected for the thermal protection system through experience with the current Space Shuttle and the potential for reducing thermal protection system thicknesses in selected areas. Main propellant tanks are expected to increase slightly in weight. The main propulsion system is also projected to increase in weight because of the requirement to operate engines at derated power levels in order to accommodate one-engine-out capability. The projections for weight reductions through improvements in the remaining subsystems are relatively small. By summing all the technology factors, a projected reduction of 16 percent in the vehicle weight at main engine cutoff is obtained. By summarizing the configurational factors, a potential reduction of 12 percent in vehicle weight is obtained.

  14. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meeting the following requirements: (1) With the vehicle in a stationary position, compressed air reserve... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and air-over-hydraulic...

  15. Optimal subsystem approach to multi-qubit quantum state discrimination and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, ShiChuan; Wu, JunJie; Xu, Ping; Yang, XueJun

    2018-02-01

    Quantum computing is a significant computing capability which is superior to classical computing because of its superposition feature. Distinguishing several quantum states from quantum algorithm outputs is often a vital computational task. In most cases, the quantum states tend to be non-orthogonal due to superposition; quantum mechanics has proved that perfect outcomes could not be achieved by measurements, forcing repetitive measurement. Hence, it is important to determine the optimum measuring method which requires fewer repetitions and a lower error rate. However, extending current measurement approaches mainly aiming at quantum cryptography to multi-qubit situations for quantum computing confronts challenges, such as conducting global operations which has considerable costs in the experimental realm. Therefore, in this study, we have proposed an optimum subsystem method to avoid these difficulties. We have provided an analysis of the comparison between the reduced subsystem method and the global minimum error method for two-qubit problems; the conclusions have been verified experimentally. The results showed that the subsystem method could effectively discriminate non-orthogonal two-qubit states, such as separable states, entangled pure states, and mixed states; the cost of the experimental process had been significantly reduced, in most circumstances, with acceptable error rate. We believe the optimal subsystem method is the most valuable and promising approach for multi-qubit quantum computing applications.

  16. Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

  17. Physical model of evolution of oxygen subsystem of PLZT-ceramics at neutron irradiation and annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, D V; Trushin, Y V; Veber, K V; Khumer, K; Bitner, R; Shternberg, A R

    2001-01-01

    The physical model of evolution of the oxygen subsystem defects of the ferroelectric PLZT-ceramics by the neutron irradiation and isochrone annealing is proposed. The model accounts for the effect the lanthanum content on the material properties. The changes in the oxygen vacancies concentration, calculated by the proposed model, agree well with the polarization experimental behavior by the irradiated material annealing

  18. A subsystems approach for parameter estimation of ODE models of hybrid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Sanguinetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for parameter identification of ODE system descriptions based on data measurements. Our method works by splitting the system into a number of subsystems and working on each of them separately, thereby being easily parallelisable, and can also deal with noise in the observations.

  19. Investigation of Techniques for Simulating Communications and Tracking Subsystems on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacetis, Louis A.

    1991-01-01

    The need to reduce the costs of Space Station Freedom has resulted in a major redesign and downsizing of the Station in general, and its Communications and Tracking (C&T) components in particular. Earlier models and simulations of the C&T Space-to-Ground Subsystem (SGS) in particular are no longer valid. There thus exists a general need for updated, high fidelity simulations of C&T subsystems. This project explored simulation techniques and methods that might be used in developing new simulations of C&T subsystems, including the SGS. Three requirements were placed on the simulations to be developed: (1) they run on IBM PC/XT/AT compatible computers; (2) they be written in Ada as much as possible; and (3) since control and monitoring of the C&T subsystems will involve communication via a MIL-STD-1553B serial bus, that the possibility of commanding the simulator and monitoring its sensors via that bus be included in the design of the simulator. The result of the project is a prototype of a simulation of the Assembly/Contingency Transponder of the SGS, written in Ada, which can be controlled from another PC via a MIL-STD-1553B bus.

  20. Two Case Studies of Subsystem Design for General-Purpose CSCW Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses subsystem design guidelines for the software architecture of general-purpose computer supported cooperative work systems, i.e., systems that are designed to be applicable in various application areas requiring explicit collaboration support. In our opinion, guidelines for

  1. Molecular properties via a subsystem density functional theory formulation: A common framework for electronic embedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfener, S.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Visscher, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a consistent derivation of a density functional theory (DFT) based embedding method which encompasses wave-function theory-in-DFT (WFT-in-DFT) and the DFT-based subsystem formulation of response theory (DFT-in-DFT) by Neugebauer [J. Neugebauer, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 084104

  2. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  4. Multilayer network of language: A unified framework for structural analysis of linguistic subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinčić-Ipšić, Sanda; Margan, Domagoj; Meštrović, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the focus of complex networks' research has shifted from the analysis of isolated properties of a system toward a more realistic modeling of multiple phenomena - multilayer networks. Motivated by the prosperity of multilayer approach in social, transport or trade systems, we introduce the multilayer networks for language. The multilayer network of language is a unified framework for modeling linguistic subsystems and their structural properties enabling the exploration of their mutual interactions. Various aspects of natural language systems can be represented as complex networks, whose vertices depict linguistic units, while links model their relations. The multilayer network of language is defined by three aspects: the network construction principle, the linguistic subsystem and the language of interest. More precisely, we construct a word-level (syntax and co-occurrence) and a subword-level (syllables and graphemes) network layers, from four variations of original text (in the modeled language). The analysis and comparison of layers at the word and subword-levels are employed in order to determine the mechanism of the structural influences between linguistic units and subsystems. The obtained results suggest that there are substantial differences between the networks' structures of different language subsystems, which are hidden during the exploration of an isolated layer. The word-level layers share structural properties regardless of the language (e.g. Croatian or English), while the syllabic subword-level expresses more language dependent structural properties. The preserved weighted overlap quantifies the similarity of word-level layers in weighted and directed networks. Moreover, the analysis of motifs reveals a close topological structure of the syntactic and syllabic layers for both languages. The findings corroborate that the multilayer network framework is a powerful, consistent and systematic approach to model several linguistic subsystems

  5. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  6. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  7. The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amy; Lawler, Kathy; Olson, Ingrid R; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery (PFPB) tests four aspects of face perception: discrimination of facial similarity, attractiveness, gender, and age. Calibration with 116 neurologically intact subjects yielded average performance of ~90%. Across subjects, there was a low correlation (perception. There were modest effects of subject demographic factors upon performance, and test-retest reliability scores (between 0.37 and 0.75) were comparable to other neuropsychological batteries. Modification of the stimuli to obscure internal facial features lowered performance on the age, gender, and attractiveness discrimination tests between 2 and 4 standard deviations. The clinical sensitivity of the battery was demonstrated by testing a patient with acquired prosopagnosia. She showed performance impairments of between 2 and 4 standard deviations on all sub-tests. The PFPB is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:18082362

  8. ON CODE REFACTORING OF THE DIALOG SUBSYSTEM OF CDSS PLATFORM FOR THE OPEN-SOURCE MIS OPENMRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Semenets

    2016-08-01

    The open-source MIS OpenMRS developer tools and software API are reviewed. The results of code refactoring of the dialog subsystem of the CDSS platform which is made as module for the open-source MIS OpenMRS are presented. The structure of information model of database of the CDSS dialog subsystem was updated according with MIS OpenMRS requirements. The Model-View-Controller (MVC based approach to the CDSS dialog subsystem architecture was re-implemented with Java programming language using Spring and Hibernate frameworks. The MIS OpenMRS Encounter portlet form for the CDSS dialog subsystem integration is developed as an extension. The administrative module of the CDSS platform is recreated. The data exchanging formats and methods for interaction of OpenMRS CDSS dialog subsystem module and DecisionTree GAE service are re-implemented with help of AJAX technology via jQuery library

  9. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  10. Validation of Battery Safety for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Presentation covers: (1) Safety Certification Process at NASA (2) Safety Testing for Lithium-ion Batteries (3) Limitations Observed with Li-ion Batteries in High Voltage and High Capacity Configurations.

  11. Li-air batteries: Decouple to stabilize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Jing; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of porous carbon cathodes in lithium-air batteries is hindered by their severe decomposition during battery cycling. Now, dual redox mediators are shown to decouple the complex electrochemical reactions at the cathode, avoiding cathode passivation and decomposition.

  12. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  13. Battery failure model derived from flaw theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, I.

    1981-01-01

    A previously derived failure model for battery lifetime is discussed in terms of growth rate of the flaw, distribution of flaw sizes, and number of flaws. Equations are presented for determining the failure model for a nickel cadmium battery.

  14. 46 CFR 129.353 - Battery categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.353 Battery categories. This section applies to batteries installed to meet the requirements of § 129.310(a) for secondary sources of power to vital loads...

  15. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  16. Materials science: Pulley protection in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T.

    2017-09-01

    High-energy battery electrodes can break apart during operation. Conventional rope-and-pulley systems have inspired the development of a polymer that holds electrodes together at the molecular scale, enabling durable batteries to be made.

  17. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  18. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  19. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  20. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  1. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  2. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  3. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  4. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  5. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  6. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... and, for a lead-acid battery, the fully charged specific gravity value. This information must be...

  7. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  9. BATTERIES 2020 – A Joint European Effort towards European Competitive Automotive Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, J.-M.; Rodriguez-Martinez, L.M.; Omar, N.

    The Integrated Project “Batteries 2020” unites 9 European partners jointly working on the research and development of European competitive automotive batteries. The project aims at increasing lifetime and energy density of large format high-energy lithium-ion batteries towards the goals targeted...... of degradation processes. (iii) Reduction of battery cost; a way to reduce costs, increase battery residual value and improve sustainability is to consider second life uses of batteries used in EV. These batteries are still operational and suitable to less restrictive conditions, such as those for stationary...

  10. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  11. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  12. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  13. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction. Batteries play an important role as energy storage devices for renewable energy sources, electric vehicle and many other applications. A battery bank is interfaced to load through a power converter, which controls ...

  14. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  15. Top ten reasons why coke batteries fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohle, H.; Schulte, H.; Ramani, R.V. [ThyssenKrupp EnCoke GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The reasons for the failure of coke batteries are varied and interrelated. Identifying them and taking precautionary measures against them will help with the possible extension of the service life of the batteries. Most of the contributory factors are interrelated and in combination they encourage faster deterioration of the battery. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  16. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  17. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Battery impedance can provide valuable insight into the condition of the battery. Commercially available impedance measurement instruments are expensive. Hence their direct use in a battery management system is not justifiable. In this work, a 3-kW bi-directional converter for charging and discharging a batterybank has ...

  18. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  19. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  20. A nanoview of battery operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen Brian

    2016-01-01

    The redox-active materials in lithium-ion batteries have relatively poor electronic and ionic conduction and may experience stress from charge-discharge volume changes, so their formulation into structures with nanosized features is highly desirable. On page 566 of this issue, Lim et al. (1...

  1. Environmental assessment of batteries for photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, J.M.; Lindeijer, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on 4 types of batteries for PV systems has been performed. in order to assess the environmental impacts of the various battery types, leading to recommendations for improvements in the production and use of batteries. The different battery types are compared on the basis of a functional unit: 240 kWh electric energy from PV modules delivered for household applications by one flat-plate lead-acid battery. An important product characteristic is the performance; in the study a Ni-Cd battery is taken to deliver 4 times as much energy as a flat plate battery (Pb-flat), a rod plate battery (Pb-rod) 3.4 times as much and a tubular plate battery (Pb-tube) 2.8 times as much. Environmental data was gathered from recent primary and secondary data in a database under internal quality control. Calculations were performed with an updated version of SIMAKOZA, a programme developed by the Centre of Environmental Science (CML), University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands. Of the types investigated, the Pb tube battery is to be preferred environmentally. Using one allocation method for recycling, the NiCd battery scores best on ozone depletion since no PVC is used (PVC production demands cooling with CFCs), on non-toxic waste and on disruption of ecosystems. The lead-bearing batteries score better on other aspects due to lower energy consumption during production and no emissions of cadmium. Using another allocation method for recycling the NiCd battery scores best on almost all environmental topics. Both allocation methods supplement each other. For resource depletion, regarding cadmium as an unavoidable by-product of zinc production renders NiCd batteries as much less problematic than lead/acid batteries, but taking account of the physical resources available would make the use of cadmium much more problematic than the use of lead. 37 figs., 20 tabs., 8 appendices, 109 refs

  2. The Science of Battery Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; El Gabaly Marquez, Farid [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; McCarty, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Sugar, Joshua Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Talin, Alec A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics; Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Design and Development; Harris, Charles Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanosystems Synthesis/Analysis; Hayden, Carl C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Chemistry Dept.; Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Power Sources Research and Development; Leung, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure Physics; McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Combustion Technology; Tenney, Craig M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Biological Systems; Zavadil, Kevin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents work that was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, Science of Battery Degradation. The focus of this work was on the creation of new experimental and theoretical approaches to understand atomistic mechanisms of degradation in battery electrodes that result in loss of electrical energy storage capacity. Several unique approaches were developed during the course of the project, including the invention of a technique based on ultramicrotoming to cross-section commercial scale battery electrodes, the demonstration of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe lithium transport mechanisms within Li-ion battery electrodes, the creation of in-situ liquid cells to observe electrochemical reactions in real-time using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and STXM, the creation of an in-situ optical cell utilizing Raman spectroscopy and the application of the cell for analyzing redox flow batteries, the invention of an approach for performing ab initio simulation of electrochemical reactions under potential control and its application for the study of electrolyte degradation, and the development of an electrochemical entropy technique combined with x-ray based structural measurements for understanding origins of battery degradation. These approaches led to a number of scientific discoveries. Using STXM we learned that lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes display unexpected behavior during lithiation wherein lithium transport is controlled by nucleation of a lithiated phase, leading to high heterogeneity in lithium content at each particle and a surprising invariance of local current density with the overall electrode charging current. We discovered using in-situ transmission electron microscopy that there is a size limit to lithiation of silicon anode particles above which particle fracture controls electrode degradation. From electrochemical entropy measurements, we discovered that entropy

  3. Battery Fault Detection with Saturating Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor); Graika, Jason R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A battery monitoring system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells. Windings of the transformers are driven with an excitation waveform whereupon signals are responsively detected, which indicate a health of the battery. In one embodiment, excitation windings and sense windings are separately provided for the plurality of transformers such that the excitation waveform is applied to the excitation windings and the signals are detected on the sense windings. In one embodiment, the number of sense windings and/or excitation windings is varied to permit location of underperforming battery cells utilizing a peak voltage detector.

  4. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  5. Li-ion batteries: Phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Peiyu; Zhang Yantao; Zhang Lianqi; Chu Geng; Gao Jian

    2016-01-01

    Progress in the research on phase transitions during Li + extraction/insertion processes in typical battery materials is summarized as examples to illustrate the significance of understanding phase transition phenomena in Li-ion batteries. Physical phenomena such as phase transitions (and resultant phase diagrams) are often observed in Li-ion battery research and already play an important role in promoting Li-ion battery technology. For example, the phase transitions during Li + insertion/extraction are highly relevant to the thermodynamics and kinetics of Li-ion batteries, and even physical characteristics such as specific energy, power density, volume variation, and safety-related properties. (topical review)

  6. Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Bethune, Keith P.; Yang, Xiao Guang

    The recent rapid expansion in the use of portable electronics, computers, personal data assistants, cellular phones, power tools, and even electric and hybrid vehicles creates a strong demand on fast deployment of battery technologies at an unprecedented rate. To facilitate such a development integrated battery testing and simulation (IBTS) using computer modeling is an effective tool to improve our capability of rapid prototyping battery technology and facilitating concurrent product development. In this paper, we will present a state-of-the-art approach to use IBTS for improvements in battery cell design, operation optimization, and even charge control for advanced batteries.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  8. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  9. Implementation of a Digital Signal Processing Subsystem for a Long Wavelength Array Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Navarro, Robert; D'Addario, Larry; Sigman, Elliott; Wang, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a Digital Signal Processing (DP) subsystem for a single Long Wavelength Array (LWA) station.12 The LWA is a radio telescope that will consist of many phased array stations. Each LWA station consists of 256 pairs of dipole-like antennas operating over the 10-88 MHz frequency range. The Digital Signal Processing subsystem digitizes up to 260 dual-polarization signals at 196 MHz from the LWA Analog Receiver, adjusts the delay and amplitude of each signal, and forms four independent beams. Coarse delay is implemented using a first-in-first-out buffer and fine delay is implemented using a finite impulse response filter. Amplitude adjustment and polarization corrections are implemented using a 2x2 matrix multiplication

  10. Neural network model for a reactor subsystem using real time data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Subhra Rani; Jayadev, Sujith; Jehadeesan, R.; Rajeswari, S.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Madurai Meenachi, N.

    2010-01-01

    Modern nuclear power plant is a very complex arrangement of machinery consisting of huge number of control and support systems. In real time it is possible to implement intelligent systems in the form of neural network, data mining, expert system etc. for modeling the power plant. This paper describes the development of an artificial neural network model for intermediate heat exchanger subsystem of fast breeder test reactor. Multilayer perceptron network using back propagation algorithm is implemented for training the safety critical, safety related real time data. It takes in to account the weight correction method. The results indicate a very good convergence of the algorithm. The model can be used as an operator support system for predictive measures of various parameters of the reactor subsystems. (author)

  11. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  12. Report on Wind Turbine Subsystem Reliability - A Survey of Various Databases (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2013-07-01

    Wind industry has been challenged by premature subsystem/component failures. Various reliability data collection efforts have demonstrated their values in supporting wind turbine reliability and availability research & development and industrial activities. However, most information on these data collection efforts are scattered and not in a centralized place. With the objective of getting updated reliability statistics of wind turbines and/or subsystems so as to benefit future wind reliability and availability activities, this report is put together based on a survey of various reliability databases that are accessible directly or indirectly by NREL. For each database, whenever feasible, a brief description summarizing database population, life span, and data collected is given along with its features & status. Then selective results deemed beneficial to the industry and generated based on the database are highlighted. This report concludes with several observations obtained throughout the survey and several reliability data collection opportunities in the future.

  13. TOOLS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OF A HOLDING COMPANY AND ITS SUB-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai N. Samoilenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and essence of intellectual property management are considered in the article, as well as the models, the methods and the tools of intellectual property management of holding structures. In particular, the life cycle of object of intellectual property is described, the concept "intellectual property management" is created, the most effective models of intellectual property management are revealed, and also the instruments of intellectual property management of a holding company and its sub-systems are defined.

  14. A Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm for linear economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura; Edlund, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a warm-started Dantzig–Wolfe decomposition algorithm tailored to economic model predictive control of dynamically decoupled subsystems. We formulate the constrained optimal control problem solved at each sampling instant as a linear program with state space constraints, input ....... In the presence of process and measurement noise, such a regularization term is critical for achieving a well-behaved closed-loop performance....

  15. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements transportation and handling, SSDR 1.1.1.3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakuma, S.; McNairy, R.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Transportation ampersand Material Handling Systems (WBS 1.1.1.3.2) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3 and 1.4). The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 5 figs

  16. AUTOET code (a code for automatically constructing event trees and displaying subsystem interdependencies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Burdick, G.R.

    1977-06-01

    This is a user's manual for AUTOET I and II. AUTOET I is a computer code for automatic event tree construction. It is designed to incorporate and display subsystem interdependencies and common or key component dependencies in the event tree format. The code is written in FORTRAN IV for the CDC Cyber 76 using the Integrated Graphics System (IGS). AUTOET II incorporates consequence and risk calculations, in addition to some other refinements. 5 figures

  17. The Design of the NetBSD I/O Subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, SungWon

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the source code of the NetBSD Operating System Release 1.6 in SUN UltraSPARC 64-bit platform by annotating related excerpts from references and user manuals on the NetBSD Operating System. The goal of this book is to provide necessary information to understand the operation and the implementation of I/O subsystems in the kernel as well as to design and implement a new filesystem on the NetBSD platform.

  18. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  19. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  20. [Analysis of mass minimization of Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem in waste water processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J X; Ji, C Y; Zhang, X R; Wang, S; Liang, X G; Guo, Z Y

    2001-02-01

    To minimize in the system level the designed mass of Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) of Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) in manned spacecraft, when the requirement of the production rate of fresh water and its hygiene is fulfilled. According to the characteristics of the operational process of TIMES, the physical and mathematical model for fluid flow, heat transfer and mass composition in its main parts were established to investigate numerically the relation between the system mass and those parameters associated with the structure and operation of the system. The system mass depended not only on the structural parameters and operational parameters of TIMES, but also on the operational characteristics of power subsystem and thermal control subsystem. The relative mass covered a large part of the system mass. There existed an optimum of the number of thermoelectric cooling parts and flow rate of circular waste water of the TIMES when the designed system mass was minimum. Moreover, higher condensation pressure in the system contributed to lower system mass.

  1. Low-voltage Power Supply Subsystem for a Sub-Orbital Particle Physic Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hugo Silva Lopez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Experiment Module–Extreme Universe Space Observatory (JEM-EUSO is a wide-field (+/-~30°of aperture 2.5m refractor telescope to be installed in the International Space Station (ISS. The instrument looks downward from its orbit, into Earth’s atmosphere, with the main objective of observing ultra-violet (UV fluorescence light generated by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR extensive air showers (EAS. It is a frontier particle-physics experiment, the first of its kind. The validation of the technical readiness level of such a complex and unique instrument requires prototypes at several levels of integration. At the highest level, the EUSO-Balloon instrument has been conceived, through French space agency (CNES. At a smaller scale and in suborbital flight, EUSO-Balloon integrates all the sub-systems of the full space JEM-EUSO telescope, allowing end-to-end testing of hardware and interfaces, and to probing the global detection chain and strategy, while improving at the same time our knowledge of atmospheric and terrestrial UV background. EUSO-Balloon will be flown by CNES for the first time from Timmins, Canada; on spring 2014.This article presents the low-voltage power supply (LVPS subsystem development for the EUSO-Balloon instrument. This LVPS is the fully operational prototype for the space instrument JEM-EUSO. Besides design and construction, all performance tests and integration results with the other involved subsystems are shown.

  2. Improving the Reliability of Technological Subsystems Equipment for Steam Turbine Unit in Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodov, Yu. M.; Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, R. T.

    2017-11-01

    The authors’ conception is presented of an integrated approach to reliability improving of the steam turbine unit (STU) state along with its implementation examples for the various STU technological subsystems. Basing on the statistical analysis of damage to turbine individual parts and components, on the development and application of modern methods and technologies of repair and on operational monitoring techniques, the critical components and elements of equipment are identified and priorities are proposed for improving the reliability of STU equipment in operation. The research results are presented of the analysis of malfunctions for various STU technological subsystems equipment operating as part of power units and at cross-linked thermal power plants and resulting in turbine unit shutdown (failure). Proposals are formulated and justified for adjustment of maintenance and repair for turbine components and parts, for condenser unit equipment, for regeneration subsystem and oil supply system that permit to increase the operational reliability, to reduce the cost of STU maintenance and repair and to optimize the timing and amount of repairs.

  3. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power generation/fuel cell powerplant subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. L.; Bertsch, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Generation (EPG)/Fuel Cell Powerplant (FCP) hardware. The EPG/FCP hardware is required for performing functions of electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPG/FCP hardware consists of the following divisions: (1) Power Section Assembly (PSA); (2) Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); (3) Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); and (4) Water Removal Subsystem (WRS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPG/FCP hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  4. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume IV. Receiver subsystem (CDRL item 2). [Contains engineering drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell receiver subsystem design uses well established fossil technology and consists of a cavity receiver housing, a steam generator, a cavity barrier, piping, and a support tower. The steam generator absorbs the redirected solar energy from the collector subsystem and converts it to superheated steam which drives the turbine. The receiver is adequately shielded to protect personnel and equipment. A cavity barrier is lowered at night to conserve heat and expedite startup the following day. This volume contains the subsystem design and methodology and the correlation with the design and performance characteristics of the SRE steam generator which was fabricated and successfully tested during the program.

  5. The Mechanical Response of Multifunctional Battery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Waterloo

    The current state of the art in the field of the mechanical behavior of electric vehicle (EV) battery cells is limited to quasi-static analysis. The lack of published data in the dynamic mechanical behavior of EV battery cells blinds engineers and scientists with the uncertainty of what to expect when EVs experience such unexpected events as intrusions to their battery systems. To this end, the recent occurrences of several EVs catching fire after hitting road debris even make this topic timelier. In order to ensure the safety of EV battery, it is critical to develop quantitative understanding of battery cell mechanical behavior under dynamic compressive loadings. Specifically, the research focuses on the dynamic mechanical loading effect on the standard "18650" cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells. In the study, the force-displacement and voltage-displacement behavior of the battery cells were analyzed experimentally at two strain rates, two state-of-charges, and two unit-cell configurations. The results revealed the strain rate sensitivity of their mechanical responses with the solid sacrificial elements. When the hollow sacrificial cells are used, on the other hand, effect was negligible up to the point of densification strength. Also, the high state-of-charge appeared to increase the stiffness of the battery cells. The research also revealed the effectiveness of the sacrificial elements on the mechanical behavior of a unit cell that consists of one battery cell and six sacrificial elements. The use of the sacrificial elements resulted in the delayed initiation of electric short circuit. Based on the analysis of battery behavior at the cell level, granular battery assembly, a battery pack, was designed and fabricated. The behavior of the granular battery assembly was analyzed both quasistatically and dynamically. Building on the results of the research, various research plans were proposed. Through conducting the research, we sought to answer the following

  6. An integrated model of the lithium/thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Ingersoll, D.; O`Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jain, M.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-06-08

    The desire to reduce the time and cost of design engineering on new components or to validate existing designs in new applications is stimulating the development of modeling and simulation tools. The authors are applying a model-based design approach to low and moderate rate versions of the Li/SOCl{sub 2} D-size cell with success. Three types of models are being constructed and integrated to achieve maximum capability and flexibility in the final simulation tool. A phenomenology based electrochemical model links performance and the cell design, chemical processes, and material properties. An artificial neural network model improves computational efficiency and fills gaps in the simulation capability when fundamental cell parameters are too difficult to measure or the forms of the physical relationships are not understood. Finally, a PSpice-based model provides a simple way to test the cell under realistic electrical circuit conditions. Integration of these three parts allows a complete link to be made between fundamental battery design characteristics and the performance of the rest of the electrical subsystem.

  7. Lithium-polymer batteries; Les batteries lithium-polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascaud, St. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Dept. CIMA

    1999-04-01

    Lithium polymer batteries are a technological breakthrough which will improve EV`s range by a factor three. This new technology based on very thin plastic films, produced by solvent-less and a high productive process will reach low cost at industrial scale. EDF, Bollore and Schneider Electric are involved in R and D program to carry out a 2 kWh lithium polymer module by the end of year 2000. (authors)

  8. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  9. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  10. Non-Intrusive Battery Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The “Non-intrusive battery health monitoring”, developed by Airbus Defence and Space (ADS in cooperation with the CIRIMAT-CNRS laboratory and supported by CNES, aims at providing a diagnosis of the battery ageing in flight, called State of Health (SOH, using only the post-treatment of the battery telemetries. The battery current and voltage telemetries are used by a signal processing tool on ground to characterize and to model the battery at low frequencies which allows monitoring the evolution of its degradation with great accuracy. The frequential behaviour estimation is based on inherent disturbances on the current during the nominal functioning of the battery. For instance, on-board thermal control or equipment consumption generates random disturbances on battery current around an average current. The battery voltage response to these current random disturbances enables to model the low frequency impedance of the battery by a signal processing tool. The re-created impedance is then compared with the evolution model of the low frequencies impedance as a function of the battery ageing to estimate accurately battery degradation. Hence, this method could be applied to satellites which are already in orbit and whose battery telemetries acquisition system fulfils the constraints determined in the study. This innovative method is an improvement of present state-of-the-art and is important to have a more accurate in-flight knowledge of battery ageing which is crucial for mission and operation planning and also for possible satellite mission extension or deorbitation. This method is patented by Airbus Defence and Space and CNES.

  11. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) System Architecture and Key Tradeoff Studies, Phase IIC, Congestion control Subsystem Software Algorithm; Appendix E

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niznik, C

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental requirement that must be satisfied by the SDI BM/C2 Communication architecture is to provide a transport interface to each of the three principal SDI functions: Surveillance (sensor subsystems...

  12. Variability of energy input into selected subsystems of the human-glove-tool system: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-05-31

    This article presents an application of the energy method to assess the energy input introduced into two subsystems of the human-glove-tool system. To achieve this aim, a physical model of the system was developed. This consists of dynamic models of the human body and the glove described in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012, and a model of a hand-held power tool. The energy input introduced into the subsystems, i.e., the human body and the glove, was analysed in the domain of energy and involved calculating three component energy inputs of forces. The energy model was solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/simulink environment. This procedure demonstrates that the vibration energy was distributed quite differently in the internal structure of the two subsystems. The results suggest that the operating frequency of the tool has a significant impact on the level of energy inputs transmitted into both subsystems.

  13. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  14. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  15. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  16. Batteries for electric road vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Braga, M Helena

    2018-01-15

    The dependence of modern society on the energy stored in a fossil fuel is not sustainable. An immediate challenge is to eliminate the polluting gases emitted from the roads of the world by replacing road vehicles powered by the internal combustion engine with those powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries must be safe and competitive in cost, performance, driving range between charges, and convenience. The competitive performance of an electric car has been demonstrated, but the cost of fabrication, management to ensure safety, and a short cycle life have prevented large-scale penetration of the all-electric road vehicle into the market. Low-cost, safe all-solid-state cells from which dendrite-free alkali-metal anodes can be plated are now available; they have an operating temperature range from -20 °C to 80 °C and they permit the design of novel high-capacity, high-voltage cathodes providing fast charge/discharge rates. Scale-up to large multicell batteries is feasible.

  17. Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Mereacre, Alexandru; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery

  18. Model-based energy analysis of battery powered systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime naturally depends on the battery's capacity and on the rate at which the battery is discharged. However, it also depends on the usage pattern, i.e., the workload, of the battery. When a battery is

  19. Semantic Registration and Discovery System of Subsystems and Services within an Interoperable Coordination Platform in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Rubio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart subsystems like traffic, Smart Homes, the Smart Grid, outdoor lighting, etc. are built in many urban areas, each with a set of services that are offered to citizens. These subsystems are managed by self-contained embedded systems. However, coordination and cooperation between them are scarce. An integration of these systems which truly represents a “system of systems” could introduce more benefits, such as allowing the development of new applications and collective optimization. The integration should allow maximum reusability of available services provided by entities (e.g., sensors or Wireless Sensor Networks. Thus, it is of major importance to facilitate the discovery and registration of available services and subsystems in an integrated way. Therefore, an ontology-based and automatic system for subsystem and service registration and discovery is presented. Using this proposed system, heterogeneous subsystems and services could be registered and discovered in a dynamic manner with additional semantic annotations. In this way, users are able to build customized applications across different subsystems by using available services. The proposed system has been fully implemented and a case study is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  20. Semantic Registration and Discovery System of Subsystems and Services within an Interoperable Coordination Platform in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gregorio; Martínez, José Fernán; Gómez, David; Li, Xin

    2016-06-24

    Smart subsystems like traffic, Smart Homes, the Smart Grid, outdoor lighting, etc. are built in many urban areas, each with a set of services that are offered to citizens. These subsystems are managed by self-contained embedded systems. However, coordination and cooperation between them are scarce. An integration of these systems which truly represents a "system of systems" could introduce more benefits, such as allowing the development of new applications and collective optimization. The integration should allow maximum reusability of available services provided by entities (e.g., sensors or Wireless Sensor Networks). Thus, it is of major importance to facilitate the discovery and registration of available services and subsystems in an integrated way. Therefore, an ontology-based and automatic system for subsystem and service registration and discovery is presented. Using this proposed system, heterogeneous subsystems and services could be registered and discovered in a dynamic manner with additional semantic annotations. In this way, users are able to build customized applications across different subsystems by using available services. The proposed system has been fully implemented and a case study is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  1. An Integrated Approach to Explore the Relationship Among Economic, Construction Land Use, and Ecology Subsystems in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyu Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhejiang Province, China is experiencing rapid urbanization, facing the challenge of coupling socioeconomic development and ecological conservation. This paper establishes a comprehensive index system to assess coordinating development of economic, construction land use (CLU, and ecology subsystems. A Granger test and a coupling coordination model were applied to explore the causal relationship and the coordinated development state among the three subsystems from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that: (1 changes in the integrated value of the economic subsystem were the Granger cause of changes in the ecology and CLU subsystems, and the changes in the integrated values of ecology and CLU was each other’s Granger cause; (2 the coupling coordination relationship of the integrated value for economic–CLU–ecology was constrained by the relationship between the economic and the CLU subsystems from 2000 to 2004, and that between the ecology and the economic subsystems was the impediment of the sustainable development of economic–CLU–ecology from 2004 to 2012. This research helps to identify approach to sustainable development through analyzing synergistic effects, interdependencies, and trade-offs among the integrated economic–CLU–ecology values, and to make significant contribution to urban planning policies in rapid urbanization region.

  2. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Seok Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless battery charging system can implement easily most other charging profiles. In this paper, the proposed wireless battery charging system is implemented and the feasibility is verified experimentally according to constant-current constant-voltage charging profile or multi-step current charging profile.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  5. The battery recycling loop: a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.

    Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

  6. Enabling fast charging - Battery thermal considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Matthew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Li, Qibo; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Dufek, Eric; Shirk, Matthew; Meintz, Andrew; Kreuzer, Cory; Michelbacher, Christopher; Burnham, Andrew; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Carlson, Barney; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Hardy, Keith; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Markel, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    Battery thermal barriers are reviewed with regards to extreme fast charging. Present-day thermal management systems for battery electric vehicles are inadequate in limiting the maximum temperature rise of the battery during extreme fast charging. If the battery thermal management system is not designed correctly, the temperature of the cells could reach abuse temperatures and potentially send the cells into thermal runaway. Furthermore, the cell and battery interconnect design needs to be improved to meet the lifetime expectations of the consumer. Each of these aspects is explored and addressed as well as outlining where the heat is generated in a cell, the efficiencies of power and energy cells, and what type of battery thermal management solutions are available in today's market. Thermal management is not a limiting condition with regard to extreme fast charging, but many factors need to be addressed especially for future high specific energy density cells to meet U.S. Department of Energy cost and volume goals.

  7. Integrated graphical user interface for the back-end software sub-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, E.; Caprini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition and Event Filter prototype '-1' project was intended to produce a prototype system for evaluating candidate technologies and architectures for the final ATLAS DAQ system on the LHC accelerator at CERN. Within the prototype project, the back-end sub-system encompasses the software for configuring, controlling and monitoring the data acquisition (DAQ). The back-end sub-system includes core components and detector integration components. One of the detector integration components is the Integrated Graphical User Interface (IGUI), which is intended to give a view of the status of the DAQ system and its sub-systems (Dataflow, Event Filter and Back-end) and to allow the user (general users, such as a shift operator at a test beam or experts, in order to control and debug the DAQ system) to control its operation. The IGUI is intended to be a Status Display and a Control Interface too, so there are three groups of functional requirements: display requirements (the information to be displayed); control requirements (the actions the IGUI shall perform on the DAQ components); general requirements, applying to the general functionality of the IGUI. The constraint requirements include requirements related to the access control (shift operator or expert user). The quality requirements are related to the portability on different platforms. The IGUI has to interact with many components in a distributed environment. The following design guidelines have been considered in order to fulfil the requirements: use a modular design with easy possibility to integrate different sub-systems; use Java language for portability and powerful graphical features; use CORBA interfaces for communication with other components. The actual implementation of Back-end software components use Inter-Language Unification (ILU) for inter-process communication. Different methods of access of Java applications to ILU C++ servers have been evaluated (native methods, ILU Java support

  8. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  9. Primer on lead-acid storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

  10. Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Characteriza- (63) J. DeGruson and R. Spencer, Improved tion of Aged, Unactivated Thermal Battery Thermal Battery Performance, Eagle - Picher In- Components, U.S...AFB ATTN F. TEPPER WASHINGTON, DC 20332 1421 CLARKVIEW RD BALTIMORE, MD 21209 EAGLE - PICHER INDUSTRIES ATTN R. COTTINGRAM MR. GEORGE J. METHLIE PO BOX...PERIOD COVERED Technical Report Thermal Battery Systems for Ordnance Fuzing TechnicalReport 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) B

  11. ISS Double-Gimbaled CMG Subsystem Simulation Using the Agile Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inampudi, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary approach in simulating a cluster of 4 Control Moment Gyros (CMG) on the International Space Station (ISS) using a common sense approach (the agile development method) for concurrent mathematical modeling and simulation of the CMG subsystem. This simulation is part of Training systems for the 21st Century simulator which will provide training for crew members, instructors, and flight controllers. The basic idea of how the CMGs on the space station are used for its non-propulsive attitude control is briefly explained to set up the context for simulating a CMG subsystem. Next different reference frames and the detailed equations of motion (EOM) for multiple double-gimbal variable-speed control moment gyroscopes (DGVs) are presented. Fixing some of the terms in the EOM becomes the special case EOM for ISS's double-gimbaled fixed speed CMGs. CMG simulation development using the agile development method is presented in which customer's requirements and solutions evolve through iterative analysis, design, coding, unit testing and acceptance testing. At the end of the iteration a set of features implemented in that iteration are demonstrated to the flight controllers thus creating a short feedback loop and helping in creating adaptive development cycles. The unified modeling language (UML) tool is used in illustrating the user stories, class designs and sequence diagrams. This incremental development approach of mathematical modeling and simulating the CMG subsystem involved the development team and the customer early on, thus improving the quality of the working CMG system in each iteration and helping the team to accurately predict the cost, schedule and delivery of the software.

  12. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements optics assembly building (OAB) SSDR 1.2.2.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystem Design Requirement (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements 'for the conventional building systems and subsystems of the Optics Assembly Building (OAB). These building system requirements are associated with housing and supporting the operational flow of personnel and materials throughout the OAB for preparing and repairing optical and mechanical components used in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser and Target Building (LTAB). This SSDR addresses the following subsystems associated with the OAB: * Structural systems for the building spaces and operational-support equipment and building- support equipment. * Architectural building features associated with housing the space, operational cleanliness, and functional operation of the facility. * Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for maintaining a clean and thermally stable ambient environment within the facility. * Plumbing systems that provide potable water and sanitary facilities for the occupants and stormwater drainage for transporting rainwater. * Fire Protection systems that guard against fire damage to the facility and its contents. * Material handling equipment for transferring optical assemblies and other materials within building areas and to the LTAB. * Mechanical process piping systems for liquids and gases that provide cooling, cleaning, and other service to optical and mechanical components. * Electrical power and grounding systems that provide service to the building and equipment, including lighting distribution and communications systems for the facilities. * Instrumentation and control systems that ensure the safe operation of conventional facilities systems, such as those listed above. Generic design criteria, such as siting data, seismic requirements, utility availability, and other information that contributes to the OAB design, are not addressed in this document

  13. Low-cost medical image storage and manipulation using optical disk subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William V., Jr.; Marx, Peter S.

    1990-08-01

    Traditionally, medical imaging has required large capital investments into workstations and storage subsystems. Many vendors have chosen to offer proprietary systems which are expensive to develop and costly to the institutions which purchase them. Our experience has been that this is unnecessary; most traditional imaging functions in the digital modalities of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MM) can be performed using off-the-shelf hardware with relatisely inexpensive software. In order to reduce the cost of medical imaging, our approach has been to choose computers and storage subsystems that are efficient, inexpensive, and easy-to-use (after all, the users are interested in practicing medicine, not computer science.) With these goals in mind, we chose to use a general purpose computer (the Apple Macintosh Ilci) with two types of high-capacity optical storage devices (both magneto-optical and write once, read multiple (WORM) disc subsystems.) We have developed a powerful, yet user-friendly medical imaging workstation oriented towards radiologists, orthopadic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and other users of medical images. In addition to providing inexpensive storage, the workstation is capable of multiplanar reformatting (MPR), 3D MM angiography, and other image processing functions. The resulting images may be annotated, windowed, and filmed on to 14x17" radiology film for presentation to the referring physicians and their patients. This system can be considered to be a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for private physicians and small clinics; further, it is small enough for desktop environments and inexpensive enough for clinicians to purchase.

  14. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  15. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  16. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  17. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  18. Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Whitt, Tom; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2006-01-01

    Battery cell wear out mechanisms and signatures are examined and compared to orbital data from the six on-orbit Hubble Space Telescope (HST) batteries, and the Flight Spare Battery (FSB) Test Bed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which is instrumented with individual cell voltage monitoring. The on-orbit HST batteries were manufactured on an expedited basis after the Challenger Shuttle Disaster in 1986. The original design called for the HST to be powered by six 50 Ah Nickel Cadmium batteries, which would have required a shuttle mission every 5 years for battery replacement. The decision to use NiH2 instead has resulted in a longer life battery set which was launched with HST in April 1990, with a design life of 7 years that has now exceeded 14+ years of orbital cycling. This chart details the specifics of the original HST NiH2 cell design. The HST replacement batteries for Service Mission 4, originally scheduled for Spring 2005, are currently in cold storage at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SM4 battery cells utilize slurry process electrodes having 80% porosity.

  19. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  20. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  1. Lead acid batteries simulation including experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achaibou, N.; Malek, A. [Division Energie Solaire Photovoltaique, Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables, B.P. 62, Route de l' Observatoire, Bouzareah, Alger (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2008-12-01

    The storage of energy in batteries is a cause of the failure and loss of reliability in PV systems. The battery behavior has been largely described in the literature by many authors; the selected models are of Monegon and CIEMAT. This paper reviews the two general lead acid battery models and their agreement with experimental data. In order to validate these models, the behavior of different battery cycling currents has been simulated. Results obtained have been compared to real data. The CIEMAT model presents a good performance compared to Monegon's model. (author)

  2. Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe-Ekeocha, Chinemerem Christopher

    The depletion of the world's current petroleum reserve, coupled with the negative effects of carbon monoxide and other harmful petrochemical by-products on the environment, is the driving force behind the movement towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Furthermore, the growing transportation sector consumes a significant portion of the total energy used in the United States. A complete electrification of this sector would require a significant development in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), thus translating to a reduction in the carbon footprint. As the market for EVs and HEVs grows, their battery management systems (BMS) need to be improved accordingly. The BMS is not only responsible for optimally charging and discharging the battery, but also monitoring battery's state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). SOC, similar to an energy gauge, is a representation of a battery's remaining charge level as a percentage of its total possible charge at full capacity. Similarly, SOH is a measure of deterioration of a battery; thus it is a representation of the battery's age. Both SOC and SOH are not measurable, so it is important that these quantities are estimated accurately. An inaccurate estimation could not only be inconvenient for EV consumers, but also potentially detrimental to battery's performance and life. Such estimations could be implemented either online, while battery is in use, or offline when battery is at rest. This thesis presents intelligent online SOC and SOH estimation methods using machine learning tools such as artificial neural network (ANN). ANNs are a powerful generalization tool if programmed and trained effectively. Unlike other estimation strategies, the techniques used require no battery modeling or knowledge of battery internal parameters but rather uses battery's voltage, charge/discharge current, and ambient temperature measurements to accurately estimate battery's SOC and SOH. The developed

  3. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  4. DOE battery program for weapon applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

    This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

  5. A linear chained approach for service invocation in IP multimedia subsystem.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tonghong; Liao, Jianxin; Qi, Qi; Xun, Zhaoyong; Cao, Yufei; Wang, Jingyu

    2012-01-01

    IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is considered to provide multimedia services to users through an IP-based control plane. The current IMS service invocation mechanism, however, requires the Serving-Call Session Control Function (S-CSCF) invokes each Application Server (AS) sequentially to perform service subscription pro?le, which results in the heavy load of the S-CSCF and the long session set-up delay. To solve this issue, this paper proposes a linear chained service invocation mechanism to in...

  6. Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Instrument Thermal Subsystem Design and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Veronica; Mosier, Carol; Neuberger, David

    2013-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is one of two instruments on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), which is scheduled to launch in February of 2013. The TIRS instrument was officially added to the mission later in the flow, which led to a highly aggressive schedule that became one of the main drivers during instrument development. The thermal subsystem design of the TIRS Sensor Unit is comprised of five thermal zones which range in temperature from less than 43 Kelvin to 330 Kelvin. Most zones are proportional heater controlled, and all are within a volume of 35 cu.ft. A two-stage cryocooler is used to cool the "cold stage" including three QWIP detectors to less than 43 Kelvin, and cool the "warm stage" to 105 Kelvin. The excess power dissipation from the cryocooler is rejected via ammonia transport heat pipes to a dedicated Cryocooler Radiator with embedded ammonia heat pipes. The cryogenic subsystem includes a series of shells used to radiatively and conductively isolate the cold stage from the warmer surroundings. The Optical System (telescope) is passively cooled to 180-190 Kelvin using a "thermal link" (comprised of a Flexible Conductive Thermal Strap and an APG Bar) which couples the telescope stage to a dedicated radiator with embedded ethane heat pipes. The Scene Select Mechanism, which is responsible for moving the Scene Select Mirror to three distinct positions (including Nadir, Space, and On-board Black Body Calibrator pointing), runs nominally at 278 Kelvin and is thermally isolated from the cryogenic thermal zones. The On-board Black Body Calibrator requires a dedicated radiator which allows for a temperature range of 260-330 Kelvin at the Source. The detectors are powered by the FPE Box, which is mounted to the nadir external surface of the composite honeycomb structure. There are two additional electronics boxes which are wet-mounted directly to the spacecraft shear panel, the Main Electronics Box and Cryocooler Electronics Box; thermal

  7. Measurement of the Operating Parameters and Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božek Pavol

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.

  8. Measurement of the Operating Parameters and Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božek, Pavol; Turygin, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    Submission is focused on completing the information system about quality, operation, automatic testing and new evaluating method of vehicle subsystem. Numeric analysis is carried out on the base of automatic collection and systematic recording of commercial car operation. Proposed new information system about operation and trial process allows verification according to the proposed method. Critical components verified in laboratory conditions are detected by numeric analysis of reliability. Quality level increasing not only for final product, but also related automatic test laboratory for cars is the result of respecting these principles.

  9. SIM PlanetQuest: Mili-Kelvin Analysis of the Collector Sub-system Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest is part of the NASA Astronomical Search for Origins (ASO) program. It will use a Michelson Interferometer to locate extrasolar planets, among other objectives. The spacecraft's subsystems, temperature requirements, and thermal control approach are discussed. The current SIM thermal design is analyzed using a Milli-Kelvin approach and appears to meet temperature stability requirements on the OOPCC optic. SIM absolute temperature requirements are met through the robustness of the thermal design (i.e., PIC control).

  10. Assessment of importance for protection subsystems at analysis of reliability and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereguda, A.I.; Povyakalo, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Importance of the element estimation in the system, including protection and safety subsystems, by individual variation of the system failure probability relative to the element failure in the case, when the variation constitutes the single step-like function, is considered. The importance of elements by such an approach is the function of time. It is shown that introduction of the safety system not only diminishes the accident probability but essentially decreases the importance of danger source for the object under protection. 6 refs

  11. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  12. The Fiber Optic Subsystem Components on Express Logistics Carrier for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Switzer, Robert; Thomes, William Joe; Chuska, Richard; LaRocca, Frank; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    ISS SSP 50184 HRDL optical fiber communication subsystem, has system level requirements that were changed to accommodate large loss optical fiber links previously installed. SSQ22680 design is difficult to implement, no metal shell over socket/pin combination to protect the weak part of the pin. Additions to ISS are planned for the future. AVIM still used for interconnection in space flight applications without incident. Thermal cycling resulted in less than 0.25 dB max change in Insertion Loss for all types during cycling, nominal as compared to the AVIM. Vibration testing results conclusion; no significant changes, nominal as compared to AVIM.

  13. APPLICATION OF OLAP SYSTEM IN INFORMATION SUB-SYSTEM OF QMS INCOSISTENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempije Veljovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of inconsistencies arise as a result of incompliance of certain requirements during the execution of the process for the quality management system (QMS functioning. In this study, the established connection between QMS and projected information sub-system for inconsistencies management is presented. The information model of inconsistencies management provides a possibility to analyse inconsistencies from the aspect of interactive analytical data processing (OLAPsystems on the basis of multi-dimensional tables (OLAPcubes created in MSSQL Server-Analysis Services programme.

  14. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  15. Dataset of anomalies and malicious acts in a cyber-physical subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, Pedro Merino; Brosset, David; Puentes, John

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a dataset produced to investigate how data and information quality estimations enable to detect aNomalies and malicious acts in cyber-physical systems. Data were acquired making use of a cyber-physical subsystem consisting of liquid containers for fuel or water, along with its automated control and data acquisition infrastructure. Described data consist of temporal series representing five operational scenarios - Normal, aNomalies, breakdown, sabotages, and cyber-attacks - corresponding to 15 different real situations. The dataset is publicly available in the .zip file published with the article, to investigate and compare faulty operation detection and characterization methods for cyber-physical systems.

  16. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  17. Minimization of Impact from Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment to the Electric Grid Using a Dynamically Controlled Battery Bank for Peak Load Shaving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Charles C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a comparison of two control systems for peak load shaving using local solar power generation (i.e., photovoltaic array) and local energy storage (i.e., battery bank). The purpose is to minimize load demand of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) on the electric grid. A static and dynamic control system is compared to decrease demand from EVSE. Static control of the battery bank is based on charging and discharging to the electric grid at fixed times. Dynamic control, with 15-minute resolution, forecasts EVSE load based on data analysis of collected data. In the proposed dynamic control system, the sigmoid function is used to shave peak loads while limiting scenarios that can quickly drain the battery bank. These control systems are applied to Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) solar-assisted electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. This installation is composed of three independently grid-tied sub-systems: (1) 25 EVSE; (2) 47 kW photovoltaic (PV) array; and (3) 60 kWh battery bank. The dynamic control system achieved the greatest peak load shaving, up to 34% on a cloudy day and 38% on a sunny day. The static control system was not ideal; peak load shaving was 14.6% on a cloudy day and 12.7% on a sunny day. Simulations based on ORNL data shows solar-assisted EV charging stations combined with the proposed dynamic battery control system can negate up to 89% of EVSE load demand on sunny days.

  18. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  19. Design and Realization of a Smart Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Chen; K.L. Man; T.O. Ting; Chi-Un Lei; T. Krilavicius; T.T. Jeong; J.K. Seon; Sheng-Uei Guan; Prudence W.H. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Battery management system (BMS) emerges a decisive system component in battery-powered applications, such as (hybrid) electric vehicles and portable devices. However, due to the inaccurate parameter estimation of aged battery cells and multi-cell batteries, current BMSs cannot control batteries optimally, and therefore affect the usability of products. In this paper, we proposed a smart management system for multi-cell batteries, and discussed the development of our research study in three di...

  20. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling: Subsystem Design and Test Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandura, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling subsystem for the Mars Science Laboratory is a highly-mechanized, Rover-based sampling system that acquires powdered rock and regolith samples from the Martian surface, sorts the samples into fine particles through sieving, and delivers small portions of the powder into two science instruments inside the Rover. SA/SPaH utilizes 17 actuated degrees-of-freedom to perform the functions needed to produce 5 sample pathways in support of the scientific investigation on Mars. Both hardware redundancy and functional redundancy are employed in configuring this sampling system so some functionality is retained even with the loss of a degree-of-freedom. Intentional dynamic environments are created to move sample while vibration isolators attenuate this environment at the sensitive instruments located near the dynamic sources. In addition to the typical flight hardware qualification test program, two additional types of testing are essential for this kind of sampling system: characterization of the intentionally-created dynamic environment and testing of the sample acquisition and processing hardware functions using Mars analog materials in a low pressure environment. The overall subsystem design and configuration are discussed along with some of the challenges, tradeoffs, and lessons learned in the areas of fault tolerance, intentional dynamic environments, and special testing

  2. Managing the development of plant subsystems for a large international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurd, D.

    2012-01-01

    ITER is an international collaborative project under development by nations representing over one half of the world's population. Major components will be supplied by 'Domestic Agencies' representing the various participating countries. While the supervisory control system, known as CODAC, will be developed 'in fund' by the International Organization at the project site in the south of France, the EPICS and PLC-based plant control subsystems are to be developed and tested locally, where the subsystems themselves are being built. This is similar to the model used for the development of the Spallation Neutron Source, which was a US national collaboration. However the much more complex constraints of an international collaboration preclude the use of many specifics of the SNS collaboration approach. Moreover, procedures for final system integration and commissioning at ITER are not yet well defined. This paper will outline the particular issues either inherent in an international collaboration or specific to ITER, and will suggest approaches to mitigate those problems with the goal of assuring a successful and timely integration and commissioning phase. (author)

  3. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  4. Lumen degradation analysis of LED lamps based on the subsystem isolation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hong-Liang; Hao, Jian; Tu, Jian-Hui; Miao, Pei-Xian; Wang, Chao-Quan; Cui, Jing-Zhong; Sun, Qiang; Sun, Ren-Tao

    2018-02-01

    The lumen degradation of LED lamps undergoing an accelerated aging test is investigated. The entire LED lamp is divided into three subsystems, namely, driver, lampshade, and LED light source. The parameters of output power [Watts (W)], transmittance (%), and lumen flux (lm) are adopted in the analysis of the degradation of the driver, lampshade, and LED light source, respectively. Two groups of LED lamps are aged under the ambient temperatures of 25°C and 85°C, respectively, with the aging time of 2000 h. The lumen degradation of the lamps is from 3.8% to 4.9% for the group under a temperature of 25°C and from 10.6% to 12.7% for the group under a temperature of 85°C. The LED light source is the most aggressive part of the three subsystems, which accounts for 70.5% of the lumen degradation of the LED lamp on average. The lampshade is the second degradation source, which causes 21.5% of the total amount on average. The driver is the third degradation source, which causes 6.5% under 25°C and 2.8% under 85°C of the total amount on average.

  5. Voltage Analysis Improvement of 150 kV Transmission Subsystem Using Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, P. A.; Hakim, D. L.; Sucita, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, testing improvements to the distribution voltage electricity at 150 kV transmission subsystem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology. One of them is by doing the control of active and reactive power through the power electronics equipment Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). The subsystem is tested because it has a voltage profile are relatively less well when based on the IEEE / ANSI C.84.1 (142.5 - 157.5 kV). This study was conducted by analyzing the Newton-Raphson power flow on the simulator DigSilent Power Factory 15 to determine the profile of the voltage (V) on the system. Bus which has the lowest voltage to be a reference in the installation of STATCOM. From this research is known that the voltage on the conditions of the existing bus 28, as many as 21-23 still below standard buses (142.5 kV), after the installation is done using STATCOM, voltage on the buses improved by increasing the number of tracks that follow the standard / is in the range 142.5 kV -157.5 kV as many as 23-27 buses or 78.6% - 96%, with the optimum mounting on a bus Rancaekek STATCOM II with a capacity of 300 MVA.

  6. Scientific Use of the Sampler, Drill and Distribution Subsystem (SD2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.; Crepaldi, M.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli Finzi, A.

    Rosetta is the third cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency scientific program "Horizon 2000". Rosetta will be the first spacecraft to orbit around a comet nucleus. It was launched in March 2004 and will reach the comet 67P/ChurymovGerasimenko in 2014. A lander (Philae) will be released and land on the comet surface for in-situ investigation. One of the key subsystems of the lander Philae is the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) subsystem. SD2 provides in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, samples collection, and their distribution to two evolved gas analyzers (COSAC and PTOLEMY) and one imaging instrument (ÇIVA). Recent studies have proven the existence of a correlation between the drill behavior during perforation and the mechanical characteristics of the cometary soil. This outlines the possibility of using SD2 not only as a tool to support other instruments, but also as a scientific instrument itself. In this paper the possibility of using the drill as a quasi-static penetrator is presented. Within this approach, laboratory tests on glass-foam specimens of different porosity show that the drill behaviour during penetration can be exploited for cometary soil characterization.

  7. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  8. Evading Quantum Mechanics: Engineering a Classical Subsystem within a Quantum Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankei Tsang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement backaction often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that, by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement backaction of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS. All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental, unifying previous approaches that employ QND observables, backaction evasion, and quantum noise cancellation. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, optomechanical-force sensing, atomic magnetometry, and classical computing. Demonstrations of dynamical QMFSs include the generation of broadband squeezed light for use in interferometric gravitational-wave detection, experiments using entangled atomic-spin ensembles, and implementations of the quantum Toffoli gate.

  9. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  10. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  11. Failure modes of batteries removed from service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, J.H. [Douglas Battery Manufacturing Co., Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Battery failure modes are described. Data is presented from survey results on 12-volt automotive passenger car batteries. The age from manufacturing code was determined. Failures were classified into the following categories: serviceable, broken, open circuit, short circuit, corrosion, worn out, abused, or overcharged.

  12. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  13. Enhanced battery model including temperature effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a

  14. Investigating improvements on redox flow batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swartbooi, AM

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available storage devices coupled to most of their applications. Lead-acid batteries have long been used as the most economical option to store electricity in many small scale applications, but lately more interest have been shown in redox flow batteries. The low...

  15. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    battery management system one needs to track two vari- ables—state of ... demand is high, thus improving the power quality. The .... the aging effect. To find out usefulness of measurements at different frequencies, the impedance of a 12 V, 9 Ah VRLA battery is measured by a standard commercial equipment. Solartron ...

  16. A Micro-Grid Battery Storage Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Escribano Jiménez, Jorge; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    systems under its administration. This paper presents an optimized scheduling of a micro-grid battery storage system that takes into account the next-day forecasted load and generation profiles and spot electricity prices. Simulation results show that the battery system can be scheduled close to optimal...

  17. Ferroresonant flux coupled battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel W. T. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A battery charger for incorporation into an electric-powered vehicle is disclosed. The charger includes a ferroresonant voltage-regulating circuit for providing an output voltage proportional to the frequency of an input AC voltage. A high frequency converter converts a DC voltage supplied, for example, from a rectifier connected to a standard AC outlet, to a controlled frequency AC voltage which is supplied to the input of the ferroresonant circuit. The ferroresonant circuit includes an output, a saturable core transformer connected across the output, and a first linear inductor and a capacitor connected in series across the saturable core transformer and tuned to resonate at the third harmonic of the AC voltage from the high frequency converter. The ferroresonant circuit further includes a second linear inductor connected between the input of the ferroresonant circuit and the saturable core transformer. The output voltage from the ferroresonant circuit is rectified and applied across a pair of output terminals adapted to be connected to the battery to be charged. A feedback circuit compares the voltage across the output terminals with a reference voltage and controls the frequency of the AC voltage produced by the high frequency converter to maintain the voltage across the output terminals at a predetermined value. The second linear inductor provides a highly reactive load in the event of a fault across the output terminals to render the charger short-circuit proof.

  18. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  19. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  20. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.