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Sample records for nickel gold arsenite

  1. Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xue; Li Qin; Arita, Adriana; Sun Hong; Costa, Max

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposure to nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) containing compounds has been associated with lung cancer and other adverse health effects. Their carcinogenic properties may be attributable in part, to activation and/or repression of gene expression induced by changes in the DNA methylation status and histone tail post-translational modifications. Here we show that individual treatment with nickel, chromate, and arsenite all affect the gene activating mark H3K4 methylation. We found that nickel (1 mM), chromate (10 μM), and arsenite (1 μM) significantly increase tri-methyl H3K4 after 24 h exposure in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Seven days of exposure to lower levels of nickel (50 and 100 μM), chromate (0.5 and 1 μM) or arsenite (0.1, 0.5 and 1 μM) also increased tri-methylated H3K4 in A549 cells. This mark still remained elevated and inherited through cell division 7 days following removal of 1 μM arsenite. We also demonstrate by dual staining immunofluorescence microscopy that both H3K4 tri-methyl and H3K9 di-methyl marks increase globally after 24 h exposure to each metal treatment in A549 cells. However, the tri-methyl H3K4 and di-methyl H3K9 marks localize in different regions in the nucleus of the cell. Thus, our study provides further evidence that a mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of nickel, chromate, and arsenite metal compounds may involve alterations of various histone tail modifications that may in turn affect the expression of genes that may cause transformation

  2. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  3. Gold and Nickel Extended Thiophenic-TTF Bisdithiolene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. L. Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gold and nickel bisdithiolene complexes with methyl and tert-butyl substituted thiophenetetrathiafulavalenedithiolate ligands (α-mtdt and α-tbtdt were prepared and characterized. These complexes were obtained, under anaerobic conditions, as tetrabutylammonium salts. The diamagnetic gold monoanion (n-Bu4N[Au(α-mtdt2] (3 and nickel dianionic species (n-Bu4Nx[Ni(α-mtdt2] (x = 1,2 (4 were similar to the related non-substituted extended thiophenic-TTF (TTF = tetrathiafulvalene bisdithiolenes. However the introduction of the large, bulky substituent tert-butyl, led to the formation of a Au (I dinuclear complex, (n-Bu4N2[Au2(α-tbtdt2] (5. The neutral methyl substituted gold and nickel complexes were easily obtained through air or iodine exposure as polycrystalline or amorphous fine powder. [Au(α-mtdt2] (6 and [Ni(α-mtdt2] (7 polycrystalline samples display properties of a metallic system with a room temperature electrical conductivity of 0.32 S/cm and ≈4 S/cm and a thermoelectric power of ≈5 µV/K and ≈32 µV/K, respectively. While [Au(α-mtdt2] (6 presented a Pauli-like magnetic susceptibility typical of conducting systems, in [Ni(α-mtdt2] (7 large magnetic susceptibilities indicative of high spin states were observed. Both electric transport properties and magnetic properties for gold and nickel [M(α-mtdt2] are indicative that these compounds are single component molecular conductors.

  4. Deactivation of nickel hydroxide-gold modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno; Tucceri, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the charge-transport process of a nickel hydroxide film electrochemically synthesized on a gold substrate is modified when the electrode is stored for a long time. It was found that nickel hydroxide films are deactivated under storage, that is, films became less conductive than films immediately prepared (nondeactivated). This study was carried out in the context of the rotating disc electrode voltammetry when the modified electrode contacts an ele...

  5. Pinning of size-selected gold and nickel nanoclusters on graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Vece, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/248753355; Paloma, S.; Palmer, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Size-selected gold and nickel nanoclusters are of interest from an electronic, catalytic, and biological point of view. These applications require the deposition of the clusters on a surface, and a key challenge is to retain the cluster size. Here controlled energy impact is used to immobilize the

  6. Mechanical properties of nickel-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes and their embedded gold matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Haiyang; Zha Xinwei

    2010-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the mechanical behaviors of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and their embedded gold matrix composites under axial tension are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. The results show that the Young's moduli and tensile strength of SWCNTs obviously decrease after nickel coating. For armchair SWCNTs, the decreased ratio of the Young's moduli of SWCNTs with smaller radius is larger than that of SWCNTs with larger radius. A comparison is made between the response to Young's modulus of a composite with parallel embedded nanotube and the response of a composite with vertically embedded nanotube. The results show that the uncoated SWCNT can enhance the Young's modulus of composite under the condition of parallel embedment, but such improvement disappears under the condition of vertical embedment because the interaction between SWCNT and gold matrix is too weak for effective load transfer. However, the nickel-coated SWCNT can indeed significantly improve the composite behavior.

  7. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  8. Sensitivity to sodium arsenite in human melanoma cells depends upon susceptibility to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, Samuel C.; Belshoff, Alex C.; Taylor, B. Frazier; Fan, Teresa W-M.; McCabe, Michael J.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic induces clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and has potential for treatment of other cancers. The current study examines factors influencing sensitivity to arsenic using human malignant melanoma cell lines. A375 and SK-Mel-2 cells were sensitive to clinically achievable concentrations of arsenite, whereas SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells required supratherapeutic levels for toxicity. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter function attenuated arsenite resistance, consistent with studies suggesting that arsenite is extruded from the cell as a glutathione conjugate by MRP-1. However, MRP-1 was not overexpressed in resistant lines and GST-π was only slightly elevated. ICP-MS analysis indicated that arsenite-resistant SK-Mel-28 cells did not accumulate less arsenic than arsenite-sensitive A375 cells, suggesting that resistance was not attributable to reduced arsenic accumulation but rather to intrinsic properties of resistant cell lines. The mode of arsenite-induced cell death was apoptosis. Arsenite-induced apoptosis is associated with cell cycle alterations. Cell cycle analysis revealed arsenite-sensitive cells arrested in mitosis whereas arsenite-resistant cells did not, suggesting that induction of mitotic arrest occurs at lower intracellular arsenic concentrations. Higher intracellular arsenic levels induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and G 2 -phase in SK-Mel-3 and SK-Mel-28 cells, respectively. The lack of arsenite-induced mitotic arrest in resistant cell lines was associated with a weakened spindle checkpoint resulting from reduced expression of spindle checkpoint protein BUBR1. These data suggest that arsenite has potential for treatment of solid tumors but a functional spindle checkpoint is a prerequisite for a positive response to its clinical application

  9. Interaction of gold nanoparticles and nickel(II) sulfate affects dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Deville, Sarah; Bare, Birgit; Piella, Jordi; Tirez, Kristof; Hoet, Peter; Monopoli, Marco P.; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Puntes, Victor F.; Nelissen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Despite many investigations have focused on the pristine toxicity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), little is known about the outcome of co-exposure and interaction of GNPs with heavy metals which can possibly detoxify or potentiate them. Here, the combined exposure of nickel (II) sulfate (NiSO4) and GNPs on the maturation response of dendritic cells (DCs) was explored. Exposure to GNPs or NiSO4 separately induced cell activation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of both, however, the observe...

  10. Three-Dimensional Bi-Continuous Nanoporous Gold/Nickel Foam Supported MnO2 for High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Zou, Xilai; Sun, Peng; Cui, Guofeng

    2017-12-19

    A three-dimensional bi-continuous nanoporous gold (NPG)/nickel foam is developed though the electrodeposition of a gold-tin alloy on Ni foam and subsequent chemical dealloying of tin. The newly-designed 3D metal structure is used to anchor MnO 2 nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors. The formed ternary composite electrodes exhibit significantly-enhanced capacitance performance, rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. A specific capacitance of 442 Fg -1 is achieved at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 and a relatively high mass loading of 865 μg cm -2 . After 2500 cycles, only a 1% decay is found at a scan rate of 50 mV s -1 . A high power density of 3513 W kg -1 and an energy density of 25.73 Wh kg -1 are realized for potential energy storage devices. The results demonstrate that the NPG/nickel foam hybrid structure significantly improves the dispersibility of MnO 2 and makes it promising for practical energy storage applications.

  11. Embryotoxicity of arsenite and arsenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, A.; Danielsson, R.G.; Dencker, L.; Vahter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of 74 As-labelled and arsenite in pregnant mice and a monkey has been studied by autoradiography and gamma counting of isolated tissues, and their in vitro toxicity to a chondrogenic system has been investigated. With both arsenic forms, given as single intravenous injections to the mother, the 74 As-arsenic appeared to pass the mouse placenta relatively freely and approximately to the same extent. The retention time in material tissues including the placenta was, however, around three times longer with arsenite than with arsenate. In early gestation, high activity was registered in the embryonic neuroepithelium, which correlates well with reported CNS malformations in rodents. In late gestation, the distribution pattern was more like that in the adults. Accumulation in skin and squamous epithelia of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oral cavity, oesophagus and oesophageal region of stomach) dominated the distribution pucture, especially at a long survival interval. Arsenate, but not arsenite, showed affinity for the calcified areas of the skeleton. A marmoset monkey in late gestation receiving arsenite showed a somewhat lower rate of placental transfer than the mice. Skin and liver had the highest concentrations (at 8 hrs), both in mother and foetuses. This species is known not to methylate arsenic, resulting in stronger binding and longer retention times of arsenic as compared with other species. The stronger binding in maternal tissues may possibly explain the lower rate of placental transfer. Arsenite was shown to inhibit cartilage formation in a chick limb bud mesenchymal spot culture system (ED50 approximately 5-10μM) while arsenate seemed to be without effect at concentrations up to 200 μM (highest tested). Arsenate, however, showed a potential of the arsenite toxicity. (author)

  12. Interaction of gold nanoparticles and nickel(II) sulfate affects dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sarah; Baré, Birgit; Piella, Jordi; Tirez, Kristof; Hoet, Peter; Monopoli, Marco P; Dawson, Kenneth A; Puntes, Victor F; Nelissen, Inge

    2016-12-01

    Despite many investigations have focused on the pristine toxicity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), little is known about the outcome of co-exposure and interaction of GNPs with heavy metals which can possibly detoxify or potentiate them. Here, the combined exposure of nickel (II) sulfate (NiSO 4 ) and GNPs on the maturation response of dendritic cells (DCs) was explored. Exposure to GNPs or NiSO 4 separately induced cell activation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of both, however, the observed cell activation pattern indicated a competitive rather than an additive effect of both inducers with levels similar to those induced by NiSO 4 alone. Quantification of the GNP uptake by DCs demonstrated a significant decrease in intracellular gold content during co-incubation with NiSO 4 . An extensive physiochemical characterization was performed to determine the interaction between GNPs and NiSO 4 in the complex physiological media using nanoparticle tracking analyses, disc centrifugation, UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS analyses, zeta potential measurements, electron microscopy, and proteomics. Although GNPs and NiSO 4 did not directly interact with each other, the presence of NiSO 4 in the physiological media resulted in changes in GNPs' charge and their associated protein corona (content and composition), which may contribute to a decreased cellular uptake of GNPs and sustaining the nickel-induced DC maturation. The presented results provide new insights in the interaction of heavy metals and NPs in complex physiological media. Moreover, this study highlights the necessity of mixture toxicology, since these combined exposures are highly relevant for human subjection to NPs and risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  13. Photoinduced Oxidation of Arsenite to Arsenate on Ferrihydrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N Bhandari; R Reeder; D Strongin

    2011-12-31

    The photochemistry of an aqueous suspension of the iron oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite, in the presence of arsenite has been investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and solution phase analysis. Both ATR-FTIR and XANES show that the exposure of ferrihydrite to arsenite in the dark leads to no change in the As oxidation state, but the exposure of this arsenite-bearing surface, which is in contact with pH 5 water, to light leads to the conversion of the majority of the adsorbed arsenite to the As(V) bearing species, arsenate. Analysis of the solution phase shows that ferrous iron is released into solution during the oxidation of arsenite. The photochemical reaction, however, shows the characteristics of a self-terminating reaction in that there is a significant suppression of this redox chemistry before 10% of the total iron making up the ferrihydrite partitions into solution as ferrous iron. The self-terminating behavior exhibited by this photochemical arsenite/ferrihydrite system is likely due to the passivation of the ferrihydrite surface by the strongly bound arsenate product.

  14. Do Si/As ratios in growth medium affect arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux and translocation of arsenite in rice (Oryza sativa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Quanli; Xue, Peiying; Zhang, Shijie; Li, Bowen; Liu, Wenju

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) may decrease the uptake and accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice. However, the effects of Si/As ratios in growth medium on arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux to the external medium and translocation of arsenite in rice are currently unclear. Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed to nutrient solutions with 10 μM arsenite [As(III)] or 10 μM arsenate [As(V)] to explore the influence of different silicic acid concentrations (0, 10, 100, 1000 μM) on arsenic uptake and translocation of arsenite with or without 91 μM phosphate for 24 h. Arsenic speciation was determined in nutrient solutions, roots, and shoots. In the arsenite treatments, different Si/As ratios (1:1, 10:1, 100:1) did not affect As(III) uptake by rice roots, however they did inhibit translocation of As(III) from roots to shoots significantly (P rice roots and shoots. A Si/As ratio of 100:1 reduced As(III) translocation from roots to shoots markedly without phosphate. When phosphate was supplied, As(III) translocation from roots to shoots was significantly inhibited by Si/As ratios of 10:1 and 100:1. The results indicated that in the presence of P, different silicic acid concentrations did not impact arsenite uptake and transport in rice when arsenite was supplied. However, a Si/As ratio of 100:1 inhibited As(V) uptake, as well as As(III) efflux and translocation from roots to shoots when arsenate was supplied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of arsenic resistant and arsenopyrite oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from Hutti gold leachate and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Shailesh R; Gupta, Kajal H; Tipre, Devayani R

    2008-11-01

    Four arsenic resistant ferrous oxidizers were isolated from Hutti Gold Mine Ltd. (HGML) samples. Characterization of these isolates was done using conventional microbiological, biochemical and molecular methods. The ferrous oxidation rates with these isolates were 16, 48, 34 and 34 mg L(-1)h(-1) and 15, 47, 34 and 32 mg L(-1)h(-1) in absence and presence of 20 mM of arsenite (As3+) respectively. Except isolate HGM 8, other three isolates showed 2.9-6.3% inhibition due to the presence of 20 mM arsenite. Isolate HGM 8 was able to grow in presence of 14.7 g L(-1) of arsenite, with 25.77 mg L(-1)h(-1) ferrous oxidation rate. All the four isolates were able to oxidize iron and arsenopyrite from 20 g L(-1) and 40 g L(-1) refractory gold ore and 20 g L(-1) refractory gold concentrate. Once the growth was established pH adjustment was not needed inspite of ferrous oxidation, which could be due to concurrent oxidation of pyrite. Isolate HGM 8 showed the final cell count of as high as 1.12 x 10(8) cells mL(-1) in 40 g L(-1) refractory gold ore. The isolates were grouped into one haplotypes by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The phylogenetic position of HGM 8 was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. It was identified as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and strain name was given as SRHGM 1.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in arsenite-induced oxidative injury in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Anya M.Y.; Chao, P.L.; Fang, S.F.; Chi, C.W.; Yang, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism underlying sodium arsenite (arsenite)-induced neurotoxicity was investigated in rat brain. Arsenite was locally infused in the substantia nigra (SN) of anesthetized rat. Seven days after infusion, lipid peroxidation in the infused SN was elevated and dopamine level in the ipsilateral striatum was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-5 nmol). Furthermore, local infusion of arsenite (5 nmol) decreased GSH content and increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1 in the infused SN. Aggregation of α-synuclein, a putative pathological protein involved in several CNS neurodegenerative diseases, was elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. From the breakdown pattern of α-spectrin, both necrosis and apoptosis were involved in the arsenite-induced neurotoxicity. Pyknotic nuclei, cellular shrinkage and cytoplasmic disintegration, indicating necrosis, and TUNEL-positive cells and DNA ladder, indicating apoptosis was observed in the arsenite-infused SN. Arsenite-induced apoptosis was mediated via two different organelle pathways, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). For mitochondrial activation, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 levels were elevated in the arsenite-infused SN. In ER pathway, arsenite increased activating transcription factor-4, X-box binding protein 1, C/EBP homologues protein (CHOP) and cytosolic immunoglobulin binding protein levels. Moreover, arsenite reduced procaspase 12 levels, an ER-specific enzyme in the infused SN. Taken together, our study suggests that arsenite is capable of inducing oxidative injury in CNS. In addition to mitochondria, ER stress was involved in the arsenite-induced apoptosis. Arsenite-induced neurotoxicity clinically implies a pathophysiological role of arsenite in CNS neurodegeneration

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of a nickel sulfide fire assay button to determine the platinum group elements and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asif, M.; Parry, S.J.; Malik, H. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Silwood Park, Ascot (United Kingdom). Centre for Analytical Research in the Environment)

    1992-08-01

    Platinum group elements and gold were determined in reference materials SARM 7 and MA 1b using fire assay with 0.5 g of nickel prior to neutron activation analysis. The method is simple and rapid, avoiding the dissolution step where losses occur, particularly of gold. The problem of standardizing the button mass was overcome by using a spiking technique. The method is best suited to samples with little or no copper, when the detection limits can be as low as 0.002, 0.025, 0.018, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.020 and 0.2 mg kg[sup -1] for Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir, Au, Os and Ru, respectively. (author).

  18. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured in each treatment group in normal human keratinocytes. DNA damage was assessed in vivo by immunohistochemical staining of skin sections isolated from SKH-1 hairless mice. Cell-based findings demonstrate that ssUVR-induced DNA damage and mutagenesis are enhanced by arsenite, and supplemental zinc partially reverses the arsenite effect. In vivo studies confirm that zinc supplementation decreases arsenite-enhanced DNA damage in response to ssUVR exposure. From these data we can conclude that zinc offsets the impact of arsenic on ssUVR-stimulated DNA damage in cells and in vivo suggesting that zinc supplementation may provide a strategy to improve DNA repair capacity in arsenic exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low levels of arsenite enhance UV-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes. • UV-initiated HPRT mutation frequency is enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc supplementation offsets DNA damage and mutation frequency enhanced by arsenite. • Zinc-dependent reduction of arsenite enhanced DNA damage is confirmed in vivo.

  19. Lateral and axial cutting efficiency of instruments manufactured with conventional nickel-titanium and novel gold metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, R A; Arias, A; Peters, O A

    2018-05-01

    To isolate the effect of metallurgy in lateral and axial cutting efficacy against plastic and bovine dentine substrates by comparing two rotary systems with identical design but manufactured with either conventional nickel-titanium or heat-treated gold alloy. A total of 258 ProTaper Universal (PTU) and ProTaper Gold (PTG) Shaping instruments were used. Bending behaviour was assessed to determine the appropriate displacement associated with a 2 N force in lateral cutting. Ten instruments of each type were used in lateral action for 60 s against bovine dentine or plastic substrates four consecutive times producing four notches in each specimen. Ten further instruments of each type were used in on axial action in four standardized simulated root canals fabricated from 4-mm thick plastic or dentine discs. Both tests were performed at 300 rpm in a computer-controlled testing platform. Notch area and torsional load were compared with Student's t-tests. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare cutting efficiency across the four different time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients between substrates were also determined. For lateral action, all three PTG instruments cut significantly more effectively (P cut significantly more after 120 and 180 s (P cutting at 180 s on plastic and 120 s on bovine dentine (P cutting efficiency when compared to those made from conventional nickel-titanium. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  1. Effect of arsenite on the DNA repair of UV-irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee-Chen, S.F.; Yu, C.T.; Jan, K.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, an ubiquitous human carcinogen, has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and clastogenicity of UV light in mammalian cells. Arsenite may exert its co-genotoxic effects by inhibiting DNA repair. Results from alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation show that arsenite did not accumulate UV-induced DNA strand breaks in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells as aphidicolin plus hydroxyurea (HU) did. These data indicate that arsenite did not inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase α in UV repair. Treatment with arsenite before UV irradiation slightly reduced the DNA strand breaks accumulated by cytosine β-D-arabinofuranoside (AraC) plus HU. This effect implies that arsenite only slightly inhibited the incision of UV-induced DNA adducts. The low molecular weight DNA accumulated by post-UV incubation with AraC plus HU shifted to high molecular weight upon the incubation of cells in drug-free medium, but this shifting was prohibited by the presence of arsenite. This suggests that arsenite inhibited the rejoining of DNA strand breaks. When a pulse-chase labelling procedure was applied on UV-irradiated cells, the chain elongation of nascent DNA was strongly inhibited by post-incubation with arsenite. These data show that arsenite inhibited post-replication repair in UV-irradiated cells. Therefore, the steps inhibited by arsenite in UV-induced cells. Therefore, the steps inhibited by arsenite in UV-induced DNA repair in CHO K1 cells are different from human fibroblasts. (author)

  2. Effect of arsenite on the DNA repair of UV-irradiated Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Chen, S.F.; Yu, C.T.; Jan, K.Y. (Academia Sinica, Taipei, (Taiwan). Institute of Zoology)

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, an ubiquitous human carcinogen, has been shown to enhance the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and clastogenicity of UV light in mammalian cells. Arsenite may exert its co-genotoxic effects by inhibiting DNA repair. Results from alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation show that arsenite did not accumulate UV-induced DNA strand breaks in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells as aphidicolin plus hydroxyurea (HU) did. These data indicate that arsenite did not inhibit the activity of DNA polymerase [alpha] in UV repair. Treatment with arsenite before UV irradiation slightly reduced the DNA strand breaks accumulated by cytosine [beta]-D-arabinofuranoside (AraC) plus HU. This effect implies that arsenite only slightly inhibited the incision of UV-induced DNA adducts. The low molecular weight DNA accumulated by post-UV incubation with AraC plus HU shifted to high molecular weight upon the incubation of cells in drug-free medium, but this shifting was prohibited by the presence of arsenite. This suggests that arsenite inhibited the rejoining of DNA strand breaks. When a pulse-chase labelling procedure was applied on UV-irradiated cells, the chain elongation of nascent DNA was strongly inhibited by post-incubation with arsenite. These data show that arsenite inhibited post-replication repair in UV-irradiated cells. Therefore, the steps inhibited by arsenite in UV-induced cells. Therefore, the steps inhibited by arsenite in UV-induced DNA repair in CHO K1 cells are different from human fibroblasts. (author).

  3. Arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with proteotoxicity in human lymphoblastoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Zhao, Fei; Pacheco, Samantha; Klimecki, Walter T., E-mail: klimecki@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2012-10-15

    Epidemiological studies of arsenic-exposed populations have provided evidence that arsenic exposure in humans is associated with immunosuppression. Previously, we have reported that arsenite-induced toxicity is associated with the induction of autophagy in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL). Autophagy is a cellular process that functions in the degradation of damaged cellular components, including protein aggregates formed by misfolded or damaged proteins. Accumulation of misfolded or damaged proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In an effort to investigate the mechanism of autophagy induction by arsenite in the LCL model, we examined the potential contribution of ER stress and activation of the UPR. LCL exposed to sodium arsenite for 8-days induced expression of UPR-activated genes, including CHOP and GRP78, at the RNA and the protein level. Evidence for activation of the three arms of the UPR was observed. The arsenite-induced activation of the UPR was associated with an accumulation of protein aggregates containing p62 and LC3, proteins with established roles in the sequestration and autophagic clearance of protein aggregates. Taken together, these data provide evidence that arsenite-induced autophagy is associated with the generation of ER stress, activation of the UPR, and formation of protein aggregates that may be targeted to the lysosome for degradation. -- Highlights: ► Arsenite induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response. ► Arsenite induces the formation of protein aggregates that contain p62 and LC3-II. ► Time-course data suggests that arsenite-induced autophagy precedes ER stress.

  4. Ionization model for nickel-like gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1986-04-01

    Before we build an extensive population model for gold ionized 49 to 52 times, we have studied with a more simple model the effect of accounting for cascades (or dielectronic recombination) and Δn = 0 transitions. These transitions allow some understanding of typical feature of experimental gold spectra

  5. Effect of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Sodium Arsenite- Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenite is a major environmental chemical and a known reproductive toxicant via the depression of spermatogenesis and androgenesis in males. The possibility of sodium arsenite reproductive toxicity been caused by autooxidation was investigated in this study taking advantage of the anti-oxidant properties of ginger and ...

  6. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  7. Probing Interfacial Friction and Dissipation in Granular Gold­ Nickel Alloys with a Quartz Crystal Oscillator in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K. M.; Krim, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present here a quartz crystal microbalance study of two-phase gold nickel alloys whose internal granular properties are probed by exposure to a fluctuating external magnetic field. The work is motivated by prior studies demonstrating that granular two-phase materials exhibited lower friction and wear than solid solution alloys with identical compositions. In particular, we report a ``flexing'' effect which appears when an external magnetic field is applied, and is manifested as a decrease in the magnitude of oscillation amplitude that is synchronized with the applied field; the effect is not seen on the complimentary solid solution samples. The effect is consistent with internal interfacial friction between nickel and gold grains, indicating a degree of freedom which may decrease friction even in the absence of an external magnetic field. This is supported through analysis of energy dissipation in the system, using the Butterworth­-Van Dyke equivalent circuit model. Data and interpretation are also presented that rule out alternate explanations such as giant magnetoresistance and/or other resistive phenomenon within the film. Funding provided by NSF DMR0805204. Thanks to L. Pan for sample preparation.

  8. Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2017-09-15

    Arsenite directly binds to the zinc finger domains of the DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and inhibits PARP-1 activity in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. PARP inhibition by arsenite enhances ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes, and the increase in DNA damage is reduced by zinc supplementation. However, little is known about the effects of arsenite and zinc on the zinc finger nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). In this study, we investigated the difference in response to arsenite exposure between XPA and PARP-1, and the differential effectiveness of zinc supplementation in restoring protein DNA binding and DNA damage repair. Arsenite targeted both XPA and PARP-1 in human keratinocytes, resulting in zinc loss from each protein and a pronounced decrease in XPA and PARP-1 binding to chromatin as demonstrated by Chip-on-Western assays. Zinc effectively restored DNA binding of PARP-1 and XPA to chromatin when zinc concentrations were equal to those of arsenite. In contrast, zinc was more effective in rescuing arsenite-augmented direct UVR-induced DNA damage than oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our findings indicate that arsenite interferes with PARP-1 and XPA binding to chromatin, and that zinc supplementation fully restores DNA binding activity to both proteins in the cellular context. Interestingly, rescue of arsenite-inhibited DNA damage repair by supplemental zinc was more sensitive for DNA damage repaired by the XPA-associated NER pathway than for the PARP-1-dependent BER pathway. This study expands our understanding of arsenite's role in DNA repair inhibition and co-carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithographically patterned electrodeposition of gold, silver, and nickel nanoring arrays with widely tunable near-infrared plasmonic resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Aaron R; Corn, Robert M

    2013-02-26

    A novel low-cost nanoring array fabrication method that combines the process of lithographically patterned nanoscale electrodeposition (LPNE) with colloidal lithography is described. Nanoring array fabrication was accomplished in three steps: (i) a thin (70 nm) sacrificial nickel or silver film was first vapor-deposited onto a plasma-etched packed colloidal monolayer; (ii) the polymer colloids were removed from the surface, a thin film of positive photoresist was applied, and a backside exposure of the photoresist was used to create a nanohole electrode array; (iii) this array of nanoscale cylindrical electrodes was then used for the electrodeposition of gold, silver, or nickel nanorings. Removal of the photoresist and sacrificial metal film yielded a nanoring array in which all of the nanoring dimensions were set independently: the inter-ring spacing was fixed by the colloidal radius, the radius of the nanorings was controlled by the plasma etching process, and the width of the nanorings was controlled by the electrodeposition process. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the nanoring arrays. Nanoring arrays with radii from 200 to 400 nm exhibited a single strong NIR plasmonic resonance with an absorption maximum wavelength that varied linearly from 1.25 to 3.33 μm as predicted by a simple standing wave model linear antenna theory. This simple yet versatile nanoring array fabrication method was also used to electrodeposit concentric double gold nanoring arrays that exhibited multiple NIR plasmonic resonances.

  10. Arsenite Oxidation and Arsenite Resistance by Bacillus sp. PNKP-S2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Pattanapipitpaisal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic causes human health problems after accumulate in the body for 10-15 years and arsenite [As(III] is generally regarded as being more mobile and toxic than other oxidation states. In this study, two-hundred and three bacterial strains were isolated from groundwater and soil samples collecting in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. All strains were screened for arsenic tolerant efficiency at 1-10 mM of sodium arsenite. Eighteen selected strains which had the highest resistance to 10 mM of As(III were further studied for their As(III-oxidizing activity and growth in enrichment and growth medium (EG medium supplemented with 0.58 mM of As(III. It was found that strain PNKP-S2 was able to grow in the medium with As(III as a sole energy source and had 89.11% As(III removal within 48 h. The PCR-based 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the strain PNKP-S2 was closed relative to Bacillus sp. This is the first report on Bacillus sp. chemolithoautotrophic As(III-oxidizer and this strain could be a potential candidate for application in arsenic remediation of contaminated water.

  11. Label-free signal-on aptasensor for sensitive electrochemical detection of arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-05-15

    A signal-on aptasensor was fabricated for highly sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of arsenite with a label-free Ars-3 aptamer self-assembled on a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) via Au-S bond. The Ars-3 aptamer could adsorb cationic polydiallyldimethylammonium (PDDA) via electrostatic interaction to repel other cationic species. In the presence of arsenite, the change of Ars-3 conformation due to the formation of Ars-3/arsenite complex led to less adsorption of PDDA, and the complex could adsorb more positively charged [Ru(NH3)6](3+) as an electrochemically active indicator on the aptasensor surface, which produced a sensitive "turn-on" response. The target-induced structure switching could be used for sensitive detection of arsenite with a linear range from 0.2 nM to 100 nM and a detection limit down to 0.15 nM. Benefiting from Ars-3 aptamer, the proposed system exhibited excellent specificity against other heavy metal ions. The SPCE-based aptasensor exhibited the advantages of low cost and simple fabrication, providing potential application of arsenite detection in environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arsenite Effects on Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Human and Mouse Primary Hepatocytes Follow a Nonlinear Dose Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemantkumar Chavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite is a known carcinogen and its exposure has been implicated in a variety of noncarcinogenic health concerns. Increased oxidative stress is thought to be the primary cause of arsenite toxicity and the toxic effect is thought to be linear with detrimental effects reported at all concentrations of arsenite. But the paradigm of linear dose response in arsenite toxicity is shifting. In the present study we demonstrate that arsenite effects on mitochondrial respiration in primary hepatocytes follow a nonlinear dose response. In vitro exposure of primary hepatocytes to an environmentally relevant, moderate level of arsenite results in increased oxidant production that appears to arise from changes in the expression and activity of respiratory Complex I of the mitochondrial proton circuit. In primary hepatocytes the excess oxidant production appears to elicit adaptive responses that promote resistance to oxidative stress and a propensity to increased proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest a nonlinear dose-response characteristic of arsenite with low-dose arsenite promoting adaptive responses in a process known as mitohormesis, with transient increase in ROS levels acting as transducers of arsenite-induced mitohormesis.

  13. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossman, Toby G.; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in drinking water has been associated with skin cancers in several countries such as Taiwan, Chile, Argentina, Bangladesh, and Mexico. This association has not been established in the United States. In addition, inorganic arsenic alone in drinking water does not cause skin cancers in animals. We recently showed that concentrations as low as 1.25 mg/l sodium arsenite were able to enhance the tumorigenicity of solar UV irradiation in mice. The tumors were almost all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). These data suggest that arsenic in drinking water may need a carcinogenic partner, such as sunlight, in the induction of skin cancers. Arsenite may enhance tumorigenicity via effects on DNA repair and DNA damage-induced cell cycle effects, leading to genomic instability. Others have found that dimethlyarsinic acid (DMA), a metabolite of arsenite, can induce bladder cancers at high concentrations in drinking water. In those experiments, skin cancers were not produced. Taken together, these data suggest that arsenite (or possibly an earlier metabolite), and not DMA, is responsible for the skin cancers, but a second genotoxic agent may be a requirement. The differences between the US and the other arsenic-exposed populations with regard to skin cancers might be explained by the lower levels of arsenic in the US, less sun exposure, better nutrition, or perhaps genetic susceptibility differences

  14. The ADMA/DDAH/NO pathway in human vein endothelial cells exposed to arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; Chin-Chan, Miguel; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C; Atzatzi-Aguilar, Octavio G; Olivares-Reyes, Jesus A; Segovia, José; Del Razo, Luz M

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is related to cardiovascular disease, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) depletion. The mechanisms underlying NO depletion as related to iAs exposure are not fully understood. The endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), might be a molecular target of iAs. ADMA concentrations are regulated by proteins involved in its synthesis (arginine methyl transferase 1 [PRMT-1]) and degradation (dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase [DDAH]). Both, ADMA and NO are susceptible to oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the ADMA/DDAH/NO pathway in human vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-CS) exposed to arsenite. We exposed HUVEC-CS cells to 1, 2.5 and 5μM of arsenite for 24h. We proved that arsenite at 5μM was able to decrease NO levels with an associated increase in ADMA and depletion of l-arginine in HUVEC-CS cells. We also found a decrease in DDAH-1 protein expression with 5μM of arsenite compared to the control group. However, we did not observe significant differences in PRMT-1 protein expression at any of the concentrations of arsenite employed. Finally, arsenite (2.5 and 5μM) increased NADPH oxidase 4 protein levels compared with the control group. We conclude that ADMA, l-arginine and DDAH are involved in NO depletion produced by arsenite, and that the mechanism is related to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Site-Specific Biomolecule Labeling with Gold Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerson, Christopher J.; Powell, Richard D.; Hainfeld, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Site-specific labeling of biomolecules in vitro with gold clusters can enhance the information content of electron cryomicroscopy experiments. This chapter provides a practical overview of well-established techniques for forming biomolecule/gold cluster conjugates. Three bioconjugation chemistries are covered: Linker-mediated bioconjugation, direct gold–biomolecule bonding, and coordination-mediated bonding of nickel(II) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-derivatized gold clusters to polyhistidine (...

  16. The contribution of microbial mats to the arsenic geochemistry of an ancient gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Maryan, Natalia; Lewandowski, Wiktor; Kaczanowski, Szymon; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Zloty Stok (SW Poland) gold mine is such an environment, where different microbial communities, able to utilize inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V), are found. The purpose of the present study was to (i) estimate prokaryotic diversity in the microbial mats in bottom sediments of this gold mine, (ii) identify microorganisms that can metabolize arsenic, and (iii) estimate their potential role in the arsenic geochemistry of the mine and in the environment. The oxidation/reduction experiments showed that the microbial mat community may significantly contribute to arsenic contamination in groundwater. The presence of both arsenite oxidizing and dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the mat was confirmed by the detection of arsenite oxidase and dissimilatory arsenate reductase genes, respectively. This work also demonstrated that microorganisms utilizing other compounds that naturally co-occur with arsenic are present within the microbial mat community and may contribute to the arsenic geochemistry in the environment. - Highlights: ► The microbial mats from this ancient gold mine are highly diverse community. ► As(III) oxidizing and As(V) reducing bacteria are present in the mats. ► As redox transformations are linked to the metabolism of microbial mats bacteria. ► Microbial mats play a crucial role in the As biogeochemical cycle within the mine. - The microbial mats from this ancient gold mine can mediate oxidation/reduction reaction of arsenic and in this way may significantly contribute to arsenic contamination in groundwater.

  17. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N., E-mail: vni3@columbia.edu [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiological Research, Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, NY 10032 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 μM) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ► Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ► Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT.

  18. Induction of apoptotic death and retardation of neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells by sodium arsenite treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic arsenic toxicity is a global health problem that affects more than 100 million people worldwide. Long-term health effects of inorganic sodium arsenite in drinking water may result in skin, lung and liver cancers and in severe neurological abnormalities. We investigated in the present study whether sodium arsenite affects signaling pathways that control cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells (NSC). We demonstrated that the critical signaling pathway, which was suppressed by sodium arsenite in NSC, was the protective PI3K–AKT pathway. Sodium arsenite (2–4 μM) also caused down-regulation of Nanog, one of the key transcription factors that control pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Mitochondrial damage and cytochrome-c release induced by sodium arsenite exposure was followed by initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in NSC. Beside caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors, suppression of JNK activity decreased levels of arsenite-induced apoptosis in NSC. Neuronal differentiation of NSC was substantially inhibited by sodium arsenite exposure. Overactivation of JNK1 and ERK1/2 and down-regulation of PI3K–AKT activity induced by sodium arsenite were critical factors that strongly affected neuronal differentiation. In conclusion, sodium arsenite exposure of human NSC induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is substantially accelerated due to the simultaneous suppression of PI3K–AKT. Sodium arsenite also negatively affects neuronal differentiation of NSC through overactivation of MEK–ERK and suppression of PI3K–AKT. - Highlights: ► Arsenite induces the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human neural stem cells. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly upregulated by suppression of PI3K–AKT. ► Arsenite-induced apoptosis is strongly down-regulated by inhibition of JNK–cJun. ► Arsenite negatively affects neuronal differentiation by inhibition of PI3K–AKT

  19. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and transcription in pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Sanchez-Soto, M. Carmen; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Hiriart, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Human studies have shown that chronic inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is associated with a high prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism(s) underlying this effect are not well understood, and practically, there is no information available on the effects of arsenic on pancreatic β-cells functions. Thus, since insulin secreted by the pancreas plays a crucial role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, our aim was to determine if sodium arsenite impairs insulin secretion and mRNA expression in single adult rat pancreatic β-cells. Cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 μM sodium arsenite and incubated for 72 and 144 h. The highest dose tested (10 μM) decreased β-cell viability, by 33% and 83%, respectively. Insulin secretion and mRNA expression were evaluated in the presence of 1 and 5 μM sodium arsenite. Basal insulin secretion, in 5.6 mM glucose, was not significantly affected by 1 or 5 μM treatment for 72 h, but basal secretion was reduced when cells were exposed to 5 μM sodium arsenite for 144 h. On the other hand, insulin secretion in response to 15.6 mM glucose decreased with sodium arsenite in a dose-dependent manner in such a way that cells were no longer able to distinguish between different glucose concentrations. We also showed a significant decrease in insulin mRNA expression of cells exposed to 5 μM sodium arsenite during 72 h. Our data suggest that arsenic may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus by impairing pancreatic β-cell functions, particularly insulin synthesis and secretion

  20. Site-Specific Biomolecule Labeling with Gold Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Christopher J.; Powell, Richard D.; Hainfeld, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific labeling of biomolecules in vitro with gold clusters can enhance the information content of electron cryomicroscopy experiments. This chapter provides a practical overview of well-established techniques for forming biomolecule/gold cluster conjugates. Three bioconjugation chemistries are covered: Linker-mediated bioconjugation, direct gold–biomolecule bonding, and coordination-mediated bonding of nickel(II) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-derivatized gold clusters to polyhistidine (His)-tagged proteins. PMID:20887859

  1. Inhibition of mitotic-specific histone phophorylation by sodium arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobo, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Synchronized cultures of Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) were used to measure the effects of 10{mu}M sodium arsenite on histone phosphorylation. This treatment caused cell proliferation to be temporarily arrested, after which the cells spontaneously resumed cell proliferation in a radiomimetric manner. Immediately following treatment, it was found that sodium arsenite affected only mitotic-specific HI and H3 phosphorylations. Neither interphase, nor mitotic, H2A and H4 phosphorylations were affected, nor was interphase HI Phosphorylation affected. The phosphorylation of HI was inhibited only in mitosis, reducing HI phosphorylation to 38.1% of control levels, which was the level of interphase HI phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of both H3 variants was inhibited in mitosis, the less hydrophobic H3 to 19% and the more hydrophobic H3 to 24% of control levels. These results suggest that sodium arsenite may inhibite cell proliferation by interfering with the cyclin B/p34{sup cdc2} histone kinase activity which is thought to play a key role in regulating the cell cycle. It has been proposed by our laboratory that HI and H3 phosphorylations play a role in restructuring interphase chromatin into metaphase chromosomes. Interference of this process by sodium arsenite may lead to structurally damaged chromosomes resulting in the increased cancer risks known to be produced by arsenic exposure from the environment.

  2. The defensive effect of benfotiamine in sodium arsenite-induced experimental vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjali; Reddy, Krishna; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2010-10-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of benfotiamine, a thiamine derivative, in sodium arsenite-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) in rats. Sodium arsenite (1.5 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) i.p., 2 weeks) was administered in rats to produce VED. The development of VED was assessed by employing isolated aortic ring preparation and estimating the serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate. Further, the integrity of vascular endothelium in thoracic aorta was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the oxidative stress was assessed by estimating serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aortic superoxide anion generation. The administration of sodium arsenite markedly produced VED by attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, decreasing serum and aortic concentrations of nitrite/nitrate, and impairing the integrity of vascular endothelium. Further, sodium arsenite produced oxidative stress by increasing serum TBARS and aortic superoxide generation. The treatment with benfotiamine (25, 50, and 100 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) or atorvastatin (30 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) p.o., a standard agent) prevented sodium arsenite-induced VED and oxidative stress. However, the beneficial effects of benfotiamine in preventing the sodium arsenite-induced VED were attenuated by co-administration with N-omega-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester (L: -NAME) (25 mg(-1) kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.), an inhibitor of NOS. Thus, it may be concluded that benfotiamine reduces oxidative stress and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase to enhance the generation and bioavailability of NO and subsequently improves the integrity of vascular endothelium to prevent sodium arsenite-induced experimental VED.

  3. Determination of phosphorus in gold or silver brazing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antepenko, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method has been devised for measuring microgram levels of phosphorus in brazing alloys of gold or silver alloys is normally measured by solid mass spectrometry, but the high nickel concentration produces a double ionized nickel spectral interference. The described procedures is based upon the formation of molybdovandophosphoric acid when a molybdate solution is added to an acidic solution containing orthophosphate and vanadate ions. The optimum acidity for forming the yellow colored product is 0.5 N hydrochloric acid. The working concentration range is from 0.1 to 1 ppm phosphorus using 100-mm cells and measuring the absorbance at 460 nm. The sample preparation procedure employs aqua regia to dissolve the alloy oxidize the phosphorus to orthophosphate. Cation-exchange chromatography is used to remove nickel ions and anion-exchange and chromatography to remove gold ions as the chloride complex. Excellent recoveries are obtained for standard phosphorus solutions run through the sample procedure. The procedure is applicable to a variety of gold or silver braze alloys requiring phosphorus analysis

  4. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppée Jean-Yves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III to As(V as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (σ54 of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and a putative -12/-24 σ54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III in this microorganism.

  5. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7439

  6. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au, copper (Cu and nickel (Ni by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs. These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  7. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  8. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

    2010-11-25

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum γ-Glutamyl transferase (γGT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts.

  9. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  10. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhaupt, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readilycorrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature

  11. The metalloid arsenite induces nuclear export of Id3 possibly via binding to the N-terminal cysteine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Sugai, Manabu; Mori, Kentaro; Yokota, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sodium arsenite induces cytoplasmic accumulation of Id3. •Arsenite binds to closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3. •N-terminal cysteines are essential for arsenite-induced nuclear export of Id3. •Nuclear export of Id3 counteracts its transcriptional repression activity. -- Abstract: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite

  12. Arsenite promotes centrosome abnormalities under a p53 compromised status induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, W.-T.; Yu, H.-S.; Lin Pinpin; Chang, Louis W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus an interaction between arsenite and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4- (methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone, NNK) and arsenite on lung cell transformation. BEAS-2B, an immortalized human lung epithelial cell line, was selected to test the centrosomal abnormalities and colony formation by NNK and arsenite. We found that NNK, alone, could enhance BEAS-2B cell growth at 1-5 μM. Under NNK exposure, arsenite was able to increase centrosomal abnormality as compared with NNK or arsenite treatment alone. NNK treatment could also reduce arsenite-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, these cellular effects were found to be correlated with p53 dysfunction. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells cotreated with NNK and arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that NNK could provide a p53 compromised status. Arsenite would act specifically on this p53 compromised status to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenite under tobacco-specific carcinogen co-exposure.

  13. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-κB activations by TNF-α. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-κB activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-κB was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-κB activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines

  14. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  15. Characterization of arsenite tolerant Halomonas sp. Alang-4, originated from heavy metal polluted shore of Gulf of Cambay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raina; Jha, Sanjay; Mahatma, Mahesh K; Jha, Anamika; Kumar, G Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Arsenite [As(III)]-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from heavy metal contaminated shore of Gulf of Cambay at Alang, India. The most efficient bacterial strain Alang-4 could tolerate up to 15 mM arsenite [As(III)] and 200 mM of arsenate [As(V)]. Its 16S rRNA gene sequence was 99% identical to the 16S rRNA genes of genus Halomonas (Accession no. HQ659187). Arsenite oxidase enzyme localized on membrane helped in conversion of As(III) to As(V). Arsenite transporter genes (arsB, acr3(1) and acr3(2)) assisted in extrusion of arsenite from Halomonas sp. Alang-4. Generation of ROS in response to arsenite stress was alleviated by higher activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase enzymes. Down-regulation in the specific activities of nearly all dehydrogenases of carbon assimilatory pathway viz., glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases, was observed in presence of As(III), whereas, the specific activities of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase and isocitrate lyase enzymes were found to increase two times in As(III) treated cells. The results suggest that in addition to efficient ars operon, alternative pathways of carbon utilization exist in the marine bacterium Halomonas sp. Alang-4 to overcome the toxic effects of arsenite on its dehydrogenase enzymes.

  16. Developmental mechanisms of arsenite toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan; Lu Cailing; Wang Ju; Hu Wei; Cao Zongfu; Sun Daguang; Xia Hongfei; Ma Xu

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic usually accumulates in soil, water and airborne particles, from which it is taken up by various organisms. Exposure to arsenic through food and drinking water is a major public health problem affecting some countries. At present there are limited laboratory data on the effects of arsenic exposure on early embryonic development and the mechanisms behind its toxicity. In this study, we used zebrafish as a model system to investigate the effects of arsenite on early development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of sodium arsenite concentrations (0-10.0 mM) between 4 and 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Survival and early development of the embryos were not obviously influenced by arsenite concentrations below 0.5 mM. However, embryos exposed to higher concentrations (0.5-10.0 mM) displayed reduced survival and abnormal development including delayed hatching, retarded growth and changed morphology. Alterations in neural development included weak tactile responses to light (2.0-5.0 mM, 30 hpf), malformation of the spinal cord and disordered motor axon projections (2.0 mM, 48 hpf). Abnormal cardiac function was observed as bradycardia (0.5-2.0 mM, 60 hpf) and altered ventricular shape (2.0 mM, 48 hpf). Furthermore, altered cell proliferation (2.0 mM, 24 hpf) and apoptosis status (2.0 mM, 24 and 48 hpf), as well as abnormal genomic DNA methylation patterning (2.0 mM, 24 and 48 hpf) were detected in the arsenite-treated embryos. All of these indicate a possible relationship between arsenic exposure and developmental failure in early embryogenesis. Our studies suggest that the negative effects of arsenic on vertebrate embryogenesis are substantial

  17. Arsenite reduces insulin secretion in rat pancreatic β-cells by decreasing the calcium-dependent calpain-10 proteolysis of SNAP-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Salazar, Ana Maria; Sordo, Monserrat; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been consistently observed among residents of high arsenic exposure areas. We have previously shown that in rat pancreatic β-cells, low arsenite doses impair the secretion of insulin without altering its synthesis. To further study the mechanism by which arsenite reduces insulin secretion, we evaluated the effects of arsenite on the calcium-calpain pathway that triggers insulin exocytosis in RINm5F cells. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis were also performed to complement the characterization. Free [Ca 2+ ]i oscillations needed for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were abated in the presence of subchronic low arsenite doses (0.5-2 μM). The global activity of calpains increased with 2 μM arsenite. However, during the secretion of insulin stimulated with glucose (15.6 mM), 1 μM arsenite decreased the activity of calpain-10, measured as SNAP-25 proteolysis. Both proteins are needed to fuse insulin granules with the membrane to produce insulin exocytosis. Arsenite also induced a slowdown in the β cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, reflected by a reduction of dividing cells and in their arrest in G2/M. Data obtained showed that one of the mechanisms by which arsenite impairs insulin secretion is by decreasing the oscillations of free [Ca 2+ ]i, thus reducing calcium-dependent calpain-10 partial proteolysis of SNAP-25. The effects in cell division and proliferation observed with arsenite exposure can be an indirect consequence of the decrease in insulin secretion

  18. N6-methyladenosine mediates the cellular proliferation and apoptosis via microRNAs in arsenite-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shiyan; Sun, Donglei; Dai, Huangmei; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2018-04-20

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) modification is implicated to play an important role in cellular biological processes, but its regulatory mechanisms in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis are largely unknown. Here, human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were chronically treated with 2.5 μM arsenite sodium (NaAsO 2 ) for about 13 weeks and these cells were identified with malignant phenotype which was demonstrated by increased levels of cellular proliferation, percentages of plate colony formation and soft agar clone formation, and high potential of resistance to apoptotic induction. Our results firstly demonstrated that m 6 A modification on RNA was significantly increased in arsenite-transformed cells and this modification may be synergistically regulated by methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3), methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14), Wilms tumor 1-associated protein (WTAP) and Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO). In addition, knocking down of METTL3 in arsenite-transformed cells can dramatically reverse the malignant phenotype, which was manifested by lower percentages of clone and colony formation as well as higher rates of apoptotic induction. Given the critical roles of miRNAs in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, miRNAs regulated by m 6 A in arsenite-transformed cells were analyzed by Venn diagram and KEGG pathway in this study. The results showed that these m 6 A-mediated miRNAs can regulate pathways which are closely associated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis, implicating that these miRNAs may be the critical bridge by which m 6 A mediates dysregulation of cell survival and apoptosis in arsenite-transformed cells. Taken together, our results firstly demonstrated the significant role of m 6 A in the prevention of tumor occurrence and progression induced by arsenite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Involvement of c-Met- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent pathways in arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohee; Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo; Lee, Lyon; Park, Jung-Duck; Ryu, Doug-Young

    2011-01-01

    Catalase protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced damage by catalyzing the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water. Arsenite decreases catalase activity; it activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its key downstream effector Akt in a variety of cells. The PI3K pathway is known to inhibit catalase expression. c-Met, an upstream regulator of PI3K and Akt, is also involved in the regulation of catalase expression. To examine the involvement of c-Met and PI3K pathways in the arsenite-induced downregulation of catalase, catalase mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 treated with arsenite and either an inhibitor of c-Met (PHA665752 (PHA)) or of PI3K (LY294002 (LY)). Arsenite treatment markedly activated Akt and decreased the levels of both catalase mRNA and protein. Both PHA and LY attenuated arsenite-induced activation of Akt. PHA and LY treatment also prevented the inhibitory effect of arsenite on catalase protein expression but did not affect the level of catalase mRNA. These findings suggest that arsenite-induced inhibition of catalase expression is regulated at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels in HepG2 cells, and that the post-transcriptional regulation is mediated via c-Met- and PI3K-dependent mechanisms.

  20. Arsenite adsorption on goethite at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, Michael; Vlasova, Nataliya

    2009-01-01

    Experimental closed-system ΔT acid-base titrations between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the goethite surface complexation reactions. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH PZC determined by the one-term Van't Hoff extrapolation yield a value for goethite surface protonation enthalpy of -49.6 kJ mol -1 in good agreement with literature data. Batch titration data between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C with arsenite concentrations between 10 μM and 100 μM yield adsorption curves, which increases with pH, peak at a pH of 9, and decrease at higher pH values. The slope of this bend becomes steeper with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution model in combination with a basic Stern layer option could be established for the pH-dependent arsenite adsorption. Formation of two inner-sphere bidentate surface complexes best matched the experimental data in agreement with published EXAFS spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the thus derived intrinsic equilibrium constants can be well represented by the linear Van't Hoff logK T int vs. 1/T plot. Adsorption of arsenite on the goethite surface is exothermic (negative Δ r H 298 values) and therefore becomes weaker with increasing temperature. Application of the new constants with the aqueous speciation code VMINTEQ predicts that the As(III) concentration in presence of goethite sorbent decreases by 10 times once the hydrothermal solution is cooled from 99 deg. C to 1 deg. C. The model curve matches data from a natural thermal water spring system. The increase of adsorption efficiency for As along the temperature gradient may well serve as an additional process to prevent ecosystem contamination by As-rich water seepage from geothermal energy generation facilities

  1. Facile synthesis of dendritic gold nanostructures with hyperbranched architectures and their electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianshe; Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; You, Tianyan

    2013-09-25

    Gold dendritic nanostructures with hyperbranched architectures were synthesized by the galvanic replacement reaction between nickel wire and HAuCl4 in aqueous solution. The study revealed that the morphology of the obtained nanostructures strongly depended on experimental parameters such as the HAuCl4 solution concentration, reaction temperature, and time, as well as stirring or not. According to the investigation of the growth process, it was proposed that gold nanoparticles with rough surfaces were first deposited on the nickel substrate and that subsequent growth preferentially occurred on the preformed gold nanoparticles, finally leading to the formation of hyperbranched gold dendrites via a self-organization process under nonequilibrium conditions. The electrochemical experiment results demonstrated that the as-obtained gold dendrites exhibited high catalytic activity toward ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution, indicating that this nanomaterial may be a potential catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  2. A “Turn-On” thiol functionalized fluorescent carbon quantum dot based chemosensory system for arsenite detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooja, D., E-mail: poojaiitr@csio.res.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Saini, Sonia; Thakur, Anupma; Kumar, Baban; Tyagi, Sachin [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India); Nayak, Manoj K. [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sectro-30 C, Chandigarh 160030 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Environmental friendly carbon quantum dots grafted with thiol moieties. • The functionalized CQDs demonstrated for optical detection of arsenite in water. • High analytical performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and detection limit (0.086 ppb). - Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged out as promising fluorescent probes for hazardous heavy metals detection in recent past. In this study, water soluble CQDs were synthesized by facile microwave pyrolysis of citric acid & cysteamine, and functionalized with ditheritheritol to impart thiol functionalities at surface for selective detection of toxic arsenite in water. Microscopic analysis reveals that the synthesized CQDs are of uniform size (diameter ∼5 nm) and confirmed to have surface −SH groups by FT-IR. The functionalized probe is then demonstrated for arsenite detection in water by “Turn-On” read out mechanism, which reduces the possibility of false positive signals associated with “turn off’ probes reported earlier. The blue luminescent functionalized CQDs exhibit increase in fluorescence intensity on arsenite addition in 5–100 ppb wide detection range. The probe can be used for sensitive detection of arsenite in environmental water to a theoretical detection limit (3s) of 0.086 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.9547) with good reproducibility at 2.6% relative standard deviation. The presented reliable, sensitive, rapid fCQDs probe demonstrated to exhibit high selectivity towards arsenite and exemplified for real water samples as well. The analytical performance of the presented probe is comparable to existing organic & semiconductor based optical probes.

  3. Great improvement in pseudocapacitor properties of nickel hydroxide via simple gold deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-I.; Thiyagarajan, Pradheep; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, we report a facile approach to improve the capacitor properties of nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) by simply coating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the surface of Ni(OH)2. Au NP-deposited Ni(OH)2 (Au/Ni(OH)2) has been prepared by application of a conventional colloidal coating of Au NPs on the surface of 3D-Ni(OH)2 synthesized via a hydrothermal method. Compared with pristine Ni(OH)2, Au/Ni(OH)2 shows a 41% enhanced capacitance value, excellent rate capacitance behavior at high current density conditions, and greatly improved cycling stability for supercapacitor applications. The specific capacitance of Au/Ni(OH)2 reached 1927 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which is close to the theoretical capacitance and retained 66% and 80% of the maximum value at a high current density of 20 A g-1 and 5000 cycles while that of pristine Ni(OH)2 was 1363 F g-1 and significantly decreased to 48% and 30%, respectively, under the same conditions. The outstanding performance of Au/Ni(OH)2 as a supercapacitor is attributed to the presence of metal Au NPs on the surface of semiconductor Ni(OH)2; this permits the creation of virtual 3D conducting networks via metal/semiconductor contact, which induces fast electron and ion transport by acting as a bridge between Ni(OH)2 nanostructures, thus eventually leading to significantly improved electrochemical capacitive behaviors, as confirmed by the EIS and I-V characteristic data.In this letter, we report a facile approach to improve the capacitor properties of nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) by simply coating gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the surface of Ni(OH)2. Au NP-deposited Ni(OH)2 (Au/Ni(OH)2) has been prepared by application of a conventional colloidal coating of Au NPs on the surface of 3D-Ni(OH)2 synthesized via a hydrothermal method. Compared with pristine Ni(OH)2, Au/Ni(OH)2 shows a 41% enhanced capacitance value, excellent rate capacitance behavior at high current density conditions, and greatly improved cycling stability for

  4. Functional genes and thermophilic microorganisms responsible for arsenite oxidation from the shallow sediment of an untraversed hot spring outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Mu, Yao; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Wu, Weiwei; Yuan, Jie; Liu, Yichen; Guoji, E; Luo, Feng; Chen, Xiaoming; Li, Hao; Wang, Jianing

    2017-05-01

    Hot Springs have unique geochemical features. Microorganisms-mediated arsenite oxidation is one of the major biogeochemical processes occurred in some hot springs. This study aimed to understand the diversities of genes and microorganisms involved in arsenite oxidation from the outlet of an untraversed hot spring located at an altitude of 4226 m. Microcosm assay indicated that the microbial community from the hot spring was able to efficiently oxidize As(III) using glucose, lactic acid, yeast extract or sodium bicarbonate as the sole carbon source. The microbial community contained 7 phyla of microorganisms, of which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes are largely dominant; this composition is unique and differs significantly from those of other described hot springs. Twenty one novel arsenite oxidase genes were identified from the samples, which are affiliated with the arsenite oxidase families of α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria or Archaea; this highlights the high diversity of the arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms from the hot spring. A cultivable arsenite-oxidizer Chelatococcu sp. GHS311 was also isolated from the sample using enrichment technique. It can completely convert 75.0 mg/L As(III) into As(V) in 18 days at 45 °C. The arsenite oxidase of GHS311 shares the maximal sequence identity (84.7%) to that of Hydrogenophaga sp. CL3, a non-thermotolerant bacterium. At the temperature lower than 30 °C or higher than 65 °C, the growth of this strain was completely inhibited. These data help us to better understand the diversity and functional features of the thermophilic arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms from hot springs.

  5. Effects of cultivation conditions on the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Masayoshi; Sato, Takahiko; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro

    2011-03-01

    The physiological responses of the arsenic-hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata, such as arsenic uptake and chemical transformation in the fern, have been investigated. However, a few questions remain regarding arsenic treatment in hydroponics. Incubation conditions such as aeration, arsenic concentration, and incubation period might affect those responses of P. vittata in hydroponics. Arsenite uptake was low under anaerobic conditions, as previously reported. However, in an arsenite uptake experiment, phosphorous (P) starvation-dependent uptake of arsenate was observed under aerobic conditions. Time course-dependent analysis of arsenite oxidation showed that arsenite was gradually oxidized to arsenate during incubation. Arsenite oxidation was not observed in any of the control conditions, such as exposure to a nutrient solution or to culture medium only, or with the use of dried root; arsenite oxidation was only observed when live root was used. This result suggests that sufficient aeration allows the rhizosphere system to oxidize arsenite and enables the fern to efficiently take up arsenite as arsenate. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses showed that long-duration exposure to arsenic using a hydroponic system led to the accumulation of arsenate as the dominant species in the root tips, but not in the whole roots, partly because up-regulation of arsenate uptake by P starvation of the fern was caused and retained by long-time incubation. Analysis of concentration-dependent arsenate uptake by P. vittata showed that the uptake switched from a high-affinity transport system to a low-affinity system at high arsenate concentrations, which partially explains the increased arsenate abundance in the whole root. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the solubility of He in pressure-gassed and irradiated nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driesch, H.J. von den.

    1980-06-01

    The behaviour of helium in nickel and gold was investigated in pressure-gassed, homogeneously implanted surface loaded samples doped by the (p,α) and (d,a) nuclear reactions. The following results were obtained: The helium content of gassed nickel foil was mostly determined by a surface oxide film with a thickness that shows a temperature dependence similar to the helium content. Such an effect could not be detected in gassed gold foils. At gasification pressures above 300 bar a deformation of the samples could be observed that can be attributed to a change of the temperature distribution or of the convection flow. A helium solubility could not be detected for pure undeformed nickel. An upper limit of solubility of Ssub(He) -11 atom quota at 1500 K could be estimated from the measured data. Homogeneously implanted nickel samples released 1-30% of their helium content in several degassing stages at 600, 800 and 1200 K. The helium amount released, before the melting of the material is a clear function of the concentration in the investigated concentration range (10 -11 -10 -4 atom quota). A preirradiation of the samples with 6 MeV protons leads at high helium concentrations to an increased helium release before the melting of the samples. The largest quota of helium (70 to 99%) is released only during the melting of the nickel. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Corrosion of dental nickel-aluminum bronze with a minor gold content-mechanism and biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardlin, Berit I; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta; Dahl, Jon E

    2009-02-01

    To study corrosion and to evaluate biological effects in vitro of corrosion products of a copper-aluminum-nickel alloy with 2% gold. The alloy NPGtrade mark+2 with the nominal composition Cu:77.3; Al:7.8; Ni:4.3; Fe:3.0; Zn:2.7; Au:2.0; and Mn:1.7 was characterized. Static immersion in acidic saline, pH 2.2-2.4, was used to determine release of metallic elements in a milieu simulating the condition of plaque build-up in interproximal areas of the tooth. Corrosion and surface reactions in saline and artificial saliva were studied by electrochemical techniques including registration of open-circuit-potentials, polarization curves and impedance spectra. Extracts were made in cell culture media and acidic saline and used for MTT test for cytotoxicity and HET-CAM method for irritation. The mean amount of elements released in the acidic saline were in microg cm(-2) : Cu:632; Al:210; Ni:144; Fe:122; Zn:48; Mn:52. No protective film was formed on the surface of the alloy, as extensive corrosion was observed in both saline and artificial saliva. The corrosion rate was higher in saline than in artificial saliva. Acidic extracts of the alloy diluted up to 64 times reduced cell viability with 80% or more. The extract induced coagulation of the blood vessels of the CAM and was rated as moderate irritant solution. The nickel-aluminum bronze showed high corrosion rate caused by an inability to create a protective surface layer. High levels of toxic elements were found after static immersion testing, and the corrosion products had a distinct adverse effect on the biological activity. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of sodium arsenite on the survival of UV-irradiated Escherichia coli: inhibition of a recA-dependent function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, T; Meyn, M S; Troll, W [New York Univ., N.Y. (USA). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    1975-11-01

    Epidemiological studies and clinical observations suggesting potential hazards of arsenic compounds in increasing the incidence of cancer have been in complete contradiction with experimental findings in animals. Because of the predominance of skin cancers in the epidemiological reports, it was decided to investigate the possibility that arsenic compounds might interfere with DNA repair. Using Escherichia coli as a test system, it is shown that this is indeed the case. Sodium arsenite, at concentrations of 0.1mM and higher, decreases the survival of ultraviolet-irradiated E.coli WP2, a strain which possesses the full complement of repair genes. The effect of the arsenite increases with increasing ultraviolet dose. Similar results were obtained with the excision repair deficient strains WWP2 (uvrA) and WP6(polA). Sodium arsenite had no effect on the survival of recA mutant, WP10. Survival of ultraviolet-irradiated WP5(exrA) was enhanced by sodium arsenite, the effect being greatest at low ultraviolet doses. It is postulated that arsenite inhibits a recA-dependent step in DNA repair. To account for the increased survival of the exrA mutant, it is suggested that in the absence of the exr/sup +/ gene, the arsenite-sensitive recA-dependent function is deleterious. The ability of arsenite to inhibit DNA repair may account for the clinical and epidemiological reports linking arsenicals with an increased incidence of cancer.

  9. The Genotoxicity of Sodium Arsenite in Human Lymphocyte Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Habit Ola, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of chromosome aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 h. Whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocyte culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in their first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with S A. The results suggest that S A is also mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect of any suspected mustagen using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  10. Identification of anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with an alkaline saline lake in Khovsgol, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Itai, Takaaki; Liu, Yitai; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Damdinsuren, Narantuya; Inskeep, William P

    2014-10-01

    Microbial arsenic transformation pathways associated with a saline lake located in northern Mongolia were examined using molecular biological and culturing approaches. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from saline lake sediments and soils were affiliated with haloalkaliphiles, including Bacillus and Halomonas spp. Diverse sequences of arsenate respiratory reductase (arrA) and a new group of arsenite oxidase (arxA) genes were also identified. Pure cultures of arsenate-reducing Nitrincola strain and anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing Halomonas strain were isolated. The chemoorganotrophic Halomonas strain contains arxA gene similar to that of a chemoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizing Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1. These results revealed the diversity of arsenic transformation pathways associated with a geographically distinct saline system and the potential contribution of arx-dependent arsenite oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria.

  11. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xu [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dapeng [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Yamanaka, Kenzo [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); An, Yan, E-mail: dranyan@126.com [Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  12. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. - Highlights: • Low level, long term arsenite exposure induces malignant transformation in vitro. • Long term arsenite exposure reduces ROS and MDA levels. • Long term arsenite

  13. Population model for nickel-like gold which transitions to discard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1986-04-01

    We have started studies of an extensive population model for gold ionized 49 to 52 times. We shall present in this paper a discussion on the effects of discarding low-rate transitions such as cascades, dielectronic transitions,... Their accounting for, even in a crude way, allow some understanding of typical features of gold spectra

  14. The Arsenite Oxidation Potential of Native Microbial Communities from Arsenic-Rich Freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Stefano; Crognale, Simona; Casentini, Barbara; Amalfitano, Stefano; Lotti, Francesca; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in speciation and mobility of arsenic in the environment, by mediating redox transformations of both inorganic and organic species. Since arsenite [As(III)] is more toxic than arsenate [As(V)] to the biota, the microbial driven processes of As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation may play a prominent role in mediating the environmental impact of arsenic contamination. However, little is known about the ecology and dynamics of As(III)-oxidizing populations within native microbial communities exposed to natural high levels of As. In this study, two techniques for single cell quantification (i.e., flow cytometry, CARD-FISH) were used to analyze the structure of aquatic microbial communities across a gradient of arsenic (As) contamination in different freshwater environments (i.e., groundwaters, surface and thermal waters). Moreover, we followed the structural evolution of these communities and their capacity to oxidize arsenite, when experimentally exposed to high As(III) concentrations in experimental microcosms. Betaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were the main groups retrieved in groundwaters and surface waters, while Beta and Gammaproteobacteria dominated the bacteria community in thermal waters. At the end of microcosm incubations, the communities were able to oxidize up to 95 % of arsenite, with an increase of Alphaproteobacteria in most of the experimental conditions. Finally, heterotrophic As(III)-oxidizing strains (one Alphaproteobacteria and two Gammaproteobacteria) were isolated from As rich waters. Our findings underlined that native microbial communities from different arsenic-contaminated freshwaters can efficiently perform arsenite oxidation, thus contributing to reduce the overall As toxicity to the aquatic biota.

  15. Peculiarities of composition and morphology of the oxidation zone at Naimanzhal gold field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryulin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    Morphological and mineralogical characteristics of the Naimanzhal auriferous sulfur and complex ore deposit are described. These are: correspondence to oxidation zone (which is a combination of area and linear erosion crusts), size of explored part (up to 1,700 m long and 600-800 m wide and 5-60 m, sometimes even 80-120 m deep), mineralogical characteristics of ores (presence of arsenite pyrite with dependence of contents of copper), and favorable characteristics of chemical composition and mineralogy of gold, that allow extraction by means of heap leaching. (author)

  16. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.; Rossman, Toby G.; Chen, Haobin; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max

    2007-01-01

    The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1 mice was investigated. The dietary vitamin E and selenomethionine were tested for prevention of chromium-enhanced skin carcinogenesis. The mice were exposed to UVR (1.0 kJ/m 2 3x weekly) for 26 weeks either alone, or combined with 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate, or with 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride in drinking water. Vitamin E or selenomethionine was added to the lab chow for 29 weeks beginning 3 weeks before the start of UVR exposure. Both chromium and nickel significantly increased the UVR-induced skin cancer yield in mice. In male Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.9 ± 0.4 cancers/mouse, and 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate added to drinking water increased the yields to 5.9 ± 0.8 and 8.6 ± 0.9 cancers/mouse, respectively. In female Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.7 ± 0.4 cancers/mouse, and the addition of 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride increased the yields to 2.8 ± 0.9, 5.6 ± 0.7 and 4.2 ± 1.0 cancers/mouse, respectively. Neither vitamin E nor selenomethionine reduced the cancer yield enhancement by chromium. These results confirm that chromium and nickel, while not good skin carcinogens per se, are enhancers of UVR-induced skin cancers in Skh1 mice. Data also suggest that the enhancement of UVR-induced skin cancers by chromate may not be oxidatively mediated since the antioxidant vitamin E as well as selenomethionine, found to prevent arsenite-enhanced skin carcinogenesis, failed to suppress enhancement by chromate

  17. Treatment of Arsenite Intoxication-Induced Peripheral Vasculopathy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Chiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite (As, a notorious toxic metal, is ubiquitously distributed in the earth and poses a serious threat to human health. Histopathological lesions of As intoxication are known as thromboangiitis obliterans, which are resistant to current treatment and often lead to lower limb amputation. In this study, we attempt to find that treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs may be effective for As-induced vasculopathy. We first conducted an in vitro study with a co-culture system containing human MSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and treated individual and co-cultured cells with various concentrations of arsenite. We also designed an in vivo study in which Sprague Dawley (SD rats received periodic intraperitoneal (IP injections of 16 ppm arsenite for 12 weeks. MSCs were harvested from BALB/c mice that were transplanted via tail vein injection. We found that there was significantly higher cellular viability in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs than in HUVECs under concentrations of arsenite between 15 and 25 μM. The Annexin V apoptosis assay further confirmed this finding. Cytokine array assay for As-conditioned media revealed an elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level secreted by MSCs, which is crucial for HUVEC survival and was evaluated by an siRNA VEGF knockdown test. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated early apoptotic changes in the anterior tibial vessels of As-injected SD rats with a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, but these apoptotic changes were less frequently observed upon MSCs transplantation, indicating that the cytoprotective effect of MSCs successfully protected against As-induced peripheral vasculopathy. The feasibility of MSCs to treat and /or prevent the progression of As-induced vasculopathy is justified. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in patients suffering from As intoxication with

  18. The genotoxicity of sodium arsenite in human lymphocyte culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhabit, O.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium arsenite was tested for its clastogenic effect alone and in combination with x-irradiation on whole blood culture and on isolated lymphocyte culture. The results showed a significant difference in the yield of aberrations induced with respect to the culture time 48 hr whole blood culture showed significant increase in gaps and breaks whereas isolated lymphocytes culture showed significant inhibition of cell cycle and 75% of the lymphocytes were in first cell cycle at 72 hr. Arsenite showed co-mutagenicity with different doses of x-ray delivered immediately or few hours after treatment of the culture with SA. The results suggest that SA also is mutagenic at the dose level used and provide support for the indispensability of whole blood culture for evaluation of the in vivo effect any suspected mutagen. Using isolated lymphocytes appear to have problems leading to extensive cell cycle delay

  19. Arsenite adsorption on goethite at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, Michael [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55099 (Germany)], E-mail: kersten@uni-mainz.de; Vlasova, Nataliya [Environmental Geochemistry Group, Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz 55099 (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Experimental closed-system {delta}T acid-base titrations between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C were used to constrain a temperature-dependent 1-pK basic Stern model of the goethite surface complexation reactions. Experimental data for the temperature dependence of pH{sub PZC} determined by the one-term Van't Hoff extrapolation yield a value for goethite surface protonation enthalpy of -49.6 kJ mol{sup -1} in good agreement with literature data. Batch titration data between 10 deg. C and 75 deg. C with arsenite concentrations between 10 {mu}M and 100 {mu}M yield adsorption curves, which increases with pH, peak at a pH of 9, and decrease at higher pH values. The slope of this bend becomes steeper with increasing temperature. A 1-pK charge distribution model in combination with a basic Stern layer option could be established for the pH-dependent arsenite adsorption. Formation of two inner-sphere bidentate surface complexes best matched the experimental data in agreement with published EXAFS spectroscopic information. The temperature behaviour of the thus derived intrinsic equilibrium constants can be well represented by the linear Van't Hoff logK{sub T}{sup int} vs. 1/T plot. Adsorption of arsenite on the goethite surface is exothermic (negative {delta}{sub r}H{sub 298} values) and therefore becomes weaker with increasing temperature. Application of the new constants with the aqueous speciation code VMINTEQ predicts that the As(III) concentration in presence of goethite sorbent decreases by 10 times once the hydrothermal solution is cooled from 99 deg. C to 1 deg. C. The model curve matches data from a natural thermal water spring system. The increase of adsorption efficiency for As along the temperature gradient may well serve as an additional process to prevent ecosystem contamination by As-rich water seepage from geothermal energy generation facilities.

  20. Arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with arsenic-rich groundwater in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Ju; Su, Yu-Chen; Hsiao, Sung-Yun; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liao, Chung-Min; Shen, Wei-Chiang; Chang, Fi-John

    2011-04-01

    Drinking highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater is a likely cause of blackfoot disease in Taiwan, but microorganisms that potentially control arsenic mobility in the subsurface remain unstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing microbial community that exists in highly arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Taiwan. We cultured and identified arsenic-transforming bacteria, analyzed arsenic resistance and transformation, and determined the presence of genetic markers for arsenic transformation. In total, 11 arsenic-transforming bacterial strains with different colony morphologies and varying arsenic transformation abilities were isolated, including 10 facultative anaerobic arsenate-reducing bacteria and one strictly aerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium. All of the isolates exhibited high levels of arsenic resistance with minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic ranging from 2 to 200 mM. Strain AR-11 was able to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate at concentrations relevant to environmental groundwater samples without the addition of any electron donors or acceptors. We provide evidence that arsenic-reduction activity may be conferred by the ars operon(s) that were not amplified by the designed primers currently in use. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis grouped the isolates into the following genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Psychrobacter, Vibrio, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Bosea. Among these genera, we present the first report of the genus Psychrobacter being involved in arsenic reduction. Our results further support the hypothesis that bacteria capable of either oxidizing arsenite or reducing arsenate coexist and are ubiquitous in arsenic-contaminated groundwater.

  1. Biosorption and toxicity responses to arsenite (As[III]) in Scenedesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Ding, Tengda; Zhang, Chunlong

    2013-08-01

    Toxicity and biosorption responses to arsenite (As[III]) were examined in a 96-h exposure study using Scenedesmus quadricauda, one of the most popular green algae distributed in freshwaters in China. Results indicated that the pH-dependent distribution of two arsenite species (H2AsO3(-) and H3AsO3) played an important role in biosorption and toxicity. The undissociated H3AsO3 was more toxic than its monoanionic H2AsO3(-) through comparison of algal cell numbers, chlorophyll-a contents, and algal ultrastructural changes observed with transmission electron microscopy. An effective biosorption of 89.0mgg(-1) at 100mgL(-1) As[III] was found in the treatments with an initial pH of 9.3 and 25.2μgg(-1) at 0.03mgL(-1) As[III] at an initial pH of 8.2 as a result of the predominant species of H2AsO3(-) under the ambient pH and Eh conditions. Our results imply that S. quadricauda may provide a new means for the removal of toxic arsenite species present in contaminated surface water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption and desorption of arsenate and arsenite on calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt; Postma, Diederik Jan; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(111)) oil calcite was investigated in a series of batch experiments in calcite-equilibrated solutions. The solutions covered a broad range of pH, alkalinity, calcium concentration and ionic strength. The initial arsenic...

  3. Arsenite induces cell transformation by reactive oxygen species, AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jiang, Yue; Jing, Yi; He, Jun; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to arsenite induces cell proliferation and transformation. ► Arsenite-induced transformation increases ROS production and downstream signalings. ► Inhibition of ROS levels via catalase reduces arsenite-induced cell transformation. ► Interruption of AKT, ERK, or p70S6K1 inhibits arsenite-induced cell transformation. -- Abstract: Arsenic is naturally occurring element that exists in both organic and inorganic formulations. The inorganic form arsenite has a positive association with development of multiple cancer types. There are significant populations throughout the world with high exposure to arsenite via drinking water. Thus, human exposure to arsenic has become a significant public health problem. Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate multiple changes to cell behavior after acute arsenic exposure, including activation of proliferative signaling and angiogenesis. However, the role of ROS in mediating cell transformation by chronic arsenic exposure is unknown. We found that cells chronically exposed to sodium arsenite increased proliferation and gained anchorage-independent growth. This cell transformation phenotype required constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. We also observed these cells constitutively produce ROS, which was required for the constitutive activation of AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR, and p70S6K1. Suppression of ROS levels by forced expression of catalase also reduced cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. These results indicate cell transformation induced by chronic arsenic exposure is mediated by increased cellular levels of ROS, which mediates activation of AKT, ERK1/2, and p70S6K1.

  4. The accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan; Li, Huiqiao; Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-01

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2α. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1α degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1α by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1α and HIF-2α by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ► Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ► Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ► Different regulation of HIF1α or HIF 2α by arsenite.

  5. p52-Bcl3 complex promotes cyclin D1 expression in BEAS-2B cells in response to low concentration arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Shi, Yongli; Yadav, Santosh; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-recognized human carcinogen that causes a number of malignant diseases, including lung cancer. Previous studies have indicated that cyclin D1 is frequently over-expressed in many cancer types. It is also known that arsenite exposure enhances cyclin D1 expression, which involves NF-κB activation. However, the mechanism between cyclin D1 and the NF-κB pathway has not been well studied. This study was designed to characterize the underlying mechanism of induced cell growth and cyclin D1 expression in response to low concentration sodium arsenic (NaAsO 2 ) exposure through the NF-κB pathway. Cultured human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, were exposed to low concentration sodium arsenite for the indicated durations, and cytotoxicity, gene expression, and protein activity were assessed. To profile the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways involved in cell growth and cyclin D1 expression induced by low concentration arsenite, the NF-κB-specific inhibitor-phenethyl caffeate (CAPE) and NF-κB2 mRNA target sequences were used, and cyclin D1 expression in BEAS-2B cells was assessed. Our results demonstrated that exposure to low concentration arsenite enhanced BEAS-2B cells growth and cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression. Activation and nuclear localization of p52 and Bcl3 in response to low concentration arsenite indicated that the non-canonical NF-κB pathway was involved in arsenite-induced cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, we further demonstrated that p52/Bcl3 complex formation enhanced cyclin D1 expression through the cyclin D1 gene promoter via its κB site. The up-regulation of cyclin D1 mediated by the p52-Bcl3 complex in response to low concentration arsenite might be important in assessing the health risk of low concentration arsenite and understanding the mechanisms of the harmful effects of arsenite.

  6. Nickel and its alloys as perspective materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers operating on proton conducting solid acids as electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Several stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, Ta-coated stainless steel, niobium, nickel, platinum and gold were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance was measured in molten KH2PO4 as simulated conditions corresponding...

  7. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  8. PIXE study on absorption of arsenate and arsenite by arsenic hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pytoremediation using an arsenic hyperaccumulator, Petris vittata L., has generated an increasing interest worldwide due to both environmentally sound and cost effectiveness. However the mechanism of arsenic accumulation by this fern is not clear at this time. This study examined the uptake of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) by a hydroponic culture of Pteris vittata using both in-air submilli-PIXE for different parts of the fern and in-air micro-PIXE for the tissue cells. These PIXE analysis systems used 3 MeV proton beams from a 4.5-MV single-ended Dynamitron accelerator at Tohoku University, Japan. The fern took up both arsenate and arsenite from hydroponic solutions which were spiked with 50 mg of arsenic per litter. Final amount of arsenic accumulation in the fern is 1,500 mg per kg (wet weight) of the plant biomass in arsenite treatment and 1,100 mg per kg in arsenate treatment. Arsenic accumulation was not observed at the root parts of the ferns. The in-vivo mapping of elements by submilli-PIXE analyses on the fern laminas showed the arsenic accumulation in the edges of a pinna. The micro-PIXE analyses revealed arsenic maps homogeneously distributed in cells of the lamina, stem and rhizome of the fern. These results indicate that arsenic, both arsenate and arsenite in a contaminated medium are translocated quickly from roots to fronds of Pteris vittata, and distributes homogeneously into tissue cells of the fern laminas. (author)

  9. Recovery of gold from electronic scrap by hydrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Churl Kyoung; Rhee, Kang-In [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Hun Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-30

    A series of processes has been developed to recover the gold from electronic scrap containing about 200{approx}600 ppm Au. First, mechanical beneficiation including shredding, crushing and screening was employed. Results showed that 99 percent of gold component leaves in the fraction of under 1 mm of crushed scrap and its concentration was enriched to about 800 ppm without incineration. The crushed scrap was leached in 50% aqua regia solution and gold was completely dissolved at 60 deg. C within 2 hours. Other valuable metals such as silver, copper, nickel and iron were also dissolved. The resulting solution was boiled to remove nitrous compounds in the leachate. Finally, a newly designed electrolyzer was tested to recover the gold metal. More than 99% of gold and silver were recovered within an hour by electrowinning process. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Sodium arsenite-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is related to inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression in mouse activated T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, Patricia; Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C.; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, CINVESTAV, Seccion Toxicologia, P.O. Box 14-740, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C. [Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Facultad de Medicina, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    A proposed mechanism for the As-induced inhibition of cell proliferation is the inhibition of IL-2 secretion. However, the effects of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression or on the ERK pathway in activated-T cells have not yet been described. We examined the effect of arsenite on IL-2 mRNA expression, cell activation and proliferation in PHA-stimulated murine lymphocytes. Arsenite (1 and 10 {mu}M) decreased IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation. Arsenite (10 {mu}M) strongly inhibited ERK-phosphorylation. However, the partial inhibition (50%) of IL-2 mRNA produced by 1 {mu}M, consistent with the effects on IL-2 secretion and cell proliferation, could not be explained by the inhibition of ERK-phosphorylation, which was not affected at this concentration. The inhibition of IL-2 mRNA expression caused by 1 {mu}M could be associated to effects on pathways located downstream or parallel to ERK. Arsenite also decreased early activation (surface CD69{sup +} expression) in both CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +}, and decreased total CD8{sup +} count without significantly affecting CD4{sup +}, supporting that the cellular immune response mediated by cytotoxic T cells is an arsenic target. Thus, our results suggest that arsenite decreases IL-2 mRNA levels and T-cell activation and proliferation. However, further studies on the effects of arsenite on IL-2 gene transcription and IL-2 mRNA stability are needed. (orig.)

  11. Arsenite-induced ROS/RNS generation causes zinc loss and inhibits the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xixi; Liu, Wenlan; Sun, Xi; Chen, Chen; Hudson, Laurie G; Jian Liu, Ke

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic enhances the genotoxicity of other carcinogenic agents such as ultraviolet radiation and benzo[a]pyrene. Recent reports suggest that inhibition of DNA repair is an important aspect of arsenic cocarcinogenesis, and DNA repair proteins such as poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 are direct molecular targets of arsenic. Although arsenic has been shown to generate reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), little is known about the role of arsenic-induced ROS/RNS in the mechanism underlying arsenic inhibition of DNA repair. We report herein that arsenite-generated ROS/RNS inhibits PARP-1 activity in cells. Cellular exposure to arsenite, as well as hydrogen peroxide and NONOate (nitric oxide donor), decreased PARP-1 zinc content, enzymatic activity, and PARP-1 DNA binding. Furthermore, the effects of arsenite on PARP-1 activity, DNA binding, and zinc content were partially reversed by the antioxidant ascorbic acid, catalase, and the NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine. Most importantly, arsenite incubation with purified PARP-1 protein in vitro did not alter PARP-1 activity or DNA-binding ability, whereas hydrogen peroxide or NONOate retained PARP-1 inhibitory activity. These results strongly suggest that cellular generation of ROS/RNS plays an important role in arsenite inhibition of PARP-1 activity, leading to the loss of PARP-1 DNA-binding ability and enzymatic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences ... contamination by such heavy metals as arsenic (As). Arsenite ..... and then transition through point of zero charge (PZC) and then into ...

  13. Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium arsenite-induced reproductive toxicities in male Wistar rats: role of Tridax procumbens leaf extract. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... In the present study, the effects of ethanol leaf extract of Tridax procumbens ... in Groups B to D as compared to Group A was significantly reduced (p<0.05).

  14. Fe/Ti co-pillared clay for enhanced arsenite removal and photo oxidation under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guang Dong Electric Power Design Institute, China Energy Engineering Group Co. Ltd., Guangzhou 510663 (China); Cai, Xiaojiao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jingwei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); The 718th Research Institute of CSIC, Handan 056027 (China); Zhou, Shimin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Na, Ping, E-mail: naping@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An iron and titanium co-pillared montmorillonite (Fe-Ti/MMT) was synthesized for arsenite removal. • Variety of characterization results indicated that Fe and Ti species were pillared in MMT. • A possible mechanism of arsenite adsorption/oxidation with UV light was established. • The participation of Fe component can promote the process of photocatalytic oxidation in Fe-Ti/MMT + As(III) system. • Fe-Ti/MMT can function as both photocatalyst and adsorbent for arsenite removal. - Abstract: A series of iron and titanium co-pillared montmorillonites (Fe-Ti/MMT) were prepared using hydrolysis of inserted titanium and different iron content in montmorillonite (MMT). The Fe-Ti/MMT were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirming the effective insertion of Fe species and TiO{sub 2} in the MMT. The Fe-Ti/MMT was used to remove arsenite (As(III)) from aqueous solutions under different conditions. The result of As(III) adsorption under UV irradiation showed that the photo activity can be enhanced by incorporating Fe and Ti in MMT. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the hydroxyl groups bonded to metal oxide (M–OH) played an important role in the adsorption of As(III)

  15. c-Jun/AP-1 pathway-mediated cyclin D1 expression participates in low dose arsenite-induced transformation in mouse epidermal JB6 Cl41 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongyun; Li Jingxia; Gao Jimin; Huang Chuanshu

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen associated with skin carcinogenesis. Our previous work reveals that arsenite exposure is able to induce cell transformation in mouse epidermal cell JB6 Cl41 through the activation of ERK, rather than JNK pathway. Our current studies further evaluate downstream pathway in low dose arsenite-induced cell transformation in JB6 Cl41 cells. Our results showed that treatment of cells with low dose arsenite induced activation of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway, and ectopic expression of dominant negative mutant of c-Jun (TAM67) blocked arsenite-induced transformation. Furthermore, our data indicated that cyclin D1 was an important downstream molecule involved in c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure, because inhibition of cyclin D1 expression by its specific siRNA in the JB6 Cl41 cells resulted in impairment of anchorage-independent growth of cells induced by low dose arsenite. Collectively, our results demonstrate that c-Jun/AP-1-mediated cyclin D1 expression is at least one of the key events implicated in cell transformation upon low dose arsenite exposure

  16. Embryotoxicity of arsenite and arsenate. Distribution in pregnant mice and monkeys and effects on embryonic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, A; Danielsson, R G; Dencker, L [Department of Toxicology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Sweden; Vahter, M [National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 74/As-labelled arsenate and arsenite in pregnant mice and a monkey has been studied by autoradiography and gamma counting of isolated tissues, and their in vitro toxicity to a chondrogenic system has been investigated. With both arsenic forms, given as single intravenous injections to the mother, the /sup 74/As-arsenic appeared to pass the mouse placenta relatively freely and approximately to the same extent. The retention time in material tissues including the placenta was, however, around three times longer with arsenite than with arsenate. In early gestation, high activity was registered in the embryonic neuroepithelium, which correlates well with reported CNS malformations in rodents. In late gestation, the distribution pattern was more like that in the adults. Accumulation in skin and squamous epithelia of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oral cavity, oesophagus and oesophageal region of stomach) dominated the distribution pucture, especially at a long survival interval. Arsenate, but not arsenite, showed affinity for the calcified areas of the skeleton. A marmoset monkey in late gestation receiving arsenite showed a somewhat lower rate of placental transfer than the mice. Skin and liver had the highest concentrations (at 8 hrs), both in mother and foetuses. This species is known not to methylate arsenic, resulting in stronger binding and longer retention times of arsenic as compared with other species. The stronger binding in maternal tissues may possibly explain the lower rate of placental transfer. Arsenite was shown to inhibit cartilage formation in a chick limb bud mesenchymal spot culture system (ED50 approximately 5-10..mu..M) while arsenate seemed to be without effect at concentrations up to 200 ..mu..M (highest tested). Arsenate, however, showed a potential of the arsenite toxicity.

  17. Embryotoxicity of arsenite and arsenate. Distribution in pregnant mice and monkeys and effects on embryonic cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, A; Danielsson, R G; Dencker, L [Department of Toxicology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Sweden; Vahter, M [National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of /sup 74/As-labelled and arsenite in pregnant mice and a monkey has been studied by autoradiography and gamma counting of isolated tissues, and their in vitro toxicity to a chondrogenic system has been investigated. With both arsenic forms, given as single intravenous injections to the mother, the /sup 74/As-arsenic appeared to pass the mouse placenta relatively freely and approximately to the same extent. The retention time in material tissues including the placenta was, however, around three times longer with arsenite than with arsenate. In early gestation, high activity was registered in the embryonic neuroepithelium, which correlates well with reported CNS malformations in rodents. In late gestation, the distribution pattern was more like that in the adults. Accumulation in skin and squamous epithelia of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oral cavity, oesophagus and oesophageal region of stomach) dominated the distribution picture, especially at a long survival interval. Arsenate, but not arsenite, showed affinity for the calcified areas of the skeleton. A marmoset monkey in late gestation receiving arsenite showed a somewhat lower rate of placental transfer than the mice. Skin and liver had the highest concentrations (at 8 hrs), both in mother and foetuses. This species is known not to methylate arsenic, resulting in stronger binding and longer retention times of arsenic as compared with other species. The stronger binding in maternal tissues may possibly explain the lower rate of placental transfer. Arsenite was shown to inhibit cartilage formation in a chick limb bud mesenchymal spot culture system (ED50 approximately 5-10..mu..M) while arsenate seemed to be without effect at concentrations up to 200 ..mu..M (highest tested). Arsenate, however, showed a potential of the arsenite toxicity.

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  19. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  20. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT

  1. Gold coated metal nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition and pulsed electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Christoph; Reeck, Pascal; Jacobs, Paul-Philipp; Liedtke, Susann; Lotnyk, Andriy; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Nickel based nanostructures are grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on flat and pre-patterned substrates. These fabricated porous thin films were subsequently coated by pulsed electroplating with gold. The morphology and conformity of the gold coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Controlled growth of closed gold layers on the nanostructures could be achieved, while the open-pore structure of the nanosculptured thin films was preserved. Such gold coated nanostructures are a candidate for optical sensing and catalysis applications. The demonstrated method can be applied for numerous material combinations, allowing to provide GLAD thin films with new surface properties.

  2. Selective Electroless Nickel Plating on PMMA using Chloroform Pre-Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Nicholas

    In the past 5 years, we have discovered that chloroform promotes the adhesion of thin gold films to Poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. Based on this new understanding of the interaction of chloroform with PMMA and metal atoms, we were curious to see if chloroform would promote the adhesion of Nickel to PMMA deposited by electroless plating. My goal was to selectively electroless plate Nickel onto PMMA. Chloroform was spun-cast onto 1 inch square PMMA substrates. I used electrical tape to shield one half of the PMMA from the chloroform during spin-casting; this allowed for a direct comparison of treated vs. untreated. The samples were then put through hydrochloric acid and a series of baths provided by Transene Company Inc. to electrolessly deposit nickel on the sample. After many trials, there was a clear distinction in the adhesion strength of the Nickel to the plain PMMA surface vs. the chloroform pre-treated surface. Showing that it is possible to create chloroform sites via spin-casting for electroless nickel plating on PMMA opens up the challenge to better understand the chemistry taking place and to perfect the electroless plating process.

  3. Comparative in vitro biocompatibility of nickel-titanium, pure nickel, pure titanium, and stainless steel: genotoxicity and atomic absorption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, M; Lemieux, N; Rivard, C H; Yahia, L H

    1999-01-01

    The genotoxicity level of nickel-titanium (NiTi) was compared to that of its pure constituents, pure nickel (Ni) and pure titanium (Ti) powders, and also to 316L stainless steel (316L SS) as clinical reference material. In order to do so, a dynamic in vitro semiphysiological extraction was performed with all metals using agitation and ISO requirements. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were then cultured in the presence of all material extracts, and their comparative genotoxicity levels were assessed using electron microscopy-in situ end-labeling (EM-ISEL) coupled to immunogold staining. Cellular chromatin exposition to pure Ni and 316L SS demonstrated a significantly stronger gold binding than exposition to NiTi, pure Ti, or the untreated control. In parallel, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was also performed on all extraction media. The release of Ni atoms took the following decreasing distribution for the different resulting semiphysiological solutions: pure Ni, 316L SS, NiTi, Ti, and controls. Ti elements were detected after elution of pure titanium only. Both pure titanium and nickel-titanium specimens obtained a relative in vitro biocompatibility. Therefore, this quantitative in vitro study provides optimistic results for the eventual use of nickel-titanium alloys as surgical implant materials.

  4. Immobilization of Ochrobactrum tritici As5 on PTFE thin films for arsenite biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Rita; Sousa, Tânia; Piedade, Ana P; Morais, Paula V

    2016-03-01

    Ochrobactrum tritici SCII24T bacteria is an environmental strain with high capacity to resist to arsenic (As) toxicity, which makes it able to grow in the presence of As(III). The inactivation of the two functional arsenite efflux pumps, ArsB and ACR3_1, resulted in the mutant O. tritici As5 exhibiting a high accumulation of arsenite. This work describes a method for the immobilization of the mutant cells O. tritici As5, on a commercial polymeric net after sputtered modified by the deposition of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) thin films, and demonstrates the capacity of immobilized cells to accumulate arsenic from solutions. Six different set of deposition parameters for PTFE thin films were developed and tested in vitro regarding their ability to immobilize the bacterial cells. The surface that exhibited a mild zeta potential value, hydrophobic characteristics, the lowest surface free energy but with a high polar component and the appropriate ratio of chemical reactive groups allowed cells to proliferate and to grow as a biofilm. These immobilized cells maintained their ability to accumulate the surrounding arsenite, making it a great arsenic biofilter to be used in bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Could vitamin C and zinc chloride protect the germ cells against sodium arsenite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, L S; Reis, I B; Gomes, Mlm; Dolder, H; Pirovani, Jc Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl 2 . Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin. As reduced the seminiferous epithelium and tubules diameter due to germ cell loss. In addition, both the round spermatids population and the daily sperm production were reduced. However, ZnCl 2 and vitamin C showed to be effective against such side effects, mainly regarding to sperm morphology. Long-term As intake increased the proportions of abnormal sperm, whereas the concomitant intake of As with zinc or vitamin C enhanced the proportions of normal sperm, showing that such compounds could be used to protect this cell type against morphological defects.

  6. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of �Jumbo Cot�, �Tom Cot�, �Gold Strike�, �Gold Bar�, Bergeron�, �Bergarouge�, �Sweet Cot�, �Yellow cot� and �Zebra� apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  7. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of Jumbo Cot, Tom Cot, Gold Strike, Gold Bar, Bergeron, Bergarouge, Sweet Cot, Yellow cot and Zebra apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  8. Acetylacetone as an efficient electron shuttle for concerted redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate in the opposite direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Song, Xiaojie; Zhang, Shujuan; Wu, Bingdang; Zhang, Guoyang; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-11-01

    The redox conversion of arsenite and nitrate has direct effects on their potential environment risks. Due to the similar reduction potentials, there are few technologies that can simultaneously oxidize arsenite and reduce nitrate in one process. Here, we demonstrate that a diketone-mediated photochemical process could efficiently do this. A combined experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted to elucidate the mechanisms behind the redox conversion in the UV/acetylacetone (AA) process. Our key finding is that UV irradiation significantly changed the redox potential of AA. The excited AA, 3 (AA)*, acted as a semiquinone radical-like electron shuttle. For arsenite oxidation, the efficiency of 3 (AA)* was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of quinone-type electron shuttles, whereas the consumption of AA was 2-4 orders of magnitude less than those of benzonquinones. The oxidation of arsenite and reduction of nitrate could be both accelerated when they existed together in UV/AA process. The results indicate that small diketones are some neglected but potent electron shuttles of great application potential in regulating aquatic redox reactions with the combination of UV irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synergistic interaction between gold nanoparticles and nickel phthalocyanine in layer-by-layer (LbL) films: evidence of constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Wagner S; Crespilho, Frank N; Martins, Marccus V A; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Silva, Welter C

    2009-07-07

    The concept of constitutional dynamic chemistry (CDC) based on the control of non-covalent interactions in supramolecular structures is promising for having a large impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology if adequate nanoscale manipulation methods are used. In this study, we demonstrate that the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique may be used to produce electroactive electrodes with ITO coated by tetrasulfonated nickel phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) alternated with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNP), in which synergy has been achieved in the interaction between the nanoparticles and NiTsPc. The catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in multilayer films was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, where oxidation of H(2)O(2) led to increased currents in the PAH-AuNP/NiTsPc films for the electrochemical processes associated with the phthalocyanine ring and nickel at 0.52 and 0.81 V vs. SCE, respectively, while for PAH/NiTsPc films (without AuNP) only the first redox process was affected. In control experiments we found out that the catalytic activity was not solely due to the presence of AuNP, but rather to the nanoparticles inducing NiTsPc supramolecular structures that favored access to their redox sites, thus yielding strong charge transfer. The combined effects of NiTsPc and AuNP, which could only be observed in nanostructured LbL films, point to another avenue to pursue within the CDC paradigm.

  10. Hallmarking as an essential need of gold industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Alam, S.; Ahmed, T.

    2006-01-01

    As gold is a soft metal, for Jewellery making it is alloyed with Silver or Copper so that its strength may increase. Other main alloying elements include; Zinc, Cadmium and Nickel. These alloying elements help to reduce cost, improve appearance and to improve chemical properties of gold. The percentage of alloying elements determines the caratages of gold. The gold Jewellery sold in local market is often under-carated. In order to improve the quality of product sold, complete quality assessment of gold should be done. A complete quality assessment includes both Assaying and Hallmarking. Assaying is the analysis of an individual sample of gold from a customer to find out it's composition and Hallmarking refers to physically marking: a piece of Jewellery according to specific laws to certify the purity of metal. In this paper we have assessed and compared the quality of locally manufactured gold ornaments and its alloying components with international market as well as standards of gold and its alloys. And as Hallmarking is one of the main strategic initiatives to improve the quality of product sold for domestic and export consumption, this paper discusses the necessary steps leading to Hallmarking. We have used micro-XRF spectrometer for assaying and Laser Engraving machine for the purpose of Hallmarking. (author)

  11. Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria driven by arsenite and sulfide with evidence for the support of nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Simon, F.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric oxygen (O2) over geologic time is attributed to the evolution and widespread proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, cyanobacteria maintain a metabolic flexibility that may not always result in O2 release. In the environment, cyanobacteria may use a variety of alternative electron donors rather than water that are known to be used by other anoxygenic phototrophs (eg. purple sulfur bacteria) including reduced forms of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, and arsenic. Recent evidence suggests cyanobacteria actively take advantage of at least a few of these alternatives. We used a classical Winogradsky approach to enrich for cyanobacteria from the high salinity, elevated pH and arsenic-enriched waters of Mono Lake (CA). Experiments, optimized for cyanobacteria, revealed light-dependent, anaerobic arsenite-oxidation in sub-cultured sediment-free enrichments dominated by a filamentous cyanobacteria. We isolated and identified the dominant member of this enrichment to be a member of the Oscillatoriales by 16S rDNA. Addition of 1 mM arsenite induced facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis under continuous and circadian light. This isolate also oxidized sulfide under the same light-based conditions. Aerobic conditions elicited no arsenite oxidation in the light or dark and the isolate grew as a typical cyanobacterium using oxygenic photosynthesis. Under near-infrared light (700 nm) there was a direct correlation of enhanced growth with an increase in the rate arsenite or sulfide oxidation suggesting the use of photosystem I. Additionally, to test the wide-spread nature of this metabolism in the Oscillatoriales, we followed similar arsenite- and sulfide-driven facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis as well as nitrogen fixation (C2H2 reduction) in the axenic isolate Oscillatoria sp. CCMP 1731. Future characterization includes axenic isolation of the Mono Lake Oscillatoria sp. as well as the arsenite oxidase responsible for electron

  12. Determination of gold in copper-bearing sulphide ores and metallurgical flotation products by atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, B; Murray-Smith, R

    1974-12-01

    A method is described which is specific for the determination of gold in sulphide copper ores and concentrates. Direct decomposition with aqua regia was found to be incomplete. A carefully controlled roasting stage followed by treatment with hydrochloric acid and then aqua regia was effective for dissolving all the gold. The gold is extracted into 4-methylpentan-2-one (methyli-sobutylketone) then aspirated into a very lean air-acetylene flame and the gold determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry. No interferences were observed from large concentrations of copper, iron or nickel.

  13. An ArsR/SmtB family member is involved in the regulation by arsenic of the arsenite oxidase operon in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinier, Danielle; Slyemi, Djamila; Byrne, Deborah; Lignon, Sabrina; Lebrun, Régine; Talla, Emmanuel; Bonnefoy, Violaine

    2014-10-01

    The genetic organization of the aioBA operon, encoding the arsenite oxidase of the moderately acidophilic and facultative chemoautotrophic bacterium Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, is different from that of the aioBA operon in the other arsenite oxidizers, in that it encodes AioF, a metalloprotein belonging to the ArsR/SmtB family. AioF is stabilized by arsenite, arsenate, or antimonite but not molybdate. Arsenic is tightly attached to AioF, likely by cysteine residues. When loaded with arsenite or arsenate, AioF is able to bind specifically to the regulatory region of the aio operon at two distinct positions. In Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, the promoters of aioX and aioB are convergent, suggesting that transcriptional interference occurs. These results indicate that the regulation of the aioBA operon is more complex in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans than in the other aioBA containing arsenite oxidizers and that the arsenic binding protein AioF is involved in this regulation. On the basis of these data, a model to explain the tight control of aioBA expression by arsenic in Thiomonas arsenitoxydans is proposed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  15. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  16. Arsenite stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes involves both Glut4 translocation and p38 MAPK activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazuine, Merlijn; Ouwens, D. Margriet; Gomes de Mesquita, Daan S.; Maassen, J. Antonie

    2003-01-01

    The protein-modifying agent arsenite stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the current study we have analysed the signalling pathways that contribute to this response. By subcellular fractionation we observed that arsenite, like insulin, induces translocation of the GLUT1 and GLUT4

  17. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  18. Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Albores, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 μM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 μM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (≥ 5 μM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

  19. Thioarsenate Formation Coupled with Anaerobic Arsenite Oxidation by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a Hot Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thioarsenates are common arsenic species in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their biogeochemical traits. In the present study, a novel sulfate-reducing bacterial strain Desulfotomaculum TC-1 was isolated from a sulfidic hot spring in Tengchong geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China. The arxA gene, encoding anaerobic arsenite oxidase, was successfully amplified from the genome of strain TC-1, indicating it has a potential ability to oxidize arsenite under anaerobic condition. In anaerobic arsenite oxidation experiments inoculated with strain TC-1, a small amount of arsenate was detected in the beginning but became undetectable over longer time. Thioarsenates (AsO4-xSx2- with x = 1–4 formed with mono-, di- and tri-thioarsenates being dominant forms. Tetrathioarsenate was only detectable at the end of the experiment. These results suggest that thermophilic microbes might be involved in the formation of thioarsenates and provide a possible explanation for the widespread distribution of thioarsenates in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  20. Thioarsenate Formation Coupled with Anaerobic Arsenite Oxidation by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from a Hot Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuqin; Jiang, Hongchen; Peng, Yue'e; Guo, Wei; Chen, Ziyu; She, Weiyu; Guo, Qinghai; Dong, Hailiang

    2017-01-01

    Thioarsenates are common arsenic species in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their biogeochemical traits. In the present study, a novel sulfate-reducing bacterial strain Desulfotomaculum TC-1 was isolated from a sulfidic hot spring in Tengchong geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China. The arxA gene, encoding anaerobic arsenite oxidase, was successfully amplified from the genome of strain TC-1, indicating it has a potential ability to oxidize arsenite under anaerobic condition. In anaerobic arsenite oxidation experiments inoculated with strain TC-1, a small amount of arsenate was detected in the beginning but became undetectable over longer time. Thioarsenates (AsO 4-x S x 2- with x = 1-4) formed with mono-, di- and tri-thioarsenates being dominant forms. Tetrathioarsenate was only detectable at the end of the experiment. These results suggest that thermophilic microbes might be involved in the formation of thioarsenates and provide a possible explanation for the widespread distribution of thioarsenates in terrestrial geothermal environments.

  1. A literature survey of the matallurgical aspects of minerals in Witwatersrand gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Waal, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This survey reviews the information in the literature on the auriferous rock formations in the Witwatersrand-Orange Free State gold-mining area, the gold-bearing horizons, and the mineralogy and petrography of the different ore types. The metallurgical aspects of the gold, silver, uranium, platinum-group elements, cobalt, nickel, copper, and chromite in these ores are examined and, on the strength of this information, a list is given of those problems in metallurgical extraction that are of a mineralogical nature. Finally, a number of research projects, aimed to support current research at the Council for Mineral Technology, are suggested

  2. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  3. The recovery of gold from the aqua regia leachate of electronic parts using a core–shell type anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cyganowski

    2017-09-01

    The investigated resins revealed great selectivity towards gold. Despite the fact that the obtained solutions contained only 1.5% (CPU or 0.1% (PIN of Au, its removal reached 86% and the logarithms of partition coefficients indicate that affinity of the applied resins to gold is almost ten times greater than the very competitive nickel present in the obtained solutions. Finally, the gold-containing core–shell polymers were effectively eluted, recovering 100% of the taken from the solutions gold.

  4. [Purification of arsenic-binding proteins in hamster plasma after oral administration of arsenite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Min; Li, Chunhui; Qin, Yingjie; Hua, Naranmandura

    2013-01-01

    To purify the arsenic-binding proteins (As-BP) in hamster plasma after a single oral administration of arsenite (iAs(III)). Arsenite was given to hamsters in a single dose. Three types of HPLC columns, size exclusion, gel filtration and anion exchange columns, combined with an inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS) were used to purify the As-BP in hamster plasma. SDS-PAGE was used to confirm the arsenic-binding proteins at each purification step. The three-step purification process successfully separated As-BP from other proteins (ie, arsenic unbound proteins) in hamster plasma. The molecular mass of purified As-BP in plasma was approximately 40-50 kD on SDS-PAGE. The three-step purification method is a simple and fast approach to purify the As-BP in plasma samples.

  5. Spatio-temporal detection of the Thiomonas population and the Thiomonas arsenite oxidase involved in natural arsenite attenuation processes in the Carnoulès Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eHovasse

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The acid mine drainage (AMD impacted creek of the Carnoulès mine (Southern France is characterized by acid waters with a high heavy metal content. The microbial community inhabiting this AMD was extensively studied using isolation, metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, and the results showed that a natural arsenic (and iron attenuation process involving the arsenite oxidase activity of several Thiomonas strains occurs at this site. A sensitive quantitative Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM-based proteomic approach was developed for detecting and quantifying the two subunits of the arsenite oxidase and RpoA of two different Thiomonas groups. Using this approach combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis based on pyrosequencing and FISH, it was established here for the first time that these Thiomonas strains are ubiquitously present in minor proportions in this AMD and that they express the key enzymes involved in natural remediation processes at various locations and time points. In addition to these findings, this study also confirms that targeted proteomics applied at the community level can be used to detect weakly abundant proteins in situ.

  6. Biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: Arsenic contamination in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxS, aoxR, aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. There is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxR leader gene activity in Alcaligenes faecalis SRR-11 and aoxS leader gene activity in Achromobacter xylosoxidans TSL-66. Batch experiments showed that SRR-11 and TSL-66 completely oxidized 1 mM of As (III) to As (V) within 35–40 h. The leaders of aoxS and aoxR are important for gene activity, and their effects in arsenic bioremediation and mobility in natural water has a significant ecological role because it allows arsenite oxidase in bacteria to control the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses. - Highlights: • The aox genotype system activity and arsenite-oxidizing bacteria was studied. • High arsenic contamination affects the detoxification activities of aoxS and aoxM. • Much Cambodian drinking water has dangerously high arsenic contamination. • Disease-causing microorganisms were found in various drinking water sources. - The importance of this study is that it responds to the high concentrations of arsenic contamination that were found in the drinking water of floating-house residents with the following proposition: The combined periplasm activity of the aoxS and aoxR genes and arsenite oxidase reflects the arsenic oxidation potential of the aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD systems in the surface water of floating houses in Cambodia.

  7. COMPARATIVE GENOTOXIC RESPONSES TO ARSENITE IN GUINEA PIG, MOUSE, RAT AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human lymphocytes.Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...

  8. Effects of Arsenite Resistance on the Growth and Functional Gene Expression of Leptospirillum ferriphilum and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in Pure Culture and Coculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK and sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans A01 to arsenite under pure culture and coculture was investigated based on biochemical characterization (concentration of iron ion and pH value and related gene expression. L. ferriphilum YSK and At. thiooxidans A01 in pure culture could adapt up to 400 mM and 800 mM As(III after domestication, respectively, although arsenite showed a negative effect on both strains. The coculture showed a stronger sulfur and ferrous ion oxidation activity when exposed to arsenite. In coculture, the pH value showed no significant difference when under 500 mM arsenite stress, and the cell number of At. thiooxidans was higher than that in pure culture benefiting from the interaction with L. ferriphilum. The expression profile showed that the arsenic efflux system in the coculture was more active than that in pure culture, indicating that there is a synergetic interaction between At. thiooxidans A01 and L. ferriphilum YSK. In addition, a model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between arsenite and the ars operon in L. ferriphilum YSK and At. thiooxidans A01. This study will facilitate the effective application of coculture in the bioleaching process by taking advantage of strain-strain communication and coordination.

  9. Biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaoqing; Chen Rui; Yang Ping; Li Aiping; Zhou Jianwei; Liu Qizhan

    2007-01-01

    Biphasic dose-response relationship induced by environmental agents is often characterized with the effect of low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Some studies showed that arsenite may induce cell proliferation and apoptosis via biphasic dose-response relationship in human cells; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the relationship between biphasic effect of arsenite on cell proliferation and apoptosis and activation of JNK and ERK1/2 in human embryo lung fibroblast (HELF) cells. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation may be stimulated at lower concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 μM) arsenite but inhibited at higher concentrations (5 and 10 μM). When cell apoptosis was used as the endpoint, the concentration-response curves were changed to U-shapes. During stimulation phospho-JNK levels were significantly increased at 3, 6, and 12 h after 0.1 or 0.5 μM arsenite exposure. Phospho-ERK1/2 levels were increased with different concentrations (0.1-10 μM) of arsenite at 6, 12, and 24 h. Blocking of JNK pathway with 20 μM SP600125 or ERK1/2 by 100 μM PD98059 significantly inhibited biphasic effect of arsenite in cells. Data in the present study suggest that activation of JNK and ERK1/2 may be involved in biphasic effect of arsenite when measuring cell proliferation and apoptosis in HELF cells. JNK activation seems to play a more critical role than ERK1/2 activation in the biphasic process

  10. A recovery of gold from electronic scrap by mechanical separation, acid leaching and electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, K.I.; Lee, J.C.; Lee, C.K.; Joo, K.H.; Yoon, J.K.; Kang, H.R.; Kim, Y.S.; Sohn, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of processes to recover the gold from electronic scrap which contains initially about 200--600 ppm Au have been developed. First, mechanical beneficiation including shredding, crushing and screening was employed. Results showed that 99 percent of gold component leaves in the fraction of under 1 mm of crushed scrap and its concentration was enriched to about 800 ppm without incineration. The scrap was leached in 50% aqua regia solution and gold was dissolved completely at 60 C within 2 hours. Other valuable metals such as silver, copper, nickel and iron were also dissolved. This resulting solution was boiled to remove nitrous compounds in the leachate. Finally, a newly designed electrolyzer was tested to recover the gold metal. More than 99% of gold and silver were recovered within an hour in electrowinning process.

  11. Evaluation of the toxic effects of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper using a battery of four bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Pyeong-Koo [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Geologic Environment Div.; Kong, In Chul [Yeungnam Univ., Kyungbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-09-15

    The sensitivities of four different kinds of bioassays to the toxicities of arsenite, chromate, cadmium, and copper were compared. The different bioassays exhibited different sensitivities, i.e., they responded to different levels of toxicity of each of the different metals. However, with the exception of the {alpha}-glucosidase enzyme activity, arsenite was the most toxic compound towards all the tested organisms, exhibiting the highest toxic effect on the seeds of Lactuca, with an EC{sub 50} value of 0.63 mg/L. The sensitivities of Lactuca and Raphanus were greater than the sensitivities of two other kinds of seeds tested. Therefore, these were the seeds appropriate for use in a seed germination assay. A high revertant mutagenic ratio (5:1) of Salmonella typhimurium was observed with an arsenite concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/plate, indicative of a high possibility of mutagenicity. These different results suggested that a battery of bioassays, rather than one bioassay alone, is needed as a more accurate and better tool for the bioassessment of environmental pollutants. (orig.)

  12. A small quantity of sodium arsenite will kill large cull hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Rushmore

    1956-01-01

    Although it is well known that sodium arsenite is an effective silvicide, forestry literature contains little information about the minimum quantities of this chemical that are required to kill large cull trees. Such information would be of value because if small quantities of a chemical will produce satisfactory results, small holes or frills in the tree will hold it...

  13. Adsorption studies of water on copper, nickel, and iron: assessment of the polarization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Staehle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the atmospheric corrosion of copper, nickel, and iron, the adsorption of water affects the corrosion rates. Knowledge of water adsorption and metal oxyhydroxide formation is important in understanding the atmospheric corrosion process. The purposes of the present research were (i) to measure the adsorption of water on metal surfaces as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH) and (ii) to assess Bradley's polarization model of adsorption. In the present research, the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was used to measure the mass changes of copper, nickel, and iron at 0 to 100% relative humidity and 7 to 90 C under nitrogen and air environments. Less water was adsorbed on copper, nickel, and iron which form oxides than on gold. The amount of water adsorption was similar on copper, nickel, and iron under N 2 and air carrier gases. Functional relationship was first proposed as a way to include dipole/induced dipole interactions between the adsorbents and water layers. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  15. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  16. A simple and efficient method of nickel electrodeposition for the cyclotron production of 64Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique-Arias, Juan C.; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel targets for the cyclotron production of 64 Cu were prepared by electrodeposition on a gold backing from nickel chloride solutions using boric acid as buffer. Parameters studied were nickel chloride and boric acid concentration, temperature and current density. All plating conditions studied were successful obtaining efficiencies of approximately 90% in 2–3 h, reaching almost quantitative plating (>97%) in 10–20 h depending on the current density. All plated targets withstood proton irradiations up to 40 µA for 2 h. Recovered nickel was successfully recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%. - Highlights: • Simple and efficient method of Ni electrodeposition from NiCl 2 solutions. • Represents an improvement over current methods for the preparation of Ni targets. • All plated targets underwent irradiation and withstood currents up to 40 µA for 2 h. • Nickel target material was recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%. • Specific activity of 64 Cu was similar than that obtained with older methods of Ni plating

  17. Innate stimulatory capacity of high molecular weight transition metals Au (gold) and Hg (mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Alsalem, Inás W A; Bontkes, Hetty J; Verstege, Marleen I; Gibbs, Sue; von Blomberg, B M E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2015-03-01

    Nickel, cobalt and palladium ions can induce an innate immune response by triggering Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 which is present on dendritic cells (DC). Here we studied mechanisms of action for DC immunotoxicity to gold and mercury. Next to gold (Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O) and mercury (HgCl2), nickel (NiCl2) was included as a positive control. MoDC activation was assessed by release of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-8. Also PBMC were studied, and THP-1 cells were used as a substitution for DC for evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, as well as phenotypic, alterations in response to gold and mercury. Our results showed that both Na3Au (S2O3)2⋅2H2O and HgCl2 induce substantial release of IL-8, but not IL-6, CCL2 or IL-10, from MoDc, PBMC, or THP-1 cells. Also gold and, to a lesser extent mercury, caused modest dendritic cell maturation as detected by increased membrane expression of CD40 and CD80. Both metals thus show innate immune response capacities, although to a lower extent than reported earlier for NiCl2, CoCl2 and Na2 [PdCl4]. Importantly, the gold-induced response could be ascribed to TLR3 rather than TLR4 triggering, whereas the nature of the innate mercury response remains to be clarified. In conclusion both gold and mercury can induce innate immune responses, which for gold could be ascribed to TLR3 dependent signalling. These responses are likely to contribute to adaptive immune responses to these metals, as reflected by skin and mucosal allergies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on speciation and bioavailability of arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongwen; Zhang Xuezhi; Zhang Zhiyan; Chen Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the co-existence of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the speciation of arsenite [As(III)] was studied by observing its adsorption and valence changing. Moreover, the influence of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the bioavailability of As(III) was examined by bioaccumulation test using carp (Cyprinus carpio). The results showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles have a significant adsorption capacity for As (III). Equilibrium was established within 30 min, with about 30% of the initial As (III) being adsorbed onto TiO 2 nanoparticles. Most of aqueous As (III) was oxidized to As(V) in the presence of TiO 2 nanoparticles under sunlight. The carp accumulated considerably more As in the presence of TiO 2 nanoparticles than in the absence of TiO 2 nanoparticles, and after 25-day exposure, As concentration in carp increased by 44%. Accumulation of As in viscera, gills and muscle of the carp was significantly enhanced by the presence of TiO 2 nanoparticles. - The co-existence of TiO 2 nanoparticles could change the speciation of arsenite by adsorption and photo-oxidation, and enhance its bioaccumulation to carp

  19. A complex effect of arsenite on the formation of alpha-ketoglutarate in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, E

    1990-12-01

    This investigation presents disturbances of the mitochondrial metabolism by arsenite, a hydrophilic dithiol reagent known as an inhibitor of mitochondrial alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases. Arsenite at concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mM was shown to induce a considerable oxidation of intramitochondrial NADPH, NADH, and glutathione without decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. The oxidation of NAD(P)H required the presence of phosphate and was sensitive to ruthenium red, but occurred without the addition of calcium salts. Mitochondrial reactions producing alpha-ketoglutarate from glutamate and isocitrate were modulated by arsenite through various mechanisms: (i) both glutamate transaminations, with oxaloacetate and with pyruvate, were inhibited by accumulating alpha-ketoglutarate; however, at low concentrations of alpha-ketoglutarate the aspartate aminotransferase reaction was stimulated due to the increase of NAD+ content; (ii) the oxidation of isocitrate was stimulated at its low concentration only, due to the oxidation of NADPH and NADH; this oxidation was prevented by concentrations of citrate or isocitrate greater than 1 mM; (iii) the conversion of isocitrate to citrate was suppressed, presumably as a result of the decrease of Mg2+ concentration in mitochondria. Thus the depletion of mitochondrial vicinal thiol groups in hydrophilic domains disturbs the mitochondrial metabolism not only by the inhibition of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases but also by the oxidation of NAD(P)H and, possibly, by the change in the ion concentrations.

  20. Synthesis of Nano- alumina Powder from Impure Kaolin and its Application for Arsenite Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khodadadi Darban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered a cost-effective procedure, safer to handle with high removal efficiency. Activated alumina is the most commonly used adsorbent for the removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions. However, activated alumina has a low adsorption capacity and acts kinetically in a slow manner. An ideal adsorbent should have a high surface area, physical and/or chemical stability and be inexpensive. To meet this requirement, nanomeso porous γ-alumina with a high surface area (201.53 m2/g and small particle size (22–36 nm was prepared from inexpensive kaolin as the raw material, by precipitation method. The research results showed that adsorbent has the high adsorption capacity (for initial arsenite concentration up to 10 mg/L, in which 97.65% recovery was achieved. Optimal experimental conditions including pH, initial arsenite concentration and contact time were determined. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin– Radushkevich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation and the maximum arsenite adsorbed by synthesized nano γ–alumina (qe was found to be 40 (mg/g.

  1. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and arsenite with reduction and pH dual-sensitive vesicle for synergistic cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Hong; Li, Jingguo; Cheng, Du; Shuai, Xintao

    2016-06-01

    Drug resistance is the underlying cause for therapeutic failure in clinical cancer chemotherapy. A prodrug copolymer mPEG-PAsp(DIP-co-BZA-co-DOX) (PDBD) was synthesized and assembled into a nanoscale vesicle comprising a PEG corona, a reduction and pH dual-sensitive hydrophobic membrane and an aqueous lumen encapsulating doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX.HCl) and arsenite (As). The dual stimulation-sensitive design of the vesicle gave rise to rapid release of the physically entrapped DOX.HCl and arsenite inside acidic lysosomes, and chemically conjugated DOX inside the cytosol with high glutathione (GSH) concentration. In the optimized concentration range, arsenite previously recognized as a promising anticancer agent from traditional Chinese medicine can down-regulate the expressions of anti-apoptotic and multidrug resistance proteins to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Consequently, the DOX-As-co-loaded vesicle demonstrated potent anticancer activity. Compared to the only DOX-loaded vesicle, the DOX-As-co-loaded one induced more than twice the apoptotic ratio of MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells at a low As concentration (0.5 μM), due to the synergistic effects of DOX and As. The drug loading strategy integrating chemical conjugation and physical encapsulation in stimulation-sensitive carriers enabled efficient drug loading in the formulation.Drug resistance is the underlying cause for therapeutic failure in clinical cancer chemotherapy. A prodrug copolymer mPEG-PAsp(DIP-co-BZA-co-DOX) (PDBD) was synthesized and assembled into a nanoscale vesicle comprising a PEG corona, a reduction and pH dual-sensitive hydrophobic membrane and an aqueous lumen encapsulating doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX.HCl) and arsenite (As). The dual stimulation-sensitive design of the vesicle gave rise to rapid release of the physically entrapped DOX.HCl and arsenite inside acidic lysosomes, and chemically conjugated DOX inside the cytosol with high glutathione (GSH) concentration. In the

  2. Use of {sup 74}As-Tagged Sodium Arsenite in a Study of Effects of a Herbicide on Pond Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R. C. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Hooper, F. H. [Michigan Department of Conservation, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1966-05-15

    Over-abundance of higher aquatic vegetation is one of the most serious problems in inland lakes of the United States. Sodium arsenite is extensively used in these areas to control or destroy aquatic vegetation, but little is known of its pathways in the aquatic system or its effects on the biota of the system. Sodium arsenite tagged with {sup 74}As was added to a series of aquaria and its uptake, movement within the ecosystem, and effect upon the metabolism of the system studied. A duplicate experiment was run in a. 1/3 acre pond (0.14 hectare) in which plants were treated at the levels(8 ppm) usually employed in commercial treatment. The sodium arsenite was taken up actively by the plants immediately and recycled to the water and soil by decay and sedimentation of the plants within 5 d. The herbicide and tracer were taken up very actively by filamentous algae (Spirogyra) and the activity disappeared within 8 h and the algae died within a day following. Chara which is generally considered not to take up the herbicide was very radioactive but showed no signs of deterioration or change in growth pattern or rate. The tagged material persisted in the water for the duration of the study in amounts of nearly one half of the applied amounts. Certain of the invertebrates (microcrustacea) are very sensitive to low levels of sodium arsenite, while others show large concentrations and appear to be unaffected by the herbicide. The arsenite moved into the soil and reached a depth of 3 in. in the undisturbed bottom deposits in a 60-d period. The general effect on the community metabolism of the pond as shown by the diurnal oxygen curve indicates a drastic response to the herbicide and, raises serious questions as to the advisability of use of this herbicide in fish-producing ponds due to its effect upon the several trophic levels in the food web of fish. (author)

  3. Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2006-01-01

    AP-1/cJun, NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-κB by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment

  4. A study on the coprecipitation of arsenite and arsenate into calcite coupled with the determination of oxidation states of arsenic both in calcite and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yuka; Takahashi, Yoshio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuya; Itai, Takaaki

    2009-01-01

    It was found that the amount of arsenite incorporated into calcite is much less than that of arsenate. The result suggests that the sequestration of arsenic by coprecipitation with calcite cannot be an important chemical process under reducing conditions such as in groundwater where arsenite is the dominant arsenic species. (author)

  5. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  6. Regulation of apoptosis in human melanoma and neuroblastoma cells by statins, sodium arsenite and TRAIL: a role of combined treatment versus monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of melanoma cells by sodium arsenite or statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) dramatically modified activities of the main cell signaling pathways resulting in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and in a downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels. Through heme degradation and the production of carbon monoxide and biliverdin, HO-1 plays a protective role in different scenario of oxidative stress followed by mitochondrial apoptosis. Both sodium arsenite and statins could be efficient inducers of apoptosis in some melanoma cell lines, but often exhibited only modest proapoptotic activity in others, due to numerous protective mechanisms. We demonstrated in the present study that treatment by sodium arsenite or statins with an additional inhibition of HO-1 expression (or activation) caused a substantial upregulation of apoptosis in melanoma cells. Sodium arsenite- or statin-induced apoptosis was independent of BRAF status (wild type versus V600E) in melanoma lines. Monotreatment required high doses of statins (20–40 μM) for effective induction of apoptosis. As an alternative approach, pretreatment of melanoma cells with statin at decreased doses (5–20 μM) dramatically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis, due to suppression of the NF-κB and STAT3-transcriptional targets (including COX-2) and downregulation of cFLIP-L (a caspase-8 inhibitor) protein levels. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium arsenite and TRAIL or simvastatin and TRAIL efficiently induced apoptotic commitment in human neuroblastoma cells. In summary, our findings on enhancing effects of combined treatment of cancer cells using statin and TRAIL provide the rationale for further preclinical evaluation. PMID:21910007

  7. Helper T cell subpopulations from women are more susceptible to the toxic effect of sodium arsenite in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Libia; Montes de Oca, Pavel; Saavedra, Rafael; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic is known to produce inhibition as well as induction of proliferative responses in animal and human cells depending on the doses. Despite the amount of information on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic exposure in different animal models, little is known in humans. Arsenic susceptibility of lymphocyte subpopulations (T helper (Th), CD4+; T cytotoxic (Tc), CD8+) and whether arsenic effects are gender related are still to be determined. This work evaluated the in vitro toxicity of sodium arsenite on human T lymphocyte subpopulations from men and women. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from healthy young men and women were treated with sodium arsenite (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM). We assessed cell viability, cell proliferation, and the proportion of Th and Tc cells after 48 or 72 h of arsenic exposure in resting and phytohemagglutinin M (PHA)-activated PBMC. We observed that sodium arsenite at 1 μM was more toxic for Th than for Tc cells in PBMC from women. Besides, T lymphocytes from women were more affected by the cell proliferation inhibition induced by arsenic, suggesting that women could be more susceptible to the toxic and immunotoxic effects caused by arsenic exposure

  8. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Tomás; Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N.; Kornblihtt, Laura; Alvarez, Elida M.; Blanco, Guillermo A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the Chou–Talalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O 2 − ) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O 2 − at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 μM hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O 2 − levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O 2 − levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O 2 − at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O 2 − production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O 2 − levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by Chou–Talalay method. ► Cytotoxic effect associated with superoxide levels as assessed by flow cytometry. ► Synergism

  9. Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on speciation and bioavailability of arsenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hongwen [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang Xuezhi [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zhang Zhiyan [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chen Yongsheng; Crittenden, John C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    In this study, the influence of the co-existence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the speciation of arsenite [As(III)] was studied by observing its adsorption and valence changing. Moreover, the influence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the bioavailability of As(III) was examined by bioaccumulation test using carp (Cyprinus carpio). The results showed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a significant adsorption capacity for As (III). Equilibrium was established within 30 min, with about 30% of the initial As (III) being adsorbed onto TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Most of aqueous As (III) was oxidized to As(V) in the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles under sunlight. The carp accumulated considerably more As in the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles than in the absence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and after 25-day exposure, As concentration in carp increased by 44%. Accumulation of As in viscera, gills and muscle of the carp was significantly enhanced by the presence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - The co-existence of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could change the speciation of arsenite by adsorption and photo-oxidation, and enhance its bioaccumulation to carp.

  10. Investigating the toxicity, uptake, nanoparticle formation and genetic response of plants to gold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Taylor

    Full Text Available We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake.

  11. Investigating the Toxicity, Uptake, Nanoparticle Formation and Genetic Response of Plants to Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew F.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis) to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold) were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake. PMID:24736522

  12. The study of the mechanism of arsenite toxicity in respiration-deficient cells reveals that NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide promotes the same downstream events mediated by mitochondrial superoxide in respiration-proficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Fiorani, Mara; Carloni, Silvia; Cerioni, Liana; Balduini, Walter; Cantoni, Orazio, E-mail: orazio.cantoni@uniurb.it

    2016-09-15

    We herein report the results from a comparative study of arsenite toxicity in respiration-proficient (RP) and -deficient (RD) U937 cells. An initial characterization of these cells led to the demonstration that the respiration-deficient phenotype is not associated with apparent changes in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential. In addition, similar levels of superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup .-}) were generated by RP and RD cells in response to stimuli specifically triggering respiratory chain-independent mitochondrial mechanisms or extramitochondrial, NADPH-oxidase dependent, mechanisms. At the concentration of 2.5 μM, arsenite elicited selective formation of O{sub 2}{sup .-} in the respiratory chain of RP cells, with hardly any contribution of the above mechanisms. Under these conditions, O{sub 2}{sup .-} triggered downstream events leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy and apoptosis. RD cells challenged with similar levels of arsenite failed to generate O{sub 2}{sup .-} because of the lack of a functional respiratory chain and were therefore resistant to the toxic effects mediated by the metalloid. Their resistance, however, was lost after exposure to four fold greater concentrations of arsenite, coincidentally with the release of O{sub 2}{sup .-} mediated by NADPH oxidase. Interestingly, extramitochondrial O{sub 2}{sup .-} triggered the same downstream events and an identical mode of death previously observed in RP cells. Taken together, the results obtained in this study indicate that arsenite toxicity is strictly dependent on O{sub 2}{sup .-} availability that, regardless of whether generated in the mitochondrial or extramitochondrial compartments, triggers similar downstream events leading to ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial superoxide mediates arsenite toxicity in respiration-proficient cells. • NADPH-derived superoxide mediates arsenite toxicity in respiration-deficient cells. • Arsenite causes apoptosis

  13. Enhanced Raman Scattering from NCM523 Cathodes Coated with Electrochemically Deposited Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornheim, Adam; Maroni, Victor A.; He, Meinan; Gosztola, David J.; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-01-01

    Materials with the general composition LiMO2, where M is a mix of nickel, cobalt, and manganese, have been studied extensively as cathodes for lithium-based electrochemical cells. Some compositions, like LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523), have already found application in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Pre-test and post-test analyses of these types of cathodes have benefited greatly from the use of Raman spectroscopy. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy can be used to investigate the phonons of the LiMO2 lattice. This is particularly useful for studies of the LiMO2 after it has been formed into the type of polymer-bonded laminate from which typical battery cathodes are cut. One of the problems that occurs in such studies is that the scattering from the LiMO2 phase gets progressively weaker as the nickel content increases. NCM523 poses one example of this behavior owing to the fact that half of the transition metal content is nickel. In this study we show that the intensity of the Raman scattering from the NCM523 phonons can be significantly increased by electroplating clusters of sub-micron gold particles on NCM523-containing laminate structures. The gold appears to plate somewhat selectively on the NCM523 particles in randomly sized clusters. These clusters stimulate the Raman scattering from the NCM523 to varying extents that can reach nearly 100 times the scattering intensity from uncoated pristine laminates.

  14. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  15. Arsenite induced oxidative damage in mouse liver is associated with increased cytokeratin 18 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsebatt, M.E. [UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Dept. Medicina Genomica y Toxicologia Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Mexico (Mexico); Razo, L.M. del; Sanchez-Pena, L.C. [Seccion de Toxicologia, CINVESTAV, Mexico (Mexico); Cerbon, M.A. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Departamento de Biologia, Mexico (Mexico); Zuniga, O.; Ramirez, P. [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlan, UNAM, Laboratorio de Toxicologia Celular, Coordinacion General de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Cuautitlan Izcalli, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    Cytokeratins (CK) constitute a family of cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are typically expressed in epithelial cells. An abnormal structure and function are effects that are clearly related to liver diseases as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We have previously observed that sodium arsenite (SA) induced the synthesis of CK18 protein and promotes a dose-related disruption of cytoplasmic CK18 filaments in a human hepatic cell line. Both abnormal gene expression and disturbance of structural organization are toxic effects that are likely to cause liver disease by interfering with normal hepatocyte function. To investigate if a disruption in the CK18 expression pattern is associated with arsenite liver damage, we investigated CK18 mRNA and protein levels in liver slices treated with low levels of SA. Organotypic cultures were incubated with 0.01, 1 and 10 {mu}M of SA in the absence and presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Cell viability and inorganic arsenic metabolism were determined. Increased expression of CK18 was observed after exposure to SA. The addition of NAC impeded the oxidative effects of SA exposure, decreasing the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and significantly diminishing the up regulation of CK18 mRNA and protein. Liver arsenic levels correlated with increased levels of mRNA. Mice treated with intragastric single doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of SA showed an increased expression of CK18. Results suggest that CK18 expression may be a sensible early biomarker of oxidative stress and damage induced by arsenite in vitro and in vivo. Then, during SA exposure, altered CK expression may compromise liver function. (orig.)

  16. Effectiveness of Iron Filings in Arsenate and Arsenite Removal from Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliReza Asgari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination with arsenic (As has been recognized as a serious problem and there are various reports from different regions, especially from Kurdistan Providence, indicating the presence of As in the from of arsenate and arsenite in water recourses. Removal of these compounds can be accomplished by various methods but they are all expensive. In this study, three concentrations (0.5, 1, and 1 mg/L of iron filings (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 grams were used as a cheap and available material for adsorption of As and the effects of contact time and pH as well as chloride and sulfate ion concentrations on removal efficiency were determined. Description of adsorption isotherms (Ferundlich and Langmuir was accomplished. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the Excel softwere. The results indicate that iron filings show a high capability in adsorbing both arsenate and arsenic compounds from polluted water samples at pH 7 over a short contact time of 30 minutes. In fact, this cheap adsorbent shows good treatment when used at doses as low as 1g/L with no considerable interference by interfering anions (SO42- and Cl-. It appears that the absorbability of both arsenate and arsenite by iron filings can be expressed by Ferundlich isotherm with R2>0.96, whereas arsenate adsorption (with a R2 value of more than 0.96 can be better described by Langmuir isotherm than arsenite (with R2 value of more than 0.91. Results also indicate that the amount of iron added to water is much more than the standard value of 0.3mg/L set for dinking water. Nevertheless, this method has far greater advantages in terms of costs and availability than similar methods. Besides, as removal by this method is efficient without pH modification, iron filing treatment of drinking water may, therefore, be recomnended as a convenient solution to the problem of water resources polluted with As in Iran.

  17. Characterization and treatment of artisanal gold mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, L.R.P. de; Bernardez, L.A.; Barbosa, L.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    The solid waste generated by artisanal gold mining, with high mercury and gold contents, can be found in several areas in the South America. The present study focused on the tailings of an artisanal gold mine area located in the Brazilian northeastern. Samples of the mine tailings were taken and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence, induced coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, among others analytical methods. The results indicate that the material is composed mainly by quartz and goethite, the characteristic size of the particles (d 50 ) is about 150 μm, and the density is close of that of quartz. The main constituents are silicon, iron, and aluminum. The tailings gold content is of about 1.8 mg/kg and the mercury content is of about 10 mg/kg. A remarkable feature of this solid waste is that the gold and mercury are both concentrated in both the fine and the coarse particles, but not in particles of intermediary size. Leaching studies indicated that the tailings are stable in weak organic acids, but soluble in alkaline and aired cyanide solutions, in which 89% of gold and 100% of mercury are extracted in 24 h. Electroleaching experiments, performed using sodium chloride as electrolyte, indicated that mercury and gold are extracted simultaneously and the recovery of both metals can be as high as 70% in 4 h. In addition, chromium, nickel, and lead are found in relatively large amounts in the solution, which indicate an effectively action of the electroleaching method to clean up solid wastes contaminated with metals

  18. New evidence on the composition of mineral grains of native gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erasmus, C.S.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Watterson, J.I.W.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear analytical techniques of instrumental neutron activation and radiochemical neutron activation have been applied to the analysis of native gold from the Precambrian Witwatersrand Sequence and from the Archaen deposits in the Barberton Mountain Land, Murchison Range and Pietersburg region in South Africa. A total of 15 elements were determined in the samples of native gold, namely: scandium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, zirconium, silver, antimony, tellurium, cerium, europium, ytterbium, mercury and thorium. Of these the silver and mercury were determined by the instrumental procedure and the copper was determined after extraction with diethyl dithiocarbamate. The other elements were determined from long-lived isotopes after the removal of silver by dissolution of the gold and precipitation of the silver as silver iodide. The most significant result of this work is the discovery that mercury occurs at the percentage level in native gold from the Witwatersrand (between 1 and 5%), demonstrating the power of the nuclear method in comparison with conventional methods such as optical spectroscopy and the electron microprobe, which had failed to make this discovery. (author)

  19. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Tomás [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kornblihtt, Laura [Servicio de Hematología, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Elida M. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, Guillermo A., E-mail: gblanco@ffyb.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-02-01

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the Chou–Talalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup −}) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 μM hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O{sub 2}{sup −} levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O{sub 2}{sup −} levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O{sub 2}{sup −} levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by Chou–Talalay method. ► Cytotoxic effect

  20. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chilakapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers.

  1. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  2. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  3. Draft genome sequence of the arsenite-oxidizing strain Aliihoeflea sp. 2WW, isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalca, L.; Corsini, A.; Andreoni, V.; Muyzer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the arsenite-oxidizing bacterium Aliihoeflea sp. strain 2WW, which consists of a 4.15-Mb chromosome and contains different genes that are involved in arsenic transformations.

  4. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  5. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  6. The effects of autoclave sterilization on the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and ProTaper Gold nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Uslu, Gülşah

    2017-11-01

    It was aimed to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), and ProTaper Gold (PTG) and the effects of sterilization by autoclave on the cyclic fatigue life of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments. Eighty PTU, 80 PTN, and 80 PTG were included to the present study. Files were tested in a simulated canal. Each brand of the NiTi files were divided into 4 subgroups: group 1, as received condition; group 2, pre-sterilized instruments exposed to 10 times sterilization by autoclave; group 3, instruments tested were sterilized after being exposed to 25%, 50%, and 75% of the mean cycles to failure, then cycled fatigue test was performed; group 4, instruments exposed to the same experiment with group 3 without sterilization. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated. The data was statistically analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. PTG showed significantly higher NCF than PTU and PTN in group 1 ( p Autoclaving increased the cyclic fatigue resistances of PTN and PTG.

  7. Characterization of the arsenite oxidizer Aliihoeflea sp. strain 2WW and its potential application in the removal of arsenic from groundwater in combination with Pf-ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Anna; Colombo, Milena; Muyzer, Gerard; Cavalca, Lucia

    2015-09-01

    A heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium, strain 2WW, was isolated from a biofilter treating arsenic-rich groundwater. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was closely related (98.7 %) to the alphaproteobacterium Aliihoeflea aesturari strain N8(T). However, it was physiologically different by its ability to grow at relatively low substrate concentrations, low temperatures and by its ability to oxidize arsenite. Here we describe the physiological features of strain 2WW and compare these to its most closely related relative, A. aestuari strain N8(T). In addition, we tested its efficiency to remove arsenic from groundwater in combination with Pf-ferritin. Strain 2WW oxidized arsenite to arsenate between pH 5.0 and 8.0, and from 4 to 30 °C. When the strain was used in combination with a Pf-ferritin-based material for arsenic removal from natural groundwater, the removal efficiency was significantly higher (73 %) than for Pf-ferritin alone (64 %). These results showed that arsenite oxidation by strain 2WW combined with Pf-ferritin-based material has a potential in arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater.

  8. Fabrication of Microcomponents by Electrochemical Manufacturing: Advanced Feed-Through Metallisation on Silicon and Nickel Micromechanical Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Heschel, Matthias; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical processes such as electroplating, wet selective etching (or controlled corrosion) and electroless plating are powerful tools for fabrication of MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) products. Especially when the electrochemical processes are used in combination with UV-lithograph......Electrochemical processes such as electroplating, wet selective etching (or controlled corrosion) and electroless plating are powerful tools for fabrication of MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) products. Especially when the electrochemical processes are used in combination with UV......, as well as nickel/gold pads for conductive adhesive bonding, are also deposited by electroplating. The second example is a simple, inexpensive, low-temperature electroplating process for fabrication of released, stress-free nickel comb resonators. Since the manufacturing sequence only involves low...

  9. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  10. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  11. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  12. Numerical calculation of the Casimir forces between a gold sphere and a nanocomposite sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Norio; Miura, Kouji; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The repulsive Casimir force is expected as a force which enables to levitate small objects such as machine parts used in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and superlubricity in MEMS may be realized by this levitation. We study the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a nanocomposite sheet containing many nickel nanoparticles. In particular, we focus on the dependence of the Casimir force on the separation between the gold sphere and the surface of the nanocomposite sheet. The Casimir force changes from the attractive force to the repulsive force as the separation increases. The strength of the repulsive force is, however, too small to levitate MEMS parts.

  13. Numerical calculation of the Casimir forces between a gold sphere and a nanocomposite sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inui, Norio; Miura, Kouji; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ishikawa, Makoto, E-mail: inui@eng.u-hyogo.ac.j, E-mail: kmiura@auecc.aichi-edu.ac.j, E-mail: akamatsu@center.konan-u.ac.j, E-mail: makoishi@auecc.aichi-edu.ac.j

    2010-11-01

    The repulsive Casimir force is expected as a force which enables to levitate small objects such as machine parts used in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), and superlubricity in MEMS may be realized by this levitation. We study the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a nanocomposite sheet containing many nickel nanoparticles. In particular, we focus on the dependence of the Casimir force on the separation between the gold sphere and the surface of the nanocomposite sheet. The Casimir force changes from the attractive force to the repulsive force as the separation increases. The strength of the repulsive force is, however, too small to levitate MEMS parts.

  14. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  15. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nanopowders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanopowders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at pH ~12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54–65°C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution pH affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (pH~10 of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Effect of Gold on the Corrosion Behavior of an Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold Surface Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Q. V.; Nam, N. D.; Yoon, J. W.; Choi, D. H.; Kar, A.; Kim, J. G.; Jung, S. B.

    2011-09-01

    The performance of surface finishes as a function of the pH of the utilized plating solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, the surface finishes were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the contact angle of the liquid/solid interface was recorded. NiP films on copper substrates with gold coatings exhibited their highest coating performance at pH 5. This was attributed to the films having the highest protective efficiency and charge transfer resistance, lowest porosity value, and highest contact angle among those examined as a result of the strongly preferred Au(111) orientation and the improved surface wettability.

  17. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  18. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pnickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  1. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  2. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nano powders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tientong, J.; Garcia, S.; Thurber, C.R.; Golden, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nano powders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at ph ∼ 12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54-65 °C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution ph affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (ph ∼10) of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  4. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA III induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA III increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA III induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  5. Multiple metals exposure in a small-scale artisanal gold mining community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Nam, Dong-Ha; Kwansaa-Ansah, Edward; Renne, Elisha P; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2011-04-01

    Urinary metals were characterized in 57 male residents of a small-scale gold mining community in Ghana. Chromium and arsenic exceeded health guideline values for 52% and 34%, respectively, of all participants. About 10-40% of the participants had urinary levels of aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel, selenium, and zinc that fell outside the U.S. reference range. Exposures appear ubiquitous across the community as none of the elements were associated with occupation, age, and diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenate and Arsenite Sorption on Magnetite: Relations to Groundwater Arsenic Treatment Using Zerovalent Iron and Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a zerovalent iron corrosion product; it is also formed in natural soil and sediment. Sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on magnetite is an important process of arsenic removal from groundwater using zerovalent iron-based permeable reactive ba...

  7. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  8. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  9. The inhibition of tissue respiration and alcoholic fermentation at different catabolic levels by ethyl carbamate (urethan) and arsenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, E.; Gruber, M.; Leijnse, B.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1950-01-01

    1. A hypothesis is given concerning the action of urethan and arsenite on malignant growth. Two assumptionsares made:- (a) the enzyme system responsible for energy production in malignant tumours is working at maximal rate, contrary to the corresponding enzyme system in normal tissues. (b) a

  10. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  11. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  12. Capacitance measurements and AC conductivity of Nickel Phthalocyanine films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.

    2005-01-01

    A C dark Current measurements of nickel phthalocyanine thin films using ohmic gold electrodes are investigated in the frequency range 30-10 Hz and within the temperature range 295-385 K. The A C conductivity as D Ac is found to vary as within the index s < 1, indicating a dominant hopping process at low temperatures. From the temperature dependence of A C conductivity, free carrier conduction with mean activation energy of 0.31 eV is observed at higher temperatures. Capacitance and loss tangent are found to be decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. Such characteristics are found to be in good qualitative agreement with existing equivalent circuit model assuming ohmic contacts

  13. Population Structure and Abundance of Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria along an Arsenic Pollution Gradient in Waters of the Upper Isle River Basin, France▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Cébron, Aurélie; Billard, Patrick; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Garrido, Francis; Leyval, Corinne; Joulian, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were successfully developed to monitor functional aoxB genes as markers of aerobic arsenite oxidizers. DGGE profiles showed a shift in the structure of the aoxB-carrying bacterial population, composed of members of the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, depending on arsenic (As) and Eh levels in Upper Isle River Basin waters. The highest aoxB gene densities were found in the most As-polluted oxic surface waters but without any significant correlation with environmental factors. Arsenite oxidizers seem to play a key role in As mobility in As-impacted waters. PMID:20453153

  14. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    .4% versus 19.8%) (p = 0.02), in female dermatitis patients aged ≤17 years (14.3% versus 29.2%) (p women: 20.2% versus 36.6%) (p men: 4.9% versus 6.6%) (p ..., and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries.......Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...

  15. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  16. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nickel allergy in a Danish population 25 years after the first nickel regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...

  18. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  19. Arsenite induces apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells by altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by activating intrinsic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Santosh; Shi Yongli; Wang Feng; Wang He

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental exposure to arsenic is an important public health issue. The effects of arsenic on different tissues and organs have been intensively studied. However, the effects of arsenic on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have not been reported. This study is designed to investigate the cell death process caused by arsenite and its related underlying mechanisms on MSCs. The rationale is that absorbed arsenic in the blood circulation can reach to the bone marrow and may affect the cell survival of MSCs. Methods: MSCs of passage 1 were purchased from Tulane University, grown till 70% confluency level and plated according to the experimental requirements followed by treatment with arsenite at various concentrations and time points. Arsenite (iAs III ) induced cytotoxic effects were confirmed by cell viability and cell cycle analysis. For the presence of canonic apoptosis markers; DNA damage, exposure of intramembrane phosphotidylserine, protein and m-RNA expression levels were analyzed. Results: iAs III induced growth inhibition, G2-M arrest and apoptotic cell death in MSCs, the apoptosis induced by iAs III in the cultured MSCs was, via altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by involving intrinsic pathway. Conclusion: iAs III can induce apoptosis in bone marrow-derived MSCs via Bcl-2 family proteins, regulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Due to the multipotency of MSC, acting as progenitor cells for a variety of connective tissues including bone, adipose, cartilage and muscle, these effects of arsenic may be important in assessing the health risk of the arsenic compounds and understanding the mechanisms of arsenic-induced harmful effects.

  20. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  1. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  2. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  3. Gold nanoparticle/nickel oxide/poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid hybrid multilayer film: Electrochemical study and its application in biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karazehir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the fabrication of Indium Tin Oxide /gold nanoparticles/nickel oxide/poly(Pyrrole-N-propionic acid (ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA multilayered film, and its modification with Tyrosinase (Ty. The ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA electrode was fabricated by sequential electrochemical assembly onto ITO substrate which electrochemical deposition provides a facile, inexpensive technique for synthesis of multilayered film within the adherent morphology with controllable film thickness. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microcopy (SEM, and atomic force microcopy (AFM were used to characterize the film assembly processes. The properties of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface were investigated based on the Mott–Schottky (M-S approach for the modified electrodes, with the flat band potential (EFB according to the potential intercept and the carrier density (ND according to the linear slopes. The ND and EFB of ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA were obtained as 2.48·1021 cm–3 and 0.26 V, respectively. Tyrosinase was immobilized using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The bioelectrode was characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, AFM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. A Randles equivalent circuit was introduced for modeling the performance of impedimetric biosensing for the detection of the dopamine (DP and the interface of bioelectrode/electrolyte. The EIS of the ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA-Ty exhibited significant changes in the charge transfer resistance (RCT value toward the detection of dopamine over a linear range of 80 µM to 0.2 mM with a limit of detection (LOD of 5.46 µM.

  4. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  5. A rapid and practical strategy for the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rock by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry combined with ultrasound extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gai; Tian, Min

    2015-04-01

    This proposed method regulated the determination of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium and gold in platinum-group ores by nickel sulfide fire assay—inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) combined with ultrasound extraction for the first time. The quantitative limits were 0.013-0.023μg/g. The samples were fused to separate the platinum-group elements from matrix. The nickel sulfide button was then dissolved with hydrochloric acid and the insoluble platinum-group sulfide residue was dissolved with aqua regia by ultrasound bath and finally determined by ICP-OES. The proposed method has been applied into the determination of platinum-group element and gold in large amounts of ultrabasic rocks from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe.

  6. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN− anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO−); and thiocyanate (SCN−). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment.

  7. Separation and Precipitation of Nickel from Acidic Sulfate Leaching Solution of Molybdenum-Nickel Black Shale by Potassium Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigan; Wei, Chang; Fan, Gang; Li, Xingbin; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2018-02-01

    Nickel was separated and precipitated with potassium nickel sulfate hexahydrate [K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O] from acidic sulfate solution, a leach solution from molybdenum-nickel black shale. The effects of the potassium sulfate (K2SO4) concentration, crystallization temperature, solution pH, and crystallization time on nickel(II) recovery and iron(III) precipitation were investigated, revealing that nickel and iron were separated effectively. The optimum parameters were K2SO4 concentration of 200 g/L, crystallization temperature of 10°C, solution pH of 0.5, and crystallization time of 24 h. Under these conditions, 97.6% nickel(II) was recovered as K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals while only 2.0% of the total iron(III) was precipitated. After recrystallization, 98.4% pure K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals were obtained in the solids. The mother liquor was purified by hydrolysis-precipitation followed by cooling, and more than 99.0% K2SO4 could be crystallized. A process flowsheet was developed to separate iron(III) and nickel(II) from acidic-sulfate solution.

  8. Environmental and human toxicology of nickel - a review; Umwelt- und Humantoxikologie von Nickel - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, D. [Fachbereich Biologie und Chemie, Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Nickel is a relatively rare element, and its concentrations in ambient air, soils and waters are very low. Higher burdens of nickel are found in nickel industries and their proximity. The human uptake of nickel from the ambient air is neglectably low, except in industrial exposures. The main fraction of human nickel uptake is from food, nearly 50% stems from vegetables. Only about 2% of the oral uptake of nickel are resorbed and distributed over all organs investigated. The uptake of nickel compounds through the skin generally is very low. However, chronic skin contact with nickel and nickel compounds causes a specific contact allergy. This disease was observed after occupational exposure but also frequently in the general population. The number of new cases has dropped considerably due to reinforced prevention. Epidemiological studies with workers of nickel smelting and refining plants have demonstrated increased risks of nose and lung cancer. Human data are supported by results from animal experiments which have shown that inhalation of various nickel compounds caused lung cancer. Furthermore, animal experiments have yielded evidence that oral and inhalative exposure to nickel compounds impair reproduction. National and international agencies have classified various nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans. The unit cancer risk attributed to life-long inhalation of 1 {mu}g Ni/m{sup 3} air is estimated to be between 2 x 10{sup -4} and 7 x 10{sup -4}. Occupational exposure limits in Germany have been the Technical Guidance Values of 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} for nickel and weakly soluble nickel compounds and of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for inhalable droplets of soluble nickel salts. The German limit value for ambient immission is 0.015 mg Ni/m{sup 2}. d, and for emission 0,5 mg Ni/m{sup 3}. Limit values for nickel in air are to be taken not as safe thresholds but as guidance values for the delimitation of the cancer risk. (orig.)

  9. High-temperature conversion of methane on a composite gadolinia-doped ceria-gold electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, O.A.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1999-01-01

    Direct electrochemical oxidation of methane was attempted on a gadolinia-doped ceria Ce(0.6)Gd(0.4)O(1.8) (CG4) electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell using a porous gold-CG4 mixture as current collector Gold is relatively inert to methane in contrast to other popular SOFC anode materials such as n......Direct electrochemical oxidation of methane was attempted on a gadolinia-doped ceria Ce(0.6)Gd(0.4)O(1.8) (CG4) electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell using a porous gold-CG4 mixture as current collector Gold is relatively inert to methane in contrast to other popular SOFC anode materials...... such as nickel and platinum. CG4 was found to exhibit a low electrocatalytic activity for methane oxidation as well as no significant reforming activity implying that the addition of an electrocatalyst or cracking catalyst to the CG4 anode is required for SOFC operating on methane. The methane conversion...... observed at the open-circuit potential and low anodic overpotentials seems to be due to thermal methane cracking in the gas phase and on the alumina surfaces in the cell housing. At high anodic overpotentials, at electrode potentials where oxygen evolution was expected to take place, the formation of CO(2...

  10. IMBALANCE OF DNA METHYLATION, BOTH HYPERMETHYLATION AND HYPOMETHYLATION, OCCUR AFTER EXPOSURE OF HUMAN CELLS TO NANOMOLAR CONCENTRATIONS OF ARSENITE IN CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalance of DNA methylation, BOTH hypermethylation and hypomethylation, occur after exposure of human cells to nanomolar concentrations of arsenite in culture.We and others have hypothesized that a mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis could involve alteration of DNA methy...

  11. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  12. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  13. Electrochemical aptasensor for detecting Der p2 allergen using polycarbonate-based double-generation gold nanoparticle chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor for detecting the group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p2 was developed. First, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO membrane was prepared. A modified AAO barrier-layer surface with an array of nanohemispheres of 400 nm in diameter was used as a template for the nanoelectroforming of a nickel mold. After electroforming, the AAO template was etched and a nickel nanomold with a concave nanostructure array was produced. The formed nanostructured nickel nanomold was then used in the replica molding of a nanostructured polycarbonate (PC substrate via hot embossing. Finally, a gold thin film was sputtered onto the PC substrate to form a double-generation gold nanoparticle electrode (array of nanohemispheres with smaller nanoparticles orderly distributed on each nanohemisphere. After immobilizing specifically designed aptamers on the fabricated electrode, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of Der p2. The sensitivity of the proposed scheme for the detection of the dust mite antigen Der p2 was 2.088 Ω / (ng/mL × cm2 with a dynamic detection range of 27.5–400 ng/mL and detection limit of 16.47 ng/mL.The aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor proposed in this study possesses many advantages such as high sensitivity, low cost, and high consistency over currently used sensors. The proposed sensor was found to be useful for the rapid detection of rare molecules present in an analyte. Keywords: Aptamers, Der p2 dust mite allergen detection, Nanostructured biosensors, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  14. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness ∼50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics

  15. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  16. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  18. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  20. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  2. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  3. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  5. Determination of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keedy, C.R.; Parson, L.; Shen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores was determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis, respectively. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained for both ore samples and gold flakes by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  7. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  8. Simulation of the effects of phosphate on adsorption of arsenite and arsenate on ferrihydrite matrix using a geochemical equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassenga, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is of environmental concern because of its toxicity to plants, animals, and human beings. Iron oxides, including the poorly crystalline (amorphous) iron oxides, e.g., ferrihydrite, have a strong affinity for both arsenite and arsenate (the most toxic species of arsenic). In view of this, adsorption on ferrihydrite matrix is the main process of immobilization of arsenic in groundwater. The presence of phosphate in groundwater may however limit adsorption of arsenic on iron oxides due to competition for adsorption sites, resulting in higher aqueous concentrations in some environments. This paper analyses the effects of phosphate on aqueous concentration of arsenic at different pH using a geochemical equilibrium simulation model. It specifically focuses on arsenite and arsenate, the most toxic forms of arsenic. A general description of the occurrence of arsenic in the environment, its toxicity, and health hazards is first given. The paper discusses sources and geochemical processes that control arsenic mobility in aquifers. Adsorption and desorption reactions of arsenic on ferrihydrite and the factors that affect them are described. Modeling of adsorption/desorption processes is then discussed. Finally, the effects of phosphate on adsorption and desorption processes of arsenic on ferrihydrite as a function of pH are analyzed using PHREEQC Version 2, a computer program for simulating chemical reactions and transport processes in natural and polluted water. The model is applied in a case study formulated on the basis of a realistic hydrogeochemical setting to demonstrate how the use of arsenical pesticides and phosphate fertilizers may pose potential public health problems in areas where groundwater is used for domestic purposes. The modeling results have shown that aqueous concentration of arsenic increases with increasing phosphate-phosphorus concentration for pH values less than 10 assuming that ferrihydrite concentration and other hydrogeochemical conditions

  9. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  10. Cell cycle pathway dysregulation in human keratinocytes during chronic exposure to low arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Waigel, Sabine; Jala, Venkatakrishna; Jenkins, Samantha F; States, J Christopher

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic is naturally prevalent in the earth's crust and widely distributed in air and water. Chronic low arsenic exposure is associated with several cancers in vivo, including skin cancer, and with transformation in vitro of cell lines including immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Arsenic also is associated with cell cycle dysregulation at different exposure levels in multiple cell lines. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in HaCaT cells to gain an understanding of gene expression changes contributing to transformation at an early time point. HaCaT cells were exposed to 0 or 100nM NaAsO 2 for 7weeks. Total RNA was purified and analyzed by microarray hybridization. Differential expression with fold change≥|1.5| and p-value≤0.05 was determined using Partek Genomic Suite™ and pathway and network analyses using MetaCore™ software (FDR≤0.05). Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. 644 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Cell cycle/cell cycle regulation pathways predominated in the list of dysregulated pathways. Genes involved in replication origin licensing were enriched in the network. Cell cycle assay analysis showed an increase in G2/M compartment in arsenite-exposed cells. Arsenite exposure induced differential gene expression indicating dysregulation of cell cycle control, which was confirmed by cell cycle analysis. The results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation is an early event in transformation manifested in cells unable to transit G2/M efficiently. Further study at later time points will reveal additional changes in gene expression related to transformation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenite activates NFκB through induction of C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druwe, Ingrid L.; Sollome, James J.; Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Vaillancourt, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein in humans. Elevated levels of CRP are produced in response to inflammatory cytokines and are associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a common environmental toxicant, also produces cardiovascular disorders, namely atherosclerosis and is associated with insulin-resistance. Inorganic arsenic has been shown to contribute to cardiac toxicities through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result in the activation of NFκB. In this study we show that exposure of the hepatic cell line, HepG2, to environmentally relevant levels of arsenite (0.13 to 2 μM) results in elevated CRP expression and secretion. ROS analysis of the samples showed that a minimal amount of ROS are produced by HepG2 cells in response to these concentrations of arsenic. In addition, treatment of FvB mice with 100 ppb sodium arsenite in the drinking water for 6 months starting at weaning age resulted in dramatically higher levels of CRP in both the liver and inner medullary region of the kidney. Further, mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct cells (mIMCD-4), a mouse kidney cell line, were stimulated with 10 ng/ml CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. Pretreatment with 10 nM Y27632, a known Rho-kinase inhibitor, prior to CRP exposure attenuated NFκB activation. These data suggest that arsenic causes the expression and secretion of CRP and that CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway, thereby providing a novel pathway by which arsenic can contribute to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to arsenic can induce the expression and secretion of CRP. ► Mice treated with NaAsO 2 showed higher levels of CRP in both the liver and kidney. ► mIMCD-3 were stimulated with CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. ► CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway. ► Data provide

  12. Arsenite activates NFκB through induction of C-reactive protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druwe, Ingrid L.; Sollome, James J.; Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Vaillancourt, Richard R., E-mail: vaillancourt@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2012-06-15

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein in humans. Elevated levels of CRP are produced in response to inflammatory cytokines and are associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a common environmental toxicant, also produces cardiovascular disorders, namely atherosclerosis and is associated with insulin-resistance. Inorganic arsenic has been shown to contribute to cardiac toxicities through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result in the activation of NFκB. In this study we show that exposure of the hepatic cell line, HepG2, to environmentally relevant levels of arsenite (0.13 to 2 μM) results in elevated CRP expression and secretion. ROS analysis of the samples showed that a minimal amount of ROS are produced by HepG2 cells in response to these concentrations of arsenic. In addition, treatment of FvB mice with 100 ppb sodium arsenite in the drinking water for 6 months starting at weaning age resulted in dramatically higher levels of CRP in both the liver and inner medullary region of the kidney. Further, mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct cells (mIMCD-4), a mouse kidney cell line, were stimulated with 10 ng/ml CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. Pretreatment with 10 nM Y27632, a known Rho-kinase inhibitor, prior to CRP exposure attenuated NFκB activation. These data suggest that arsenic causes the expression and secretion of CRP and that CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway, thereby providing a novel pathway by which arsenic can contribute to metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to arsenic can induce the expression and secretion of CRP. ► Mice treated with NaAsO{sub 2} showed higher levels of CRP in both the liver and kidney. ► mIMCD-3 were stimulated with CRP which resulted in activation of NFκB. ► CRP activates NFκB through activation of the Rho-kinase pathway. ► Data

  13. [Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements.

  14. Mechanisms of interaction between arsenian pyrite and aqueous arsenite under anoxic and oxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guohong; Gao, Tianyu; Hong, Jun; Luo, Yao; Liu, Lihu; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Pyrite affects the conversion and migration processes of arsenic in soils and waters. Adsorption and redox reactions of arsenite (As(III)) occur on the surface of pyrite, and the interaction processes are influenced by the arsenic incorporated into pyrite. This work examined the effects of arsenic content, pH and oxygen on the interaction between arsenian pyrite and aqueous As(III) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that arsenic incorporation led to a high content of Fe(III) in pyrite, and that As(III) was mainly adsorbed on pyrite surface and part of As(III) was oxidized to As(V) by the newly formed intermediates including hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The oxidation rate increased with increasing arsenic content in the pyrite and the presence of air (oxygen), and first decreased and then increased with increasing pH from 3.0 to 11.0. Hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide significantly contributed to the oxidation of pyrite and aqueous As(III) in acidic and alkaline solutions, respectively. Although pyrite oxidation increased with increasing arsenic content as indicated by the elevated concentrations of elemental S and SO42-, the percentage of released arsenic in total arsenic of the arsenian pyrite decreased due to the adsorption of arsenic on the surface of newly formed ferric (hydr)oxides, especially the ferric arsenate precipitate formed in high pH solutions. The present study enables a better understanding of the important interaction process of dissolved arsenite and natural pyrites in the study of groundwater contamination, arsenic migration/sequestration, and acid mine drainage formation.

  15. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  16. Advantages of low pH and limited oxygenation in arsenite removal from water by zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Sivan; Kirk, Donald W

    2013-05-15

    The removal of toxic arsenic species from contaminated waters by zero-valent iron (ZVI) has drawn considerable attention in recent years. In this approach, arsenic ions are mainly removed by adsorption to the iron corrosion products. Reduction to zero-valent arsenic on the ZVI surface is possible in the absence of competing oxidants and can reduce arsenic mobility and sludge formation. However, associated removal rates are relatively low. In the current study, simultaneous high reduction and removal rates of arsenite (H3AsO3), the more toxic and mobile environmentally occurring arsenic species, was demonstrated by reacting it with ZVI under limited aeration and relatively low pH. 90% of the removed arsenic was attached to the ZVI particles and 60% of which was in the elemental state. Under the same non-acidic conditions, only 40-60% of the removed arsenic was attached to the ZVI with no change in arsenic oxidation state. Under anaerobic conditions, reduction occurred but total arsenic removal rate was significantly lower and ZVI demand was higher. The effective arsenite removal under acidic oxygen-limited conditions was explained by formation of Fe(II)-solid intermediate on the ZVI surface that provided high surface area and reducing power. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Root Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Mandibular Premolars Assessed Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability.

  18. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  19. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  20. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using diatoms-silica-gold and EPS-gold bionanocomposite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröfel, Adam; Kratošová, Gabriela; Bohunická, Markéta; Dobročka, Edmund; Vávra, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles, EPS-gold, and silica-gold bionanocomposites by biologically driven processes employing two diatom strains (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica) is described. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction analysis (SAED) revealed a presence of gold nanoparticles in the experimental solutions of the diatom culture mixed with tetrachloroaureate. Nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron m...

  1. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  2. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  3. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Nielsen, Morten M; Schmidt, Jonas D; Bzorek, Michael; Poulsen, Steen S; Thomsen, Allan R; Woetmann, Anders; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Odum, Niels; Menné, Torkil; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts to establish a model in mice that reflects nickel allergy in humans have been made. Most models use intradermal injection of nickel in combination with adjuvant to induce nickel allergy. However, such models poorly reflect induction of nickel allergy following long-lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. This new model for nickel allergy that reflects epicutaneous exposure to nickel in humans shows that nickel allergy is dependent on MyD88 and IL-1 receptor signalling, but independent of TLR4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of exogenous glutathione on arsenic burden and NO metabolism in brain of mice exposed to arsenite through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Fenghong; Jin, Yaping; Zhong, Yuan; Yu, Xiaoyun; Li, Gexin; Lv, Xiuqiang; Sun, Guifan

    2011-03-01

    Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with neurotoxicity. Studies to date have disclosed that methylation of ingested iAs is the main metabolic pathway, and it is a process relying on reduced glutathione (GSH). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of exogenous GSH on arsenic burden and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain of mice exposed to arsenite via drinking water. Mice were exposed to sodium arsenite through drinking water contaminated with 50 mg/L arsenic for 4 weeks and treated intraperitoneally with saline solution, 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w), 400 mg/kg b.w, or 800 mg/kg b.w GSH, respectively, at the 4th week. Levels of iAs, monomethylarsenic acid, and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAs) in the liver, blood, and brain were determined by method of hydride generation coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and contents of NO in the brain were determined by colorimetric method. Compared with mice exposed to arsenite alone, administration of GSH increased dose-dependently the primary and secondary methylation ratio in the liver, which caused the decrease in percent iAs and increase in percent DMAs in the liver, as a consequence, resulted in significant decrease in iAs levels in the blood and total arsenic levels in both blood and brain. NOS activities and NO levels in the brain of mice in iAs group were significantly lower than those in control; however, administration of GSH could increase significantly activities of NOS and contents of NO. Findings from this study suggested that exogenous GSH could promote both primary and secondary arsenic methylation capacity in the liver, which might facilitate excretion of arsenicals, and consequently reduce arsenic burden in both blood and brain and furthermore ameliorate the effects of arsenicals on NO metabolism in the brain.

  5. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  6. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  7. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  8. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  9. Liquid--liquid extraction of gold with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate) and its application to activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-10-01

    The extraction of Au/sup 3 +/ with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate), Ni((C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/NCS/sub 2/)/sub 2/, is investigated. It is shown that this extraction offers a simple, fast, and selective isolation of Au from a variety of matrices. Applications of this separation scheme to the neutron activation analysis of Sn, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, standard rocks, and biological materials are given. The recovery of Au is quantitative, and there is therefore no need to determine the chemical yield of the separation. The recovered Au is of high radiochemical purity.

  10. Bacteria, hypertolerant to arsenic in the rocks of an ancient gold mine, and their potential role in dissemination of arsenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Styczek, Aleksandra; Majder-Lopatka, Malgorzata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out if bacteria present in ancient gold mine could transform immobilized arsenic into its mobile form and increase its dissemination in the environment. Twenty-two arsenic-hypertolerant cultivable bacterial strains were isolated. No chemolithoautotrophs, which could use arsenite as an electron donor as well as arsenate as an electron acceptor, were identified. Five isolates exhibited hypertolerance to arsenic: up to 500mM of arsenate. A correlation between the presence of siderophores and high resistance to arsenic was found. The results of this study show that detoxification processes based on arsenate reductase activity might be significant in dissemination of arsenic pollution. It was concluded that the activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria contributes to the mobilization of arsenic in the more toxic As(III) form and a new mechanism of arsenic mobilization from a scorodite was proposed.

  11. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  12. Structural Basis of Low-Affinity Nickel Binding to the Nickel-Responsive Transcription Factor NikR from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.; Schreiter, E.; Stultz, C.; Drennan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli NikR regulates cellular nickel uptake by binding to the nik operon in the presence of nickel and blocking transcription of genes encoding the nickel uptake transporter. NikR has two binding affinities for the nik operon: a nanomolar dissociation constant with stoichiometric nickel and a picomolar dissociation constant with excess nickel (Bloom, S. L., and Zamble, D. B. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 10029-10038; Chivers, P. T., and Sauer, R. T. (2002) Chem. Biol. 9, 1141-1148). While it is known that the stoichiometric nickel ions bind at the NikR tetrameric interface (Schreiter, E. R., et al. (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 794-799; Schreiter, E. R., et al. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 13676-13681), the binding sites for excess nickel ions have not been fully described. Here we have determined the crystal structure of NikR in the presence of excess nickel to 2.6 (angstrom) resolution and have obtained nickel anomalous data (1.4845 (angstrom)) in the presence of excess nickel for both NikR alone and NikR cocrystallized with a 30-nucleotide piece of double-stranded DNA containing the nik operon. These anomalous data show that excess nickel ions do not bind to a single location on NikR but instead reveal a total of 22 possible low-affinity nickel sites on the NikR tetramer. These sites, for which there are six different types, are all on the surface of NikR, and most are found in both the NikR alone and NikR-DNA structures. Using a combination of crystallographic data and molecular dynamics simulations, the nickel sites can be described as preferring octahedral geometry, utilizing one to three protein ligands (typically histidine) and at least two water molecules.

  13. Study on the influences of reduction temperature on nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anode using nickel oxide-film electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenjun; Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the reduction processes of nickel oxide at different temperatures were investigated using nickel-film anode to study the influences of reduction temperature on the initial performances and stability of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia anode. Compared to conventional nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia composite cermet anode, nickel-film anode has the advantage of direct observation at nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface. The microstructural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The reduction process of nickel oxide is considered to be determined by the competition between the mechanisms of volume reduction in nickel oxide-nickel reaction and nickel sintering. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to analyze the time variation of the nickel-film anode electrochemical characteristics. The anode performances and microstructural changes before and after 100 hours discharging and open circuit operations were analyzed. The degradation of nickel-film anode is considered to be determined by the co-effect between the nickel sintering and the change of nickel-yttria-stabilized zirconia interface bonding condition.

  14. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  15. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  16. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  17. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  18. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  19. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2014-01-01

    -lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. OBJECTIVE: To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. METHODS: Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation...... was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. RESULTS: Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization...... of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. CONCLUSION: This new model for nickel allergy that reflects...

  20. Comparative investigations of sodium arsenite, arsenic trioxide and cadmium sulphate in combination with gamma-radiation on apoptosis, micronuclei induction and DNA damage in a human lymphoblastoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, Sabine; Gomolka, Maria; Walsh, Linda; Jung, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In the field of radiation protection the combined exposure to radiation and other toxic agents is recognised as an important research area. To elucidate the basic mechanisms of simultaneous exposure, the interaction of the carcinogens and environmental toxicants cadmium and two arsenic compounds, arsenite and arsenic trioxide, in combination with gamma-radiation in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) were investigated. Gamma-radiation induced significant genotoxic effects such as micronuclei formation, DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas arsenic and cadmium had no significant effect on these indicators of cellular damage at non-toxic concentrations. However, in combination with gamma-radiation arsenic trioxide induced a more than additive apoptotic rate compared to the sum of the single effects. Here, the level of apoptotic cells was increased, in a dose-dependent way, up to two-fold compared to the irradiated control cells. Arsenite did not induce a significant additive effect at any of the concentrations or radiation doses tested. On the other hand, arsenic trioxide was less effective than arsenite in the induction of DNA protein cross-links. These data indicate that the two arsenic compounds interact through different pathways in the cell. Cadmium sulphate, like arsenite, had no significant effect on apoptosis in combination with gamma-radiation at low concentrations and, at high concentrations, even reduced the radiation-induced apoptosis. An additive effect on micronuclei induction was observed with 1 μM cadmium sulphate with an increase of up to 80% compared to the irradiated control cells. Toxic concentrations of cadmium and arsenic trioxide seemed to reduce micronuclei induction. The results presented here indicate that relatively low concentrations of arsenic and cadmium, close to those occurring in nature, may interfere with radiation effects. Differences in action of the two arsenic compounds were identified

  1. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Teh-Long; Lai, Yuan-Lung; Yu, Jen-Wei; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  2. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Teh-Long [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yuan-Lung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jen-Wei [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chen-Bin, E-mail: chenbin@ccit.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  3. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  4. Electron transfer behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes electro-decorated with nickel and nickel oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-08-01

    The electron transfer behaviour of nickel film-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-Ni) at edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes (EPPGEs) was investigated. The impact of SWCNTs on the redox properties of the nickel film was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From EIS data, obtained using ferrocyanide/ferricyanide as a redox probe, we show that the electrodes based on nickel and nickel oxide films follow electrical equivalent circuit models typical of partial charge transfer or adsorption-controlled kinetics, resembling the 'electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensors (EIS)'. From the models, we prove that EPPGE-SWCNT-Ni exhibits the least resistance to charge transport compared to other electrodes (approximately 30 times faster than the EPPGE-SWCNT-NiO, 25 times faster than EPPGE-SWCNT, and over 300 times faster than the bare EPPGE) suggesting the ability of the SWCNTs to act as efficient conducting species that facilitate electron transport of the integrated nickel and nickel oxide particles. (author)

  5. A Review of Thiosulfate Leaching of Gold: Focus on Thiosulfate Consumption and Gold Recovery from Pregnant Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiosulfate leaching is a promising alternative to cyanidation, and the main hindrances for its wide commercial application are the high thiosulfate consumption and the difficult recovery of dissolved gold. In this review, the four solutions to reduce the consumption of thiosulfate, including the control of reaction conditions, the use of additives, the generation of thiosulfate in situ, and the replacement of traditional cupric-ammonia catalysis, are introduced and evaluated after the presentation of background knowledge about thiosulfate consumption. The replacement of cupric-ammonia catalysis with other metals, such as nickel- and cobalt-based catalysts, is proposed. The reason is that it not only reduces thiosulfate consumption observably via decreasing the redox potential of leach solution significantly but also is beneficial to gold recovery mainly owing to eliminating the interference of cuprous thiosulfate [Cu(S2O33]5−. Based on the comparative analysis for five common recovery techniques of rare-noble metals from pregnant leach solution, ion-exchange resin adsorption is considered to be the most appropriate to recover aurothiosulfate [Au(S2O32]3− because the resin can be employed in the form of resin-in-leach/pulp and, furthermore, is able to be eluted and regenerated simultaneously at ambient temperature. At last, how to reduce the process cost of the resin adsorption technique is discussed. In order to simplify the complex two-stage elution process for loaded resins, the traditional catalysis is suggested to be replaced.

  6. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  7. Controlled synthesis of size-tunable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajeet; Saxena, Amit; Shankar, Ravi; Mozumdar, Subho; De, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Industrial demands have generated a growing need to synthesize pure metal and metal–oxide nanoparticles of a desired size. We report a novel and convenient method for the synthesis of spherical, size tunable, well dispersed, stable nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles by reduction of nickel nitrate at room temperature in a TX-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water system by a reverse microemulsion route. We determined that reduction with alkaline sodium borohydrate in nitrogen atmosphere leads to the formation of nickel nanoparticles, while the use of hydrazine hydrate in aerobic conditions leads to the formation of nickel oxide nanoparticles. The influence of several reaction parameters on the size of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles were evaluated in detail. It was found that the size can be easily controlled either by changing the molar ratio of water to surfactant or by simply altering the concentration of the reducing agent. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction analysis (EDA) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that synthesized nanoparticles are of high purity and have an average size distribution of 5–100 nm. The nanoparticles prepared by our simple methodology have been successfully used for catalyzing various chemical reactions. (paper)

  8. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  9. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  10. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Shiping; Sun, I.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more positive potential making the electrodeposition of nickel possible. The electrodeposition of nickel, however, requires an overpotential driven nucleation process. Dense and compact nickel deposits with good adherence could be prepared by controlling the deposition potential. X-ray powder diffraction measurements indicated the presence of crystalline nickel deposits. Non-anomalous electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloys was achieved through the underpotential deposition of zinc on the deposited nickel at a potential more negative than that of the deposition of nickel. X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry measurements of the electrodeposits indicated that the composition and the phase types of the nickel-zinc alloys are dependent on the deposition potential. For the Ni-Zn alloy deposits prepared by underpotential deposition of Zn on Ni, the Zn content in the Ni-Zn was always less than 50 atom%

  11. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  12. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  13. Nickel Nanowire@Porous NiCo2O4 Nanorods Arrays Grown on Nickel Foam as Efficient Pseudocapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhao Wan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional hierarchical nanostructure composed of nickel nanowires and porous NiCo2O4 nanorods arrays on the surface of nickel foam is successfully fabricated by a facile route. In this structure, the nickel nanowires are used as core materials to support high-pseudocapacitance NiCo2O4 nanorods and construct the well-defined NiCo2O4 nanorods shell/nickel nanowires core hierarchical structure on nickel foam. Benefiting from the participation of nickel nanowires, the nickel nanowire@NiCo2O4/Ni foam electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance (7.4 F cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2, excellent rate capability (88.04% retained at 100 mA cm−2, and good cycling stability (74.08% retained after 1,500 cycles. The superior electrochemical properties made it promising as electrode for supercapacitors.

  14. Analytical approaches for the characterization of nickel proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Szpunar, Joanna

    2017-08-16

    The use of nickel in modern industry and in consumer products implies some health problems for the human being. Nickel allergy and nickel carcinogenicity are well-known health effects related to human exposure to nickel, either during production of nickel-containing products or by direct contact with the final item. In this context, the study of nickel toxicity and nickel carcinogenicity involves the understanding of their molecular mechanisms and hence the characterization of the nickel-binding proteins in different biological samples. During the last 50 years, a broad range of analytical techniques, covering from the first chromatographic columns to the last generation mass spectrometers, have been used in order to fully characterize the nickel proteome. The aim of this review is to present a critical view of the different analytical approaches that have been applied for the purification, isolation, detection and identification of nickel-binding proteins. The different analytical techniques used are discussed from a critical point of view, highlighting advantages and limitations.

  15. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  16. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  17. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  18. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  19. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  20. Producing bio-filter for absorbing and separating stable nickel and feasibility study to separate radioactive nickel by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Rabbani, M.; Naseri, Y.; Sadeghi, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this research work, bio absorption of nickel has been investigated by new 16 various bacterial strains isolated from Ramsar warm springs. As the obtained results show a strain of gram negative cocobacilluse bacteria is highly capable to take up nickel in optimum pH about 6. The effect of nickel solution concentrations in 20-200 ppm have been studied. Uptake capacity of bacterial biomass regarding to concentrations below 150 ppm is most highly and nearly constant, but it will be decreased over 150 ppm, and in 200 ppm absorption of nickel reaches to near zero. No nickel was taken up by bacterial biomass. Further studies showed that after 60 minutes of contact time, Nickel uptake reaches maximum by 53%. Considering the uptake mechanism revealed that bio sorption was very limited and the uptake mainly occurs through a accumulation dependent on metabolic activities. Also the results show that the presence of the other cations such as Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ is ineffective to biological uptake of nickel. Nickel taken up by biomass can be easily recovered by HNO 3 with the concentration of 0.1 M

  1. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  2. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  3. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  4. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  5. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  6. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  7. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  8. Highly efficient absorption of visible and near infrared light in convex gold and nickel grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Beermann, Jonas; Søndergaard, Thomas

    The realization of nonresonant light absorption with nanostructured metal surfaces by making practical use of nanofocusing optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides, is of one of the most fascinating and fundamental phenomena in plasmonics [1,2]. We recently realized broadband light absorption...... in gold via adiabatic nanofocusing of gap surface plasmon modes in well-defined geometries of ultra-sharp convex grooves and being excited by scattering off subwavelength-sized wedges [3]....

  9. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  10. The GENIALL process for generation of nickel-iron alloys from nickel ores or mattes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, G.; Frias, C.; Palma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new process, called GENIALL (acronym of Generation of Nickel Alloys), for nickel recovery as ferronickel alloys from ores or mattes without previous smelting is presented in this paper. Its core technology is a new electrolytic concept, the ROSEL cell, for electrowinning of nickel-iron alloys from concentrated chloride solutions. In the GENIALL Process the substitution of iron-based solid wastes as jarosite, goethite or hematite, by saleable ferronickel plates provides both economic and environmental attractiveness. Another advantage is that no associated sulfuric acid plant is required. The process starts with leaching of the raw material (ores or mattes) with a solution of ferric chloride. The leachate liquor is purified by conventional methods like cementation or solvent extraction, to remove impurities or separate by-products like copper and cobalt. The purified solution, that contains a mixture of ferrous and nickel chlorides is fed to the cathodic compartment of the electrowinning cell, where nickel and ferrous ions are reduced together to form an alloy. Simultaneously, ferrous chloride is oxidized to ferric chloride in the anodic compartment, from where it is recycled to the leaching stage. The new electrolytic equipment has been developed and scaled up from laboratory to pilot prototypes with commercial size electrodes of 1 m 2 . Process operating conditions have been established in continuous runs at bench and pilot plant scale. The technology has shown a remarkable capacity to produce nickel-iron alloys of a wide range of compositions, from 10% to 80% nickel, just by adjusting the operating parameters. This emerging technology could be implemented in many processes in which iron and other non-ferrous metals are harmful impurities to be removed, or valuable metals to be recovered as a marketable iron alloy. Other potential applications of this technology are regeneration of spent etching liquors, and iron removal from aqueous effluents. (author)

  11. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  12. Mechanical properties of ProTaper Gold nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaghy, A M; Elsaka, S E

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the resistance to cyclic fatigue and torsional stress, flexibility and surface microhardness of ProTaper Gold (PTG; Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK, USA) system with ProTaper Universal (PTU; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). PTG and PTU instruments were rotated in simulated canals and the number of cycles to failure was recorded to assess their cyclic fatigue resistance. Torsional strength was measured using a torsiometer after fixing firmly the apical 3 mm of the instrument. A scanning electron microscope was used to characterize the topographic features of the fracture surfaces of the broken instruments. The instruments were tested for bending resistance using cantilever-bending test. Vickers microhardness was measured on the cross section of instruments with 300 g load and 15 s dwell time. Data were analysed statistically using independent t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P hand, PTU instruments were associated with higher resistance to torsional stress and microhardness than PTG instruments (P < 0.001). After torsional tests, the fractured cross-sectional surfaces revealed skewed dimples near the centre of the fracture surfaces and circular abrasion streaks. The PTG instrument had improved resistance to cyclic fatigue and flexibility compared with PTU. PTU instruments had improved resistance to torsional stress and microhardness compared with PTG. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Study of sorption of platinum metals, gold and silver by phosphonium hydroxide antonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaybergenov, U.; Tajibaev, D.; Yuldasheva, K.T.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study and to use a phosphonium hydroxide anionite for concentrating of trace amounts of platinum metals, gold and silver from the mixed solutions composed of copper, nickel, cobalt, iron and zinc. The experiments were done using radionuclides of determined and interfered elements. Conditions for sorption concentrating of the noble metals by phosphonium hydroxide were determined by the selectivity of the phosphonium hydroxide to the noble metals from acid solutions. A noble metal sorption degree was observed from the experiments to be rather high at the acid concentration level of 0.1-0.5 M. At higher than 0.5 M acid concentration sorption activity decreased. With increase of chlorine acid-concentration sorption of palladium was observed to considerably decrease, while iridium sorption was increased. The latter fact can be caused by lowering of hydration of iridium ions. A considerable decrease of capability of the noble metal sorption from nitric acid solutions was observed. It is possible that HNO 3 anions are strongly bound with the anionite functional group. Thus, nitric acid reduces sorption of the noble metals in the following order: Ir>Ru>Pd>Pt>Os, and it does not have effect on the sorption activity of Au and Ag. Increase of H 2 SO 4 concentration in the solution has slightly reduced noble metal sorption activity. Copper, nickel, iron and other metals accompanying the noble metals, at concentration ratio of 1:1000 have resulted in decrease of sorption activity of the noble metals, although sorption of iridium was increased in the presence of copper, silver and nickel. We suggest that copper, silver and nickel have formed the complex functional compounds, which can probably undergo an anion exchange

  14. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  15. EQCM Study of Influence of Anion Nature on Electrochemical Reduction of Bismuth Sulfide in Nickel Plating Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta TAMAŠAUSKAITĖ-TAMAŠIŪNAITĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of anion nature on the reduction of bismuth sulfide film deposited on gold using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method in solutions containing Ni2+ ions has been investigated by electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been determined that the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the nickel plating solution depends on the anion nature: larger cathodic current and mass changes (Dƒ are observed in the solution containing acetate anion as compared to those in the solution containing sulfate anion. As the reduction of bismuth sulfide film in the background solutions depends on the nature of anion, it influences the cathodic reduction of Ni2+ ions prior to OPD of Ni. A greater current and mass change (Dƒ is conditioned by simultaneously occurring reduction of bismuth sulfide film when the film is reduced in the acetate nickel plating electrolyte in contrast to that in the sulfate one.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.244

  16. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  17. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: jhersh@anl.gov; Ajayi, O.O. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fenske, G.R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing.

  18. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing

  19. Development of nickel-hydrogen battery for electric vehicle; Denki jidoshayo nickel-suiso denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research and development of battery, a main part of electric vehicle, have been promoted. Various batteries, such as lead battery, nickel-cadmium battery, nickel-hydrogen battery, lithium ion battery and so on, have been investigated for electric vehicles. Among these, nickel-hydrogen battery is superior to the others from the points of energy density, lifetime, low-temperature properties, and safety. It is one of the most prospective batteries for electric vehicle. Research and development of the nickel-hydrogen battery with higher energy density and longer lifetime have been promoted for the practical application by Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. This article shows main performance of the developed nickel-hydrogen battery for electric vehicle. The nominal voltage is 12 V, the rated capacity is 125 Ah, the outside dimension is L302{times}W170{times}H245 mm, the weight is 25.5 kg, the energy density is 60 Wh/kg, the output density is 180 W/kg, and the available environment temperature is between -20 and 60 {degree}C. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Evaluation of the Cyclic Fatigue of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue using Different Irrigating Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif alislam Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the resistance to cyclic fatigue of reciprocating nickel-titanium (NiTi files (Wave One Gold and Reciproc Blue and assess the effect of glyde and sodium hypochlorite 5.25% as a gel and liquid on it during testing. A total of 80 new WaveOne Gold primary and Reciproc Blue R25 were tested. The 40 files of the same brand were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8 and submitted to the irrigating protocol as follows: Group 1: Testing without irrigating media, Group 2: Testing with glyde, Group 3: Testing with sodium hypochlorite 5.25% gel, Group 4: Testing with sodium hypochlorite 5.25% liquid, Group 5: testing with normal saline (control. The cyclic fatigue test was performed using the appropriate preset reciprocating mode (‘RECIPROC ALL’ or ‘WAVEONE ALL’ in a specially designed endodontic motor. Resistance to fracture was determined by recording the time. The instrument tested in stainless artificial canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm radius of curvature. Resistance to cyclic fatigue of the same NiTi was affected by irrigating media. Reciproc Blue R25 was associated with a higher cyclic fatigue resistance in all groups compared to WaveOne Gold Primary. The study concluded that glyde, sodium hypochlorite 5.25% as a gel and as a liquid may reduce the resistance to cyclic fatigue of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue significantly. However, the type of reciprocating instrument influenced cyclic fatigue resistance with Reciproc Blue R25 being more resistant than WaveOne Gold Primary.

  1. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  2. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  3. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  4. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  5. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  6. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  7. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued before January 30, 1934, are exchangeable, as provided...

  8. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  9. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  10. Systemic nickel hypersensitivity and diet: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutelli, S

    2011-02-01

    Nickel is a very common metal contained in many everyday objects and is the leading cause of ACD (Allergic Contact Dermatitis). Nickel is present in most of the constituents of a normal diet, but some food groups are usually considered to be richer. However, the nickel content of specific food can vary widely, depending on many factors. Thus, the daily intake of nickel is also highly variable both among different populations and in a single individual, in different seasons and even in different days. Measuring precisely the daily intake of nickel from food and drinks is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The relationship between ACD and contact with nickel is undisputed and widely confirmed in literature. The situation is different for systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS can have cutaneous signs and symptoms (Systemic Contact Dermatitis or SCD) or extracutaneous signs and symptoms (gastrointestinal, respiratory, neurological, etc.).The occurrence of SCD as a systemic reaction to the nickel normally assumed in the daily diet is very controversial. A rigorous demonstration of the relationship between SCD and nickel is extremely difficult. In particular, further and larger studies are needed to assess the reality and the prevalence of nickel urticaria. With respect to nickel-related gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, recurring cold sores and recurrent infections in general, the data available in literature are not conclusive and the studies lack the support of clear, first-hand evidence. With respect to respiratory disorders, the role of food nickel and the effectiveness of a dietary treatment have been assumed but not proven. In fact, the usefullness of a therapeutic low-nickel diet is controversial: rare, if not exceptional, and limited to very sporadic cases of SCD. Additionally, the quantitative and qualitative composition of a low-nickel diet presents few certainties and many uncertainties

  11. Reliability Tests of Aluminium Wedge Wire Bonding on Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB Metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Drozd, A; Kaufmann, S; Manolescu, F; McGill, I

    2011-01-01

    The Auto-catalytic Silver Immersion Gold (ASIG) PCB metallization is a new process that has clear advantages for PCB assembly especially with regard to lead-free soldering. As it may become a popular process in the future for electronics used in physics experiments, the quality of this metallization for aluminium wire bonding has been studied. Aluminium wedge wire bonding continues to be the interconnection method of choice for many physics detector sensors, for high density signal routing and for unpackaged die. Although advertised as having good quality for aluminium wire bonding, this study was performed to verify this claim as well as to test the longer term reliability of the wire bonds taking into consideration the environmental conditions and life-expectancy of devices, in particular for high energy physics detector applications. The tests were performed on PCBs made with the ASIG and ENIG (Electro-less Nickel Immersion Gold) processes at the same time in order to make a comparison with the current ind...

  12. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  13. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  14. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  15. Nickel Nanowire@Porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} Nanorods Arrays Grown on Nickel Foam as Efficient Pseudocapacitor Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Houzhao; Li, Lang; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Hao, E-mail: nanoguy@126.com [Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro & Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Hubei University, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-13

    A three dimensional hierarchical nanostructure composed of nickel nanowires and porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods arrays on the surface of nickel foam is successfully fabricated by a facile route. In this structure, the nickel nanowires are used as core materials to support high-pseudocapacitance NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods and construct the well-defined NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods shell/nickel nanowires core hierarchical structure on nickel foam. Benefiting from the participation of nickel nanowires, the nickel nanowire@NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Ni foam electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance (7.4 F cm{sup −2} at 5 mA cm{sup −2}), excellent rate capability (88.04% retained at 100 mA cm{sup −2}), and good cycling stability (74.08% retained after 1,500 cycles). The superior electrochemical properties made it promising as electrode for supercapacitors.

  16. Chronic low-level arsenite exposure through drinking water increases blood pressure and promotes concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Soria, Pablo; Broka, Derrick; Monks, Sarah L; Camenisch, Todd D

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. High incidence of cardiovascular diseases has been linked to populations with elevated arsenic content in their drinking water. Although this correlation has been established in many epidemiological studies, a lack of experimental models to study mechanisms of arsenic-related cardiovascular pathogenesis has limited our understanding of how arsenic exposure predisposes for development of hypertension and increased cardiovascular mortality. Our studies show that mice chronically exposed to drinking water containing 100 parts per billion (ppb) sodium arsenite for 22 weeks show an increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Echocardiographic analyses as well as histological assessment show concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, a primary cardiac manifestation of chronic hypertension. Live imaging by echocardiography shows a 43% increase in left ventricular mass in arsenic-treated animals. Relative wall thickness (RWT) was calculated showing that all the arsenic-exposed animals show an RWT greater than 0.45, indicating concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, left ventricular hypertrophy, although often associated with chronic hypertension, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular-related mortalities. These results suggest that chronic low-level arsenite exposure promotes the development of hypertension and the comorbidity of concentric hypertrophy.

  17. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  18. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  19. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  20. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  1. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  2. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  3. Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Bio-precipitation from Gold(III) Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Tehuacanero, S.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal nanoparticles has shown to be very important in recent industrial applications. Currently gold nanoparticles are being produced by physical methods such as evaporation. Biological processes may be an alternative to physical methods for the production of gold nanoparticles. Alfalfa biomass has shown to be effective at passively binding and reducing gold from solutions containing gold(III) ions and resulting in the formation of gold(0) nanoparticles. High resolution microscopy has shown that five different types of gold particles are present after reaction with gold(III) ions with alfalfa biomass. These particles include: fcc tetrahedral, hexagonal platelet, icosahedral multiple twinned, decahedral multiple twinned, and irregular shaped particles. Further analysis on the frequency of distribution has shown that icosahedral and irregular particles are more frequently formed. In addition, the larger particles observed may be formed through the coalescence of smaller particles. Through modification of the chemical parameters, more uniform particle size distribution may be obtained by the alfalfa bio-reduction of gold(III) from solution

  4. COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (IAS) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (ASV) AND ARSENITE (ASIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMPARATIVE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND URINARY EXCRETION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC (iAs) AND ITS METHYLATED METABOLITES IN MICE FOLLOWING ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE (AsV) AND ARSENITE (AsIII). E M Kenyon, L M Del Razo and M F Hughes. U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; ...

  5. Magnetoelectric Effect in Gallium Arsenide-Nickel-Tin-Nickel Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Tikhonov, A. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Firsova, T. O.; Manicheva, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data have been presented for the magnetoelectric effect in nickel-tin-nickel multilayer structures grown on a GaAs substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The method of fabricating these structures has been described, and the frequency dependence of the effect has been demonstrated. It has been shown that tin used as an intermediate layer reduces mechanical stresses due to the phase mismatch at the Ni-GaAs interface and, thus, makes it possible to grow good structures with a 70-μm-thick Ni layer. The grown structures offer good adhesion between layers and a high Q factor.

  6. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  7. Dose-response testing with nickel sulphate using the TRUE test in nickel-sensitive individuals. Multiple nickel sulphate patch-test reactions do not cause an 'angry back'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lidén, C; Hansen, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ the TRUE test assay to confirm the presence or absence of the 'angry back' phenomenon, i.e. that a strong positive patch-test reaction heightens adjacent patch-test response. In addition, we wished to establish the dose-response relationship for nickel sulphate...... back' phenomenon was not apparent in this study, as the spill-over effect was not statistically significant. Strong reactions to high concentrations of nickel sulphate did not enhance the response to adjacent lower concentrations of nickel sulphate....

  8. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite ...

  9. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  10. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  11. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  12. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  13. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    . The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  14. Sintering of nickel catalysts. Effects of time, atmosphere, temperature, nickel-carrier interactions, and dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehested, Jens; Gelten, Johannes A.P.; Helveg, Stig [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-01

    Supported nickel catalysts are widely used in the steam-reforming process for industrial scale production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. This paper provides a study of sintering in nickel-based catalysts (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Specifically the influence of time, temperature, atmosphere, nickel-carrier interactions and dopants on the rate of sintering is considered. To probe the sintering kinetics, all catalysts were analyzed by sulfur chemisorption to determine the Ni surface area. Furthermore selected samples were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury porosimetry, BET area measurements, and electron microscopy (EM). The observed sintering rates as a function of time, temperature, and P{sub H{sub 2}O}/P{sub H{sub 2}} ratio were consistent with recent model predictions [J. Sehested, J.A.P. Gelten, I.N. Remediakis, H. Bengaard, J.K. Norskov, J. Catal. 223 (2004) 432] over a broad range of environmental conditions. However, exposing the catalysts to severe sintering conditions the loss of nickel surface area is faster than model predictions and the deviation is attributed to a change in the sintering mechanism and nickel removal by nickel-carrier interactions. Surprisingly, alumina-supported Ni particles grow to sizes larger than the particle size of the carrier indicating that the pore diameter does not represent an upper limit for Ni particle growth. The effects of potassium promotion and sulfur poisoning on the rates of sintering were also investigated. No significant effects of the dopants were observed after ageing at ambient pressure. However, at high pressures of steam and hydrogen (31bar and H{sub 2}O:H{sub 2}=10:1) potassium promotion increased the sintering rate relative to that of the unpromoted catalyst. Sulfur also enhances the rate of sintering at high pressures, but the effect of sulfur is less than for potassium. (author)

  15. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  16. Occupational exposure to nickel, uranium and thorium in a nickel mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, A.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Dias da Cunha, K.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Miekeley, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    The workers involved in mining and milling ores are exposed in the workplace to many hazardous agents that can cause a health detriment. In this work, the measurements obtained in a nickel mineral processing facility in the Brazilian Central-West are presented. One of the most important hazardous agents in this facility is the aerosol present in the air that contains nickel, uranium and thorium. The aerosol is inhaled or ingested, metabolised and deposited in the whole body or in specific organs. The surveillance of internal contamination of workers was performed by analysis of urine, fecal and hair samples. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) method was used to analytically determine nickel, uranium and thorium in these biological samples. Additional data were obtained by the collection of air samples in the workplace. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted in each stage of the cascade impactor were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission), which permits the determination of elemental mass air concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter). The concentrations of nickel, uranium and thorium were determined in the aerosol samples. All the results were analysed using statistical methods and biokinetical modelling was applied to evaluate the internal contamination and to make a risk estimation. (author)

  17. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  18. Characterization of the arsenite oxidizer Aliihoeflea sp. strain 2WW and its potential application in the removal of arsenic from groundwater in combination with Pf-ferritin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsini, A.; Colombo, M.; Muyzer, G.; Cavalca, L.

    2015-01-01

    A heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium, strain 2WW, was isolated from a biofilter treating arsenic-rich groundwater. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that it was closely related (98.7 %) to the alphaproteobacterium Aliihoeflea aesturari strain N8T. However, it was

  19. A novel electrochemical platform based on carbon nanofibers and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, nickel and cobalt for the quantification of ethyl paraben

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    A composite of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, cobalt and nickel were used for the preparation of a novel voltammetric platform. The proposed voltammetric platform was utilized for quantifying ethyl paraben (EPB) in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The electrode layers were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrode system, (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE, exhibited high catalytic activity and enhanced the electrochemical behaviour of EPB compared with several other electrodes. The proposed composite layer based electrode produced a well-defined oxidation peak at 0.760 V. The determination of EPB was carried out by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The electrode produced a linear plot with a concentration range from 1.0 × 10 −9 to 1.0 × 10 −7 M at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite material enabled a detection limit of 3.5 × 10 −10 M for EPB. Good reproducibility, high precision and excellent accuracy for EPB were obtained at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite layer based platform was successfully applied for the quantification of EPB in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The sensitive quantification of EPB is of great importance for the public health care. Furthermore, data show that EPB binds to DNA via intercalation with a binding constant of 2.51 (± 0.40) × 10 4 . - Highlights: • CNFs and (Au-Ni-Co) nanoparticles were used to prepare a novel platform. • (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE has improved the voltammetric behaviour of EPB. • The voltammetric platform yielded a detection limit of 0.35 nM for EPB. • The platform was successfully applied to cosmetic and pharmaceutical samples. EPB could bind to DNA via intercalation.

  20. A novel electrochemical platform based on carbon nanofibers and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, nickel and cobalt for the quantification of ethyl paraben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay, E-mail: a.kutluay@harran.edu.tr [Department of Medical Laboratory, Vocational School of Health Services, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey)

    2017-03-01

    A composite of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and tri-metallic nanoparticles of gold, cobalt and nickel were used for the preparation of a novel voltammetric platform. The proposed voltammetric platform was utilized for quantifying ethyl paraben (EPB) in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The electrode layers were characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrode system, (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE, exhibited high catalytic activity and enhanced the electrochemical behaviour of EPB compared with several other electrodes. The proposed composite layer based electrode produced a well-defined oxidation peak at 0.760 V. The determination of EPB was carried out by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The electrode produced a linear plot with a concentration range from 1.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite material enabled a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −10} M for EPB. Good reproducibility, high precision and excellent accuracy for EPB were obtained at (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE. The composite layer based platform was successfully applied for the quantification of EPB in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The sensitive quantification of EPB is of great importance for the public health care. Furthermore, data show that EPB binds to DNA via intercalation with a binding constant of 2.51 (± 0.40) × 10{sup 4}. - Highlights: • CNFs and (Au-Ni-Co) nanoparticles were used to prepare a novel platform. • (Au-Ni-Co)NPs-CNFs/GCE has improved the voltammetric behaviour of EPB. • The voltammetric platform yielded a detection limit of 0.35 nM for EPB. • The platform was successfully applied to cosmetic and pharmaceutical samples. EPB could bind to DNA via intercalation.

  1. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  2. Use of radioactive tracers in chemical reactions. the displacement of zinc-nickel complexes with quantitative determination of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzilli, B.; Saiki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper presents a method for the determination of small quantities of nickel radioactive tracers. An analytical application of the displacement reaction between nickel and zinc ethylenediaminetetraacetate labeled with zinc-65 is pursued. This method is based on the extraction of radioactive zinc displaced by nickel from the zinc chelate into a dithizone-carbon tetrachloride solution and the subsequent measurement of the activity of an aliquot of the extract. The method is very sensitive and nickel can be measured in concentrations as small as 0.1 μg/ml or even less, depending on the specific activity of the radioreagent used. The precision and the accuracy of the method are determined. The problem of interferences is also investigated and an attempt is made in order to eliminate them by using masking agents or by means of a previous separation between nickel and other interfering metals. (Author) [pt

  3. Nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Divya Ratan; Khan, Muhammad F; Tandar, Anwar; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Neuharth, Renée; Patel, Amit N; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Badger, Rodney S

    2015-02-01

    We sought to compare nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices in vitro. There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved devices for percutaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect: the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO; St Jude Medical Corporation) and Gore Helex septal occluder (HSO; W.L. Gore & Associates). The new Gore septal occluder (GSO) device is in clinical trials. These are also used off-label for patent foramen ovale closure in highly selected patients. These devices have high nickel content. Nickel allergy is the most common reason for surgical device explantation. Nickel elution properties of contemporary devices remain unknown. We compared nickel elution properties of 4 devices - ASO, GSO, HSO, and sternal wire (SW) - while Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) served as control. Three samples of each device were submerged in DPBS. Nickel content was measured at 14 intervals over 90 days. Nickel elution at 24 hours, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L), was significantly higher for ASO (2.98 ± 1.65 mg/L; P=.04) and SW (0.03 ± 0.014 mg/L; P=.03). Nickel levels at 90 days, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L) and adjusting for multiple comparisons, were significantly higher for ASO (19.80 ± 2.30 mg/L; P=.01) and similar for HSO (P=.34), GSO (P=.34), and SW (P=.34). ASO had significantly higher nickel elution compared to HSO, GSO, and SW (P=.01). There is substantial variability in nickel elution; devices with less exposed nickel (HSO and GSO) have minimal elution. The safety of low nickel elution devices in patients with nickel allergy needs to be evaluated in prospective trials.

  4. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S; Schneider, T [Centre d` Etude sur l` Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P; Maximilien, R [Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A [Centre Rhone-Alpes d` Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  5. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  6. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  7. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  8. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  9. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  10. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  11. Effect of Ni +-ION bombardment on nickel and binary nickel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roarty, K. B.; Sprague, J. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Smidt, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    Pure nickel and four binary nickel alloys have been subjected to high energy Ni ion bombardment at 675, 625 and 525°C. After irradiation, each specimen was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The pure nickel control was found to swell appreciably (1 to 5%) and the Ni-Al and the Ni-Ti samples were found to swell at all temperatures, but to a lesser degree (0.01 to 0.35%). The Ni-Mo contained a significant density of voids only at 525° C, while swelling was suppressed at all temperatures in the Ni-Si alloy. The dislocation structure progressed from loops to tangles as temperature increased in all materials except the Ni-Ti, in which there was an absence of loops at all temperatures. Dislocation densities decreased as temperature increased in all samples. These results do not correlate well with the relative behavior of the same alloys observed after neutron irradiation at 455°C. The differences between these two sets of data appear to be caused by different mechanisms controlling void nucleation in ion and neutron irradiation of these alloys.

  12. Effect of tetraethylthiuramdisulphide and diethyldithiocarbamate on nickel toxicokinetics in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalsgaard, G.; Andersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    A new experimental pharmacokinetic model using the γ-emitting isotope 57 Ni for studying nickel toxicokinetics was employed in a recent investigation in order to quantitatively study, for the first time, the effect of tetraethylthiuram disulphide (disulfiram, Antabuse, TTD) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on whole-body retention and organ distribution of nickel in mice. TTD or its decomposition product DDC given orally by stomach tube shortly after oral administration of a low dose of nickel chloride labelled with 57 Ni resulted in an approximately ten times higher whole-body retention of nickel compared to the retention in a control group exposed to nickel only. These chelators increased the whole-body retention of nickel also when given by intraperitoneal injection shortly after oral or intraperitoneal administration of nickel. Oral administration of a single dose of TTD or DDC rapidly after an oral dose of nickel chloride also resulted in extensive changes in the organ distribution of nickel, thus the nickel content in the brain was at least 700 times higher than in a control group given the same dose of nickel only. If DDC was given intraperitoneally after nickel given orally, the relative organ distribution of nickel to most organs was the same as if the chelator was given orally, though the contents of the liver and lungs were lower. That TTD and DDC resulted in a transport of nickel to the brain, is underlined by the fact that after 20 hr, approximately 15% and after 45-50 hr, 30% of the total body burden of Ni was found in the brain. Stating the nickel content as concentrations, we found after 19 hr to 23 hr the highest nickel concentration in the brain, kidneys, lungs and liver, in order of decreasing concentration. From 68 hr to 122 hr the order was brain, lungs, kidneys and liver. TTD and DDC are widely used clinically. These results indicate, that long-term simultaneous administration of nickel and TTD or DDC to humans should be avoided, as

  13. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1998-07-01

    The EU is planning to drop the threshold value for nickel in drinking water down to 20 {mu}g/l (present German threshold value: 50 {mu}g/l). Since ICP-MS-screenings of spot checks of water cookers were striking with respect to nickel, emissions of electrical water cookers have been investigated systematically within this study. As a result, water cookers with open heating coils are emitting relevant amounts of nickel into the water while it is brought to the boil. Investigation of eight preused water cookers with open heating coils revealed that the boiled water contained more than 50 {mu}g Ni/l in one case, more than 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two cases and, between 10 and 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two more cases, respectively. Removing of the lime by the aid of citric acid is increasing the nickel concentrations by a factor of up to 50 (max. 640 {mu}g/l). A new device was checked in a long-term test. During standard use with tapwater, Ni concentrations fall below the detection limit of 5 {mu}g Ni/l (120 cooking events). However, after removing of the lime, 5 times of cooking were necessary in order to diminish the Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of dionized water Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of deionized water Ni concentrations remained between 94 und 190 {mu}g/l. Health risk assessment: The intake of nickel with beverages made from hot water out of these cookers is in the range of 26 {mu}g/day. Considering an alltogether dietary nickel intake of 130-170 (900) {mu}g/day, this is not beyond the scope. However, according to the fact that nickel allergies (dermatitis) are very frequent (up to 13% of the population), this source should be limited or closed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Anlass der geplanten Absenkung des Trinkwassergrenzwertes fuer Nickel auf 20 {mu}g/l sowie aufgrund von Auffaelligkeiten bei Stichprobenuntersuchungen wurde das Nickel-Emissionsverhalten von elektrischen Wassererhitzern betrachtet. Hierbei erwies sich

  14. Investigation of sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine in the alkaline comet assay: Part of the JaCVAM comet validation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevers, Carol; Henderson, Debbie; Lillford, Lucinda

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined sodium arsenite, thioacetamide, and diethanolamine. Using the JaCVAM approved study protocol version 14.2, each chemical was tested in male rats up to maximum tolerated dose levels and DNA damage in the liver and stomach was assessed approximately 3h after the final administration by gavage. Histopathology assessments of liver and stomach sections from the same animals were also examined for evidence of cytotoxicity or necrosis. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach of animals treated with sodium arsenite at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day. However, equivocal findings were found in the liver, where increases in DNA migration were observed in two independent experiments, but not in all treated animals and not at the same dose levels. Thioacetamide caused an increase in DNA migration in the stomach of rats treated at 19, 38, and 75 mg/kg/day, but not in the liver, despite evidence of marked hepatotoxicity following histopathology assessments. No evidence of DNA damage was observed in the stomach or liver of animals treated with diethanolamine at 175, 350, or 700 mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A. Igual; Anton, J. Garcia; Guin-tilde on, J.L.; Herranz, V. Perez

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO 4 2- , molybdate MoO 4 2- , and tetraborate B 4 O 7 2- ) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  16. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  17. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  18. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  19. Bacteria, hypertolerant to arsenic in the rocks of an ancient gold mine, and their potential role in dissemination of arsenic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Styczek, Aleksandra; Majder-Lopatka, Malgorzata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out if bacteria present in ancient gold mine could transform immobilized arsenic into its mobile form and increase its dissemination in the environment. Twenty-two arsenic-hypertolerant cultivable bacterial strains were isolated. No chemolithoautotrophs, which could use arsenite as an electron donor as well as arsenate as an electron acceptor, were identified. Five isolates exhibited hypertolerance to arsenic: up to 500 mM of arsenate. A correlation between the presence of siderophores and high resistance to arsenic was found. The results of this study show that detoxification processes based on arsenate reductase activity might be significant in dissemination of arsenic pollution. It was concluded that the activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria contributes to the mobilization of arsenic in the more toxic As(III) form and a new mechanism of arsenic mobilization from a scorodite was proposed. - The activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria leads to mobilization of arsenic and in this way contributes to the dissemination of arsenic pollution

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Devaleena; Goswami, Chandrima; Chatterjee, Sumon; Majumder, Arunabha; Mishra, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in surface and groundwater has considerably increased in the last few years. It is essential to have an effective removal mechanism of these toxic metals. Current research includes the need to develop environment friendly and cost effective technologies for removing heavy metals from water. In several studies cadmium and nickel have been considerably removed using phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of cadmium and nickel by Spirodela polyrhiza, common duckweed has been examined in the present study for 3 different concentrations of cadmium (1, 2 and 3 mg/L) and nickel (4, 5 and 6 mg/L). Two sets of experiments for cadmium and nickel were conducted separately. Effect of metal toxicity on Spirodela polyrhiza was evaluated in terms of relative growth factor and cadmium was found to be more toxic than nickel. Under experimental condition BCF value for cadmium removal was more than >1000 in all the 3 concentrations of cadmium. But the BCF value was found to be more than > 1000 only when input nickel concentration was 4 mg/L during phytoremediation process. Experimental results suggest that Spirodela polyrhiza has the potential of accumulating cadmium and nickel from aqueous solution at lower metal concentration. (author)

  1. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  2. Influence du taux d'humidité et de traitements de surface (laser et implantations d'ions) sur la corrosion atmosphérique de matériaux utilisés en connectique (nickel doré)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Simon, D.

    1999-07-01

    The first part of this work is a qualitative and quantitative study of the corrosion of a material, constituted of brass covered with an electrochemical nickel coating (thickness ≈5~μm) and with a gold coating (thickness ≈0.4~μm or ≈1~μm), used in electrical contact applications. Tests of corrosion have been carried out in the humid synthetic air (humidity ratio varying from 15% to 90%) containing low contents of NO2 (0.2 vpm), SO2 (0.2 vpm) and Cl2 (0.01 vpm). The reactivity of the material has been studied as a function of the humidity ratio. The obtained results show that the corrosion products are well localised on the surface. The clusters formed are principally constituted of nitrate, sulphate, chloride and hydroxide of nickel and zinc. The quantity of the products formed, and the ratio of sulphate, increases with the humidity ratio. In return, the ratio Zn/Ni increases in the products formed when the humidity ratio decreases. The compounds formed have been identified by a process developed in our laboratory associating ionic chromatography, microgravimetry, atomic absorption and X rays analysis. These studies have shown that the protection of the nickel by the gold requires a deposit of gold perfectly tight. It seems that, very often, the porosities responsible of these localised corrosion cross the layer of gold and nickel together, leading to the galvanic corrosion of the zinc. The scanning electron microscopy associated with X ray analysis (SEM/EDS) have shown the presence of carbon in these porosities, probably bound to the presence of organic compounds in the electrolytic coating baths. During the galvanic corrosion of nickel and zinc, the carbon is rejected to the periphery of the germs. The amount of carbon has been determined by Van De Graaff analysis. In the second part of this work, some treatments of the material by high energy beams (laser or ion implantation (titanium or titanium and nitrogen or helium)) have been realised in order to

  3. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  4. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  5. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  6. Role of glutathione in tolerance to arsenite in Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinan Alves da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In many plant species, tolerance to toxic metals is highly dependent on glutathione, an essential metabolite for cellular detoxification. We evaluated the responses of glutathione metabolism to arsenite (AsIII in Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern that has unexplored phytoremediation potential. Plants were exposed to different AsIII concentrations in nutrient solution for 24 h. AsIII caused cell membrane damage to submerged leaves, indicating oxidative stress. There was an increase in the glutathione content and ϒ-glutamylcysteine synthetase enzyme activity in the submerged and floating leaves. The glutathione peroxidase and glutathione sulfotransferase enzymes also showed increased activity in both plant parts, whereas glutathione reductase only showed increased activity in the submerged leaves. These findings suggest an important role for glutathione in the protection of S. molesta against the toxic effects of AsIII, with more effective tolerance responses in the floating leaves.

  7. Gold 100: proceedings of the international conference on gold. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, C.E.; King, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of Gold 100 have been published in three separate volumes. The first deals with the mining of gold, the second with the extractive metallurgy of gold, and the third with industrial uses of gold. In this second volume, the papers on extractive metallurgy presented at the Conference reflect most of the problems that are currently of significant technical interest to the industry. This volume is divided in six main parts covering plant design, carbon-in-pulp technology, refractory gold, new technology, grinding and concentration, and leaching. The part on new technology includes papers on x-ray fluorescence analyzers, Moessbauer spectroscopy and leaching processes for uranium, while the part on grinding and concentration includes papers on nuclear and radiotracer techniques for the recovery of gold as well as various flotation parameters in the flotation behaviour of gold and uranium

  8. Effects of Gold Substrates on the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Activity of High-Loading Nickel-Based Oxyhydroxide Oxygen Evolution Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Kibsgaard, Jakob; Gallo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of Au substrates on the oxygen evolution activities of cathodically electrodeposited nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH), nickel–iron oxyhydroxide (NiFeOOH), and nickel–cerium oxyhydroxide (NiCeOOH) at varying loadings from 0 to 2000 nmol of metal/cm2. We determi...... high geometric current densities on flat substrates. By investigating the mass and site specific activities as a function of loading, we bridge the practical geometric activity to the fundamental intrinsic activity....

  9. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  10. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of OneShape, HyFlex EDM, WaveOne Gold, and Reciproc Blue Nickel-titanium Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğar, Mustafa; Özyürek, Taha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistances of Reciproc Blue (VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and OneShape (Micro Mega, Besancon, France) single-file NiTi systems. Thirty Reciproc Blue R25 (25/.08), 30 HyFlex EDM (25/.∼), 30 WaveOne Gold Primary (25/.07), and 30 OneShape (25/.06) instruments were included in this study. All the instruments were rotated in artificial canals, which were made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, a 60° angle of curvature, and radii of curvatures of 5 mm until fracture occurred, and the time to fracture was recorded in seconds using a digital chronometer. The data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests via SPSS 21.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). The statistical significance level was set at 5%. The HyFlex EDM file (3456.33 ± 633.37) file had the statistically highest fatigue resistance, and the OneShape file (1221.63 ± 812.4) had the least fatigue resistance (P  .05) in the mean length of the fractured fragments of the files (P > .05). Within the limitations of the present in vitro study, it was found that cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex EDM files was higher than the cyclic fatigue resistances of OneShape, Reciproc Blue, and WaveOne Gold files. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paper Money but a Gold Debt. Italy in the Gold Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Tattara; or consequences)

    2002-01-01

    During the 52 years between the Unification of the Kingdom of Italy and World War 1, the lira was legally convertible into metal for a limited period of time. Although not formally committed to gold, the lira exchange towards the gold standard countries proved remarkably stable, \\223shadowing\\224 gold. It is widely claimed that being one of the successful members of the gold standard circle entailed a number of advantages. If the lira was closely linked to gold, suggesting that there was only...

  12. Bubble template synthesis of hollow gold nanoparticles and their applications as theranostic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chienwen

    Hollow gold nanoparticle with a sub-30nm polycrystalline shell and a 50 nm hollow core has been successfully synthesized through the reduction of sodium gold sulfite by electrochemically evolved hydrogen. Such hollow gold nanoparticles exhibit unique plasmonic properties. They strongly scatter and absorb near infrared light. In this thesis we seek to understand the formation mechanism of hollow gold nanoparticles in this new synthesis process and their plasmonic properties. Also, we explore their biomedical applications as theranostic agents (therapeutic and diagnostic imaging). A lithographically patterned electrode consisting of Ag stripes on a glass substrate was used to investigate the formation process of hollow gold nanoparticles. Ag stripes served as working electrode for electrochemically evolution of hydrogen, and adjacent glass areas provided supporting surface for hydrogen nanobubbles nucleation and growth. Hydrogen nanobubbles served as both templates and reducing agents to trigger the autocatalytic disproportionation reaction of sodium gold sulfite. The effects of applied potential and the additives in the electrolyte have been studied. It has been found that the size and size distribution of hollow gold nanoparticle are directly relative to the applied potential, i.e. the hydrogen evolution rate. It has also been found the addition of Ni2+ ions can greatly improve the size distribution of hollow gold nanoparticles that can be contributed to that the newly electrodeposited nickel metal can enhance the hydrogen evolution efficiency. Another additive, ethylenediamine (EDA) can suppress the autocatalytic reaction of gold sulfite to increase the stability of sodium gold sulfite electrolyte. To capture such electrochemically evolved hydrogen nanobubbles, and subsequently to generate hollow gold nanoparticles in large numbers, alumina membranes were placed on the top of the working electrode. Anodic alumina membrane consists of ~200 nm pores, which provides

  13. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  14. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  15. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  16. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R; Julander, Anneli; Menné, Torkil; Lidén, Carola

    2013-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread use. The key risk factor in this situation is the ability of metal alloys in coins to release nickel and contaminate the skin after repeated contact from coin handling. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  18. Surfactant-free synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in near-critical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hald, Peter; Bremholm, Martin; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2008-01-01

    Nickel nanoparticles have been produced by combining two well-tested methods: (i) the continuous flow supercritical reactor and (ii) the reduction of a nickel salt with hydrazine. The normal precipitation of a nickel-hydrazine complex, which would complicate pumping and mixing of the precursor, was controlled by the addition of ammonia to the precursor solution, and production of nickel nanoparticles with average sizes from 40 to 60 nm were demonstrated. The method therefore provides some size control and enables the production of nickel nanoparticles without the use of surfactants. The pure nickel nanoparticles can be easily isolated using a magnet. - Graphical abstract: A surfactant-free synthesis route to nickel nanoparticles has been successfully transferred to near-critical water conditions reducing synthesis times from hours to seconds. Nickel nanoparticles in the 40-60 nm range have been synthesised from an ammonia stabilised hydrazine complex with the average size controlled by reaction temperature

  19. Nickel sensitization in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Tosetti, Cesare; Benedetto, Edoardo; Condoluci, Mario; De Bastiani, Rudi; Cogliandro, Rosanna; Mastronuzzi, Tecla; De Polo, Manuela; Di Mita, Francesco; Napoli, Luigi; Ubaldi, Enzo; Nebiacolombo, Cristina; Cottone, Carmelo; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Zamparella, Maria; Baldi, Elisabetta; Sanna, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) leads to frequent medical visits, and available therapies fail in up to 40% of patients. Food allergies may be involved in GERD pathogenesis; however, allergens other than food have received little attention. Nickel allergy is common in the general population and some high-nickel foods are associated with GERD. However, the potential relationship between nickel allergy and GERD remains unaddressed. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with and without GERD and to compare clinical and demographic features. This prospective, multicenter study included 210 adult GERD patients and 140 patients without GERD who presented at the general practitioner. All GERD patients had undergone treatment with proton pump inhibitors and upper digestive endoscopy within the previous five years. Demographic and clinical data were collected by questionnaire and patients underwent a nickel patch allergy test. Patients with and without GERD presented similar characteristics, with the exception of nickel sensitization, which was significantly more prevalent among GERD patients than controls (39.5% vs. 16.4%; p = 0.001). Nickel-positive GERD patients were more frequently female (90.4% vs. 65.4%, p = 0.003) and asthmatic (18.1% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.038), compared to nickel-negative GERD patients. At six-month follow-up, most of the patients, with or without nickel sensitization, reported improved symptoms without differences in drug prescription. Nickel sensitization is particularly prevalent in GERD patients seen in general practice. Whether allergies other than food allergy play a role in GERD remains to be elucidated.

  20. Texture Formation of Electroplated Nickel and Nickel Alloy on Cu Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Jae Geun; Lee, Sun Wang; Kim, Ho Jin

    2006-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-tungsten alloy were electroplated on a cold rolled and heat treated copper(Cu) substrate. 4 mm-thick high purity commercial grade Cu was rolled to various thicknesses of 50, 70, 100 and 150 micron. High reduction ratio of 30% was applied down to 150 micron. Rolled texture was converted into cube texture via high temperature heat treatment at 400-800 degrees C. Grain size of Cu was about 50 micron which is much smaller compared to >300 micron for the Cu prepared using smaller reduction pass of 5%. 1.5 km-long 150 micron Cu was fabricated with a rolling speed of 33 m/min and texture of Cu was uniform along length. Abnormal grain growth and non-cube texture appeared for the specimen anneal above 900 degrees C. 1-10 micron thick Ni and Ni-W film was electroplated onto an annealed cube-textured Cu or directly on a cold rolled Cu. Both specimens were annealed and the degree of texture was measured. For electroplating of Ni on annealed Cu, Ni layer duplicated the cube-texture of Cu substrate and the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement for annealed Cu layer and electroplated layer was 9.9 degree and 13.4 degree, respectively. But the FWHM of in plane XRD measurement of the specimen which electroplated Ni directly on cold rolled Cu was 8.6 degree, which is better texture than that of nickel electroplated on annealed Cu and it might be caused by the suppression of secondary recrystallization and abnormal grain growth of Cu at high temperature above 900 degrees C by electroplated nickel.

  1. Extended solubility and martensitic hcp nickel formation in antimony implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Johansen, A.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage microstructure and associated disorder have been investigated in antimony implanted nickel crystals using combined RBS and TEM analyses. In crystals implanted at and below room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5x10 20 m -2 , the retained antimony concentration in the implantation zone is approaching 15 at.%, with nearly all the antimony located substitutionally. The associated disorder as seen in the RBS analysis is insignificant. Annealing up to 600 0 C has little influence on the antimony distribution, whilst the dechanneling level is reduced. TEM and diffraction analysis of room temperature implanted samples show that the radiation damage consists of dense distributions of dislocation clusters and tangles, superimposed on a rather homogeneous background of new phase particles, identified as hcp nickel. The particles have a size 0.1-0.2 μm. The high substitutional antimony concentration at and below room temperature, which exceeds the solubility limit, indicates that its formation is thermally diffusionless and rather an effect of radiation enhanced solubility. The diffusionless nature of the microstructure is also indicated from the presence of martensitic hcp nickel, believed to form due to relief of radiation induced internal stress. (Auth.)

  2. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  3. Heavy metal content of lichens in relation to distance from a nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieboer, E; Ahmed, H M; Puckett, K J; Richardson, D H.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Sudbury region of Ontario has large deposits of nickel, iron, and copper, and thus a number of smelting plants which produce sulfur dioxide and heavy metal pollution. Since lichens are good indicators of SO/sub 2/ pollution levels, the pattern of heavy metal content in lichen species in the area of a copper smelter in Sudbury was correlated with distance from the smelter to ascertain whether lichens might also be good indicators of the amount of heavy metal fallout. The lichens were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. All seven species of lichens contained copper, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese, and lead. Cadmium and cobalt were detected in two species. Neither gold nor silver could be identified in lichen material with the tests used. A pollution model was developed and compared to field results. The simple dilution of the stack effluent was consistent with the fact that the lichen metal content was related to the reciprocal of the distance from the pollution source. The lichens from the area could tolerate simultaneously high concentrations of several heavy metals that are known to be toxic to other plants. The mechanism of metal uptake was not clearly established. The study showed that lichens and other epiphytes are potentially the most useful indicators of heavy metal fallout around industrial plants.

  4. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960); Dosage absolu par diffraction X d'un melange binaire ou ternaire: oxyde et fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, P; Hauptman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [French] La methode utilisee, dite 'absolue' est basee sur le calcul des intensites theoriques de raies de diffraction convenablement choisies. Elle n'est applicable que si l'absorption est negligeable a travers chaque grain constituant l'echantillon et a travers l'echantillon total. Elle a ete employee pour doser, ensemble ou separement, de l'oxyde et du fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of the electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys; Contribution a l'etude du depot electrolytique des alliages fer-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valignat, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    Using a coulometric technique based upon the anodic intentiostatic dissolution, we studied the potentiostatic, deposition of nickel, iron and nickel iron alloys. We have shown that the minimum of the curve I = f (t) (deposition current versus time) is probably due to the transitory blocking of the surface by hydrogen and that the syn-crystallisation of nickel and iron is responsible for the anomalous co-deposition of these two elements. (author) [French] En employant une methode coulometrique par dissolution anodique intensipstatique, nous avons etudie le depot potentiostatique du nickel, du fer et des alliages fer-nickel. Nous avons pu montrer que le minimum de la courbe I = f (t) enregistree au cours du depot est du probablement au blocage momentane de la surface par l'hydrogene et que la syncristallisation du fer et du nickel est responsable de l'anomalie du depot simultane de ces deux elements. (auteur)

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. XII Appendix XII to Part 266—Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be...

  7. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  8. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  9. Identification of metallic items that caused nickel dermatitis in Danish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2010-09-01

    Nickel allergy is prevalent as assessed by epidemiological studies. In an attempt to further identify and characterize sources that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis, we analysed items identified by nickel-allergic dermatitis patients as causative of nickel dermatitis by using the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test. Dermatitis patients with nickel allergy of current relevance were identified over a 2-year period in a tertiary referral patch test centre. When possible, their work tools and personal items were examined with the DMG test. Among 95 nickel-allergic dermatitis patients, 70 (73.7%) had metallic items investigated for nickel release. A total of 151 items were investigated, and 66 (43.7%) gave positive DMG test reactions. Objects were nearly all purchased or acquired after the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive. Only one object had been inherited, and only two objects had been purchased outside of Denmark. DMG testing is valuable as a screening test for nickel release and should be used to identify relevant exposures in nickel-allergic patients. Mainly consumer items, but also work tools used in an occupational setting, released nickel in dermatitis patients. This study confirmed 'risk items' from previous studies, including mobile phones.

  10. Metals Are Important Contact Sensitizers: An Experience from Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotryna Linauskienė

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metals are very frequent sensitizers causing contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis worldwide; up-to-date data based on patch test results has proved useful for the identification of a problem. Objectives. In this retrospective study prevalence of contact allergy to metals (nickel, chromium, palladium, gold, cobalt, and titanium in Lithuania is analysed. Patients/Methods. Clinical and patch test data of 546 patients patch tested in 2014–2016, in Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos, was analysed and compared with previously published data. Results. Almost third of tested patients (29.56% were sensitized to nickel. Younger women were more often sensitized to nickel than older ones (36% versus 22.8%, p=0.0011. Women were significantly more often sensitized to nickel than men (33% versus 6.1%, p<0.0001. Younger patients were more often sensitized to cobalt (11.6% versus 5.7%, p=0.0183. Sensitization to cobalt was related to sensitization to nickel (p<0.0001. Face dermatitis and oral discomfort were related to gold allergy (28% versus 6.9% dermatitis of other parts, p<0.0001. Older patients were patch test positive to gold(I sodium thiosulfate statistically significantly more often than younger ones (44.44% versus 21.21%, p=0.0281. Conclusions. Nickel, gold, cobalt, and chromium are leading metal sensitizers in Lithuania. Cobalt sensitization is often accompanied by sensitization to nickel. Sensitivity rate to palladium and nickel indicates possible cross-reactivity. No sensitization to titanium was found.

  11. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  12. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  13. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets. The hydroxide nanosheets of approximately 0.7nm thickness were prepared by delamination of layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide lactate in water and formed transparent colloids that were stable for months. The nanosheets were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by spin coating, and their electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Our method of electrode preparation allows for studying the electrochemistry of nanosheets where the majority of the active centers can participate in the charge transfer reaction. The observed electrochemical response was ascribed to mutual compensation of the cobalt and nickel response via electron sharing between these metals in the hydroxide nanosheets, a process that differentiates the behavior of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets from single nickel hydroxide or cobalt hydroxide nanosheets or their physical mixture. The presence of cobalt in the nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets apparently decreases the time of electrochemical activation of the nanosheet layer, which for the nickel hydroxide nanosheets alone requires more potential sweeps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. II. Electrodeposition/removal of nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Shirvanian, Pezhman A; Hradil, George

    2011-08-17

    An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, thereby increasing the nickel electrowinning rate and current efficiency. A numerical model of electrodeposition, including corrosion and mass transfer in the particulate cathode moving bed, is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental net nickel electrodeposition data quite well.

  15. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.; Vitiello, V.; Casals, E.; Puntes, V.F.; Iamunno, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Changwen, W.; Benvenuto, G.; Buttino, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl_2 than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl_2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L"−"1 and 1, 5 and 10 mg L"−"1 NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L"−"1 NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC_5_0 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L"−"1) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L"−"1) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC_5_0 of 7.45 mg L"−"1 and 6.97 mg L"−"1 for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl_2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L"−"1, showed EC_5_0 of 0.164 and 0.039 mg L"−"1, respectively

  16. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  17. Tocopherol and selenite modulate the transplacental effects induced by sodium arsenite in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayo-Reyes, Adriana; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S; Bermúdez de León, Mario; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Héctor Gerardo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Cortés, Constanza; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2017-12-01

    Human studies suggest that in utero exposure to arsenic results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of dietary supplements, such as sodium selenite (SS) or α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS), is a reasonable approach to ameliorate such health effects. Sodium arsenite at 100ppm was administered via drinking water to female hamsters from gestational days 1 or 8 to the time of delivery. Viable fetuses, fetal resorptions and non-viable fetuses were recorded during and after pregnancy and total arsenic and its metabolites were characterized in pregnant animals, placentas and fetuses. Arsenic was found to accumulate in the placenta and fetus, increasing fetal mortality, non-viable fetuses and resorptions. Co-administration of SS and α-TOS significantly reduced the observed teratogenic effects. SS influenced arsenic biotransformation by reducing the MMA/InAs index and increasing the DMA/MMA, whereas α-TOS more likely exerts its protective effect through its potent antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Epitaxial growth of thin single-crystals and their quality study by Rutherford scattering in channeling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    Some aspects of thin crystalline layers are reminded: vacuum deposition, epitaxial growth, annealing and interdiffusion ion channeling and scattering of 1-2MeV helium ions are used to study the crystalline quality, the annealing effects and in some cases the interdiffusion in epitaxial multilayers of silver, copper gold and nickel. Thin single-crystals of gold and nickel oriented (III) plan parallel to the surface were obtained by successive epitaxial growth from muscovite mica clivages. The mounting techniques of single crystalline, self-supporting, 300 to 1200 Angstroems thick, gold and nickel targets of 3mm diameter are described. The gold single-crystals have dislocation densities of 10 8 cm -2 and the various epitaxial layers are obtained without twinning [fr

  19. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  20. Prototype nickel component demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    We have been developing a process to produce high-purity nickel structures from nickel carbonyl using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The prototype demonstration effort had been separated into a number of independent tasks to allow Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) the greatest flexibility in tailoring the project to their needs. LANL selected three of the proposed tasks to be performed--Task 1- system modification and demonstration, Task 2-stainless steel mandrel trials, and Task 4-manufacturing study. Task 1 focused on converting the CVD system from a hot-wall to a cold-wall configuration and demonstrating the improved efficiency of the reactor type by depositing a 0.01-inch-thick nickel coating on a cylindrical substrate. Since stainless steel substrates were preferred because of their low α-emitter levels, Task 2 evaluated mandrel configurations which would allow removal of the nickel tube from the substrate. The manufacturing study was performed to develop strategies and system designs for manufacturing large quantities of the components needed for the Sudbury Nuetrino Observatory (SNO) program. Each of these tasks was successfully completed. During these efforts, BIRL successfully produced short lengths of 2-inch-diameter tubing and 6-inch-wide foil with levels of α-radiation emitting contaminants lower than either conventional nickel alloys or electroplated materials. We have produced both the tubing and foil using hot-substrate, cold-wall reactors and clearly demonstrated the advantages of higher precursor efficiency and deposition rate associated with this configuration. We also demonstrated a novel mandrel design which allowed easy removal of the nickel tubing and should dramatically simplify the production of 1.5-meter-long tubes in the production phase of the program

  1. Enhancement of gold recovery using bioleaching from gold concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The gold in refractory ores is encapsulated as fine particles (sometimes at a molecular level) in the crystal structure of the sulfide (typically pyrite with or without arsenopyrite) matrix. This makes it impossible to extract a significant amount of refractory gold by cyanidation since the cyanide solution cannot penetrate the pyrite/arsenopyrite crystals and dissolve gold particles, even after fine grinding. To effectively extract gold from these ores, an oxidative pretreatment is necessary to break down the sulfide matrix. The most popular methods of pretreatment include nitric acid oxidation, roasting, pressure oxidation and biological oxidation by microorganisms. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of Au concentrate under batch experimental conditions (adaptation cycles and chemical composition adaptation) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from gold mine leachate in Sunsin gold mine, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at two different chemical composition (CuSO4 and ZnSO4), two different adaptation cycles 1'st (3 weeks) and 2'nd (6 weeks). The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample decreased than initial condition and Eh increased. In the chemical composition adaptation case, the leached accumulation content of Fe and Pb was exhibited in CuSO4 adaptation bacteria sample more than in ZnSO4 adaptation bacteria samples, possibly due to pre-adaptation effect on chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) in gold concentrate. And after 21 days on the CuSO4 adaptation cycles case, content of Fe and Pb was appeared at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 1.82 and Pb - 25.81 times per control sample) lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 2.87 and Pb - 62.05 times per control sample). This study indicates that adaptation chemical composition and adaptation cycles can play an important role in bioleaching of gold concentrate in eco-/economic metallurgy process.

  2. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  3. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  4. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-06-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  5. Enrichment of Gold in Antimony Matte by Direct Smelting of Refractory Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianzu; Xie, Boyi; Liu, Weifeng; Zhang, Duchao; Chen, Lin

    2018-04-01

    Conventional cyanidation technology achieves low gold recovery when used to process refractory gold concentrate. Based on the geochemical characteristics of gold deposit mineralization, a new method is proposed herein for gold enrichment in antimony matte by smelting of refractory gold concentrate. The effects of the FeO/SiO2 and CaO/SiO2 ratios, smelting temperature, and smelting time on the gold recovery were investigated in detail. The optimum conditions were determined to be FeO/SiO2 ratio of 1.2, CaO/SiO2 ratio of 0.4, smelting temperature of 1200°C, and smelting time of 45 min. The gold content in antimony matte and smelting slag was 96.68 and 1.13 g/t, respectively. The gold, antimony, and arsenic recovery was 97.72%, 26.89%, and 6.56%, respectively, with most of the antimony and arsenic volatilized into dust. Mineral liberation analyzer results showed that the antimony matte mainly consisted of FeS and FeO, with three phases, viz. FeAs, SbAs, and AuSb, embedded between them, indicating that gold was easily enriched with antimony and arsenic during smelting of refractory gold concentrate.

  6. Effects of co-administration of dietary sodium arsenite and an NADPH oxidase inhibitor on the rat bladder epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shugo; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Arsenite (As III ), an inorganic arsenical, is a known human carcinogen, inducing tumors of the skin, urinary bladder and lung. It is metabolized to organic methylated arsenicals. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be important factors for carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is known to produce intracellular ROS, therefore, we investigated the ability of apocynin (acetovanillone), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, to inhibit the cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation of arsenic in vitro and in vivo. Apocynin had similar effects in reducing the cytotoxicity of As III and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) in rat urothelial cells in vitro. When tested at the same concentrations as apocynin, other antioxidants, such as L-ascorbate and N-acetylcysteine, did not inhibit As III -induced cytotoxicity but they were more effective at inhibiting DMA III -induced cytotoxicity compared with apocynin. In vivo, female rats were treated for 3 weeks with 100 ppm As III . Immunohistochemical staining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) showed that apocynin reduced oxidative stress partially induced by As III treatment on rat urothelium, and significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of superficial cells detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, based on the incidence of simple hyperplasia and the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index, apocynin did not inhibit As III -induced urothelial cell proliferation. These data suggest that the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, may have the ability to partially inhibit arsenic-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity of the rat bladder epithelium in vitro and in vivo. However, apocynin did not inhibit the regenerative cell proliferation induced by arsenite in a short-term study.

  7. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, A.; Wang, D.; Zuschlag, A.; Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel-silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide a continuous nickel silicide of greater depth, polycrystalline modification and expected phase according to thermal budget is formed. Information about the nature of silicide growth on typical solar cell surfaces could be obtained from silicide phase and geometric observations, which were supported by FIB tomography. The theory of isotropic NiSi growth and orientation dependent NiSi2 growth was derived. By this, a very well performing low-cost metallization for silicon solar cells has been brought an important step closer to industrial introduction.

  8. The geology of the gold deposits of Prestea gold belt of Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the geology of the gold deposits along the Prestea gold belt of Ghana to assist exploration work for new orebodies along the belt. Prestea district is the third largest gold producer in West Africa after Obuasi and Tarkwa districts (over 250 metric tonnes Au during the last century). The gold deposits are ...

  9. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  10. Gold Leaching Characteristics and Intensification of a High S and As-Bearing Gold Concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Liu, Xiao-liang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yan

    Some high sulfur and arsenic-bearing gold concentrate has a gold leaching rate less than 80% by oxidation roasting-pickling-cyanidation process. The characteristics and intensification of gold leaching were studied systemically. By combining chemical composition and phase analysis, the low gold leaching rate was found to lie in the capsulation of gold by iron-containing phases including iron oxides, arsenopyrite and pyrite. 96.66% of gold in the industrial leaching residue was capsulated and 95.88% of the capsulated turned out to be in the iron-containing phases. The results of laboratory pickling-cyanidation experiments on the calcine and industrial leaching residue presented further demonstration for the fact that gold capsulated in the iron-containing phases was hard to be leached. However, the gold cyanide leaching rate of calcine could be raised over 95% by a reduction roasting-pickling pretreatment which played such a significant role in exposing the capsulated gold that gold leaching was intensified remarkably.

  11. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  12. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  13. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  14. Nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination by inhibiting histone deubiquitinating enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Qingdong; Ellen, Thomas P.; Costa, Max

    2008-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are known carcinogens but underlying mechanisms are not clear. Epigenetic changes are likely to play an important role in nickel ion carcinogenesis. Previous studies have shown epigenetic effects of nickel ions, including the loss of histone acetylation and a pronounced increase in dimethylated H3K9 in nickel-exposed cells. In this study, we demonstrated that both water-soluble and insoluble nickel compounds induce histone ubiquitination (uH2A and uH2B) in a variety of cell lines. Investigations of the mechanism by which nickel increases histone ubiquitination in cells reveal that nickel does not affect cellular levels of the substrates of this modification, i.e., ubiquitin, histones, and other non-histone ubiquitinated proteins. In vitro ubiquitination and deubiquitination assays have been developed to further investigate possible effects of nickel on enzymes responsible for histone ubiquitination. Results from the in vitro assays demonstrate that the presence of nickel did not affect the levels of ubiquitinated histones in the ubiquitinating assay. Instead, the addition of nickel significantly prevents loss of uH2A and uH2B in the deubiquitinating assay, suggesting that nickel-induced histone ubiquitination is the result of inhibition of (a) putative deubiquitinating enzyme(s). Additional supporting evidence comes from the comparison of the response to nickel ions with a known deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor, iodoacetamide (IAA). This study is the first to demonstrate such effects of nickel ions on histone ubiquitination. It also sheds light on the possible mechanisms involved in altering the steady state of this modification. The study provides further evidence that supports the notion that nickel ions alter epigenetic homeostasis in cells, which may lead to altered programs of gene expression and carcinogenesis

  15. Oxidation state of gold and arsenic in gold-bearing arsenian pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, G.; Huang, H.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Kesler, S.E.; Kao, L.S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    XANES measurements on gold-bearing arsenian pyrite from the Twin Creeks Carlin-type gold deposits show that gold is present as both Au{sup 0} and Au{sup 1+} and arsenic is present as As{sup 1{minus}}. Au{sup 0} is attributed to sub-micrometer size inclusions of free gold, whereas Au{sup 1+} is attributed to gold in the lattice of the arsenian pyrite. STEM observations suggest that As{sup 1{minus}} is probably concentrated in angstrom-scale, randomly distributed layers with a marcasite or arsenopyrite structure. Ionic gold (Au{sup 1+}) could be concentrated in these layers as well, and is present in both twofold- and fourfold-coordinated forms, with fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} more abundant. Twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is similar to gold in Au{sub 2}S in which it is linearly coordinated to two sulfur atoms. The nature of fourfold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} is not well understood, although it might be present as an Au-As-S compound where gold is bonded in fourfold coordination to sulfur and arsenic atoms, or in vacancy positions on a cation site in the arsenian pyrite. Au{sup 1+} was probably incorporated into arsenian pyrite by adsorption onto pyrite surfaces during crystal growth. The most likely compound in the case of twofold-coordinated Au{sup 1+} was probably a tri-atomic surface complex such as S{sub pyrite}-Au{sup 1+}-S{sub bi-sulfide}H or Au{sup 1+}-S-Au{sup 1+}. The correlation between gold and arsenic might be related to the role of arsenic in enhancing the adsorption of gold complexes of this type on pyrite surfaces, possibly through semiconductor effects.

  16. Adverse effects of nickel in transosseous wires and surgical implants: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwashindi, A; Dim, E M

    2014-01-01

    Transosseous wires used in the management of fractures are stainless steel alloys which contain nickel 14.5%, chromium 17.6%, iron 62.5% and molybdenum 2.8%. Gradual disintegration of the transosseous wires release nickel into the blood leading to increase nickel concentration in the blood. Nickel has been found to have some adverse systemic effects on the body. The aim of this paper is to discuss the sources of Nickel in the body as well as the systemic adverse effects of Nickel as a degradation product of stainless steel surgical implants. A study of pertinent literature on nickel as a content of stainless steel alloy used in implant surgery was done, taking note also of other sources of nickel in the body, the toxicokinetics of nickel and the related adverse effects of this metal and its compound in humans. As outcome,the sources of human exposure to nickel,distribution and metabolism of nickel in the body, host responseto stainless steel wires and the adverse effects of nickel in the body are presented. It may be necessary to discourage the use of wires or implants containing nickel in the management of fractures.The need for removal of these implants after they have served their purposes is emphasized.

  17. Nickel films: Nonselective and selective photochemical deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.V.; Boitsova, T.B.; Gorbunova, V.V.; Alekseeva, L.V.; Pronin, V.P.; Kon'uhov, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Nickel films deposited on quartz surfaces by the photochemical reduction of a chemical nickel plating solution were studied. It was found that the deposition of the films occurs after an induction period, the length of which depends on the composition of the photolyte and the light intensity. Ni particles with a mean diameter of 20-30 nm were detected initially by transmission electron microscopy. The particles then increased in size (50 nm) upon irradiation and grouped into rings consisting of 4-5 particles. Irradiation with high-intensity light produces three-dimensional films. The calculated extinction coefficient of the nickel film was found to be 4800 L mol -1 cm -1 . Electron diffraction revealed that the prepared amorphous nickel films crystallize after one day of storage. It was determined that the films exhibit catalytic activity in the process of nickel deposition from nickel plating solution. The catalytic action remains for about 5-7 min after exposure of the films to air. The processes of selective and nonselective deposition of the nickel films are discussed. The use of poly(butoxy titanium) in the process of selective photochemical deposition enables negative and positive images to be prepared on quartz surfaces

  18. Preparation of fine Ni powders from nickel hydrazine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Woo; Chae, Eun H.; Kim, Sang H.; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Jeong Wook; Yoon, Seon Mi; Choi, Jae-Young

    2006-01-01

    Fine nickel powders with narrow size distribution have been prepared from the reduction of nickel hydrazine complexes in aqueous solution. The pure nickel hydrazine complexes, [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 were prepared with the molar ratio of N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ = 4.5, while a mixture of complexes, such as Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 2 Cl 2 , [Ni(N 2 H 4 ) 3 ]Cl 2 , and [Ni(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 2 were formed with N 2 H 4 /Ni 2+ 2+ to metallic Ni powder proceeded via the formation of nickel hydroxide which was reduced by hydrazine liberated from the ligand exchange reaction between the nickel hydrazine complex and NaOH. The standard deviation of the particle size decreased with the decreasing molar concentration of nickel hydrazine complex while the mean particle size increased. As the amount of hydrazine increased, the surface roughness of the particles was improved significantly due to the catalytic decomposition of the excess hydrazine at the surface of the nickel particle. It was found that average particle size could be controlled from 150 to 380 nm by adjusting the reaction molar ratio and temperature

  19. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  20. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON RUO2 X H2O: ANALYSIS OF SORBED PHASE OXIDATION STATE BY XANES IN ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorption reactions of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) on RuO2 x H2O were examined by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) to elucidate the solid state speciation of sorbed As. At all pH values studied (pH 4-8), RuO2 x H

  1. Cryoforming evaluation using high-purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.E.; Meisner, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    The cryogenic forming process was evaluated using nickel 270 to see if it had significant advantages over room-temperature (RT) forming. Typically, the procedure involved fast-strain-rate forming a set of nickel samples at cryogenic temperatures and another set at RT. Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves compared at equal strains. Two more sets were formed, this time at slow strain rates (one at cryogenic temperatures, the other at RT). Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves of these sets compared with the previous two at equal temperatures and strains. Cryoforming produced a 30 percent higher-strength nickel than that produced at room temperature at equal strains and strain rates. Forming rate effects disappeared as working temperature decreased. Rate-insensitive cryoforming produced a considerably stronger room-temperature material than room-temperature forming at high strain rates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated apparent structural differences between cryoformed and room-temperature-formed nickel. 14 fig

  2. Ultrasonic preparation of nano-nickel/activated carbon composite using spent electroless nickel plating bath and application in degradation of 2,6-dichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jingyu; Jin, Guanping; Li, Changyong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Dou, Yan; Li, Yong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Kunwei; Gu, Qianqian

    2014-11-01

    Ni was effectively recovered from spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by forming a nano-nickel coated activated carbon composite. With the aid of ultrasonication, melamine-formaldehyde-tetraoxalyl-ethylenediamine chelating resins were grafted on activated carbon (MFT/AC). PdCl2 sol was adsorbed on MFT/AC, which was then immersed in spent electroless nickel plating bath; then nano-nickel could be reduced by ascorbic acid to form a nano-nickel coating on the activated carbon composite (Ni/AC) in situ. The materials present were carefully examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemistry techniques. The resins were well distributed on the inside and outside surfaces of activated carbon with a size of 120 ± 30 nm in MFT/AC, and a great deal of nano-nickel particles were evenly deposited with a size of 3.8 ± 1.1 nm in Ni/MFT. Moreover, Ni/AC was successfully used as a catalyst for ultrasonic degradation of 2,6-dichlorophenol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  4. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  5. Cathodic protection of steel by electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K.R.; Smith, C.J.E. [Defence Research Agency, Farnborough (United Kingdom). Structural Materials Centre; Robinson, M.J. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Industrial and Manufacturing Science

    1995-12-01

    The ability of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy coatings to cathodically protect steel was studied in dilute chloride solutions. The potential distribution along steel strips partly electroplated with zinc-nickel alloys was determined, and the length of exposed steel that was held below the minimum protection potential (E{sub prot}) was taken as a measure of the level of cathodic protection (CP) provided by the alloy coatings. The level of CP afforded by zinc alloy coatings was found to decrease with increasing nickel content. When nickel content was increased to {approx} {ge} 21 wt%, no CP was obtained. Surface analysis of uncoupled zinc-nickel alloys that were immersed in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions showed the concentration of zinc decreased in the surface layers while the concentration of nickel increased, indicating that the alloys were susceptible to dezincification. The analysis of zinc-nickel alloy coatings on partly electroplated steel strips that were immersed in chloride solution showed a significantly higher level of dezincification than that found for uncoupled alloy coatings. This effect accounted for the rapid loss of CP afforded to steel by some zinc alloy coatings, particularly those with high initial nickel levels.

  6. New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller James G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While epidemiological methods have grown in sophistication during the 20th century, their application in historical occupational (and environmental health research has also led to a corresponding growth in uncertainty in the validity and reliability of the attribution of risk in the resulting studies, particularly where study periods extend back in time to the immediate postwar era (1945–70 when exposure measurements were sporadic, unsystematically collected and primitive in technique; and, more so, to the pre-WWII era (when exposure data were essentially non-existent. These uncertainties propagate with animal studies that are designed to confirm the carcinogenicity by inhalation exposure of a chemical putatively responsible for historical workplace cancers since exact exposure conditions were never well characterized. In this report, we present a weight of scientific evidence examination of the human and toxicological evidence to show that soluble nickel is not carcinogenic; and, furthermore, that the carcinogenic potencies previously assigned by regulators to sulphidic and oxidic nickel compounds for the purposes of developing occupational exposure limits have likely been overestimated. Methods Published, file and archival evidence covering the pertinent epidemiology, biostatistics, confounding factors, toxicology, industrial hygiene and exposure factors, and other risky exposures were examined to evaluate the soluble nickel carcinogenicity hypothesis; and the likely contribution of a competing workplace carcinogen (arsenic on sulphidic and oxidic nickel risk estimates. Findings Sharp contrasts in available land area and topography, and consequent intensity of production and refinery process layouts, likely account for differences in nickel species exposures in the Kristiansand (KNR and Port Colborne (PCNR refineries. These differences indicate mixed sulphidic and oxidic nickel and arsenic exposures in KNR's historical

  7. Nickel and ocean warming affect scleractinian coral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscéré, T; Lorrain, A; Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Gilbert, A; Wright, A; Devissi, C; Peignon, C; Farman, R; Duvieilbourg, E; Payri, C; Houlbrèque, F

    2017-07-15

    The sensitivity of corals and their Symbiodinium to warming has been extensively documented; however very few studies considered that anthropogenic inputs such as metal pollution have already an impact on many fringing reefs. Thus, today, nickel releases are common in coastal ecosystems. In this study, two major reef-building species Acropora muricata and Pocillopora damicornis were exposed in situ to ambient and moderate nickel concentrations on a short-term period (1h) using benthic chamber experiments. Simultaneously, we tested in laboratory conditions the combined effects of a chronic exposure (8weeks) to moderate nickel concentrations and ocean warming on A. muricata. The in situ experiment highlighted that nickel enrichment, at ambient temperature, stimulated by 27 to 47% the calcification rates of both species but not their photosynthetic performances. In contrast, an exposure to higher nickel concentration, in combination with elevated temperature simulated in aquaria, severely depressed by 30% the growth of A. muricata. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High emittance black nickel coating on copper substrate for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Soniya, E-mail: jrf0013@isac.gov.in; Pillai, Anju M., E-mail: anjum@isac.gov.in; Rajendra, A., E-mail: rajendra@isac.gov.in; Sharma, A.K., E-mail: aks@isac.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High emittance black nickel coating is obtained on copper substrate. • The effect of various process parameters on IR emittance is studied systematically. • Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance black nickel coating. • Coating obtained using the finalized parameters exhibited an emittance of 0.83. • SEM and EDAX are used for coating characterization. - Abstract: Black nickel, an alloy coating of zinc and nickel, is obtained on copper substrate by pulse electrodeposition from a modified Fishlock bath containing nickel sulphate, nickel ammonium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ammonium thiocyanate. A nickel undercoat of 4–5 μm thickness is obtained using Watts bath to increase the corrosion resistance and adhesion of the black nickel coating. The effect of bath composition, temperature, solution pH, current density and plating time on the coating appearance and corresponding infra-red emittance of the coating is investigated systematically. Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance space worthy black nickel coating to improve the heat radiation characteristics. The effect of the chemistry of the plating bath on the coating composition was studied using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) of the coatings. The 5–6 μm thick uniform jet black zinc–nickel alloy coating obtained with optimized process exhibited an emittance of 0.83 and an absorbance of 0.92. The zinc to nickel ratio of black nickel coatings showing high emittance and appealing appearance was found to be in the range 2.3–2.4.

  9. Oxygen reduction of several gold alloys in 1-molar potassium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    With rotated disk-and-ring equipment, polarograms and other electrochemical measurements were made of oxygen reduction in 1-molar potassium hydroxide on an equiatomic gold-copper (Au-Cu) alloy and a Au-Cu alloy doped with either indium (In) or cobalt (Co) and on Au doped with either nickel (Ni) or platinum (Pt). The results were compared with those for pure Au and pure Pt. The two-electron reaction dominated on all Au alloys as it did on Au. The polarographic results at lower polarization potentials were compared, assuming exclusively a two-step reduction. A qualified ranking of cathodic electrocatalytic activity on the freshly polished reduced disks was indicated: anodized Au Au-Cu-In Au-Cu Au-Cu-Co is equivalent or equal to Au-Pt Au-Ni. Aging in distilled water improved the electrocatalytic efficiency of Au-Cu-Co, Au-Cu, and (to a lesser extent) Au-Cu-In.

  10. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  11. Coal-oil gold agglomeration assisted flotation to recover gold from refractory ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A.; Yue, C.

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the applicability of coal-oil gold agglomeration (CGA) assisted flotation to recover gold from a refractory ore. The ore with the grade of 2-5 g/t was tested with the CGA-flotation process in six different size fractions from 38 to 300 urn using different collector types and dosages. In addition, the flotation without CGA was performed under the same condition for comparison. The results showed that the higher gold grade and recovery were achieved by applying the CGA-flotation, compared with the flotation without CGA. More than 20-60 times grade increase from the head grade was obtained with CGA-flotation. The elemental analysis of gold and sulphur explained their relationship with gold recovery. The results well indicated the applicability of CGA to upgrade the refractory gold ore.

  12. Spectroscopic and thermogravimetric study of nickel sulfaquinoxaline complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tailor, Sanjay M.; Patel, Urmila H.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of sulfaquinoxaline (4-Amino-N-2-quinoxalinylbenzenesulfonamide) to form metal complexes are investigated. The nickel complex of sulfaquinoxaline is prepared by reflux method and characterized by CHN analysis and IR spectra. The results of IR spectral data suggest that the binding of nickel atom to the sulfonamidic nitrogen are in good agreement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis of nickel sulfaquinoxaline are carried out from ambient temperature to 750°C in inert nitrogen atmosphere. The activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of nickel sulfaquinoxaline complex is determined from the thermal curves using Broido method. The results are reported in this paper.

  13. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel

  14. Extracellular synthesis and characterization of nickel oxide nanoparticles from Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 towards bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, S; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a nickel resistant bacterium MRS-1 was isolated from nickel electroplating industrial effluent, capable of converting soluble NiSO4 into insoluble NiO nanoparticles and identified as Microbacterium sp. The formation of NiO nanoparticles in the form of pale green powder was observed on the bottom of the flask upon prolonged incubation of liquid nutrient medium containing high concentration of 2000ppm NiSO4. The properties of the produced NiO nanoparticles were characterized. NiO nanoparticles exhibited a maximum absorbance at 400nm. The NiO nanoparticles were 100-500nm in size with unique flower like structure. The elemental composition of the NiO nanoparticles was 44:39. The cells of MRS-1 were utilized for the treatment of nickel electroplating industrial effluent and showed nickel removal efficiency of 95%. Application of Microbacterium sp. MRS-1 would be a potential bacterium for bioremediation of nickel electroplating industrial waste water and simultaneous synthesis of NiO nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of Arsenic Resistant Escherichia coli from Sewage Water and Its Potential in Arsenic Biotransformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Bista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in drinking water from ground water poses a threat to the health of a large population in developing countries in Asia. This has sparked great interests in the potential of different microbes in arsenic resistance and removal from water. This study involves isolation of arsenic resistant Escherichia coli from sewage water from Kathmandu University and investigation of its attributes. Arsenic resistant E. coli was successfully isolated which could survive in high concentration of arsenic. The maximum tolerance of arsenite was 909.79 mg/L (sodium arsenite and 3120.1 mg/L arsenate (sodium arsenate which is well above most natural concentration of arsenic in ground water. This particular E. coli tolerated multiple heavy metal like silver nitrate, cobalt sulphate, cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, mercury chloride, copper sulphate, and zinc chloride at concentration 20 µM, 1 mM, 0.5mM, 1mM, 0.01 mM, 1 mM, and 1 mM respectively which are concentrations known to be toxic to E. coli. Biotransformation of arsenite to arsenate was also checked for by a qualitative silver nitrate technique. This E. coli was able to transform arsenate to arsenite. It showed some sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Nalidixic Acid. As E. coli and its genome are very widely studied, these particular properties have a lot of potential in microbial remediation or microbial recovery of metals and possible recombination approaches.

  16. Genomic responses to arsenic in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez-Riego

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant and a toxic metalloid which presents two main redox states in nature: arsenite [As(III] and arsenate [As(V]. Arsenic resistance in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is mediated by the arsBHC operon and two additional arsenate reductases encoded by the arsI1 and arsI2 genes. Here we describe the genome-wide responses to the presence of arsenate and arsenite in wild type and mutants in the arsenic resistance system. Both forms of arsenic produced similar responses in the wild type strain, including induction of several stress related genes and repression of energy generation processes. These responses were transient in the wild type strain but maintained in time in an arsB mutant strain, which lacks the arsenite transporter. In contrast, the responses observed in a strain lacking all arsenate reductases were somewhat different and included lower induction of genes involved in metal homeostasis and Fe-S cluster biogenesis, suggesting that these two processes are targeted by arsenite in the wild type strain. Finally, analysis of the arsR mutant strain revealed that ArsR seems to only control 5 genes in the genome. Furthermore, the arsR mutant strain exhibited hypersentivity to nickel, copper and cadmium and this phenotype was suppressed by mutation in arsB but not in arsC gene suggesting that overexpression of arsB is detrimental in the presence of these metals in the media.

  17. II. Electrodeposition/removal of nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Shirvanian, Pezhman A.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, ther...

  18. Gold and gold-copper nanoparticles in 2-propanol: A radiation chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    The studies on the reduction of Au 3+ to gold nanoparticles in presence and absence of Cu 2+ under deoxygenated conditions in 2-propanol by radiolytic method have been carried out. On γ-radiolysis, preliminary yellow colored solution of Au 3+ changed to purple color owing to gold nanoparticles formation, which exhibits an absorption peak at around 540 nm. In the presence of Cu 2+ , absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles, which was also produced during γ-radiolysis, was red shifted in contrast to the system containing no Cu 2+ . Under DLS studies the sizes of gold nanoparticles in the absence and the presence of Cu 2+ were found to be larger (>400 nm). However, in presence of polyethylene glycol, a stabilizer the nanoparticle sizes became smaller, sizes measured for gold and gold-copper nanoparticles are 40 and 140 nm, respectively. Moreover, the change in UV-vis spectra in the Cu 2+ and Au 3+ mixed system highlights the formation of gold-copper nanoparticles in core-shell type arrangement. - Highlights: → Present radiation chemical study highlights high reactivity of Au ·2+ with Cu 2+ . → Absorption of gold-copper nanoparticles is blue shifted as compared to copper nanoparticles. → Change in UV-vis spectra with dose emphasizes core-shell type arrangement of Au-Cu nanoparticles.

  19. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  20. Distribution and composition of gold in porphyry gold systems: example from the Biely Vrch deposit, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koděra, Peter; Kozák, Jaroslav; Brčeková, Jana; Chovan, Martin; Lexa, Jaroslav; Jánošík, Michal; Biroň, Adrián; Uhlík, Peter; Bakos, František

    2018-03-01

    The Biely Vrch deposit in the Western Carpathians is assigned to the shallow, sulfide-poor porphyry gold deposit type and has an exceptionally low Cu/Au ratio. According to 3-D geochemical models, there is a limited spatial correlation between Au and Cu due to the primary introduction of gold by a salt melt and Cu by low-density vapor. Despite a rough spatial correlation of gold grades with quartz stockwork intensity, gold is hosted mostly by altered rock, exclusively in native form. Three main gold mineral assemblages were recognized here. In the deepest parts of the system, the K- and Ca-Na silicate gold assemblage is associated with minerals of high-temperature alteration (plagioclase, K-feldspar, actinolite), with gold grades and fineness depending on depth and potassium content of the host rock: K-silicate alteration hosts the lowest fineness gold ( 914), whereas Ca-Na silicate alteration has the highest ( 983). The intermediate argillic gold assemblage is the most widespread, with gold hosted mainly by chlorite, illite, smectite, and interstratified illite-chlorite-smectite minerals. The gold fineness is mostly variable (875-990) and inherited from the former gold mineral assemblages. The latest advanced argillic gold assemblage has its gold mostly in kaolinite. The extremely high fineness ( 994) results from gold remobilization by late-stage aqueous magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Uncommon bonanza-grade appears where the earlier gold mineral assemblages were further enriched by this remobilized gold. Primary precipitation of gold occurred during ascent and cooling of salt melts at 450 to 309 °C, mostly during retrograde quartz solubility.

  1. Moessbauer study of the chemical state of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.E.; Marion, P.H.; Regnard, J.-R.

    1986-01-01

    Information on the chemical state of gold in gold ores has been obtained by 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy in cases where the state of this element cannot be determined by such standard methods as optical or electron microscopy. Ore concentrates consisting mainly of pyrite or arsenopyrite and roasted ore and matte samples were studied. The results yielded directly the respective amounts of metallic and chemically bound gold. Unless the gold is metallic, its chemical state in the ores turns out to be different from that in the minerals studied so far as reference materials. The chemical processes taking place during various treatments of the ores, such as roasting or leaching, can also be followed by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is hoped that Moessbauer spectroscopy will eventually facilitate the development of more efficient methods of gold extraction

  2. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of nickel (Ni) on hematological parameters and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... The effect of nickel on hematological parameters and behaviour in Cyprinus carpio after a 96 h exposure to nickel test was investigated. .... important food item in human diet. Nickel is a natural element in the earth's makeup. This must be a factor in assessing its ability to harm the environment. Although,.

  4. Investigation of interdiffusion in copper-nickel bilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Lettif, Ahmed M. [Physics Department, College of Science, Babylon University, Hilla (Iraq)]. E-mail: abdullettif@yahoo.com

    2007-01-15

    Auger depth profiling technique and X-ray diffraction analysis have been employed to study the interdiffusion in vacuum-deposited copper-nickel bilayer thin films. An adaptation of the Whipple model was used to determine the diffusion coefficients of both nickel in copper and copper in nickel. The calculated diffusion coefficient is (2.0x10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s)exp(-1.0 eV/kT) for nickel in copper, and (6x10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s)exp(-0.98 eV/kT) for copper in nickel. The difference between the diffusion parameters obtained in the present work and those extracted by other investigators is attributed essentially to the difference in the films microstructure and to the annealing ambient. It is concluded that interdiffusion in the investigated films is described by type-B kinetics in which rapid grain-boundary diffusion is coupled to defect-enhanced diffusion into the grain interior. The present data raise a question about the effectiveness of nickel as a diffusion barrier between copper and the silicon substrate.

  5. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  6. Cancer Stem-Like Cells Accumulated in Nickel-Induced Malignant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Jia; Hitron, John Andrew; Son, Young-Ok; Wise, James T.F.; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are known as human carcinogens. Chronic environmental exposure to nickel is a worldwide health concern. Although the mechanisms of nickel-induced carcinogenesis are not well understood, recent studies suggest that stem cells/cancer stem cells are likely important targets. This study examines the role of cancer stem cells in nickel-induced cell transformation. The nontransformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) was chronically exposed to nickel chloride for 12 months to induce cell transformation. Nickel induced Beas-2B cell transformation, and cancer stem-like cells were enriched in nickel-transformed cell (BNiT) population. The BNiT cancer stem-like cells demonstrated enhanced self-renewal and distinctive differentiation properties. In vivo tumorigenesis studies show that BNiT cancer stem-like cells possess a high tumor-initiating capability. It was also demonstrated that superoxide dismutase 1 was involved in the accumulation of cancer stem-like cells; the regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression was different in transformed stem-like cells and nontransformed. Overall, the accumulation of stem-like cells and their enhanced stemness functions contribute to nickel-induced tumorigenesis. Our study provides additional insight into the mechanisms by which metals or other chemicals can induce carcinogenesis. PMID:26962057

  7. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Department of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  8. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Gopalan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  9. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Academic Centre for Innovation and Development in the Food Industry (CAISIAL), Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 80055 Portici (Italy); Vitiello, V. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Casals, E. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Puntes, V.F. [Institut Català de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelone, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut Català de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Iamunno, F. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Pellegrini, D. [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy); Changwen, W. [Zhejiang Ocean University, 1 Rd. South Haida, Lincheng New Area, Dinghai District Zhoushan City, 316022 (China); Benvenuto, G. [Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Napoli (Italy); Buttino, I., E-mail: isabella.buttino@isprambiente.it [Istituto per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale ISPRA-STS Livorno, Piazzale dei marmi 12, 57123 Livorno (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Acartia tonsa copepod is more sensitive to NiCl{sub 2} than to nickel nanoparticles. • At the tested concentration egg production was not affected by both form of nickel. • Egg viability is the most sensitive end-point for both form of nickel. • Nickel dissolved in seawater increased with nanoparticle concentration. • Acartia tonsa adults were able to ingest nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl{sub 2} and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the “sonicated experiment” (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the “non-sonicated experiment” (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 mg L{sup −1} and 1, 5 and 10 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50 mg L{sup −1} NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843 nm after 48 h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC{sub 50} values were similar for NON-SON (20.2 mg L{sup −1}) and SON experiments (22.14 mg L{sup −1}) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC{sub 50} of 7.45 mg L{sup −1} and 6.97 mg L{sup −1} for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl{sub 2} concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63 mg L{sup −1

  10. Investigation of nickel hydrogen battery technology for the RADARSAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, D. A.; Lackner, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) operations of the RADARSAT spacecraft require high performance batteries to provide energy to the payload and platform during eclipse period. Nickel Hydrogen cells are currently competing with the more traditional Nickel Cadmium cells for high performance spacecraft applications at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and Leo. Nickel Hydrogen cells appear better suited for high power applications where high currents and high Depths of Discharge are required. Although a number of GEO missions have flown with Nickel Hydrogen batteries, it is not readily apparent that the LEO version of the Nickel Hydrogen cell is able to withstand the extended cycle lifetime (5 years) of the RADARSAT mission. The problems associated with Nickel Hydrogen cells are discussed in the contex of RADARSAT mission and a test program designed to characterize cell performance is presented.

  11. High-temperature ductility of electro-deposited nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Work done during the past several months on high temperature ductility of electrodeposited nickel is summarized. Data are presented which show that earlier measurements made at NASA-Langley erred on the low side, that strain rate has a marked influence on high temperature ductility, and that codeposition of a small amount of manganese helps to improve high temperature ductility. Influences of a number of other factors on nickel properties were also investigated. They included plating solution temperature, current density, agitation, and elimination of the wetting agent from the plating solution. Repair of a large nozzle section by nickel plating is described.

  12. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  13. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  14. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  15. Binding of Nickel to Testicular Glutamate–Ammonia Ligase Inhibits Its Enzymatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, YINGBIAO; OU, YOUNG; CHENG, MIN; RUAN, YIBING; VAN DER HOORN, FRANS A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to nickel has been shown to cause damage to the testis in several animal models. It is not known if the testis expresses protein(s) that can bind nickel. To test this, we used a nickel-binding assay to isolate testicular nickel-binding proteins. We identified glutamate–ammonia ligase (GLUL) as a prominent nickel-binding protein by mass spectrometry. Protein analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that GLUL is expressed in the testis, predominantly in interstitial cells. We determined that GLUL has a higher affinity for nickel than for its regular co-factor manganese. We produced an enzymatically active, recombinant GLUL protein. Upon binding, nickel interferes with the manganese-catalyzed enzymatic activity of recombinant GLUL protein. We also determined that GLUL activity in testes of animals exposed to nickel sulfate is reduced. Our results identify testicular GLUL as the first testicular protein shown to be affected by nickel exposure. PMID:21254280

  16. Development of a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN) delivery system for synergistic combined therapy of paclitaxel-resistant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei-yan; Zhang, Yu [Nanchang University, College of Chemistry (China); Chen, Xiang-yu [Xiangya No.2 Hospital of Central South University, Department of Radiology (China); Li, Jia-qian; Xiao, Xiao-ping; Yu, Lu-lu; Tang, Qun, E-mail: tangqun@ncu.edu.cn [Nanchang University, Institute for Advanced Study (China)

    2017-04-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major reason for failure of chemotherapy in a variety of human tumors. For instance, paclitaxel (PTX) has been widely used as a first-line anticancer drug, but resistance to PTX is becoming increasingly serious. Herein, we propose a strategy of combined therapy to overcome MDR of PTX by introducing a hybrid paclitaxel-loaded gadolinium arsenite nanoparticle (HPAN), where PTX was conjugated with rod-shaped gadolinium arsenite (GdAsO{sub x}) nanoparticle (NP). Triggered by endogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi), the hybrid nanoparticles readily collapse, thereby releasing PTX and arsenic trioxide (ATO). An MTT assay indicated IC50 values for HPAN one order of magnitude lower than for a simple equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO against PTX-resistant human colon cancer cells (HCT 166), indicating remarkable synergistic effect. Species type-dependent cellular uptake, induced apoptosis, and cell cycle modulation were also evaluated. Cellular uptake tests indicate that the HPAN presents higher PTX intracellular loading for the PTX-resistant cells and longer intracellular retention time, displaying resistance to drug efflux from the cancer cell than pristine PTX or the equivalent mixture of PTX and ATO. Cell cycle and apoptosis tests consistently proved that addition of HPAN resulted in higher G2/M and apoptosis in PTX-resistant cells. In vivo anticancer experiments evidenced that HPAN had better therapeutic effect on the resistant tumor in the murine xenograft model than pristine PTX or a mixture of PTX and ATO. Our results suggest that HPAN might enhance the therapeutic index and overcome PTX resistance and also demonstrate that the combined therapy is not only related to the species of combined agents but also their physiochemical states.

  17. A highly sensitive electrochemical glucose sensor structuring with nickel hydroxide and enzyme glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Manjusha; Sandhyarani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A combination of Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ redox couple and glucose oxidase has successfully been exploited for the realization of a highly sensitive glucose sensor for the first time. -- Highlights: • A multilayered glucose biosensor with enhanced sensitivity was fabricated. • Combination of Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ redox couple and glucose oxidase has been exploited for the first time. • Exhibits a lower detection limit of 100 nM with a high sensitivity of 16,840 μA mM −1 cm −2 . • The surface shows a low Michaelis–Menten constant value of 2.4 μM. • Detailed mechanism of sensing was proposed and justified. -- Abstract: A multilayered glucose biosensor with enhanced electron transport was fabricated via the sequential electrodeposition of chitosan gold nanocomposite (CGNC) and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) on a bare gold electrode and subsequent immobilization of glucose oxidase. A thin film of Ni(OH) 2 deposited on CGNC modified gold electrode serves as an electrochemical redox probe as well as a matrix for the immobilization of glucose oxidase retaining its activity. Electron transport property of CGNC has been exploited to enhance the electron transport between the analyte and electrode. Electrochemical characteristics of the biosensor were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Under optimal conditions the biosensor exhibits a linear range from 1 μM to 100 μM with a limit of detection (lod) down to 100 nM. The sensor shows a low Michaelis-Menten constant value of 2.4 μM indicates the high affinity of enzyme to the analyte points to the retained activity of enzyme after immobilization. The present glucose sensor with the high selectivity, sensitivity and stability is promising for practical clinical applications

  18. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  19. Gold deposit styles and placer gold characterisation in northern and east-central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitfield, Peter E. J; Styles, Michael T.; Taylor, Cliff D.; Key, Roger M.; Bauer,; Ralison, A

    2009-01-01

    Microchemical characterisation of bedrock and placer gold grains from six gold districts within the Archaean domains and intervening Neoproterozoic Anaboriana-Manampotsy belt of northern and east-central Madagascar show few opaque inclusions (e.g pyrrhotite, Bi tellurides) but wide range of Ag contents (40wt%). Some districts exhibit multiple source populations of grains. The ‘greenstone belt’ terranes have an orogenic gold signature locally with an intrusion-related to epithermal overprint. Proterozoic metasediments with felsic to ultramafic bodies yield dominantly intrusion-related gold. A high proportion of secondary gold (<0.5wt% Ag) is related to recycling of paleoplacers and erosion of post-Gondwana planation surfaces and indicates that some mesothermal gold systems were already partially to wholly removed by erosion by the PermoTriassic.

  20. Analysis of gold and silver concentration on gold mining tailings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.I.; Sadykova, Z.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental neutron-activation analysis without radiochemical separation is one of most applicable and often used methods to analyze the concentration of gold, silver and other rare and noble metals in gold ores. This method is not suitable for analyzing low concentration of gold and silver in gold mining tailings due to rather high concentration of some elements. Samples are dissolved by boiling in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids to extract gold and silver into the solution. Chemical yield of gold and silver after dissolution of the sample and further chromatographic separation is between 92 and 95 percent respectively

  1. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  3. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore, E-mail: sgiuffrida@unict.it; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Nigro, Raffaella Lo [IMM-CNR (Italy); Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Bongiorno, Corrado [IMM-CNR (Italy); Fragala, Ignazio L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac){sub 2} (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl{sub 2} was formed from CCl{sub 4} solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl{sub 2} films.

  4. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araújo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp 3 bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp 3 bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  5. Single-cell analysis by ICP-MS/MS as a fast tool for cellular bioavailability studies of arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; López-Serrano, A; Mitze, H; Jakubowski, N; Schwerdtle, T

    2018-01-24

    Single-cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SC-ICP-MS) has become a powerful and fast tool to evaluate the elemental composition at a single-cell level. In this study, the cellular bioavailability of arsenite (incubation of 25 and 50 μM for 0-48 h) has been successfully assessed by SC-ICP-MS/MS for the first time directly after re-suspending the cells in water. This procedure avoids the normally arising cell membrane permeabilization caused by cell fixation methods (e.g. methanol fixation). The reliability and feasibility of this SC-ICP-MS/MS approach with a limit of detection of 0.35 fg per cell was validated by conventional bulk ICP-MS/MS analysis after cell digestion and parallel measurement of sulfur and phosphorus.

  6. Interdependent action of nickel sulphate and X-rays on human lymphoblastoid leukeamic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensimon, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    In a first experiment, cells were cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, irradiated in same media and cultured in same media after irradiation. In a second experiment, cells were cultured during 18hrs. in media supplemented by nickel sulphate, and then cells were washed and cultured in normal media where they were irradiated. The nickel sulphate toxicity appears as a creasing function of the nickel sulphate concentration and the nickel sulphate action endurance. The nickel sulphate toxic effect is amplified by X-rays. This amplification is a time function that depends on the X-ray dose, nickel sulphate concentration and period of time from the outset of culture to the irradiation. The nickel sulphate toxic effect appears faster when nickel works after X-rays [fr

  7. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  8. Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols in Gaborone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    amount more than 90% were copper, lead, nickel and gold. Key words: Atmospheric particles, elements, ... Selebi-Phikwe area, gold and nickel in Francis town and soda ash in Sowa. Gaborone is the capital of ... a stub three times a week with an exposure time of four hours. The exposed stubs were collected and kept ...

  9. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  10. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  11. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  12. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver–gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li Zian; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Silver, gold, and silver–gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15–25 nm), gold (5–6 nm), and silver–gold (50:50; 10–12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver–gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver–gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver–gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5–20 μg mL −1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  13. Hydrogen-water deuterium exchange over metal oxide promoted nickel catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagert, N H; Shaw-Wood, P E; Pouteau, R M.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba. Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

    1975-11-01

    Specific rates have been measured for hydrogen-water deuterium isotope exchange over unsupported nickel promoted with about 20% of various metal oxides. The oxides used were Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MoO/sub 2/, MnO, WO/sub 2/-WO/sub 3/, and UO/sub 2/. Nickel surface areas, which are required to measure the specific rates, were determined by hydrogen chemisorption. Specific rates were measured as a function of temperature in the range 353 to 573 K and as a function of the partial pressure of hydrogen and water over a 10-fold range of partial pressure. The molybdenum and tungsten oxides gave the highest specific rates, and manganese and uranium oxides the lowest. Chromium oxide was intermediate, although it gave the highest rate per gram of catalyst. The orders with respect to hydrogen and water over molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide promoted nickel were consistent with a mechanism in which nickel oxide is formed from the reaction of water with the catalyst, and then is reduced by hydrogen. Over manganese and uranium oxide promoted catalysts, these orders are consistent with a mechanism in which adsorbed water exchanges with chemisorbed hydrogen atoms on the nickel surface. Chromium oxide is intermediate. It was noted that those oxides which favored the nickel oxide route had electronic work functions closest to those of metallic nickel and nickel oxide.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of new nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel nickel molybdenum complex with the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid ligand was success- ... made for preparing nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. 2. ... Formula weight ..... talline nickel molybdates J. Alloys Compd.

  15. Nickel speciation in cement-stabilized/solidified metal treatment filtercakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: reroy@lsu.edu [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA (United States); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment, Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • XAS shows the same Ni speciation in untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Ni solubility is the same for untreated and stabilized/solidified filtercake. • Leaching is controlled by pH and physical encapsulation for all binders. - Abstract: Cement-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is used to decrease environmental leaching of contaminants from industrial wastes. In this study, two industrial metal treatment filtercakes were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR); speciation of nickel was examined by X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Although the degree of carbonation and crystallinity of the two untreated filtercakes differed, α-nickel hydroxide was identified as the primary nickel-containing phase by XRD and nickel K edge XAS. XAS showed that the speciation of nickel in the filtercake was unaltered by treatment with any of five different S/S binder systems. Nickel leaching from the untreated filtercakes and all their stabilized/solidified products, as a function of pH in the acid neutralization capacity test, was essentially complete below pH ∼5, but was 3–4 orders of magnitude lower at pH 8–12. S/S does not respeciate nickel from metal treatment filtercakes and any reduction of nickel leaching by S/S is attributable to pH control and physical mechanisms only. pH-dependent leaching of Cr, Cu and Ni is similar for the wastes and s/s products, except that availability of Cr, Cu and Zn at decreased pH is reduced in matrices containing ground granulated blast furnace slag.

  16. Bioadsorption of nickel Mining Company by residual biomass Phyllanthus Orbicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Díaz-Puig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic parameters for the adsorption of nickel were studied in the waste CalcinationPlant Company Ernesto Che Guevara biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis synthetic and industrial waste Calcination Plant enterprise solutions. The results showed that the major factors influencing the adsorption capacity of the biomass increases with increasing pH and the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent and is reduced by increasing the biomass concentration. Meanwhile, the removal efficiency of residual nickel increases with increasing pH and concentration of biomass and reduced when the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent increases. The adsorption capacity nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis from synthetic solutions and industrial waste Calcination Plant Company Nickel "Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara" was 44,05 and 26,25 mg/g respectively. The adsorption process nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis follows kinetics pseudo-second order and according to the values of free energy of adsorption obtained through model-RadushkevichDubinin was 267,26 kJ/mol, this nature demonstrates that corresponds to a process mediated by chemical adsorption where the formation of stable bonds between the functional groups present in the biomass and the metal ions predominates.

  17. Specification and prediction of nickel mobilization using artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raoof; Ziaii, Mansour; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Maleki, Shahoo

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater and soil pollution from pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage generation, and release and transport of toxic metals are common environmental problems associated with the mining industry. Nickel is one toxic metal considered to be a key pollutant in some mining setting; to date, its formation mechanism has not yet been fully evaluated. The goals of this study are 1) to describe the process of nickel mobilization in waste dumps by introducing a novel conceptual model, and 2) to predict nickel concentration using two algorithms, namely the support vector machine (SVM) and the general regression neural network (GRNN). The results obtained from this study have shown that considerable amount of nickel concentration can be arrived into the water flow system during the oxidation of pyrite and subsequent Acid Drainage (AMD) generation. It was concluded that pyrite, water, and oxygen are the most important factors for nickel pollution generation while pH condition, SO4, HCO3, TDS, EC, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu are measured quantities playing significant role in nickel mobilization. SVM and GRNN have predicted nickel concentration with a high degree of accuracy. Hence, SVM and GRNN can be considered as appropriate tools for environmental risk assessment.

  18. Oxidation mechanism and passive behaviour of nickel in molten carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, J.P.T. (ECN Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)); Ament, P.C.H.; De Wit, J.H.W. (Div. of Corrosion, Lab. for Maaterials Sceince, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands))

    1994-07-01

    The oxidation and passivation mechanism and the passive behaviour of nickel in molten carbonate have been investigated with impedance measurements. The oxidation of nickel proceeds according to a dissolution and reprecipitation process. The slowest steps in the reaction sequence are the dissociation reaction of the carbonate and the diffusion of the formed NiO to the metal surface. In the passive range, dissolution of Ni[sup 2+] proceeds after diffusion of Ni[sup 2+] through the oxide layer. The Ni[sup 2+] is formed at the metal/oxide interface. The slowest process is the diffusion of bivalent nickel ions through the passive scale. The formation of trivalent nickel ions probably takes place at the oxide/melt interface. This reaction is accompanied by the incorporation of an oxygen ion and a nickel vacancy in the NiO lattice. The trivalent nickel ions and the nickel vacancy diffuse to the bulk of the oxide scale. The slowest step in this sequence is the dissociation of the carbonate ions and the incorporation of the oxygen ion in the NiO lattice. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  19. For the love of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Gold is found in minute quantities and gold mining generates enormous amounts of waste materials and long history of environmental destruction: mercury in tailing, eroded land, and acid mine drainage are legacies of the past. The problem has become worse in recent years in North America, Australia, the Amazon basin, Philippines. This paper describes the economics of gold and the changes in the world economy which has precipitated the new gold rushes. Current technology uses a cyanide solution for leaching small amounts of gold from tons of waste, and mercury remains a toxic waste of gold mining. Both short and long term results of gold mining, on the environment and on indiginous populations are described

  20. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  1. Urinary nickel: measurement of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Chisato; Usuda, Kan; Hayashi, Satsuki; Dote, Tomotaro; Kono, Koichi

    2004-09-01

    Nickel is a rare earth metal and is widely used in modern industry. Its overexposure in human beings can provoke significant effects including lung, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. As an index of occupational exposure, urine is widely used for the monitoring of nickel concentration because it is a minimally invasive method. Recent studies have used atomic absorption spectrometry to measure nickel concentration. In this study, we introduced novel inductively coupled plasma argon emission spectrometry (ICPAES) which enables us to measure multiple elements simultaneously with smaller volume and with lower detection limits compared to conventional atomic absorption emission spectrometry, and we established the new measuring method by determining the appropriate wavelengths for nickel concentration. Furthermore, using the established new measuring method, we investigated the correlation between a single oral administration of nickel and urine elimination in rats. As a result, different concentrations of nickel standard solutions were measured by ICPAES, and among five specific wavelengths of nickel, 221.647 and 231.604 nm were chosen because they had the highest inclines of both signal to background ratio and emission intensity in simple linear regression analysis. Next, by using healthy human urine samples that had not been exposed to nickel, 231.604 nm was determined to be the most appropriate wavelength because it did not present abnormal intensity due to obstacle wavelength. Male Wistar rats received an oral administration of nickel ranging from 0.025 to 250 mg/kg, which is equivalent to 0.0015 - 15% of LD50, and during the following 24 h, urine samples were collected and the nickel concentration was measured by ICPAES. With a single oral administration of nickel, there was an increase in urine nickel concentration in a dose-dependent manner and the appropriate equation was developed. Acute renal failure was not observed in this dosage of oral nickel

  2. Environmental nickel exposure from oil refinery emissions: a case study in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raúl; Harari, Florencia; Forastiere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry. Urinary nickel concentrations were used to assess the exposure to nickel. Students from the school next to the oil refinery showed the highest urinary nickel concentrations while workers from the refinery showed the lowest concentrations. Median nickel concentrations were > 2µg/L in all study groups. The populations living close to the oil refineries are potentially exposed to nickel from atmospheric emissions. Further studies investigating nickel-related health effects in the population residing close to the refinery of Esmeralda are needed.

  3. Application of anodizing as a pre-treatment for nickel plating on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, M.; Ahmad, J.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of anodizing on subsequent electroplating of nickel on aluminum was investigated. Electroplated nickel did not exhibit any adhesion with un-anodized aluminum. Formation of a very thin anodized alumina film prior to nickel plating led to an excellent adhesion between the nickel film and the substrate. If the thickness of the alumina film increased, adhesion of electroplated nickel was significantly deteriorated and became similar to that of un-anodized bare aluminum. The study revealed that deposition proceeded through pores and defects in the insulator alumina film. These pores and defects also acted as nucleation and anchor points for nickel deposit. There was larger number of nucleation/ anchor points on thin alumina films. This provided better adhesion of nickel with the substrate as well as excellent coverage in relatively shorter times. On the other hand, very rough and poorly adherent nickel deposits formed on thick anodized films. Therefore, it may be used as precursor for producing nickel powder with controlled particle size as well as a catalyst with high specific surface area for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (author)

  4. Assessment of respiratory carcinogenicity associated with exposure to metallic nickel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulka, Donna J

    2005-11-01

    Human studies prior to 1990 have shown an association between respiratory cancer and exposure to some nickel compounds, but not to metallic nickel. Numerous reviews have examined the nature of the association between nickel compounds and respiratory cancer, but little has been published on metallic nickel. This paper reviews the animal and human cancer-related data on metallic nickel to determine whether the conclusions regarding metallic nickel reached a decade ago still apply. Based upon past and current human studies, metallic nickel appears to show little evidence of carcinogenicity when present at the same or higher concentrations than those seen in current workplace environments. By comparison, animal studies currently available have shown mixed results. A number of studies have shown evidence of carcinogenicity in animals exposed to nickel powders via injection, but other studies have shown no or inconsistent results in animals exposed via inhalation or intratracheal instillation. Further studies in animals via inhalation and humans would be helpful in elucidating the respiratory carcinogenic potential of metallic nickel.

  5. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  6. Nickel deposition effects on the growth of carbon nanofibers on carbon paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celebi, S.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth has been achieved on carbon paper fibers via two nickel deposition routes: i. nickel nanoparticle-ethanol suspension casting, and ii. homogenous deposition precipitation (HDP) of nickel onto carbon paper. Nickel nanoparticles created regular tubular CNF whereas HDP of

  7. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjami, A.; Gigandet, M.P.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Catonne, J.C.; Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F.; Starck, B.; Remy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni 2 H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  8. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjami, A. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Gigandet, M.P. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: marie-pierre.gigandet@univ-fcomte.fr; De Petris-Wery, M. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie d' Orsay, Universite Paris XI, Plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay (France); Catonne, J.C. [Professeur Honoraire du Conservatoire national des arts et metiers (CNAM), Paris (France); Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F. [Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Starck, B.; Remy, P. [Lisi Automotive, 28 faubourg de Belfort, BP 19, 90101 Delle Cedex (France)

    2008-12-30

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni{sub 2}H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  9. Nickel coating on high strength low alloy steel by pulse current deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Patel, S. K.; Mahapatra, S. S.; Sharma, N.; Ghosh, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal mostly used to enhance the value, utility, and lifespan of industrial equipment and components by protecting them from corrosion. Nickel is commonly used in the chemical and food processing industries to prevent iron from contamination. Since the properties of nickel can be controlled and varied over broad ranges, nickel plating finds numerous applications in industries. In the present investigation, pulse current electro-deposition technique has been used to deposit nickel on a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel substrate.Coating of nickel is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDAX analysis. Optical microscopy and SEM is used to assess the coating characteristics. Electrochemical polarization study has been carried out to study the corrosion behaviour of nickel coating and the polarisation curves have revealed that current density used during pulse electro-deposition plays a vital role on characteristics of nickel coating.

  10. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium; Depot electrolytique de nickel sur l'uraniun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, G; Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [French] Les auteurs mettent en evidence une possibilite nouvelle de protection de l'uranium par des depots tres adherents de nickel realises par electrolyse en milieu aqueux. La preparation de surface de l'uranium est basee sur la methode du decapage chimique de Lietazke. Apres des traitements thermiques a 600, 700 et 800 deg. C, sous vide, on constate dans tous les cas une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. (auteur)

  11. Alloys of nickel-iron and nickel-silicon do not swell under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Silvent, A.; Regnard, C.; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This research is concerned with the effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the swelling of nickel and nickel alloys. Ni-Fe (0-60at%Fe) and Ni-Si (0-8at%Si) were studied, and the fluences were in the range 10 20 -4.3x10 22 n/cm 2 . In dilute alloys, the added elements are dissolved and reduce swelling, silicon being particularly effective. In more concentrated alloys, irradiation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Si alloys brings about the formation of plate-shaped precipitates of Ni 3 X and these alloys do not swell. (Auth.)

  12. Nanoscale investigation of the interface situation of plated nickel and thermally formed nickel silicide for silicon solar cell metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondon, A., E-mail: andrew.mondon@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Wang, D. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), H.-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zuschlag, A. [Universität Konstanz FB Physik, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 27, D-78464 Konstanz (Germany); Bartsch, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Glunz, S.W. [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofst. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Adhesion of metallization of fully plated nickel–copper contacts on silicon solar cells can be achieved by formation of nickel silicide at the cost of degraded cell performance. • Understanding of silicide growth mechanisms and controlled growth may lead to high performance together with excellent adhesion. • Silicide formation is well known from CMOS production from PVD-Ni on flat surfaces. Yet the deposition methods and therefore layer characteristics and the surface topography are different for plated metallization. • TEM analysis is performed for differently processed samples. • A nickel silicide growth model is created for plated Ni on textured silicon solar cells. - Abstract: In the context of nickel silicide formation from plated nickel layers for solar cell metallization, there are several open questions regarding contact adhesion and electrical properties. Nanoscale characterization by transmission electron microscopy has been employed to support these investigations. Interfacial oxides and silicide phases were investigated on differently prepared samples by different analytical methods associated with transmission electron microscopy analysis. Processing variations included the pre-treatment of samples before nickel plating, the used plating solution and the thermal budget for the nickel–silicon solid-state reaction. It was shown that interface oxides of only few nm thickness on both silicon and nickel silicide are present on the samples, depending on the chosen process sequence, which have been shown to play an important role in adhesion of nickel on silicide in an earlier publication. From sample pretreatment variations, conclusions about the role of an interfacial oxide in silicide formation and its influence on phase formation were drawn. Such an oxide layer hinders silicide formation except for pinhole sites. This reduces the availability of Ni and causes a silicide with low Ni content to form. Without an interfacial oxide

  13. Exploring the Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel-Induced Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel, a naturally occurring element that exists in various mineral forms, is mainly found in soil and sediment, and its mobilization is influenced by the physicochemical properties of the soil. Industrial sources of nickel include metallurgical processes such as electroplating, alloy production, stainless steel, and nickel-cadmium batteries. Nickel industries, oil- and coal-burning power plants, and trash incinerators have been implicated in its release into the environment. In humans, nickel toxicity is influenced by the route of exposure, dose, and solubility of the nickel compound. Lung inhalation is the major route of exposure for nickel-induced toxicity. Nickel may also be ingested or absorbed through the skin. The primary target organs are the kidneys and lungs. Other organs such as the liver, spleen, heart and testes may also be affected to a lesser extent. Although the most common health effect is an allergic reaction, research has also demonstrated that nickel is carcinogenic to humans. The focus of the present review is on recent research concerning the molecular mechanisms of nickel-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. We first present a background on the occurrence of nickel in the environment, human exposure, and human health effects. PMID:21905451

  14. Direct formation of gold nanorods on surfaces using polymer-immobilised gold seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid K. Abyaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present the formation of gold nanorods (GNRs on novel gold–poly(methyl methacrylate (Au–PMMA nanocomposite substrates with unprecedented growth control through the polymer molecular weight (Mw and gold-salt-to-polymer weight ratio. For the first time, GNRs have been produced by seed-mediated direct growth on surfaces that were pre-coated with polymer-immobilised gold seeds. A Au–PMMA nanocomposite formed by UV photoreduction has been used as the gold seed. The influence of polymer Mw and gold concentration on the formation of GNRs has been investigated and discussed. The polymer nanocomposite formed with a lower Mw PMMA and 20 wt % gold salt provides a suitable medium for growing well-dispersed GNRs. In this sample, the average dimension of produced GNRs is 200 nm in length with aspect ratios up to 10 and a distribution of GNRs to nanoparticles of nearly 22%. Suitable characterization techniques such as AFM and SEM have been used to support concept of the proposed growth method.

  15. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  16. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  17. Carbon-encapsulated nickel-iron nanoparticles supported on nickel foam as a catalyst electrode for urea electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Jao, Chi-Yu; Chuang, Farn-Yih; Chen, Fang-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical process can purify the urea-rich wastewater, producing hydrogen gas. • Carbon-encapsulated nickel iron nanoparticles (CE-NiFe) are prepared by pyrolysis. • An ultra-thin layer of CE-NiFe nanoparticles is attached to the 3D Ni foam. • CE-NiFe nanoparticles escalate both the urea electrolysis and hydrogen evolution. - Abstract: A cyanide-bridged bimetallic coordination polymer, nickel hexacyanoferrate, could be pyrolyzed to form carbon-encapsulated nickel-iron (CE-NiFe) nanoparticles. The formation of nitrogen-doped spherical carbon shell with ordered mesoporous structure prevented the structural damage of catalyst cores and allowed the migration and diffusion of electrolyte into the hollow carbon spheres. An ultra-thin layer of CE-NiFe nanoparticles could be tightly attached to the three-dimensional macroporous nickel foam (NF) by electrophoretic deposition. The CE-NiFe nanoparticles could lower the onset potential and increase the current density in anodic urea electrolysis and cathodic hydrogen production as compared with bare NF. Macroporous NF substrate was very useful for the urea electrolysis and hydrogen production, which allowed for fast transport of electron, electrolyte, and gas products. The superior electrocatalytic ability of CE-NiFe/NF electrode in urea oxidation and water reduction made it favorable for versatile applications such as water treatment, hydrogen generation, and fuel cells.