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Sample records for nickel based superalloys

  1. Cobalt-free nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Michio; Harada, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Cobalt-free nickel-base cast superalloys have been developed. Cobalt is considered to be a beneficial element to strengthen the alloys but should be eliminated in alloys to be used for direct cycle helium turbine driven by helium gas from HTGR (high temp. gas reactor). The elimination of cobalt is required to avoid the formation of radioactive 60 Co from the debris or scales of the alloys. Cobalt-free alloys are also desirable from another viewpoint, i.e. recently the shortage of the element has become a serious problem in industry. Cobalt-free Mar-M200 type alloys modified by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2 wt% B and 1 - 1.5 wt% Hf were found to have a creep rupture strength superior or comparable to that of the original Mar-M200 alloy bearing cobalt. The ductility in tensile test at 800 0 C, as cast or after prolonged heating at 900 0 C (the tensile test was done without removing the surface layer affected by the heating), was also improved by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf. The morphology of grain boundaries became intricated by the additions of 0.15 - 0.2% B and 1 - 1.5% Hf, to such a degree that one can hardly distinguish grain boundaries by microscopes. The change in the grain boundary morphology was considered, as suggested previously by one of the authors (M.Y.), to be the reason for the improvements in the creep rupture strength and tensile ductility. (author)

  2. Nanosize boride particles in heat-treated nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.R.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Grain boundary microconstituents in aged nickel-based superalloys were studied by transmission electron microscopy techniques. A nanosized M 5 B 3 boride phase, possibly formed by intergranular solute desegregation-induced precipitation, was positively identified. The presence of these intergranular nanoborides provides reasonable clarification of a previously reported reduction of grain boundary liquation temperature during the weld heat affected zone thermal cycle

  3. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  4. A Comparison of the Plastic Flow Response of a Powder Metallurgy Nickel Base Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0225 A COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) S.L...COMPARISON OF THE PLASTIC-FLOW RESPONSE OF A POWDER- METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...behavior at hot-working temperatures and strain rates of the powder- metallurgy superalloy LSHR was determined under nominally-isothermal and transient

  5. Effects of cobalt in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Jarrett, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The role of cobalt in a representative wrought nickel-base superalloy was determined. The results show cobalt affecting the solubility of elements in the gamma matrix, resulting in enhanced gamma' volume fraction, in the stabilization of MC-type carbides, and in the stabilization of sigma phase. In the particular alloy studied, these microstructural and microchemistry changes are insufficient in extent to impact on tensile strength, yield strength, and in the ductilities. Depending on the heat treatment, creep and stress rupture resistance can be cobalt sensitive. In the coarse grain, fully solutioned and aged condition, all of the alloy's 17% cobalt can be replaced by nickel without deleteriously affecting this resistance. In the fine grain, partially solutioned and aged condition, this resistance is deleteriously affected only when one-half or more of the initial cobalt content is removed. The structure and property results are discussed with respect to existing theories and with respect to other recent and earlier findings on the impact of cobalt, if any, on the performance of nickel-base superalloys.

  6. Rafting in single crystal nickel-base superalloys – An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Page 1 ... aircraft engines as well as land-based power generation applications. Microstruc- ture and high temperature mechanical properties are the major factors controlling the performance of SX ... Single crystal (SX) superalloys are a group of nickel-base superalloys. They exhibit superior high temperatur mechanical ...

  7. Fiber laser welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Damian M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the application of single mode high power fiber laser (HPFL) for the welding of nickel based superalloy Inconel 625. Butt joints of Inconel 625 sheets 0,8 mm thick were laser welded without an additional material. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by means of tensile and bending tests, and micro hardness tests, and also metallographic examinations. The results showed that a proper selection of laser welding parameters provides non-porous, fully-penetrated welds with the aspect ratio up to 2.0. The minimum heat input required to achieve full penetration butt welded joints with no defect was found to be 6 J/mm. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the joints are essentially equivalent to that for the base material.

  8. Recovery of creep properties of the nickel-base superalloy nimonic 105

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Girdwood, RB

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial constant stress creep tests were performed on the wrought nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 105. Entire creep curves were recorded and curve shapes analysed using the Theta Projection Concept. Rejuventive procedures were applied to pre...

  9. Welding and Weldability of Directionally Solidified Single Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J M; David, S A; Reed, R W; Burke, M A; Fitzgerald, T J

    1997-09-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are used extensively in high-temperature service applications, and in particular, in components of turbine engines. To improve high-temperature creep properties, these alloys are often used in the directionally-solidified or single-crystal form. The objective of this CRADA project was to investigate the weldability of both experimental and commercial nickel-base superalloys in polycrystalline, directionally-solidified, and single-crystal forms.

  10. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  11. ISOTHERMAL AND THERMOMECHANICAL FATIGUE OF A NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvalho Engler-Pinto Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal gradients arising during transient regimes of start-up and shutdown operations produce a complex thermal and mechanical fatigue loading which limits the life of turbine blades and other engine components operating at high temperatures. More accurate and reliable assessment under non-isothermal fatigue becomes therefore mandatory. This paper investigates the nickel base superalloy CM 247LC-DS under isothermal low cycle fatigue (LCF and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF. Test temperatures range from 600°C to 1,000°C. The behavior of the alloy is strongly affected by the temperature variation, especially in the 800°C-1,000°C range. The Ramberg-Osgood equation fits very well the observed isothermal behavior for the whole temperature range. The simplified non-isothermal stress-strain model based on linear plasticity proposed to represent the thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior was able to reproduce the observed behavior for both in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycling.

  12. Surface alloying of nickel based superalloys by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.P.; Garcia, I.; Damborenea, J.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Ni based superalloys present a high oxidation resistance at high temperature as well as good mechanical properties. But new technology developments force to research in this materials to improve their properties at high temperature. In this work, two Ni based superalloys (Nimonic 80A and Inconel 600) were surface alloyed with aluminium using a high power laser. SEM and EDX were used to study the microstructure of the obtained coatings. Alloyed specimens were tested at 1.273 K between 24 and 250 h. Results showed the generation of a protective and continuous coating of alumina on the laser treated specimens surface that can improve oxidation resistance. (Author) 8 refs

  13. The Effect of Forging Variables on the Supersolvus Heat-Treatment Response of Powder-Metallurgy Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2015-0160 THE EFFECT OF FORGING VARIABLES ON THE SUPERSOLVUS HEAT-TREATMENT RESPONSE OF POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS... POWDER - METALLURGY NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR...treatment (SSHT) of two powder - metallurgy , gamma–gamma prime superalloys, IN-100 and LSHR, was established. For this purpose, isothermal, hot

  14. Degradation of creep properties in a long-term thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrnik, J.; Strunz, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Muransky, O.; Novy, Z.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    When exposed for long time at elevated temperatures of 430 and 650 deg. C the nickel base superalloy EI 698 VD can experience a significant decrease in creep resistance. The cause of the creep degradation of nickel base superalloy is generally attributed to the microstructural instability at prolonged high temperature exposure. In this article, the creep-life data, generated on long thermally exposed nickel base superalloy EI698 VD were related to the local microstructural changes observed using SEM and TEM analysing techniques. While structure analysis provided supporting evidence concerning the changes associated with grain boundary carbide precipitation, no persuasive evidence of a morphological and/or dimensional gamma prime change was showed. For clarifying of the role of gamma prime precipitates on alloy on creep degradation, the SANS (small angle neutron scattering) experiment was crucial in the characterization of the bulk-averaged gamma prime morphology and its size distribution with respect to the period of thermal exposure

  15. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ{sup '} microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ{sup '} phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  16. Solid solution strengthening and diffusion in nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Hamad ur

    2016-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt-based superalloys with a γ-γ ' microstructure are known for their excellent creep resistance at high temperatures. Their microstructure is engineered using different alloying elements, that partition either to the fcc γ matrix or to the ordered γ ' phase. In the present work the effect of alloying elements on their segregation behaviour in nickel-based superalloys, diffusion in cobalt-based superalloys and the temperature dependent solid solution strengthening in nickel-based alloys is investigated. The effect of dendritic segregation on the local mechanical properties of individual phases in the as-cast, heat treated and creep deformed state of a nickel-based superalloy is investigated. The local chemical composition is characterized using Electron Probe Micro Analysis and then correlated with the mechanical properties of individual phases using nanoindentation. Furthermore, the temperature dependant solid solution hardening contribution of Ta, W and Re towards fcc nickel is studied. The room temperature hardening is determined by a diffusion couple approach using nanoindentation and energy dispersive X-ray analysis for relating hardness to the chemical composition. The high temperature properties are determined using compression strain rate jump tests. The results show that at lower temperatures, the solute size is prevalent and the elements with the largest size difference with nickel, induce the greatest hardening consistent with a classical solid solution strengthening theory. At higher temperatures, the solutes interact with the dislocations such that the slowest diffusing solute poses maximal resistance to dislocation glide and climb. Lastly, the diffusion of different technically relevant solutes in fcc cobalt is investigated using diffusion couples. The results show that the large atoms diffuse faster in cobalt-based superalloys similar to their nickel-based counterparts.

  17. Microstructural characteristics of high-temperature oxidation in nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Superalloys are used for aerospace and nuclear applications where they can withstand high-temperature and severe oxidizing conditions. High-temperature oxidation behavior of a nickel-base superalloy is examined using optical and scanning electron microscopical techniques. The morphology of the oxide layers developed is examined, and EDX microanalysis reveals diffusion of the elements across the oxide-metal interface. Evidence of internal oxidation is presented, and the role of structural defects is considered. The morphology of the oxide-metal interface formed in the specimens exposed in steam and air is examined to elucidate the mechanism of high-temperature oxidation

  18. Process of welding gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speigel, Lyle B.; White, Raymond Alan; Murphy, John Thomas; Nowak, Daniel Anthony

    2003-11-25

    A process for welding superalloys, and particularly articles formed of gamma prime-strengthened nickel-base superalloys whose chemistries and/or microstructures differ. The process entails forming the faying surface of at least one of the articles to have a cladding layer of a filler material. The filler material may have a composition that is different from both of the articles, or the same as one of the articles. The cladding layer is machined to promote mating of the faying surfaces, after which the faying surfaces are mated and the articles welded together. After cooling, the welded assembly is free of thermally-induced cracks.

  19. Computer aided design of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a computer aided design process for Ni-base superalloys developed and employed at ASEA Brown Boveri. The technique involves a series of modules each of which predicts a particular property of a hypothetical new composition. In the first stage of the development of this design techniques modules were produced to predict phase stability, using PHACOMP, and high temperature creep strength and hot corrosion resistance, using multiple linear regression equations derived from the data in the literature. Alloys designed using these technique are also discussed and, in particular, shortcomings of the design process are highlighted. This information was then used to produce a revamped design methodology involving extra modules, including prediction of an alloy's gamma-prime content. (orig.)

  20. Atomic force microscopy imaging to measure precipitate volume fraction in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourhettar, A.; Troyon, M.; Hazotte, A.

    1995-01-01

    In nickel-based superalloys, quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscopy images fails in providing accurate microstructural data, whereas more efficient techniques are very time-consuming. As an alternative approach, the authors propose to perform quantitative analysis of atomic force microscopy images of polished/etched surfaces (quantitative microprofilometry). This permits the measurement of microstructural parameters and the depth of etching, which is the main source of measurement bias. Thus, nonbiased estimations can be obtained by extrapolation of the measurements up to zero etching depth. In this article, the authors used this approach to estimate the volume fraction of γ' precipitates in a nickel-based superalloy single crystal. Atomic force microscopy images of samples etched for different times show definition, homogeneity, and contrast high enough to perform image analysis. The result after extrapolation is in very good agreement with volume fraction values available from published reports

  1. Phase Transformations in Nickel base Superalloy Inconel 718 during Cyclic Loading at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jambor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base superalloys are hi-tech materials intended for high temperature applications. This property owns a complex microstructure formed by matrix of Ni and variety of precipitates. The type, form and the amount of these phases significantly affect the resulting properties of these alloys. At sufficiently long exposure to high temperatures, the transformation phase can occur, which can lead to degradation of properties of these alloys. A cyclic plastic deformation can accelerate these changes, and they could occur at significantly lower temperatures or in shorter time of exposure. The aim of this study is to describe phase transformation, which can occur by a cyclic plastic deformation at high temperatures in nickel base superalloy Inconel 718.

  2. Detection of creep damage in a nickel base superalloy using NDE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, H.; Mora, B.; Barrera, G.

    2009-10-01

    Due to elevated temperatures, excessive stresses and severed corrosion conditions, turbine engine components are subject to creep processes that limit the components life such as a turbine bucket. The failure mechanism of a turbine bucket is related primarily to creep and corrosion and secondarily to thermal fatigue. As a result, it is desirable to assess the current conditions of such turbine component. This study uses the eddy current nondestructive evaluation technique in an effort to monitor the creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy, turbine bucket after service. The experimental results show an important electrical conductivity variation in eddy current images on the creep damage zone of nickel base super-alloy samples cut from a turbine bucket. Thermoelectric power measurements were also conducted in order to obtain a direct correlation between the presence of material changes due to creep damage and the electrical conductivity measurements. This research work shows an alternative non-destructive method in order to detect creep damage in a nickel base super-alloy turbine bucket. (Author)

  3. A continuum model for the anisotropic creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Sharat C.; Rajagopal, K.R.; Rao, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the constitutive theory developed by Prasad et al. [Prasad SC, Rao IJ, Rajagopal KR. A continuum model for the creep of single crystal nickel-base superalloys. Acta Mater 2005;53(3):669-79], to describe the creep anisotropy associated with crystallographic orientation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys. The constitutive theory is cast within a general thermodynamic framework that has been developed to describe the response of materials capable of existing in multiple stress free configurations ('natural configurations'). Central to the theory is the prescription of the forms for the stored energy and rate of dissipation functions. The stored energy reflects the fact that the elastic response exhibits cubic symmetry. The model takes into account the fact that the symmetry of single crystals does not change with inelastic deformation. The rate of dissipation function is also chosen to be anisotropic, in that it reflects invariance to transformations that belong to the cubic symmetry group. The model is used to simulate uniaxial creep of single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 for loading along the , and orientations. The predictions of the theory agree well with the experimental data

  4. Microstructure of the Nickel-Base Superalloy CMSX-4 Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsperger, Markus; Singer, Robert F.; Körner, Carolin

    2016-03-01

    Powder bed-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes are characterized by very high-temperature gradients and solidification rates. These conditions lead to microstructures orders of magnitude smaller than in conventional casting processes. Especially in the field of high performance alloys, like nickel-base superalloys, this opens new opportunities for homogenization and alloy development. Nevertheless, the high susceptibility to cracking of precipitation-hardenable superalloys is a challenge for AM. In this study, electron beam-based AM is used to fabricate samples from gas-atomized pre-alloyed CMSX-4 powder. The influence of the processing strategy on crack formation is investigated. The samples are characterized by optical and SEM microscopy and analyzed by microprobe analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to demonstrate the effect of the fine microstructure on characteristic temperatures. In addition, in situ heat treatment effects are investigated.

  5. Kink structures induced in nickel-based single crystal superalloys by high-Z element migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Ying [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Zhenju; Li, Jixue; Zhang, Ze [Center of Electron Microscopy and State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Han, Xiaodong [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Innovative kink structures generate at the γ/γ′ interfaces in the crept superalloy. • Clusters of heavy elements congregate at the apex of the kinks. • Dislocation core absorbs hexagonal structural high-Z elements. - Abstract: Here, we investigate a new type of kink structure that is found at γ/γ′ interfaces in nickel-based single crystal superalloys. We studied these structures at the atomic and elemental level using aberration corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The core of the dislocation absorbs high-Z elements (i.e., Co and Re) that adopt hexagonal arrangements, and it extrudes elements (i.e., Ni and Al) that adopt face centered cubic (fcc) structures. High-Z elements (i.e., Ta and W) and Cr, which is a low-Z element, are stabilized in body centered cubic (bcc) arrangements; Cr tends to behave like Re. High-Z elements, which migrate and adopt a hexagonal structure, induce kink formation at γ/γ′ interfaces. This process must be analyzed to fully understand the kinetics and dynamics of creep in nickel-based single crystal superalloys.

  6. On the microstructural origin of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, M.; Reppich, B.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of primary creep in nickel-base superalloys is strongly correlated to the different hardening species present in the material. In fine-grained single-phase material the classical assumption of a homogeneous dislocation distribution enables the prediction of the transition from normal via sigmoidal to inverse primary creep with decreasing applied stress σ. In coarse-grained material the back stress σ b of hard subgrain boundaries evolving during plastic deformation must be additionally taken into account. Second-phase particles influence creep in a 2-fold manner via reducing the effective stress σ eff , namely directly by the stress σ p * for particle overcoming, and indirectly by increasing the dislocation density ρ. The proposed approach accounts for the observed pronounced normal primary creep in particle-strengthened superalloys. (orig.)

  7. Heat affected zone liquation cracking in electron beam welded third generation nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O.A.; Wang, Y.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The weldability of directionally solidified nickel base superalloy TMS-75 and TMS-75+C was investigated by autogenous bead-on-plate electron beam welding. The analysis of microsegregation that occurred during solidification of the as-cast alloys indicated that while W and Re segregated into the γ dendrites of both the alloys, Ta, Hf and C were rejected into the interdendritic liquid in the TMS-75+C. Heat affected zone intergranular liquation cracking was observed in both the materials and was observed to be closely associated with liquated γ-γ' eutectic microconstituent. The TMS-75+C alloy, however, exhibited a reduced extent of HAZ cracking compared to TMS-75. Suppression of terminal solidification reaction involving non-invariant γ-γ' eutectic transformation due to modification of primary solidification path by carbon addition is suggested to be an important factor contributing to reduced susceptibility of TMS-75+C alloy to HAZ liquation cracking relative to the TMS-75 superalloy

  8. Misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming; Zhuo, Longchao; Liu, Zhanli; Lu, Xiaogang; Shi, Zhenxue; Li, Jiarong; Zhu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of nickel-based single crystal superalloys deteriorate with increasing misorientation, thus the finished product rate of the casting of single crystal turbine airfoils may be reduced due to the formation of grain boundaries especially when the misorientation angle exceeds to some extent. To this day, evolution of the microstructures at the grain boundaries with misorientation and the relationship between the microstructures and the mechanical properties are still unclear. In this work a detailed characterization of the misorientation related microstructure at the grain boundary in DD6 single crystal superalloy has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques; the elemental distribution at the grain boundaries has been analyzed by energy dispersive (EDS) X-ray mapping; and the effect of precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary on the mechanical property has been evaluated by finite element calculation. It is shown that the proportion of γ phase at the grain boundaries decreases, while the proportion of γ′ phase at the grain boundaries increases with increasing misorientation; the μ phase is precipitated at the grain boundaries when the misorientation angle exceeds about 10° and thus it could lead to a dramatic deterioration of the mechanical properties, as well as that the enrichment of Re and W gradually disappears as the misorientation angle increases. All these factors may result in the degradation of the mechanical properties at the grain boundaries as the misorientation increases. Furthermore, the finite element calculation confirms that precipitation of μ phases at the grain boundary is responsible for the significant deterioration of the mechanical properties when the misorientation exceeds about 10°. This work provides a physical imaging of the microstructure for understanding the relationship between the mechanical properties and the misorientation

  9. Microstructural investigation of thermally aged nickel-based superalloy 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Lawrence; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Stockinger, Martin; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Leitner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The effects of thermal aging upon the nickel-based 718Plus superalloy are investigated and modelled. Yield strength and micro-hardness measurements are made after solution annealing and after aging at 788 °C for 4 h. In order to explain the differences in strength and hardness, a detailed investigation of the microstructure is performed using transmission electron microscopy. The size and phase fraction of the γ′ precipitates are measured and related to the measured hardness and yield strength using a theoretical model of precipitation strengthening based on the shearing of precipitates in terms of coherency strengthening and the formation of an antiphase boundary

  10. Mechanical properties of nanostructured nickel based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarov, Sh; Ermachenko, A, E-mail: shamil@anrb.r [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems RAS, 39, Khalturina, Ufa, 450001 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This paper will describe the investigations of a nanostructured (NS) state of nickel based INCONEL alloy 718. This structure was generated in bulk semiproducts by severe plastic deformation (SPD) via multiple isothermal forging (MIF) of a coarse-grained alloy. The initial structure consisted of {gamma}-phase grains with disperse precipitations of {gamma}{sup -}phase in the forms of discs, 50-75 nm in diameter and 20 nm in thickness. The MIF generated structures possess a large quantity of non-coherent plates and rounded precipitations of {delta}-phase, primarily along grain boundaries. In the duplex ({gamma}+{delta}) structure the grains have high dislocation density and a large number of nonequilibrium boundaries. Investigations to determine mechanical properties of the alloy in a nanostructured state were carried out. Nanocrystalline Inconel 718 (80 nm) possesses a very high room-temperature strength after SPD. Microcrystalline (MC) and NS states of the alloy were subjected to strengthening thermal treatment, and the obtained results were compared in order to determine their mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures.

  11. A new method to predict the metadynamic recrystallization behavior in a typical nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song; Wen, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Ying; He, Dao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behaviors of a typical nickel-based superalloy are investigated by two-pass hot compression tests and four conventional stress-based conventional approaches (offset stress method, back-extrapolation stress method, peak stress method, and mean stress method). It is found that the conventional stress-based methods are not suitable to evaluate the MDRX softening fractions for the studied superalloy. Therefore, a new approach, 'maximum stress method', is proposed to evaluate the MDRX softening fraction. Based on the proposed method, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, initial average grain size, and interpass time on MDRX behaviors are discussed in detail. Results show that MDRX softening fraction is sensitive to deformation parameters. The MDRX softening fraction rapidly increases with the increase of deformation temperature, strain rate, and interpass time. The MDRX softening fraction in the coarse-grain material is lower than that in the fine-grain material. Moreover, the observed microstructures indicate that the initial coarse grains can be effectively refined by MDRX. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations are established and validated to describe the MDRX behaviors of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  12. Homogenization Kinetics of a Nickel-based Superalloy Produced by Powder Bed Fusion Laser Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Levine, Lyle E; Allen, Andrew J; Campbell, Carelyn E; Lass, Eric A; Cheruvathur, Sudha; Stoudt, Mark R; Williams, Maureen E; Idell, Yaakov

    2017-04-01

    Additively manufactured (AM) metal components often exhibit fine dendritic microstructures and elemental segregation due to the initial rapid solidification and subsequent melting and cooling during the build process, which without homogenization would adversely affect materials performance. In this letter, we report in situ observation of the homogenization kinetics of an AM nickel-based superalloy using synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. The identified kinetic time scale is in good agreement with thermodynamic diffusion simulation predictions using microstructural dimensions acquired by ex situ scanning electron microscopy. These findings could serve as a recipe for predicting, observing, and validating homogenization treatments in AM materials.

  13. Precipitate Contribution to the Acoustic Nonlinearity in Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-Seok KIM; Cliff J.LISSENDEN

    2009-01-01

    The influence of γ' precipitate on the acoustic nonlinearity is investigated for a nickel-based superalloy,which is subjected to creep deformation.During creep deformation,the cuboidal γ' precipitate is preferentially coarsened in a direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis.The length and shape factor of the γ' precipitate increase with creep time.The increase of relative acoustic nonlinearity with increasing fraction of creep life is discussed in relation to the rafting of γ' precipitate,which is closely related to the scattering and distortion of the acoustic wave.

  14. Superior creep strength of a nickel-based superalloy produced by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pröbstle, M., E-mail: martin.proebstle@fau.de [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Neumeier, S.; Hopfenmüller, J.; Freund, L.P. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Niendorf, T. [Institut für Werkstofftechnik (Materials Engineering), Universität Kassel, Mönchebergstr. 3, D-34125 Kassel (Germany); Schwarze, D. [SLM Solutions GmbH, Roggenhorster Straße 9c, D-23556 Lübeck (Germany); Göken, M. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering Institute I, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-09-30

    The creep properties of a polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy produced via selective laser melting were investigated in this study. All heat treatment conditions of the additively manufactured material show superior creep strength compared to conventional cast and wrought material. The process leads to a microstructure with fine subgrains. In comparison to conventional wrought material no Niobium rich δ phase is necessary to control the grain size and thus more Niobium is available for precipitation hardening and solid solution strengthening resulting in improved creep strength.

  15. Cyclic plastic response of nickel-based superalloy at room and at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, Jaroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Chlupova, Alice; Tobias, Jiri; Petras, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-based cast IN 738LC superalloy has been cycled at increasing strain amplitudes at room temperature and at 800 C. Hysteresis loops were analyzed using general statistical theory of the hysteresis loop. Dislocation structures of specimens cycled at these two temperatures were studied. They revealed localization of the cyclic plastic strain in the thin bands which are rich in dislocations. The analysis of the loop shapes yields effective stresses of the matrix and of the precipitates and the probability density function of the critical internal stresses at both temperatures. It allows to find the sources of the high cyclic stress.

  16. Investigation of grain competitive growth during directional solidification of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xinbao [National Energy R and D Center of Clean and High-Efficiency Fossil-Fired Power Generation Technology, Xi' an Thermal Power Research Institute Co. Ltd., Xi' an (China); Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China); Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jun [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an (China)

    2015-08-15

    Grain competitive growth of nickel-based single-crystal superalloys during directional solidification was investigated. A detailed characterization of bi-crystals' competitive growth was performed to explore the competitive grain evolution. It was found that high withdrawal rate improved the efficiency of grain competitive growth. The overgrowth rate was increased when the misorientation increased. Four patterns of grain competitive growth with differently oriented dispositions were characterized. The results indicated that the positive branching of the dendrites played a significant role in the competitive growth process. The effect of crystal orientation and heat flow on the competitive growth can be attributed to the blocking mechanism between the adjacent grains. (orig.)

  17. Welding Metallurgy of Nickel-Based Superalloys for Power Plant Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, David C.

    Increasing the steam temperature and pressure in coal-fired power plants is a perpetual goal driven by the pursuit of increasing thermal cycle efficiency and reducing fuel consumption and emissions. The next target steam operating conditions, which are 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi) are known as Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC), and can reduce CO2 emissions up to 13% but this cannot be achieved with traditional power plant construction materials. The use of precipitation-strengthened Nickel-based alloys (superalloys) is required for components which will experience the highest operating temperatures. The leading candidate superalloys for power plant construction are alloys 740H, 282, and 617. Superalloys have excellent elevated temperature properties due to careful microstructural design which is achieved through very specific heat treatments, often requiring solution annealing or homogenization at temperatures of 1100 °C or higher. A series of postweld heat treatments was investigated and it was found that homogenization steps before aging had no noticeable effect on weld metal microhardness, however; there were clear improvements in weld metal homogeneity. The full abstract can be viewed in the document itself.

  18. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation

  19. Effects of cobalt on structure, microchemistry and properties of a wrought nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cobalt on the basic mechanical properties and microstructure of wrought nickel-base superalloys has been investigated experimentally by systematically replacing cobalt by nickel in Udimet 700 (17 wt% Co) commonly used in gas turbine (jet engine) applications. It is shown that the room temperature tensile yield strength and tensile strength only slightly decrease in fine-grained (disk) alloys and are basically unaffected in coarse-grained (blading) alloys as cobalt is removed. Creep and stress rupture resistances at 760 C are found to be unaffected by cobalt level in the blading alloys and decrease sharply only when the cobalt level is reduced below 8 vol% in the disk alloys. The effect of cobalt is explained in terms of gamma prime strengthening kinetics.

  20. Prediction of recrystallisation in single crystal nickel-based superalloys during investment casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwisawas Chinnapat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of gas turbines for jet propulsion and power generation requires the manufacture of turbine blades from single crystal nickel-based superalloys, most typically using investment casting. During the necessary subsequent solution heat treatment, the formation of recrystallised grains can occur. The introduction of grain boundaries into a single crystal component is potentially detrimental to performance, and therefore manufacturing processes and/or component geometries should be designed to prevent their occurrence. If the boundaries have very low strength, they can degrade the creep and fatigue properties. The root cause for recrystallisation is microscale plasticity caused by differential thermal contraction of metal, mould and core; when the plastic deformation is sufficiently large, recrystallisation takes place. In this work, numerical and thermo-mechanical modelling is carried out, with the aim of establishing computational methods by which recrystallisation during the heat treatment of single crystal nickel-based superalloys can be predicted and prevented prior to their occurrence. Elasto-plastic law is used to predict the plastic strain necessary for recrystallisation. The modelling result shows that recrystallisation is most likely to occur following 1.5–2.5% plastic strain applied at temperatures between 1000 ∘C and 1300 ∘C; this is validated with tensile tests at these elevated temperatures. This emphasises that high temperature deformation is more damaging than low temperature deformation.

  1. Cyclic Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Nickel-Iron-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Adam Khan, M.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.

    2018-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of nickel-iron-based superalloy are studied at 900 ° and 1000 °C. The significant role of alloying elements with respect to the exposed medium is studied in detail. The mass change per unit area was catastrophic for the samples exposed at 1000 °C and gradual increase in mass change was observed at 900 °C for both the environments. The exposed samples were further investigated with SEM, EDS and XRD analysis to study the metallurgical characteristics. The surface morphology has expressed the in situ nature of the alloy and its affinity toward the environment. The EDS and XRD analysis has evidently proved the presence of protective oxides formation on prolonged exposure at elevated temperature. The predominant oxide formed during the exposure at high temperature has a major contribution toward the protection of the samples. The nickel-iron-based superalloy is less prone to oxidation and hot corrosion when compared to the existing alloy in gas turbine engine simulating marine environment.

  2. Synergistic effect of rhenium and ruthenium in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, X.X. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, C.Y., E-mail: cywang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, X.N. [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yan, P. [Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Z., E-mail: zezhang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Re and Ru synergistic effects in nickel-based superalloys are investigated. • The Al site occupation of Re atom in the γ′ phase is observed directly. • The addition of Ru results in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase. -- Abstract: The microstructures of ternary Ni–Al–Re and quaternary Ni–Al–Re–Ru single-crystal alloys were investigated at atomic and electronic levels to clarify the synergistic effect of Re and Ru in nickel-based single-crystal superalloys. In the Ni–Al–Re alloy, it was directly observed that Re atom occupied the Al site of γ′ phase. In the Ni–Al–Re–Ru alloy, the mechanisms of Re repartition between γ and γ′ phases were proposed. In the dendritic cores, high concentrations of Re exceeded the solubility limit of γ′ phase and partitioned to γ phase, which led to the homogenization. In the interdendritic regions, Ru resulted in the repartitioning of Re to γ phase which was proved by transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations.

  3. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory R.

    2000-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine engines is a pervasive problem affecting a wide range of components and materials. HCF is currently the primary cause of component failures in gas turbine aircraft engines. Turbine blades in high performance aircraft and rocket engines are increasingly being made of single crystal nickel superalloys. Single-crystal Nickel-base superalloys were developed to provide superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys previously used in the production of turbine blades and vanes. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. PWA1493, identical to PWA1480, but with tighter chemical constituent control, is used in the NASA SSME (Space Shuttle Main Engine) alternate turbopump, a liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. Objectives for this paper are motivated by the need for developing failure criteria and fatigue life evaluation procedures for high temperature single crystal components, using available fatigue data and finite element modeling of turbine blades. Using the FE (finite element) stress analysis results and the fatigue life relations developed, the effect of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientations on life is determined, at critical blade locations. The most advantageous crystal orientation for a given blade design is determined. Results presented demonstrates that control of secondary and primary crystallographic orientation has the potential to optimize blade design by increasing its resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  4. Morphology Dependent Flow Stress in Nickel-Based Superalloys in the Multi-Scale Crystal Plasticity Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriyar Keshavarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a framework to obtain the flow stress of nickel-based superalloys as a function of γ-γ’ morphology. The yield strength is a major factor in the design of these alloys. This work provides additional effects of γ’ morphology in the design scope that has been adopted for the model developed by authors. In general, the two-phase γ-γ’ morphology in nickel-based superalloys can be divided into three variables including γ’ shape, γ’ volume fraction and γ’ size in the sub-grain microstructure. In order to obtain the flow stress, non-Schmid crystal plasticity constitutive models at two length scales are employed and bridged through a homogenized multi-scale framework. The multi-scale framework includes two sub-grain and homogenized grain scales. For the sub-grain scale, a size-dependent, dislocation-density-based finite element model (FEM of the representative volume element (RVE with explicit depiction of the γ-γ’ morphology is developed as a building block for the homogenization. For the next scale, an activation-energy-based crystal plasticity model is developed for the homogenized single crystal of Ni-based superalloys. The constitutive models address the thermo-mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloys for a large temperature range and include orientation dependencies and tension-compression asymmetry. This homogenized model is used to obtain the morphology dependence on the flow stress in nickel-based superalloys and can significantly expedite crystal plasticity FE simulations in polycrystalline microstructures, as well as higher scale FE models in order to cast and design superalloys.

  5. Transformed model fitting. A straightforward approach to evaluation of anisotropic SANS from nickel-base single-crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strunz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Schematic description of a special evaluation procedure for data treatment of anisotropic Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) is presented. The use of the discussed procedure is demonstrated on a data taken from investigation of precipitation in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. (author)

  6. Emission spectral analysis of nickel-base superalloys with fixed time intergration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okochi, Haruno; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sudo, Emiko

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of multielements (C, B, Mo, Ta, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Nb, Cu, Ti, Zr, and Al) in nickel-base superalloys (Ni: 68 -- 76%) was performed by emission spectral analysis. At first, samples which had various nickel contents (ni: 68 -- 76%) were prepared by using JAERI R9, nickel and other metals (Fe, Co, or Cr). It was confirmed that in the internal standard method (Ni II 227.73 nm), analytical values of all the elements examined decreased with a decrease of the integration time (ca. 3.9 -- 4.6 s), that is, an increase of the nickel content. On the other hand, according to the fixed time integration method, elements except for C, Mo, and Cr were not interfered within the range of nickel contents examined. A series of nickel-base binary alloys (Al, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Nb, Mo, and W series) were prepared by high frequency induction melting and the centrifugal casting method and formulae for correcting interferences with near spectral lines were obtained. Various synthetic samples were prepared and analysed by this method. The equations of calibration curves were derived from the data for standard samples (JAERI R1 -- R6, NBS 1189, 1203 -- 1205, and B.S. 600B) by curve fitting with orthogonal polynomials using a computer. For the assessment of this method studied, the F-test was performed by comparison of variances of both analytical values of standard and synthetic samples. The surfaces of specimens were polished with a belt grinder using No. 80 of alumina or silicon carbide endless-paper. The preburn period and integration one were decided at 5 and 6 s respectively. A few standard samples which gave worse reproducibility in emission spectral analysis was investigated with an optical microscope and an electron probe X-ray microanalyser. (author)

  7. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora R, L.

    1997-01-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on γ precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: a) amount and morphology of precipitates; b) size and shape of grains; and c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. The cavity growth rate, was

  8. Observations of cellular transformation products in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Ralph, B.

    1979-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify the products in cellularly transformed regions of alloys based on the Nimonic 80 A composition. The commercial alloy is shown to undergo a small degree of cellular transformation even after conventional heat treatments, while recrystallization is found to increase the incidence of this reaction type. Low carbon versions of this alloy demonstrate cellular precipitation over a wider range of heat treatments. It is shown that the cellular reaction may take place in these alloys under a variety of different conditions and with a range of driving forces. Reasons for this unexpected behaviour are offeredm as is a suggestion as to why the cellular reaction occurs on a local scale. (author)

  9. The microstructure of heat-treated nickel-based superalloy 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, Lawrence; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Guetaz, Laure; Leitner, Harald; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Stockinger, Martin; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of thermally aged nickel-based 718Plus superalloy is investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Solution annealing at 980 °C for 30 min is followed by either the standard quenching to room temperature or quenching directly to 788 °C, before isothermal aging at 788 °C for four hours. Micro-hardness and yield strength are measured to compare the effects of the two variations. The size and phase fraction of γ′ precipitates are measured using dark-field TEM and related to the hardness and yield strength through a theoretical model based on coherency and antiphase boundary effects. A population of very small sub-precipitates is observed and the larger γ′ precipitates are investigated in detail using high resolution scanning TEM to reveal information about the chemical ordering

  10. Characterization and Modeling of Microstructure Development in Nickel-base Superalloy Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Miller, M.K.; Vitek, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Welding is important for economical reuse and reclamation of used and failed nickel-base superalloy blades, respectively [1]. Solidification and solid state decomposition of {gamma} (Face Centered Cubic, FCC) phase into {gamma}{prime} (L1{sub 2}-ordered) phase control the properties of these welds. In previous publications, the microstructure development in electron beam welds of PWA-1480 alloy [2] and laser beam welds of CMSX-4 alloy [3] were presented. These results showed that the weld cracking in these alloys were associated with low melting point eutectic at the dendrite boundaries [1,2]. The eutectic-{gamma}{prime} precipitation was reduced at rapid weld cooling rates and the partitioning between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} phase was found to be far from equilibrium conditions [3,4]. This observation was related to diffusional growth of {gamma}{prime} precipitate into {gamma} phase. Subsequent to the above work, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} phase from {gamma} phase were evaluated during continuous cooling conditions [5]. The results show that the number density of {gamma} precipitates increased with an increase in cooling rate. However, the details of this decomposition and also the fine-scale elemental partitioning characteristics between {gamma}-{gamma}{prime} were not investigated. In this paper, the precipitation characteristics of {gamma}{prime} from {gamma} during continuous cooling conditions were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe field ion microscopy. In addition, thermodynamic and kinetic models were used to describe microstructure development in Ni-base superalloy welds.

  11. A phenomenological creep model for nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siwen; Wollgramm, Philip; Eggeler, Gunther; Ma, Anxin; Schreuer, Jürgen; Hartmaier, Alexander

    2018-07-01

    For the purpose of good reproduction and prediction of creep deformation of nickel-base single crystal superalloys at intermediate temperatures, a phenomenological creep model is developed, which accounts for the typical γ/γ‧ microstructure and the individual thermally activated elementary deformation processes in different phases. The internal stresses from γ/γ‧ lattice mismatch and deformation heterogeneity are introduced through an efficient method. The strain hardening, the Orowan stress, the softening effect due to dislocation climb along γ/γ‧ interfaces and the formation of dislocation ribbons, and the Kear–Wilsdorf-lock effect as key factors in the main flow rules are formulated properly. By taking the cube slip in \\{100\\} slip systems and \\{111\\} twinning mechanisms into account, the creep behavior for [110] and [111] loading directions are well captured. Without specific interaction and evolution of dislocations, the simulations of this model achieve a good agreement with experimental creep results and reproduce temperature, stress and crystallographic orientation dependences. It can also be used as the constitutive relation at material points in finite element calculations with complex boundary conditions in various components of superalloys to predict creep behavior and local stress distributions.

  12. The Formation and Evolution of Shear Bands in Plane Strain Compressed Nickel-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation and evolution of shear bands in Inconel 718 nickel-base superalloy under plane strain compression was investigated in the present work. It is found that the propagation of shear bands under plane strain compression is more intense in comparison with conventional uniaxial compression. The morphology of shear bands was identified to generally fall into two categories: in “S” shape at severe conditions (low temperatures and high strain rates and “X” shape at mild conditions (high temperatures and low strain rates. However, uniform deformation at the mesoscale without shear bands was also obtained by compressing at 1050 °C/0.001 s−1. By using the finite element method (FEM, the formation mechanism of the shear bands in the present study was explored for the special deformation mode of plane strain compression. Furthermore, the effect of processing parameters, i.e., strain rate and temperature, on the morphology and evolution of shear bands was discussed following a phenomenological approach. The plane strain compression attempt in the present work yields important information for processing parameters optimization and failure prediction under plane strain loading conditions of the Inconel 718 superalloy.

  13. The effects of thermomechanical history on the microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S., E-mail: 485354@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Li, W. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Coleman, M. [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Johnston, R., E-mail: r.johnston@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    The effect of thermo-mechanical history on hot compression behaviour and resulting microstructures of a nickel base superalloy is presented. Hot compression tests were carried out on HAYNES® 282® specimens to varying strains from 0.1 to 0.8. Both single pass and multi-pass tests were completed. 60 min inter-pass times were utilized to accurately replicate industrial forging practices. The effect of dynamic, metadynamic and static recrystallization during inter-pass times on flow stress was investigated. The resulting microstructures were analysed using scanning electron, optical microscopy and EBSD to relate grain size and homogeneity with flow stress data. The study showed a negligible difference between multi-pass and single pass tests for strain increments above 0.2. Therefore, when modelling similar low strain and strain rate forging processes in HAYNES® 282®, previous forging steps can be ignored.

  14. Tensile behavior of nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xinhong, E-mail: xiongxh@whut.edu.cn [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Quan, Dunmiao; Dai, Pengdan; Wang, Zhiping [School of Logistics Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430063 (China); Zhang, Qiaoxin [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yue, Zhufeng [School of Mechanics Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-06-11

    Tensile behavior of the nickel-base single-crystal superalloy DD6 was studied from room temperature to 1020 °C. The plate specimens were along [001] orientation parallel to the loading axis in tension. The microstructures on the surface and fracture morphology were investigated after tensile test to rupture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the present investigation indicate that the yield strength at 650 °C is superior to that at room temperature, 850 °C and 1020 °C. Low ductility and serrated flow in stress–strain curves were also observed at 650 °C. The microstructures on the surface of the plate specimens and fracture morphology observation indicated that localized slip which resulted in glide plane decohesion caused the low ductility of DD6 alloy.

  15. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnken, N., E-mail: n.warnken@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ma, D. [Foundry Institute of the RWTH-Aachen, Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Drevermann, A. [ACCESS e.V., Intzestr. 5, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Reed, R.C. [University of Birmingham, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fries, S.G. [SGF Consultancy, 52064 Aachen (Germany)] [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Steinbach, I. [ICAMS, Ruhr University Bochum, Stiepeler Strasse 129, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  16. Phase-field modelling of as-cast microstructure evolution in nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnken, N.; Ma, D.; Drevermann, A.; Reed, R.C.; Fries, S.G.; Steinbach, I.

    2009-01-01

    A modelling approach is presented for the prediction of microstructure evolution during directional solidification of nickel-based superalloys. A phase-field model is coupled to CALPHAD thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) databases, so that a multicomponent alloy representative of those used in industrial practice can be handled. Dendritic growth and the formation of interdendritic phases in an isothermal (2-D) cross-section are simulated for a range of solidification parameters. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the solidification input parameters is investigated. It is demonstrated that the predicted patterns of microsegregation obtained from the simulations compare well to the experimental ones; moreover, an experimentally observed change in the solidification sequence is correctly predicted. The extension of the model to 3-D simulations is demonstrated. Simulations of the homogenization of the as-cast structure during heat treatment are presented.

  17. Dynamic precipitation of nickel-based superalloys undergoing severe deformation below the solvus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotnik, Andrzej; Rokicki, Pawel; Mrowka-Nowotnik, Grazyna; Sieniawski, Jan [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Material Science

    2015-07-15

    The authors performed uniaxial compression tests of nickel-based superalloys: single crystal CMSX-4, also precipitation hardened; Inconel 718 and X750, at temperatures below the γ' solvus, in order to study the effect of temperature and strain rate on their flow stress and microstructural development. On the basis of the obtained flow stress values, the activation energy of a high-temperature deformation process was estimated. Microstructural observations of the deformed samples at high temperatures, previously solution heat treated and aged CMSX-4 and Inconel alloys revealed non-uniform deformation effects. Distribution of either molybdenum- or niobium-rich carbides was found to be affected by localized flow within the investigated strain range at relatively low deformation temperatures, 720-850 C. Microstructural examination of the alloys also showed that shear banding and cavity growth were responsible for the decrease in flow stress and a specimen fracture at larger strains.

  18. Recent Advances in Creep Modelling of the Nickel Base Superalloy, Alloy 720Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William; Whittaker, Mark; Williams, Steve

    2013-03-20

    Recent work in the creep field has indicated that the traditional methodologies involving power law equations are not sufficient to describe wide ranging creep behaviour. More recent approaches such as the Wilshire equations however, have shown promise in a wide range of materials, particularly in extrapolation of short term results to long term predictions. In the aerospace industry however, long term creep behaviour is not critical and more focus is required on the prediction of times to specific creep strains. The current paper illustrates the capability of the Wilshire equations to recreate full creep curves in a modern nickel superalloy. Furthermore, a finite-element model based on this method has been shown to accurately predict stress relaxation behaviour allowing more accurate component lifing.

  19. TOPSIS based parametric optimization of laser micro-drilling of TBC coated nickel based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, K.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Manivannan, R.

    2018-06-01

    The technique for order of preference by similarity ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach was used for optimizing the process parameters of laser micro-drilling of nickel superalloy C263 with Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC). Plasma spraying was used to deposit the TBC and a pico-second Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to drill the specimens. Drilling angle, laser scan speed and number of passes were considered as input parameters. Based on the machining conditions, Taguchi L8 orthogonal array was used for conducting the experimental runs. The surface roughness and surface crack density (SCD) were considered as the output measures. The surface roughness was measured using 3D White Light Interferometer (WLI) and the crack density was measured using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The optimized result achieved from this approach suggests reduced surface roughness and surface crack density. The holes drilled at an inclination angle of 45°, laser scan speed of 3 mm/s and 400 number of passes found to be optimum. From the Analysis of variance (ANOVA), inclination angle and number of passes were identified as the major influencing parameter. The optimized parameter combination exhibited a 19% improvement in surface finish and 12% reduction in SCD.

  20. Hot isostatic pressing of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys: Mechanism of pore closure and effect on Mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epishin Alexander I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pore annihilation was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4. HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa were interrupted at different times, then the specimens were investigated by TEM, metallography and density measurements. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined. The pore closure mechanism was identified as plastic deformation on the octahedral slip systems. A model describing the kinetics of pore closure has been developed on the base of crystal plasticity and large strain theory. Mechanical tests with the superalloy CMSX-4 and the Ru-containing superalloy VGM4 showed, that HIP significantly increases the fatigue life at low temperatures but has no effect on creep strength.

  1. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Gupta, Vipul [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Huang, Shenyan [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Soare, Monica [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Zhao, Pengyang [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States); Wang, Yunzhi [GE Global Research, NIskayuna, NY (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The goal of this project is to model long-term creep performance for nickel-base superalloy weldments in high temperature power generation systems. The project uses physics-based modeling methodologies and algorithms for predicting alloy properties in heterogeneous material structures. The modeling methodology will be demonstrated on a gas turbine combustor liner weldment of Haynes 282 precipitate-strengthened nickel-base superalloy. The major developments are: (1) microstructure-property relationships under creep conditions and microstructure characterization (2) modeling inhomogeneous microstructure in superalloy weld (3) modeling mesoscale plastic deformation in superalloy weld and (4) a constitutive creep model that accounts for weld and base metal microstructure and their long term evolution. The developed modeling technology is aimed to provide a more efficient and accurate assessment of a material’s long-term performance compared with current testing and extrapolation methods. This modeling technology will also accelerate development and qualification of new materials in advanced power generation systems. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from October 2014 to December 2016.

  2. Effect of Microstructure on Electrical Conductivity of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie; Annamalai, Swaminathan; Fan, Zheng; Chan, Wai Luen

    2017-08-01

    Eddy current spectroscopy is one of the promising non-destructive methods for residual stress evaluation along the depth of subsurface-treated nickel-base superalloys, but it is limited by its sensitivity to microstructure. This paper studies the influence of microstructure on the electrical conductivity of two nickel-base alloys, RR1000 and IN100. Different microstructures were attained using heat treatment cycles ranging from solution annealing to aging, with varying aging time and temperature. Eddy current conductivity was measured using conductivity probes of frequencies ranging between 1 and 5 MHz. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the microstructure was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. For the heat treatment conditions between the solution annealing and the peak aging, the electrical conductivity of RR1000 increased by 6.5 pct, which is duly substantiated by the corresponding increase in hardness (12 pct) and the volume fraction of γ' precipitates (41 pct). A similar conductivity rise of 2.6 pct for IN100 is in agreement with the increased volume fraction of γ' precipitates (12.5 pct) despite an insignificant hardening between the heat treatment conditions. The observed results with RR1000 and IN100 highlight the sensitivity of electrical conductivity to the minor microstructure variations, especially the volume fraction of γ' precipitates, within the materials.

  3. Correlation Between the Microstructural Defects and Residual Stress in a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy During Different Creep Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fangjie; Wu, Erdong; Zhang, Changsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhong, Zhengye; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Bo; Hofmann, Michael; Gan, Weimin; Sun, Guangai

    2018-03-01

    The present work attempts to reveal the correlation between the microstructural defects and residual stress in the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, both of which play the significant role on properties and performance. Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the microstructural defects and residual stresses in a single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy, which was subjected to creeping under 220 MPa and 1000 °C for different times. The measured superlattice and fundamental lattice reflections confirm that the mismatch and tetragonal distortions with c/a > 1 exist in the SC superalloy. At the initially unstrained state, there exists the angular distortion between γ and γ' phases with small triaxial compressive stresses, ensuring the structural stability of the superalloy. After creeping, the tetragonal distortion for the γ phase is larger than that for the γ' phase. With increasing the creeping time, the mismatch between γ and γ' phases increases to the maximum, then decreases gradually and finally remains unchanged. The macroscopic residual stress shows a similar behavior with the mismatch, indicating the correlation between them. Based on the model of shear and dislocations, the evolution of microstructural defects and residual stress are reasonably explained. The effect of shear is dominant at the primary creep stage, which greatly enlarges the mismatch and the residual stress. The dislocations weaken the effect of shear for the further creep stage, resulting in the decrease of the mismatch and relaxation of the residual stress. Those findings add some helpful understanding into the microstructure-performance relationship in the SC nickel-based superalloy, which might provide the insight to materials design and applications.

  4. On Post-Weld Heat Treatment of a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy Joint by Linear Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT, i.e. solution treatment + primary aging + secondary aging (I, secondary aging (II, and primary aging + secondary aging (III, were applied to a single crystal nickel-based superalloy joint made with linear friction welding (LFW. The results show that the grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ coarsen seriously and the primary γ' phase in the TMAZ precipitates unevenly after PWHT I. The primary γ' phase in the TMAZ and weld zone (WZ precipitates insufficiently and fine granular secondary γ' phase is observed in the matrix after PWHT II. After PWHT III, the primary γ' phase precipitates more sufficiently and evenly compared to PWHTs I and II. Moreover, the grains in the TMAZ have not coarsened seriously and fine granular secondary γ' phase is not found after PWHT III. PWHT III seems more suitable to the LFWed single crystal nickel-based superalloy joints when performing PWHT.

  5. A continuum approach to combined $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ evolution and dislocation plasticity in Nickel-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ronghai; Zaiser, Michael; Sandfeld, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Creep in single crystal Nickel-based superalloys has been a topic of interest since decades, and nowadays simulations are more and more able to complement experiments. In these alloys, the $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ phase microstructure co-evolves with the system of dislocations under load, and understanding the mutual interactions is essential for understanding the resulting creep properties. Predictive modeling thus requires multiphysics frameworks capable of modeling and simulating both the phase an...

  6. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  7. Nickel-base superalloy powder metallurgy: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.M.; Athey, R.L.; Moore, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Development of powder metallurgical methods for fabrication of Ni-base superalloy turbine engine disks is reviewed. Background studies are summarized and current state-of-art is discussed for the F100 jet engine, advanced applications, and forging processes

  8. Near-surface residual stresses and microstructural changes after turning of a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlauer, Christian

    2003-07-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are precipitation hardened alloys with complex compositions. They are used in aircraft engines and land-based gas turbines in load bearing structural components that are exposed to high temperatures. Failure mechanisms in this environment are high and low cycle fatigue, creep, and corrosion. During manufacturing, residual stresses are often introduced into the material due to inhomogeneous plastic deformations, both intentionally and unintentionally. One such manufacturing process is metal cutting, which introduces residual stresses in the surface layer. The stress state in the near-surface zone of components is of special interest as the surface often experiences peak loads and cracks have their starting point there. In this thesis, near-surface residual stress distributions and microstructural changes are studied in the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 for two different turning operations, face grooving and facing. Process variables are in both cases cutting speed and feed that have been varied between (10 and 1200) m/min and (0.01 and 0.5) mm, respectively. The first turning technique face grooving, which gives cutting conditions similar to orthogonal cutting, showed a clear dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed. The tensile stress at the surface, the maximum compressive stress below the surface, and the thickness of the affected layer increase with increasing cutting speed. The tensile stresses are constrained to a thin surface layer and compressive residual stresses below the surface dominate the depth profile of the residual stresses. Only at low cutting speed, residual stresses were largely avoided. The second turning technique facing confirmed the dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed and revealed a similar dependency on the feed. Microstructural investigations of near-surface cross-sections by means of transmission electron microscopy showed a zone where the grains had undergone plastic

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel-Base Superalloy IN100 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2018-01-01

    Scanning laser epitaxy (SLE) is a laser powder bed fusion (LPBF)-based additive manufacturing process that uses a high-power laser to consolidate metal powders facilitating the fabrication of three-dimensional objects. In the present study, SLE is used to produce samples of IN100, a high-γ' non-weldable nickel-base superalloy on similar chemistry substrates. A thorough analysis is performed using various advanced material characterization techniques such as high-resolution optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers microhardness measurements to characterize and compare the quality of the SLE-fabricated IN100 deposits with the investment cast IN100 substrates. The results show that the IN100 deposits have a finer γ/γ' microstructure, weaker elemental segregation, and higher microhardness compared with the substrate. Through this study, it is demonstrated that the SLE process has tremendous potential in the repair and manufacture of gas turbine hot-section components.

  10. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Tobias; Rommel, Daniel; Scherm, Florian; Gorywoda, Marek; Glatzel, Uwe

    2017-03-10

    Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co-28Cr-9W-1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE) study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  11. Laser Cladding of Ultra-Thin Nickel-Based Superalloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser cladding is a well-established process to apply coatings on metals. However, on substrates considerably thinner than 1 mm it is only rarely described in the literature. In this work 200 µm thin sheets of nickel-based superalloy 718 are coated with a powder of a cobalt-based alloy, Co–28Cr–9W–1.5Si, by laser cladding. The process window is very narrow, therefore, a precisely controlled Yb fiber laser was used. To minimize the input of energy into the substrate, lines were deposited by setting single overlapping points. In a design of experiments (DoE study, the process parameters of laser power, laser spot area, step size, exposure time, and solidification time were varied and optimized by examining the clad width, weld penetration, and alloying depth. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by optical microscope (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Similarly to laser cladding of thicker substrates, the laser power shows the highest influence on the resulting clad. With a higher laser power, the clad width and alloying depth increase, and with a larger laser spot area the weld penetration decreases. If the process parameters are controlled precisely, laser cladding of such thin sheets is manageable.

  12. The structure and properties of a nickel-base superalloy produced by osprey atomization-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Rodger H.

    1986-04-01

    The production of a nickel-base superalloy, René* 80, by the Osprey atomization-deposition process has been investigated. Dense (>99 pct) material with a fine-grained equiaxed microstructure was deposited using either argon or nitrogen as the atomizing gas. Defects present in the material included a chill region at the collector plate interface, entrapped recirculated particles, porosity, and ceramic particles from the melting and dispensing system. In contrast to other rapid solidification techniques, low oxygen pick-ups are noted in the current technique. Tensile strengths above those displayed by castings are found in both nitrogen and argon atomized material, and in both the as-deposited and heat treated conditions. In addition, no profound mid-temperature ductility loss is displayed by this low oxygen material, in contrast to results on other rapidly solidified material with high oxygen contents. These results are explained in terms of oxygen embrittlement. In view of the excellent properties measured, the attractive economics of the process, and the fact that fine control of the gas/metal flow ratio is shown to be unnecessary, it is concluded that atomization-deposition presents an attractive potential production route for advanced alloys.

  13. Lattice misfit during ageing of a polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.M.; Yan, L.; Marquis, E.A.; Connor, L.D.; Ciardiello, J.J.; Evans, A.D.; Stone, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal evolution of the lattice parameters and lattice misfit of an advanced polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy have been studied in situ during an ageing heat treatment using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. During ageing, the γ and γ′ lattice parameters were both observed to decrease, a trend that cannot be attributed to a loss of coherency alone. Phase-extracted γ′ replicated this behaviour. Atom probe tomography was used to measure the compositional changes between the start and end of the ageing heat treatment. Using these data, a thermodynamic assessment was made using the software ThermoCalc of the structural change across the interface between γ and γ′. Subsequently, the unconstrained lattice parameters were estimated and were shown to be in good agreement with the X-ray diffraction measurements. Thus, the observed anomalous lattice misfit behaviour was concluded to be dominated by elemental exchange between the γ and γ′ phases during ageing

  14. Effects of cobalt on creep rupture properties and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Jin, T.; Jia, J.H.; Liu, J.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The influences of cobalt (Co) on creep rupture lives and dislocation structures in nickel base superalloys with and without rhenium (Re) are investigated. The creep rupture test conditions were high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), intermediate temperature and stress (982 °C, 1010 °C) and low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa). The results show that increasing Co content could enhance the creep rupture lives at low and intermediate temperature, and does not degrade the creep rupture lives of alloys at high temperature. In Re-containing alloys, at high temperature low stress (1100 °C/150 MPa), the effects of Co on the dislocation structures are negligible, while at low temperature high stress (850 °C/586 MPa), stacking faults are generated in alloy with 12% Co, and in alloy with 3% Co and free of Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs. In Re-free alloys, at intermediate temperature and stress (1010 °C/248 MPa), large quantities of stacking faults appear in alloy without Co, while in alloy having 12% Co, gamma prime particles are sheared by dislocation pairs coupled by anti-phase boundary (APB). The gamma prime sheared by stacking faults or by dislocation pairs coupled by APB depends on the competition of stacking faults energy and APB energy which is affected by temperature and the interaction of Re and Co

  15. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.X.; Liu, J.D.; Qiao, H.C.; Zhou, Y.Z.; Jin, T.; Zhao, J.B.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  16. Effect of laser shock on tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.X. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, J.D., E-mail: jdliu@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Qiao, H.C. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhou, Y.Z. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jin, T., E-mail: tjin@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhao, J.B. [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 114 Nanta Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-02-16

    This investigation focused on the tensile deformation behavior of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy, both in virgin condition and after laser shock processing (LSP) with varied technology parameters. Nanoindention tests were carried out on the sectioned specimens after LSP treatment to characterize the surface strengthening effect. Stress strain curves of tensile specimens were analyzed, and microstructural observations of the fracture surface and the longitudinal cross-sections of ruptured specimens were performed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), in an effort to clarify the fracture mechanisms. The results show that a surface hardening layer with the thickness of about 0.3–0.6 mm was gained by the experimental alloys after LSP treatment, but the formation of surface hardening layer had not affected the yield strength. Furthermore, fundamental differences in the plastic responses at different temperatures due to LSP treatment had been discovered. At 700 °C, the slip deformation was held back when it extended to the surface hardening layer and the ensuing slip steps improved the plasticity; however, at 1000 °C, surface hardening layer hindered the macro necking, which resulted in the relatively lower plasticity.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Three-Dimensional Braided Nickel-Based Superalloys Synthesized via Pack Cementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitz, Nicolas; Erdeniz, Dinc; Sharp, Keith W.; Dunand, David C.

    2018-03-01

    Braided tubes of Ni-based superalloys are fabricated via three-dimensional (3-D) braiding of ductile Ni-20Cr (wt pct) wires followed by post-textile gas-phase alloying with Al and Ti to create, after homogenization and aging, γ/ γ' strengthened lightweight, porous structures. Tensile tests reveal an increase in strength by 100 MPa compared to as-braided Ni-20Cr (wt pct). An interrupted tensile test, combined with X-ray tomographic scans between each step, sheds light on the failure behavior of the braided superalloy tubes.

  18. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-01-01

    a critical thickness (0.0005 in.). A diffusion barrier that exceeded this thickness would likely fail. The joint fabrication method must therefore mechanically bond the two materials causing little or no interdiffusion upon formation. Co-extrusion fits this description since it forms a mechanical joint between two materials by using heat and pressure. The two materials to be extruded are first assembled and sealed within a co-extrusion billet which is subsequently heated and then extruded through a die. For a production application, once the joint is formed, it is dejacketed to remove the outer canister. The remaining piece consists of two materials bonded together with a thin diffusion barrier. Therefore, the long-term stability of the joint is determined primarily by the kinetics of interdiffusion reaction between the two materials. An experimental design for co-extrusion of refractory metals and nickel-based superalloys was developed to evaluate this joining process and determine the long-term stability of the joints

  19. Microstructure evolution of a pre-compression nickel-base single crystal superalloy during tensile creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xingfu; Tian Sugui; Du Hongqiang; Yu Huichen; Wang Minggang; Shang Lijuan; Cui Shusen

    2009-01-01

    By pre-compressive creep treatment, the cubical γ' phase in the nickel-base single crystal superalloy is transformed into the P-type rafted structure along the direction parallel to the applied stress axis. And the microstructure evolution of the P-type γ' rafted alloy during tensile creep is investigated by means of the measurement of the creep curve and microstructure observation. Results show that the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy is transformed into the N-type structure along the direction perpendicular to the applied stress axis in the initial stage of the tensile creep. In the role of the tensile stress at high temperature, the change of the element's equilibrium concentration in the different regions of P-type γ' rafted phase occurs, which promotes the inhomogeneous coarsening of the P-type γ' phase. And then, the decomposition of the P-type γ' rafted phase in the alloy occurs to form the groove structure. As of result of the directional diffusion of the elements, the fact that the P-type γ' rafted phase is decomposed to transform into the cubical-like structure is attributed to the increment of the solute elements M(Ta, Al) chemical potential in the groove regions. Further, the lattice constriction in the horizontal interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase may repel out the Al and Ta atoms with higher radius due to the role of the shearing stress, and the lattice expanding in the upright interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase, due to the role of the tension stress, may trap the Ta and Al atoms, which promotes the directional growing of γ' phase into the N-type rafted structure. Therefore, the change of the strain energy density in different interfaces of the cubical-like γ' phase is thought to be the driving force of the elements diffusing and the directional coarsening of γ' phase

  20. Constitutive modeling of a nickel base superalloy -with a focus on gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almroth, Per

    2003-05-01

    Gas turbines are used where large amounts of energy is needed, typically as engines in aircraft, ferries and power plants. From an efficiency point of view it is desirable to increase the service temperature as much as possible. One of the limiting factors is then the maximum allowable metal temperatures in the turbine stages, primarily in the blades of the first stage, that are exposed to the highest gas temperatures. Specially designed materials are used to cope with these severe conditions, such as the nickel base superalloy IN792. In order to be able to design the components for higher temperatures and tighter tolerances, a detailed understanding and computationel models of the material behaviour is needed. The models presented in this work have been developed with the objective of being physically well motivated, and with the intention of avoiding excessive numbers of parameters. The influence of the parameters should also be as easy as possible to interpret. The models are to describe the behaviour of IN792, under conditions typically found for a gas turbine blade. Specifically the high- and intermediate temperature isothermal modelling of IN792 have been addressed. One main issue when characterising the material and calibrating the models is the use of relevant tests, that are representative of component conditions. Therefore isothermal tests with an eye on the typical environment of a turbine blade have been planned and performed. Using numerical optimization techniques the material parameters for the isothermal behaviour of IN792 at 650 deg and 850 deg have been estimated. The good overall calibration results for these specific temperatures, using the presented modeling concept and nonstandard constitutive tests, suggests that the model can describe the behaviour of IN792 in gas turbine hot part applications.

  1. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  2. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-01-15

    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  3. Determinants of the quality of brazed joints of nickel-based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Strzelczak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace industry, passenger safety depends on proper quality control at each production stage. The main responsibility for the correct operation of the aircraft lies within a gas turbine. A proper and rigorous selection of the gas turbine construction material is required, and in a further step, the method of joining the construction parts. Nickel superalloys due to the high heat resistance, strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, toughness and corrosion resistance, are very often used for the construction of a gas turbine engine. In the next step, the selection of joining method is necessary. This method must be able to achieve high-quality connections, resistant to work at high temperatures and corrosive environments. The most effective bonding method that meets the above conditions is brazing. In this study non-destructive (visual test and destructive (metallographic test of brazed joint of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 were conducted.

  4. Effect of tensile holds on the deformation behaviour of a nickel base superalloy subjected to low cycle fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrnik, J.; Semenak, J.; Wangyao, P.; Vrchovinsky, V.; Hornak, P. [Dept. of Materials Science, Technical Univ. of Kosice, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2002-07-01

    The deformation behaviour of the wrought nickel base superalloy EI698 VD has been investigated in conditions of low cycle fatigue. The tensile hold periods, imposing a constant stress into the fatigue loading, have been introduced at the maximum stress value. The individual hold periods were in the range of 1 minute to 10 hours. The fatigue tests were of tension-tension type defined by a stress ratio R = 0.027 and were conducted at temperature of 650 C. The tests were performed until fracture. The time to failure, the time to failure corresponding to total load at peak amplitude and the number of cycles to failure have been criteria to evaluate the deformation behaviour of the alloy subjected to complex cyclic creep loading. In order to predict lifetime of alloy, regarding the respective types cyclic test, the Kitagawa's modified the linear cumulative damage criterion has been considered. The two regression functions for applied hold period interval were proposed time to calculate the time to failure. The formulae can be used to predict the life of nickel base superalloy considering the specific conditions of low cycle fatigue with tensile hold period introduced at stress amplitude peaks. The failure analysis of fracture surfaces contributed to evaluation of the role of repeatedly reduced stress in damage process. (orig.)

  5. Effect of processing on microstructure and physical properties of three nickel-based superalloys with different hardening mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strondl, Annika; Frommeyer, Georg [Department of Materials Technology, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Klement, Uta [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Milenkovic, Srdjan; Schneider, Andre

    2012-07-15

    The nickel-based superalloys Inconel alloy 600, Udimet alloy 720, and Inconel alloy 718 were produced by electron beam melting (EBM), casting, and directional solidification (DS). The distance between dendrites and the size of the precipitates indicated the difference in solidification rates between the three processes. In this study, the solidification rate was fastest with EBM, closely followed by casting, whereas it was much slower with DS. In the directional solidified materials the <100> direction was the fastest and thus, preferred growth direction. The EBM samples show a sharp (001)[100] texture in the building direction and in the two scanning directions of the electron beam. Macrosegregation was observed in some cast and directionally solidified samples, but not in the EBM samples. The melting temperatures are in good agreement with literature and the narrow melting interval of IN600 compare to UD720 and IN718 might reduce the risk of incipient melting during EBM processing. Porosity was observed in the EBM samples and the reasons are discussed. However, EBM seems to be a feasible process route to produce nickel-based superalloys with well-defined texture, no macrosegregation and a rapidly solidified microstructure. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. MeCrAl coatings obtained by arc PVD and pack cementation processes on nickel base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Maciejny, A.; Formanek, B.; Mendala, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on obtaining and structure of high temperature resistance coatings on superalloys. The coatings were deposited on nickel and nickel base superalloys in two stages. During the first stage, the NiCr and NiCrHf coatings were obtained by arc-PVD method. Basic technology, bias, arc current, rotation, parameters of deposition of NiCr and MeCrHf coatings were defined. The high efficiency of deposition of both single and two sources was observed. The targets were made by vacuum melting and machining. An influence of targets chemical composition on coating structure and chemical coatings composition was described. The second stage was made by pack cementation HTLA (high temperature low activity) on 1323 K chromoaluminizing process. These arc-PVD and diffusion (pack cementation) connected processes permitted to obtain MeCrAl and MeCrAlHf type of coatings. The morphology, structure and microchemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. (orig.)

  7. Integrated computational microstructure engineering for single-crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Billie

    A methodology that integrates the phase field model with simpler models was developed to study the early stages of microstructural development in nickel base superalloys under non-isothermal conditions, allowing for faster, more comprehensive examination of the experimental system. Additionally, the parameters required for calibrating a phase field model were examined for uncertainty, and a comprehensive method for linking experimental data to a model was developed. The methodology developed was applied to analyze the formation of bimodal particle size distributions during linear continuous cooling. The dynamic competition for supersaturation by growth of existing precipitates and nucleation of new particles was modeled. The nucleation rate was calculated according to classical nucleation theory as function of local supersaturation and temperature. The depletion of matrix super-saturation by growth of existing particles was calculated from fully diffusion-controlled precipitate growth in an infinite matrix. Phase field simulations of gamma' precipitation in a binary Ni-Al alloy were performed under continuous cooling conditions. Then the average and maximum matrix supersaturations were calculated and plotted onto the contours of nucleation rate and growth rate in concentration and temperature space. These methods were used iteratively to identify the window for bimodal particle size distributions. Combining the models of different complexities produced a much more comprehensive understanding of the competing dynamics involved early in microstructure formation. A systemic method for calibrating a model to experimental alloy systems was developed. Calibrated to isothermal aging data along with literature, database and parametric values, a phase field model reproduced the precipitation kinetics. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques were developed to control the influence of uncertainty in the original data sources for model inputs. Using more data sources than

  8. A model for life predictions of nickel-base superalloys in high-temperature low cycle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoski, Glenn R.; Pelloux, Regis M.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive characterization of low-cycle fatigue damage mechanisms was performed on polycrystalline Rene 80 and IN100 tested in the temperature range from 871 to 1000 C. Low-cycle fatigue life was found to be dominated by propagation of microcracks to a critical size governed by the maximum tensile stress. A model was developed which incorporates a threshold stress for crack extension, a stress-based crack growth expression, and a failure criterion. The mathematical equivalence between this mechanistically based model and the strain-life low-cycle fatigue law was demonstrated using cyclic stress-strain relationships. The model was shown to correlate the high-temperature low-cycle fatigue data of the different nickel-base superalloys considered in this study.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser Welded Joints of DZ125L and IN718 Nickel Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Taosha; Wang, Lei; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the laser welded joint of DZ125L and IN718 nickel base superalloys were investigated. The results show that the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consists of fine dendrite structure with fine γ', Laves phases and MC carbides inhomogeneously distributed. The high welding temperature induces the partial dissolution of γ' in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DZ125L and liquation of grain boundaries in both of the HAZs. After post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), fine γ″ and γ' phases precipitate in the FZ, IN718 HAZ and IN718 base metal (BM), and fine γ' precipitate in the γ channel of the HAZ and BM of DZ125L. With tensile testing, the joints after PWHT show higher strengths than that of the weaker DZ125L alloy. Plastic deformation mainly concentrates in the weaker DZ125L and the joint finally fails in the DZ125L BM.

  10. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Nickel-base Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, K. A.; Kruzic, J. J.; Hawk, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at temperatures of 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 Hz and 0.25 Hz. Increasing the temperature from 550 to 750 °C caused the fatigue crack growth rates to increase from ~20 to 60% depending upon the applied stress intensity level. The effect of reducing the applied loading frequency increased the fatigue crack growth rates from ~20 to 70%, also depending upon the applied stress intensity range. The crack path was observed to be transgranular for the temperatures and frequencies used during fatigue crack growth rate testing. At 750 °C, there were some indications of limited intergranular cracking excursions at both loading frequencies; however, the extent of intergranular crack growth was limited and the cause is not understood at this time.

  11. On the Time-Temperature-Transformation Behavior of a New Dual-Superlattice Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, P. M.; Jones, N. G.; Hardy, M. C.; Stone, H. J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has identified compositions of nickel-based superalloys with microstructures containing appreciable and comparable volume fractions of γ' and γ″ precipitates. In this work, an alloy capable of forming such a dual-superlattice microstructure was subjected to a range of thermal exposures between 873 K and 1173 K (600 °C and 900 °C) for durations of 1 to 1000 hours. The microstructures and nature of the precipitating phases were characterized using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. These data have enabled the construction of a T-T-T diagram for the precipitating phases. Hardness measurements following each thermal exposure have identified the age-hardening behavior of this alloy and allowed preliminary mechanical properties to be assessed.

  12. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  13. Fatigue crack growth behavior of a new single crystal nickel-based superalloy (CMSX-4) at 650 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Putatunda, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    CMSX-4 is a recently developed rhenium containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy. This alloy has potential applications in many critical high-temperature applications such as turbine blades, rotors, nuclear reactors, etc. The fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold data of this material is extremely important for accurate life prediction, as well as failure safe design, at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth behavior of CMSX-4 has been studied at 650 C. The investigation also examined the influence of γ' precipitates (size and distribution) on the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold. The influence of load ratio on the fatigue crack growth rate and the fatigue threshold was also examined. Detailed fractographic studies were carried out to determine the crack growth mechanism in fatigue in the threshold region. Compact tension specimens were prepared from the single crystal nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4 with [001] orientation as the tensile loading axis direction. These specimens were given three different heat treatments to produce three different γ' precipitate sizes and distributions. Fatigue crack growth behavior of these specimens was studied at 650 C in air. The results of the present investigation indicate that the near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate decreases and that the fatigue threshold increases with an increase in the γ' precipitate size at 650 C. The fatigue threshold decreased linearly with an increase in load ratio. Fractographs at 650 C show a stage 2 type of crack growth along {100} type of crystal planes in the threshold region, and along {111} type of crystal planes in the high ΔK region

  14. Development of welding technology for improving the metallurgical and mechanical properties of 21st century nickel based superalloy 686

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmurugan, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); KPR Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore (India); Manikandan, M., E-mail: mano.manikandan@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2017-04-13

    Alloy 686 is a highly corrosion resistant 21st-Century Nickel based superalloy derived from Ni-Cr-Mo ternary system. The alloying elements chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) are added to improve the resistance to corrosion in the broad range of service environment. The presence of a higher percentage of alloying elements Cr and Mo lead to microsegregation and end up with hot cracking in the fusion zone of Nickel-based superalloys. However, there is scanty of information regarding the welding of alloy 686 with respect to the microsegregation of alloying elements. The present study investigates the possibility of bringing down the microsegregation to cut down the formation of secondary phases in the fusion zone. The weld joints were fabricated by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) with ERNiCrMo-10 filler and without filler wire (autogenous) mode. The microstructural properties of the weld joints were studied with optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The joints fabricated by pulsed current (PC) technique shows refined microstructure, narrower weld bead and practically no heat affected zone (HAZ). Scanning Electron Microscope demonstrates the presence of secondary phases in the interdendritic regions of GTAW case. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was carried out to evaluate the microsegregation of alloying element. The results show that the segregation of Mo noticed in the interdendritic zone of GTAW both autogenous and filler wire. Tensile and Impact tests were done to evaluate the strength, ductility, and toughness of the weld joints. The results show that the PCGTA helps to obtain improved strength, ductility and toughness of the weld joints compared to their respective GTAW. Bend test did not lead to cracking irrespective of the type of welding adopted in the present study.

  15. Low-cycle fatigue and damage of an uncoated and coated single crystal nickel-base superalloy SCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekovic, S.; Ericsson, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour and damage mechanisms of uncoated and coated specimens of a single crystal nickel-base superalloy SCB tested at 500 C and 900 C. Four coatings were deposited on the base material, an overlay coating AMDRY997, a platinum-modified aluminide diffusion coating RT22 and two innovative coatings called IC1 and IC3 with a NiW diffusion barrier in the interface. AMDRY997 and RT22 were used as reference coatings. The LCF tests were performed at three strain amplitudes, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4%, with R = -1, in laboratory air and without any dwell time. The LCF life of the specimens is determined by crack initiation and propagation. Crack data are presented for different classes of crack size in the form of crack density, that is, the number of cracks normalised to the investigated interface length. Micrographs of damage of the coatings are also shown. The effect of the coatings on the LCF life of the superalloy was dependent on the test temperature and deposited coating. At 500 C all coatings had a detrimental effect on the LCF life of the superalloy. At 900 C both AMDRY997 and IC1 prolonged the fatigue life of the superalloy by factors ranging between 1.5 and 4 while RT22 and IC3 shortened the life of the coating-substrate system. Specimens coated with RT22 exhibited generally more damage than other tested coatings at 900 C. Most of the cracks observed initiated at the coating surface and a majority were arrested in the interdiffusion zone between the base material and the coating. No topologically close-packed phases were found. Delamination was only found in AMDRY997 at higher strains. Surface roughness or rumpling was found in the overlay coating AMDRY997 with some cracks initiating from the rumples. The failure morphology at 900 C reflected the role of oxidation in the fatigue life, the crack initiation and propagation of the coated specimens. The wake of the cracks grown into the substrate was severely oxidised leading to

  16. Fatigue crack initiation in nickel-based superalloys studied by microstructure-based FE modeling and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work stage I crack initiation in polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys is investigated by analyzing anisotropic mechanical properties, local stress concentrations and plastic deformation on the microstructural length scale. The grain structure in the gauge section of fatigue specimens was characterized by EBSD. Based on the measured data, a microstructure-based FE model could be established to simulate the strain and stress distribution in the specimens during the first loading cycle of a fatigue test. The results were in fairly good agreement with experimentally measured local strains. Furthermore, the onset of plastic deformation was predicted by identifying shear stress maxima in the microstructure, presumably leading to activation of slip systems. Measurement of plastic deformation and observation of slip traces in the respective regions of the microstructure confirmed the predicted slip activity. The close relation between micro-plasticity, formation of slip traces and stage I crack initiation was demonstrated by SEM surface analyses of fatigued specimens and an in-situ fatigue test in a large chamber SEM.

  17. Influence of the alloy composition on the oxidation and internal-nitridation behaviour of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, U.; Christ, H.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Internal nitridation of nickel-base superalloys takes place as a consequence of the failure of protecting oxide scales (Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 , respectively) and leads to a deterioration of the material properties due to near-surface embrittlement caused by the nitrides precipitated (TiN and AlN, respectively) and due to near-surface dissolution of the γ' phase. By using thermogravimetric methods in a temperature range between 800 C and 1100 C supplemented by microstructural examinations, the failure potential due to internal nitridation could be documented. A quantification was carried out by extending the experimental program to thermogravimetric studies in a nearly oxygen-free nitrogen atmosphere which was also applied to various model alloys of the system Ni-Cr-Al-Ti. It could be shown that the nitrogen diffusivity and solubility in nickel-base alloys is influenced particularly by the chromium concentration. An increasing chromium content leads to an enhanced internal-nitridation attack. (orig.)

  18. A novel unified dislocation density-based model for hot deformation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  19. A novel unified dislocation density-based model for hot deformation behavior of a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.C. [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Light Alloy Research Institute of Central South University, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China); Wen, Dong-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Min [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); Chen, Ming-Song [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China)

    2016-09-15

    In this study, a novel unified dislocation density-based model is presented for characterizing hot deformation behaviors in a nickel-based superalloy under dynamic recrystallization (DRX) conditions. In the Kocks-Mecking model, a new softening item is proposed to represent the impacts of DRX behavior on dislocation density evolution. The grain size evolution and DRX kinetics are incorporated into the developed model. Material parameters of the developed model are calibrated by a derivative-free method of MATLAB software. Comparisons between experimental and predicted results confirm that the developed unified dislocation density-based model can nicely reproduce hot deformation behavior, DRX kinetics, and grain size evolution in wide scope of initial grain size, strain rate, and deformation temperature. Moreover, the developed unified dislocation density-based model is well employed to analyze the time-variant forming processes of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  20. Synchrotron measurement of the 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epishin, Alexander; Link, Thomas; Ulbricht, Alexander; Bansal, Mamta [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Material Science and Technology; Zizak, Ivo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy BESSY II, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy was investigated using synchrotron X-ray radiation and a position sensitive area detector. The measurements were performed on the 4{sup th} generation single-crystal nickel-base superalloy TMS138. The results show that X-ray reflections from non-cubic crystallographic planes have a complex 3D shape which changes during rafting. The 3D intensity distributions contain information about the spacing of the planes and their orientation as well. Whereas h00 reflections show the usual splitting into a {gamma}{sup '} and one {gamma}-subreflection, the hh0 and hhh reflections show two and three {gamma}-peaks respectively, resulting from the different types of {l_brace}100{r_brace} matrix channels. Therefore, these 3D diffraction measurements supply additional information about the spatial distribution of microstrains. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative characterization and comparison of precipitate and grain shape in Nickel -base superalloys using moment invariants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Patrick Gregory

    A fundamental objective of materials science and engineering is to understand the structure-property-processing-performance relationship. We need to know the true 3-D microstructure of a material to understand certain geometric properties of a material, and thus fulfill this objective. Focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning allows us to find the true 3-D microstructure of Ni-base superalloys. Once the true 3-D microstructure is obtained, an accurate quantitative description and characterization of precipitate and/or grain shapes is needed to understand the microstructure and describe it in an unbiased way. In this thesis, second order moment invariants, the shape quotient Q, a convexity measure relating the volume of an object to the volume of its convex hull, V/Vconv, and Gaussian curvature have been used to compare an experimentally observed polycrystalline IN100 microstructure to three synthetic microstructures. The three synthetic microstructures used different shape classes to produce starting grain shapes. The three shape classes are ellipsoids, superellipsoids, and the shapes generated when truncating a cube with an octahedron. The microstructures are compared using a distance measure, the Hellinger distance. The Hellinger distance is used to compare distributions of shape descriptors for the grains in each microstructure. The synthetic microstructure that has the smallest Hellinger distance, and so best matched the experimentally observed microstructure is the microstructure that used superellipsoids as a starting grain shape. While it has the smallest Hellinger distance, and is approaching realistic grain morphologies, the superellipsoidal microstructure is still not realistic. Second order moment invariants, Q, and V/V conv have also been used to characterize the γ' precipitate shapes from four experimental Ru-containing Ni-base superalloys with differences in alloying additions. The superalloys are designated UM-F9, UM-F18, UM-F19, and UM-F22. The

  2. Microstructure and properties of nickel base superalloy joints brazed with Ni-Cr-Co-B and BNi-1a filler metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, H. [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China); Liu, W. [Dalian Railway Inst. (China). Welding Div.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the kind and compositions of brittle phases formed in joints of a nickel-base superalloy brazed with the Ni-Cr-Co-B and BNi-1a (Ni-Cr-B-Si) filler metals were investigated. Their brittle-phase-free maximum brazing clearances (MBC) were characterized in dependence on the brazing conditions. The improvement on joint structures by post-braze heat treatment was also examined. (orig./MM)

  3. Mathematical modelling of brittle phase precipitation in complex ruthenium containing nickel-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettig, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    A new model has been developed in this work which is capable of simulating the precipitation kinetics of brittle phases, especially TCP-phases (topologically close packed phases) in ruthenium containing superalloys. The model simultaneously simulates the nucleation and the growth stage of precipitation for any number of precipitating phases. The CALPHAD method (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) is employed to calculate thermodynamic properties, such as the driving force or phase compositions in equilibrium. For calculation of diffusion coefficients, kinetic mobility databases which are also based on the CALPHAD-method are used. The model is fully capable of handling multicomponent effects, which are common in complex superalloys. Metastable phases can be treated and will automatically be dissolved if they get unstable. As the model is based on the general CALPHAD method, it can be applied to a broad range of precipitation processes in different alloys as long as the relevant thermodynamic and kinetic databases are available. The developed model proves that the TCP-phases precipitate in a sequence of phases. The first phase that is often formed is the metastable σ-phase because it has the lowest interface energy due to low-energy planes at the interface between matrix and precipitate. After several hundred hours the stable μ- and P-phases start to precipitate by nucleating at the σ-phase which is energetically favourable. During the growth of these stable phases the sigma-phase is continuously dissolved. It can be shown by thermodynamic CALPHAD calculations that the sigma-phase has a lower Gibbs free enthalpy than the μ- and P-phase. All required parameters of the model, such as interface energy and nucleate densities, have been estimated. The mechanisms of suppression of TCP-phase precipitation in the presence of ruthenium in superalloys were investigated with the newly developed model. It is shown by the simulations that ruthenium mostly affects the nucleation

  4. Coupling effects of tungsten and molybdenum on microstructure and stress-rupture properties of a nickel-base cast superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjin Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively understand the forming mechanism of abnormal phases solidified in a nickel-base cast superalloy with additives of tungsten and molybdenum, the coupling effects of W and Mo on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the precipitation of primary α-(W, Mo phase depended tremendously on the amount of W and Mo addition. When the total amount of W and Mo was greater than 5.79 at%, α-(W, Mo phase became easily precipitated in the alloy. With increasing of Mo/W ratio, the dendrite-like α-(W, Mo phases were apt to convert into small bars or blocky-like phases at the vicinities of γ′/γ eutectic. The morphological changes of α-(W, Mo phase can be interpreted as the non-equilibrium solidification of W and Mo in the alloy. Since the large sized α-(W, Mo phase has detrimental effects on stress-rupture properties in as-cast conditions, secondary cracks may mainly initiate at and then propagate along the interfaces of brittle phases and soft matrix. During exposing at 1100 ℃ for 1000 h, the α-(W, Mo phases transformed gradually into bigger and harder M6C carbide, which results in decreasing of stress-rupture properties of the alloy. Finally, the alloy with an addition of 14W-1Mo(wt% maintained the longest stress lives at high temperatures and therefore it revealed the best microstructure stability after 1100 ℃/1000 h thermal exposure. Keywords: Superalloy, Tungsten and molybdenum, Cast, Microstructure, Stress-rupture properties

  5. Zinc-induced embrittlement in nickel-base superalloys by simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Richard; Waje, Mahesh; Lindwall, Greta; Jefferson, Tiffany; Lange, Jeremy; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2017-09-01

    The high cost of Re has driven interest in processes for recovering Re from scrap superalloy parts. In this work thermodynamic modelling is used to study Zn-induced embrittlement of a superalloy and to direct experiments. Treating superalloy powder with Zn vapour reduces the average particle size after milling from approximately ?m to 0.5-10 ?m, vs. ?m for untreated powder. Simulations predict the required treatment time to increase with temperature. Agreement between predictions and experiments suggests that an embrittling liquid forms in less than an hour of Zn vapour treatment between 950-1000 ?C and partial pressures of Zn between 14-34 kPa (2-5 psi).

  6. Relationship of heat treatment-mechanical properties of nickel base superalloys.; Relacion tratamiento termico-propiedades mecanicas de una superaleacion base niquel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora R, L

    1997-12-01

    The nickel-base superalloys have high strength, excellent corrosion resistant, and good creep and fatigue resistance. These alloy improved properties at high temperature derive their mechanical and creep behavior on {gamma} precipitate morphology, and the evolution of such morphology during different heat treatment conditions. The main microstructural variable of Nickel-based superalloys, responsible for the mechanical properties are: (a) amount and morphology of precipitates; (b) size and shape of grains; and (c) carbide distribution. In this work, a Nickel-base superalloy Nimonic 80A, modified little with Zr prepared by melting and casting practices of materials electrolytic in vacuum-induction melting (VIM) type Balzers, to obtain five alloys different and ingots of 2 Kg and 1 Kg, with composition in weight % of Nimonic 80-A is: Ni = bal (76.66), C = 0.01, Cr = 19.83, Fe = 2.4, Mn = 0.17, Si 0.47, Al = 0.19, Zr = 0.4. The solidification process is made in a steel mold. After having realized four thermal treatments, the most representative microstructures there were obtained. The results from tensile tests performed on Instron Servohydraulic testing systems at uniaxial dynamic testing, at constant speeds to ,0.2 cm/min, were: the yield strength, the ultimate strength value, percentage elongation and area reduction. Creep tests were performed at in stress of 90 and 129 MPa, at a temperature of 600 and 680 Centigrades at different times and width of specimen of 1 mm. The alloys were analyzed by MEB(JEOL 35CF) at different magnifications. The nucleation and growth of intergranular cavities during creep of alloy Nimonic M3, were investigated. One sample was deformed in creep at 129 MPa and 680 Centigrades during 110 hs. Creep samples were annealing heat treated at 800 Centigrades, during 7 days. After a careful sample preparation procedure, 3100 of cavities were measured in the sample . The cavity size distributions in the sample were obtained. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Creep deformation and microstructural examination of a prior thermally exposed nickel base superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zrník, J.; Strunz, Pavel; Vrchovinský, V.; Muránsky, O.; Horňák, P.; Wiedenmann, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 274 (2004), s. 925-930 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : superalloy * thermal exposition * creep Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2004

  8. SANS investigation of precipitate microstructure in nickel-base superalloys Waspaloy and DT750

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunz, Pavel; Zrník, J.; Seliga, T.; Penkalla, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 363-368 ISSN 0044-2968 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : small-angle-neutron scattering * superalloys * precipitation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  9. Microstructural study of weld fusion zone of TIG welded IN 738LC nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, O.A.; Richards, N.L.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The weld fusion zone microstructure of a commercial aerospace superalloy IN 738 was examined. Elemental segregation induced interdendritic microconstituents were identified to include terminal solidification product M 3 B 2 and Ni 7 Zr 2 in association with γ-γ' eutectic constituent, which require proper consideration during the development of optimum post weld heat treatment

  10. Strength and structure during hot deformation of nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, N.D.; Sellars, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of deformational variables on the flow stress and microstructure developed by plane strain compression testing and experimental rolling of three otherwise well characterized nickel-base super alloys, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90 and Waspaloy are presented. Rolled or tested samples were sectioned longitudinally at mid-width and were prepared for optical metallography. X-ray analysis of particles observed in several samples was carried out on polished and lightly etehed surfaces using a diffractometer with CoKα radiation. For other samples, energy dispersive x-ray analysis was also carried out in a scanning microscope. (E.G.) [pt

  11. On the Feasibility of Eddy Current Characterization of the Near-Surface Residual Stress Distribution in Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, Mark P.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in shot-peened specimens. This technique is based on the so-called electroelastic effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of the electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, the relatively small (∼1%) change in electrical conductivity caused by the presence of compressive residual stresses is often distorted, or even completely overshadowed, by the accompanying conductivity loss caused by cold work and surface roughness effects. Recently, it was observed that, in contrast with most other materials, shot-peened Waspaloy and IN100 specimens exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies. This observation by itself indicates that in these materials the measured conductivity change is probably dominated by residual stress effects, since both surface roughness and increased dislocation density are known to decrease rather than increase the conductivity and the presence of crystallographic texture does not affect the electrical conductivity of these materials, which crystallize in cubic symmetry. Our preliminary experiments indicate that probably there exists a unique 'window of opportunity' for eddy current NDE in nickel-base superalloys. We identified five major effects that contribute to this fortunate constellation of material properties, which will be reviewed in this presentation

  12. Microstructural Characterization of a Polycrystalline Nickel-Based Superalloy Processed via Tungsten-Intert-Gas-Shaped Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Bache, Martin R.; Whittaker, Mark T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent trials have produced tungsten-inert-gas (TIG)-welded structures of a suitable scale to allow an evaluation of the technique as an economic and commercial process for the manufacture of complex aeroengine components. The employment of TIG welding is shown to have specific advantages over alternative techniques based on metal inert gas (MIG) systems. Investigations using the nickel-based superalloy 718 have shown that TIG induces a smaller weld pool with less compositional segregation. In addition, because the TIG process involves a pulsed power source, a faster cooling rate is achieved, although this rate, in turn, compromises the deposition rate. The microstructures produced by the two techniques differ significantly, with TIG showing an absence of the detrimental delta and Laves phases typically produced by extended periods at a high temperature using MIG. Instead, an anisotropic dendritic microstructure was evident with a preferred orientation relative to the axis of epitaxy. Niobium was segregated to the interdendritic regions. A fine-scale porosity was evident within the microstructure with a maximum diameter of approximately 5 μm. This porosity often was found in clusters and usually was associated with the interdendritic regions. Subsequent postdeposition heat treatment was shown to have no effect on preexisting porosity and to have a minimal effect on the microstructure.

  13. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  14. The Role of Cold Work in Eddy Current Residual Stress Measurements in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that eddy current methods can be adapted to residual stress measurement in shot-peened nickel-base superalloys. However, experimental evidence indicates that the piezoresistivity effect is simply not high enough to account for the observed apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) increase. At the same time, X-ray diffraction data indicates that 'cold work' lingers even when the residual stress is fully relaxed and the excess AECC is completely gone. It is impossible to account for both observations with a single coherent explanation unless we assume that instead of a single 'cold work' effect, there are two varieties of cold work; type-A and type-B. Type-A cold work (e.g., changes in the microscopic homogeneity of the material) is not detected by X-ray diffraction as it does not significantly affect the beam width, but causes substantial conductivity change and exhibits strong thermal relaxation. Type-B cold work (e.g., dislocations) is detected by X-ray, but causes little or no conductivity change and exhibits weak thermal relaxation. Based on the assumption of two separate cold-work variables and that X-ray diffraction results indicate the presence of type-B, but not type-A, all observed phenomena can be explained. If this working hypothesis is proven right, the separation of residual stress and type-A cold work is less critical because they both relax much earlier and much faster than type-B cold work

  15. Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms for Nickel-based Superalloy Haynes 282 at 550-750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Kyle A.; Kruzic, Jamie J.; Sears, John S.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates for nickel-based superalloy Haynes 282 were measured at 550, 650, and 750 °C using compact tension specimens with a load ratio of 0.1 and cyclic loading frequencies of 25 and 0.25 Hz. The crack path was observed to be primarily transgranular for all temperatures, and the observed effect of increasing temperature was to increase the fatigue crack growth rates. The activation energy associated with the increasing crack growth rates over these three temperatures was calculated less than 60 kJ/mol, which is significantly lower than typical creep or oxidation mechanisms; therefore, creep and oxidation cannot explain the increase in fatigue crack growth rates. Transmission electron microscopy was done on selected samples removed from the cyclic plastic zone, and a trend of decreasing dislocation density was observed with increasing temperature. Accordingly, the trend of increasing crack growth rates with increasing temperature was attributed to softening associated with thermally assisted cross slip and dislocation annihilation.

  16. Effect of modified mold shell on the microstructure and tensile fracture morphology of single-crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weitai; Zhao, Yutao; Sun, Shaochun; Liu, Manping; Ma, Dexin; Liang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Cunlong; Tao, Ran

    2018-04-01

    The mold shell used for single-crystal turbine blades preparation was modified from conventional process to fiber reinforcement technology. The wall thickness was decreased by 32.3 percent (pct) than the conventional process. Then these two mold shells were used to produce single crystal samples of nickel-base superalloy in a Bridgman furnace. The local temperature curves were recorded in the process. The results show that the modified mold shell can increase the temperature gradient in the mushy zone than the conventional mold shell. The primary and secondary dendrite arm space were reduced by 8 pct and 12 pct, respectively. Moreover, both the area fraction and mean size of the γ‧/γ eutectic were declined, as well as the dendritic segregation tendency. Therefore it contributed to the lower residual eutectic and micro-porosity in the heat-treated microstructure. Further, fracture surface of the samples made by modified mold shell exhibited smaller facets and more uniform dimples in the size and shape.

  17. Application of a multi-component mean field model to the coarsening behaviour of a nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Rowe, A.; Wells, J.; Basoalto, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-component mean field model has been applied to predict the particle evolution of the γ′ particles in the nickel based superalloy IN738LC, capturing the transition from an initial multimodal particle distribution towards a unimodal distribution. Experiments have been performed to measure the coarsening behaviour during isothermal heat treatments using quantitative analysis of micrographs. The three dimensional size of the γ′ particles has been approximated for use in simulation. A coupled thermodynamic/mean field modelling framework is presented and applied to describe the particle size evolution. A robust numerical implementation of the model is detailed that makes use of surrogate models to capture the thermodynamics. Different descriptions of the particle growth rate of non-dilute particle systems have been explored. A numerical investigation of the influence of scatter in chemical composition upon the particle size distribution evolution has been carried out. It is shown how the tolerance in chemical composition of a given alloy can impact particle coarsening behaviour. Such predictive capability is of interest in understanding variation in component performance and the refinement of chemical composition tolerances. It has been found that the inclusion of misfit strain within the current model formulation does not have a significant affect upon predicted long term particle coarsening behaviour. Model predictions show good agreement with experimental data. In particular, the model predicts a reduced growth rate of the mean particle size during the transition from bimodal to unimodal distributions.

  18. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, V.D., E-mail: dv272@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Baker, S.; Illston, T. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  19. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  20. Microstructure of selective laser melted CM247LC nickel-based superalloy and its evolution through heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divya, V.D.; Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Barnard, J.S.; Baker, S.; Illston, T.; Stone, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The selective laser melting of high temperature alloys is of great interest to the aerospace industry as it offers the prospect of producing more complex geometries than can be achieved with other manufacturing methods. In this study, the microstructure of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, has been characterised following selective laser melting and after a post deposition heat treatment below the γ′ solvus temperature. In the as-deposited state, scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction revealed a fine, cellular microstructure with preferential alignment of 〈001〉 along the build direction. A high dislocation density was seen at the periphery of the cells, indicating substantial localised deformation of the material. Fine primary MC carbides were also observed in the inter-cellular regions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy identified the occurrence of very fine γ′ precipitates, approximately 5 nm in diameter, dispersed within the gamma phase. After heat treatment, the elongated cell colonies were observed to partially coalesce, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation density, producing columnar grains along the build direction. Cuboidal γ′ precipitates approximately 500 nm in diameter were observed to form in the recrystallised grains, accompanied by larger γ′ precipitates on the grain boundaries.

  1. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  2. 3D DDD modelling of dislocation-precipitate interaction in a nickel-based single crystal superalloy under cyclic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Huang, Minsheng; Zhao, Liguo; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim; Barnard, Nick; Whittaker, Mark; McColvin, Gordon

    2018-06-01

    Strain-controlled cyclic deformation of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy has been modelled using three-dimensional (3D) discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) for both [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] orientations. The work focused on the interaction between dislocations and precipitates during cyclic plastic deformation at elevated temperature, which has not been well studied yet. A representative volume element with cubic γ‧-precipitates was chosen to represent the material, with enforced periodical boundary conditions. In particular, cutting of superdislocations into precipitates was simulated by a back-force method. The global cyclic stress-strain responses were captured well by the DDD model when compared to experimental data, particularly the effects of crystallographic orientation. Dislocation evolution showed that considerably high density of dislocations was produced for [1 1 1] orientation when compared to [0 0 1] orientation. Cutting of dislocations into the precipitates had a significant effect on the plastic deformation, leading to material softening. Contour plots of in-plane shear strain proved the development of heterogeneous strain field, resulting in the formation of shear-band embryos.

  3. Effect of Notches on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of a P/M Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Timothy P.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Gayda, John, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to determine and model the effect of high temperature dwells on notched low cycle fatigue (NLCF) and notch stress rupture behavior of a fine grain LSHR powder metallurgy (PM) nickel-based superalloy. It was shown that a 90 second dwell applied at the minimum stress (min dwell) was considerably more detrimental to the NLCF lives than similar dwell applied at the maximum stress (max dwell). The short min dwell NLCF lives were shown to be caused by growth of small oxide blisters which caused preferential cracking when coupled with high concentrated notch root stresses. The cyclic max dwell notch tests failed mostly by a creep accumulation, not by fatigue, with the crack origin shifting internally to a substantial distance away from the notch root. The classical von Mises plastic flow model was unable to match the experimental results while the hydrostatic stress profile generated using the Drucker-Prager plasticity flow model was consistent with the experimental findings. The max dwell NLCF and notch stress rupture tests exhibited substantial creep notch strengthening. The triaxial Bridgman effective stress parameter was able to account for the notch strengthening by collapsing the notched and uniform gage geometry test data into a singular grouping.

  4. Embrittlement of nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys by exposure to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Five nickel-base alloys (Inconel 718, Udimet 700, Rene 41, Hastelloy X, and TD-NiCr), one cobalt-base alloy (L-605), and an iron-base alloy (A-286) were exposed in hydrogen at 0.1 MN/sq m (15 psi) at several temperatures in the range from 430 to 980 C for as long as 1000 hours. These alloys were embrittled to varying degrees by such exposures in hydrogen. Embrittlement was found to be: (1) sensitive to strain rate, (2) reversible, (3) caused by large concentrations of absorbed hydrogen, and (4) not associated with any detectable microstructural changes in the alloys. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement.

  5. Cyclic plastic response of nickel-based superalloy at room and at elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Petrenec, Martin; Chlupová, Alice; Tobiáš, Jiří; Petráš, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2015), s. 119-125 ISSN 0025-5300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : cyclic plasticity * elevat ed temperature * superalloys * hysteresis loop * statistical theory Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.266, year: 2015

  6. CYCLIC STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN CAST NICKEL BASED SUPERALLOY INCONEL 792-5A AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Man, Jiří; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    308/2005, č. 86 (2005), s. 269-274 ISSN 1429-6055. [Metody oceny struktury oraz wlasności materialów i wyrobów. Ustroń-Jaszowiec, 07.12.2005-09.12.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * superalloy * cyclic strain localization Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  7. Crack initiation modeling of a directionally-solidified nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ali Page

    Combustion gas turbine components designed for application in electric power generation equipment are subject to periodic replacement as a result of cracking, damage, and mechanical property degeneration that render them unsafe for continued operation. In view of the significant costs associated with inspecting, servicing, and replacing damaged components, there has been much interest in developing models that not only predict service life, but also estimate the evolved microstructural state of the material. This thesis explains manifestations of microstructural damage mechanisms that facilitate fatigue crack nucleation in a newly-developed directionally-solidified (DS) Ni-base superalloy components exposed to elevated temperatures and high stresses. In this study, models were developed and validated for damage and life prediction using DS GTD-111 as the subject material. This material, proprietary to General Electric Energy, has a chemical composition and grain structure designed to withstand creep damage occurring in the first and second stage blades of gas-powered turbines. The service conditions in these components, which generally exceed 600°C, facilitate the onset of one or more damage mechanisms related to fatigue, creep, or environment. The study was divided into an empirical phase, which consisted of experimentally simulating service conditions in fatigue specimens, and a modeling phase, which entailed numerically simulating the stress-strain response of the material. Experiments have been carried out to simulate a variety of thermal, mechanical, and environmental operating conditions endured by longitudinally (L) and transversely (T) oriented DS GTD-111. Both in-phase and out-of-phase thermo-mechanical fatigue tests were conducted. In some cases, tests in extreme environments/temperatures were needed to isolate one or at most two of the mechanisms causing damage. Microstructural examinations were carried out via SEM and optical microscopy. A continuum

  8. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and tensile behavior of a hot isostatically pressed nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Chunlei, E-mail: c.qiu@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Wu, Xinhua; Mei, Junfa [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Andrews, Paul; Voice, Wayne [Rolls-Royce Plc, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Post-HIP heat treatment led to refined microstructure and improved tensile properties. •Deformation occurred mainly by forming stacking faults in γ′ at RT and elevated temperature. •Net-shape HIPed RR1000 failed in a transgranular fracture mode. -- Abstract: A nickel-based superalloy powder RR1000 has been hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) and heat treated to produce different microstructures. Microstructures were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 700 °C and the deformed samples were examined using SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that in the as-HIPed condition the microstructure consisted of coarse and irregular-shaped primary and secondary γ′ together with a low volume fraction of fine γ′ (<50 nm in diameter). Solution treatment below the γ′ solvus followed by air cooling resulted in the formation of finer cuboidal secondary γ′ (350–750 nm) and medium-sized spherical tertiary γ′ (100–200 nm). This led to an improvement of both the 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Ageing of the solution-treated or of the as-HIPed samples at 760 °C resulted in the precipitation of a high population of fine γ′ (around 50 nm) which further increased the strength. Within the resolution limit of the current TEM analysis, deformation at room temperature seemed to occur mainly by dislocations cutting through secondary γ′ and very fine γ′, accompanied by the formation of stacking faults within these precipitates; most of the medium-sized tertiary γ′ precipitates in solution-treated and aged samples were not cut through but were surrounded by dislocations. Deformation at 700 °C happened by dislocations cutting through γ′ precipitates and γ matrix, leading to the formation of extended stacking faults across both γ and γ′. It is suggested that the optimum treatment of the current powder superalloy is to

  9. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and tensile behavior of a hot isostatically pressed nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Wu, Xinhua; Mei, Junfa; Andrews, Paul; Voice, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Post-HIP heat treatment led to refined microstructure and improved tensile properties. •Deformation occurred mainly by forming stacking faults in γ′ at RT and elevated temperature. •Net-shape HIPed RR1000 failed in a transgranular fracture mode. -- Abstract: A nickel-based superalloy powder RR1000 has been hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) and heat treated to produce different microstructures. Microstructures were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 700 °C and the deformed samples were examined using SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that in the as-HIPed condition the microstructure consisted of coarse and irregular-shaped primary and secondary γ′ together with a low volume fraction of fine γ′ (<50 nm in diameter). Solution treatment below the γ′ solvus followed by air cooling resulted in the formation of finer cuboidal secondary γ′ (350–750 nm) and medium-sized spherical tertiary γ′ (100–200 nm). This led to an improvement of both the 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Ageing of the solution-treated or of the as-HIPed samples at 760 °C resulted in the precipitation of a high population of fine γ′ (around 50 nm) which further increased the strength. Within the resolution limit of the current TEM analysis, deformation at room temperature seemed to occur mainly by dislocations cutting through secondary γ′ and very fine γ′, accompanied by the formation of stacking faults within these precipitates; most of the medium-sized tertiary γ′ precipitates in solution-treated and aged samples were not cut through but were surrounded by dislocations. Deformation at 700 °C happened by dislocations cutting through γ′ precipitates and γ matrix, leading to the formation of extended stacking faults across both γ and γ′. It is suggested that the optimum treatment of the current powder superalloy is to

  10. Effect of microstructure on high-temperature mechanical behavior of nickel-base superalloys for turbine disc applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Heather Joan

    2007-05-01

    Engineers constantly seek advancements in the performance of aircraft and power generation engines, including, lower costs and emissions, and improved fuel efficiency. Nickel-base superalloys are the material of choice for turbine discs, which experience some of the highest temperatures and stresses in the engine. Engine performance is proportional to operating temperatures. Consequently, the high-temperature capabilities of disc materials limit the performance of gas-turbine engines. Therefore, any improvements to engine performance necessitate improved alloy performance. In order to take advantage of improvements in high-temperature capabilities through tailoring of alloy microstructure, the overall objectives of this work were to establish relationships between alloy processing and microstructure, and between microstructure and mechanical properties. In addition, the projected aimed to demonstrate the applicability of neural network modeling to the field of Ni-base disc alloy development and behavior. The first phase of this work addressed the issue of how microstructure varies with heat treatment and by what mechanisms these structures are formed. Further it considered how superalloy composition could account for microstructural variations from the same heat treatment. To study this, four next-generation Ni-base disc alloys were subjected to various controlled heat-treatments and the resulting microstructures were then quantified. These quantitative results were correlated to chemistry and processing, including solution temperature, cooling rate, and intermediate hold temperature. A complex interaction of processing steps and chemistry was found to contribute to all features measured; grain size, precipitate distribution, grain boundary serrations. Solution temperature, above a certain threshold, and cooling rate controlled grain size, while cooling rate and intermediate hold temperature controlled precipitate formation and grain boundary serrations. Diffusion

  11. Effect of grain defects on the mechanical behavior of nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haibin; Guo, Haiding [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Jiangsu Province Key Lab. of Aerospace Power System

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, a single crystal (SC) partition model, consisting of primary grains and grain defects, is proposed to simulate the weakening effect of grain defects generated at geometric discontinuities of SC materials. The plastic deformation of SC superalloy is described with the modified yield criterion, associated flow rule and hardening law. Then a bicrystal model containing only one group of misoriented grains under uniaxial loading is constructed and analyzed in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The simulation results indicate that the yield strength and elastic modulus of misoriented grains, which are determined by the crystallographic orientation, have a significant effect on the stress distribution of the bicrystal model. A critical stress, which is calculated by the stress state at critical regions, is proposed to evaluate the local stress rise at the sub-boundary of primary and misoriented grains.

  12. Low Cycle Fatigue of Single Crystal Nickel-based Superalloy DD6 at 1100℃

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Shichao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The total strain-controlled low cycle fatigue(LCF behaviors of a single crystal superalloy DD6 at 1100℃ for R=-1 and 0.05 were investigated. The results of LCF tests indicated that the cyclic hardening/softening behavior of the alloy not only has the relationship with the microstructure of the material, but also the loading status. The mean stress relaxation occurred under asymmetric straining. The rate of mean stress relaxation increased with the increasing of strain amplitude; when R=-1, the alloy shows tension-compression asymmetry behavior. All the LCF data obtain under various ratios were well correlated by three models for lifetime prediction, the precision rates predicted are fallen into the factor of±2 times scatter band.

  13. Strengthening mechanisms in an inertia friction welded nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiley, J.S., E-mail: Jaimie.Tiley@us.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Mahaffey, D.W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Alam, T.; Rojhirunsakool, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Senkov, O.; Parthasarthy, T. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Banerjee, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-04-26

    This research investigated the strengthening mechanisms associated with the as-welded microstructure developed during inertia friction welding of dissimilar superalloys LHSR and Mar-M247. The weld interface and heat affected regions of the sample were analyzed using hardness indentation techniques and subsequently characterized using SEM, TEM and advanced atom probe tomography. The yield strength of the welded joint was modeled to determine the impact of the gradients in the as-welded microstructure on strengthening mechanisms within the LSHR material. Characterization centered on formation of γ′, γ grain size and chemical segregation within the heat affected regions. Results indicate an increased hardness in the vicinity of the weld interface, resulting from the refined dispersion of γ′ and γ grains.

  14. Effect of grain defects on the mechanical behavior of nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haibin; Guo, Haiding

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a single crystal (SC) partition model, consisting of primary grains and grain defects, is proposed to simulate the weakening effect of grain defects generated at geometric discontinuities of SC materials. The plastic deformation of SC superalloy is described with the modified yield criterion, associated flow rule and hardening law. Then a bicrystal model containing only one group of misoriented grains under uniaxial loading is constructed and analyzed in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The simulation results indicate that the yield strength and elastic modulus of misoriented grains, which are determined by the crystallographic orientation, have a significant effect on the stress distribution of the bicrystal model. A critical stress, which is calculated by the stress state at critical regions, is proposed to evaluate the local stress rise at the sub-boundary of primary and misoriented grains.

  15. Evaluation of gamma prime volume fractions and lattice misfits in a nickel base superalloy using the external standard X-ray diffraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiley, J., E-mail: jaimie.tiley@wpafb.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Viswanathan, G.B. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Hwang, J.Y. [Materials Engineering Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Shiveley, A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH (United States); Banerjee, R. [Materials Engineering Department, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2010-11-25

    The unconstrained lattice parameters and volume fractions of {gamma}' for a low misfit nickel based superalloy were evaluated using X-ray diffraction techniques. Extraction techniques were used to provide unconstrained {gamma}' powders for both water quenched and slow cooled samples that were aged at 760 deg. C for 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 h. The external standard method was used to determine the volume fraction for the unaged water quenched sample and the slow cooled sample aged for 200 h. These two extremes in processing conditions provided an increase in the total volume fraction of {gamma}'.

  16. Effect of heat-treatment on microstructure and high-temperature deformation behavior of a low rhenium-containing single crystal nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Nairong; Zhang, Lanting; Li, Zhigang; Shan, Aidang

    2014-01-01

    A low rhenium-containing [001] oriented single crystal nickel-based superalloy with different γ′ morphologies induced by various aging treatments was compressed from room temperature to 1000 °C. All the single crystal samples with different γ′ morphologies exhibit anomalous yield behavior. The sample first aged at 1180 °C has the widest anomalous temperature domain and highest yield strengths. The sample first aged at 1000 °C has the highest anomalous peak stress temperature

  17. Morphological changes of gamma prime precipitates in nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    Changes in the morphology of the gamma prime precipitate were examined during tensile creep at temperatures between 927 and 1038 C in 001-oriented single crystals of a Ni-Al-Mo-Ta superalloy. In this alloy, which has a large negative misfit of -0.80%, the gamma prime particles link together during creep to form platelets, or rafts, which are aligned with their broad faces perpendicular to the applied tensile axis. The dimensions of the gamma and gamma prime phases were measured as directional coarsening developed in an attempt to trace the changing morphology under various stress levels. In addition, the effects of initial microstructure, as well as slight compositional variations, were related to raft development and creep properties. The results showed that directional coarsening of gamma prime began during primary creep, and under certain conditions, continued to develop after the onset of steady-state creep. The length of the rafts increased linearly with time up to a plateau region. The thickness of the rafts, however, remained equal to the initial gamma prime size at least up through the onset of tertiary creep this is a clear indication of the stability of the finely-spaced gamma-gamma prime lamellar structure. It was found that the single crystals with the finest gamma prime size exhibited the longest creep lives, because the resultant rafted structure had a larger number of gamma-gamma prime interfaces per unit volume of material

  18. Anisotropic stress rupture properties of the nickel-base single crystal superalloy SRR99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, G.M.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, Y.L.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the stress rupture properties of a single crystal superalloy SRR99 was investigated at temperatures of 760 and 1040 deg. C. It is found that the creep anisotropic behaviour is pronounced at the lower temperature of 760 deg. C and the stress rupture life ranks in the order [0 0 1] > [1 1 1] > [0 1 1]. Despite the anisotropy of stress rupture life is evidently reduced at the higher temperature, the [1 1 1] orientation exhibits the longest life. At 760 deg. C, EBSD (electron back scattered diffraction) was adopted to measure the lattice rotation and the deduced results indicate that the dominant slip systems are {1 1 1} during stress rupture test. At 1040 deg. C, the ranking order of the stress rupture life is [1 1 1] > [0 0 1] > [0 1 1] and the single crystal close to [0 1 1] orientation still shows the poorest life. In the [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] samples, regular γ' raft structure is formed compared with [0 1 1] samples. Further observations made by TEM investigations reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms for crystals with orientations near [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] under two test conditions.

  19. Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam, E-mail: homam_naffakh@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mapelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Massa 34, Milan 20156 (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. γ′-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and γ″-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of γ″-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type

  20. Improved creep strength of nickel-base superalloys by optimized γ/γ′ partitioning behavior of solid solution strengthening elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröbstle, M.; Neumeier, S.; Feldner, P.; Rettig, R.; Helmer, H.E.; Singer, R.F.; Göken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solid solution strengthening of the γ matrix is one key factor for improving the creep strength of single crystal nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. Therefore a strong partitioning of solid solution hardening elements to the matrix is beneficial for high temperature creep strength. Different Rhenium-free alloys which are derived from CMSX-4 are investigated. The alloys have been characterized regarding microstructure, phase compositions as well as creep strength. It is found that increasing the Titanium (Ti) as well as the Tungsten (W) content causes a stronger partitioning of the solid solution strengtheners, in particular W, to the γ phase. As a result the creep resistance is significantly improved. Based on these ideas, a Rhenium-free alloy with an optimized chemistry regarding the partitioning behavior of W is developed and validated in the present study. It shows comparable creep strength to the Rhenium containing second generation alloy CMSX-4 in the high temperature / low stress creep regime and is less prone to the formation of deleterious topologically close packed (TCP) phases. This more effective usage of solid solution strengtheners can enhance the creep properties of nickel-base superalloys while reducing the content of strategic elements like Rhenium.

  1. Influence of cooling rate on the development of multiple generations of {gamma}' precipitates in a commercial nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.R.P. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Nag, S., E-mail: nag.soumya@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Hwang, J.Y. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, OH (United States); Srinivasan, R. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States); Fraser, H.L. [Center for the Accelerated Maturation of Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Banerjee, R. [Center for Advanced Research and Technology and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The compositional and microstructural evolution of different generations of {gamma}' precipitates during the continuous cooling of a commercial nickel base superalloy, Rene88DT, has been characterized by three dimensional atom probe tomography coupled with energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy studies. After solutionizing in the single {gamma} phase field, continuous cooling at a very high rate results in a monomodal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with a high nucleation density and non-equilibrium compositions. In contrast, a relatively slower cooling rate ({approx} 24 deg. C/min) results in a multi-modal size distribution of {gamma}' precipitates with the larger first generation primary precipitates exhibiting close to equilibrium composition, along with the smaller scale secondary {gamma}' precipitates, exhibiting non-equilibrium composition (excess of Co and Cr, depleted in Al and Ti). The composition of the {gamma} matrix near these precipitates also exhibits similar trends with the composition being closer to equilibrium near the primary precipitates as compared to the secondary precipitates. - Highlights: {yields} Effect of cooling rate on the precipitation of {gamma}' particles in commercial nickel base superalloy. {yields} Couples EFTEM and 3DAP studies to determine the composition and morphology of {gamma}' precipitates. {yields} Determination of near and far field compositional variations within the gamma matrix leading to subsequent precipitation.

  2. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy CM247LC processed by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Moreno, R.; Divya, V.D.; Driver, S.L.; Messé, O.M.D.M.; Illston, T.; Baker, S.; Carpenter, M.A.; Stone, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys is of great interest for the aerospace industry due to its capability for producing components with complex geometries. However, an improved understanding of the effect of SLM and subsequent post deposition heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties is required to ensure that components with good structural integrity are produced. In this study, the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, in the as-SLM and heat-treated states have been analysed. The as-SLM microstructure showed fine elongated cells with a preferential alignment of <001> along the build direction and a significant intercellular misorientation. Heat treatments at temperatures below 1230 °C resulted in a progressive recovery of the microstructure, whilst heat treatments above this temperature gave rise to a recrystallised microstructure. The extent to which nucleation and growth of the γ′ precipitates and secondary particles were affected by increasing the heat treatment temperature was also characterised. The bulk elastic anisotropy of all samples was measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) and was found to be consistent with the local textures obtained by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was observed that the initially strong elastic anisotropy exhibited by the as-SLM material was significantly reduced in the recrystallised samples, although some anisotropy was retained as a result of their elongated grain microstructures.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy CM247LC processed by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Moreno, R., E-mail: rociomunozmoreno@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Divya, V.D. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Driver, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Messé, O.M.D.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Illston, T.; Baker, S. [Materials Solutions, Unit 8, Great Western Business Park, McKenzie Way, Worcester WR4 9GN (United Kingdom); Carpenter, M.A. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Stone, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-30

    Selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys is of great interest for the aerospace industry due to its capability for producing components with complex geometries. However, an improved understanding of the effect of SLM and subsequent post deposition heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties is required to ensure that components with good structural integrity are produced. In this study, the microstructure, texture and elastic anisotropy of the nickel-based superalloy, CM247LC, in the as-SLM and heat-treated states have been analysed. The as-SLM microstructure showed fine elongated cells with a preferential alignment of <001> along the build direction and a significant intercellular misorientation. Heat treatments at temperatures below 1230 °C resulted in a progressive recovery of the microstructure, whilst heat treatments above this temperature gave rise to a recrystallised microstructure. The extent to which nucleation and growth of the γ′ precipitates and secondary particles were affected by increasing the heat treatment temperature was also characterised. The bulk elastic anisotropy of all samples was measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) and was found to be consistent with the local textures obtained by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). It was observed that the initially strong elastic anisotropy exhibited by the as-SLM material was significantly reduced in the recrystallised samples, although some anisotropy was retained as a result of their elongated grain microstructures.

  4. Studies on the Corrosion Resistance of Laser-Welded Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łyczkowska K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the electrochemical corrosion tests of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 laser-welded superalloys. The studies were conducted in order to assess the resistance to general and pitting corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that Inconel 600 possesses good corrosion resistance, however Inconel 625 is characterized by a greater resistance to general and also to pitting corrosion of the weld as well as the base metal.

  5. Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography of ruthenium-bearing nickel-base superalloys with focus on cast-microstructure and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenanovic, Samir

    2012-01-01

    The influence of rhenium and ruthenium on the multi component system nickel-base superalloy is manifold and complex. An experimental nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium within defined contents, named Astra, was used to investigate the influences of these two elements on the alloy system. The last stage solidification of nickel-base superalloys after Bridgman casting and the high temperature phase stability of these alloys, could be explored with the aid of focused ion beam nanotomography. FIB-nt therefore was introduced and realized at the chair of General Materials Properties of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Cast Astra alloys are like other nickel-base superalloys morphologically very inhomogeneous and affected by segregation. In the interdendritic region different structures with huge γ' precipitates are formed. These inhomogeneities and remaining eutectics degrade the mechanical properties, witch makes an understanding of the subsiding processes at solidification of residual melt important for the casting process and the heat treatment. This is why the last stage solidification in the interdendritic region was analyzed. With the help of focused ion beam nanotomography, three different structures identified from 2-D sections could be assigned to one original 3-D structure. It was pointed out, that only the orientation of the plane of the 2-D cut influences the appearance in the 2-D section. The tomography information was used to explain the development during solidification and to create a model of last stage solidification. The interdendritic region is solidifying under the development of eutectic islands. The structure nucleates eutectically epitaxially at primary dendrite arms, with formation of fine γ/γ' precipitates. During solidification the γ' precipitates coarsen in a rod-like structure, and end up in large γ' precipitates. Simulations and other investigations could approve this model. First three

  6. Environmental Degradation of Nickel-Based Superalloys Due to Gypsiferous Desert Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    salt. In addition, the study noted that the dust collected from vehicles was most likely to be clay (ɛ µm) or silt (3-15 µm) sized. As discussed above...The onset of fusion for each sample also has an operational significance. At this temperature, depending on the viscosity of the melt, a deposit based...presence of mullite formations in several images for .1CMAS, .5CMAS, AFRL02, GB1, and the Oxide Mix. Mullite has been shown to form from kaolinite clay

  7. Characterization of Phase Chemistry and Partitioning in a Family of High-Strength Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, M. T.; Crudden, D. J.; Reed, R. C.; Moody, M. P.; Bagot, P. A. J.

    2018-06-01

    A family of novel polycrystalline Ni-based superalloys with varying Ti:Nb ratios has been created using computational alloy design techniques, and subsequently characterized using atom probe tomography and electron microscopy. Phase chemistry, elemental partitioning, and γ' character have been analyzed and compared with thermodynamic predictions created using Thermo-Calc. Phase compositions and γ' volume fraction were found to compare favorably with the thermodynamically predicted values, while predicted partitioning behavior for Ti, Nb, Cr, and Co tended to overestimate γ' preference over the γ matrix, often with opposing trends vs Nb concentration.

  8. FE-simulation of the initial stages of rafting in nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioermann, H.; Feng Hua; Mughrabi, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work, the model of Socrate and Parks which takes into account the plastic deformation and which applies the method of finite elements (FE) using an energy-perturbation approach will be extended by the introduction of a further contribution to the driving force for rafting, cf. This additional driving force is based on the local variation of the hydrostatic stresses arising from the anisotropic distribution of dislocations after deformation, in combination with the different lattice parameters of the two phases γ and γ'. It is an alternative formulation of the driving force introduced recently. With the present model, the initial stages of rafting and the build-up of internal stresses and strains are determined. (orig.)

  9. Influence of molybdenum on the creep properties of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.; Pearson, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Mo content of an alloy series based on Ni-6 wt pct Al-6 wt pct Ta was systematically varied from 9.8 to 14.6 wt pct, in order to ascertain the influence of Mo on the creep properties of single crystals. The optimum initial gamma-gamma prime microstructure for raft development and creep strength was established in each alloy before testing. It was found that, as the Mo content increased from 9.8 to 14.0 percent, the magnitude of the lattice mismatch increased; upon reaching 14.6 percent, a degradation of mechanical properties occurred due to the precipitation of a third phase. These results suggest that small refractory metal content and initial gamma-prime variations can profoundly affect mechanical properties.

  10. Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue interaction behavior of nickel-base superalloy GH4169 at elevated temperature of 650 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, G., E-mail: agang@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Y. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, D.K. [Environmental Corrosion Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Lin, Y.C. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, X. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-02-08

    Total strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests of a nickel based superalloy were performed at 650 °C. Various hold times were introduced at the peak tensile strain to investigate the high-temperature creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) effects under the same temperature. A substantial decrease in fatigue life occurred as the total strain amplitude increased. Moreover, tensile strain holding further reduced fatigue life. The saturation phenomenon of holding effect was found when the holding period reached 120 s. Cyclic softening occurred during the LCF and CFI process and it was related to the total strain amplitude and the holding period. The relationship between life-time and total strain amplitude was obtained by combining Basquin equation and Coffin-Manson equation. The surface and fracture section of the fatigued specimens were observed via scanning electronic microscope (SEM) to determine the failure mechanism.

  11. The effect of heat treatment on the micro-structure and the mechanical properties of high-temperature nickel-base-superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, R.; Horn, E.

    1974-01-01

    General review of heat treatment applied to high-temperature nickel-base-superalloys as a function of the volume percent of the γ'-phase. Heat treatment schedule. γ'-morphology and γ'-distribution as well as their effect on mechanical properties. Values obtained from tensile tests up to 1,000 0 C. Results obtained from creep tests. Limitation for the heat treatment of alloys having an unstable γ'-phase. Alloys X 5 NiCrTi 26 15, ATS 270 (approximately INCO 718), NiCr 20 TiAl, NiCr 20 Co 18 Ti, ATS 342 (approximately Waspaloy), ATS 354 (approximately Udimet 520), NiCo 20 Cr 15 MoAlTi, ATS 382 (approximately Udimet 710), ATS 381-G (approximately Mar M 246), FIS 145 and ATS 391-G (aproximately IN 100). (orig.) [de

  12. Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in’ strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing’, typical in intermediate’ volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing’ to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450°F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

  13. Metallurgical and mechanical examinations of steel–copper joints arc welded using bronze and nickel-base superalloy filler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velu, M.; Bhat, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optical and scanning electron microscopy show defect free weld interfaces. ► Energy dispersive spectroscopy shows low dilution level of the weld by Fe. ► XRD studies show no brittle intermetallic phases in the weld interfaces. ► Weld interfaces did not fail during tensile, transverse bending and impact tests. ► The joint exhibits superior strength properties than that of bronze filler. - Abstract: The paper presents metallurgical and mechanical examinations of joints between dissimilar metals viz. copper (UNSC11000) and alloy steel (En31) obtained by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) using two different filler materials, bronze and nickel-base super alloy. The weld bead of the joint with bronze-filler displayed porosity, while that with nickel-filler did not. In tension tests, the weldments with bronze-filler fractured in the centre of the weld, while those with nickel-filler fractured in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of copper. Since the latter exhibited higher strength than the former, all the major tests were undertaken over the joints with nickel-filler alone. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) indicated corrugated weld interfaces and favorable elemental diffusions across them. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies around the weld interfaces did not reveal any detrimental intermetallic compounds. Transverse bending tests showed that flexural strengths of the weldments were higher than the tensile strengths. Transverse side bend tests confirmed good ductility of the joints. Shear strength of the weld-interface (Cu–Ni or Ni–steel) was higher than the yield strength of weaker metal. Microhardness and Charpy impact values were measured at all the important zones across the weldment

  14. Effect of carbon content on the microstructure and creep properties of a 3rd generation single crystal nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W.; Liu, T. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, L., E-mail: wangli@imr.ac.cn [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, X.G.; Lou, L.H. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, J. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Effect of carbon content on the microstructure and creep properties of a 3rd generation single crystal nickel-base superalloy has been investigated by the scanning electron microscope, X-ray computed tomography and electron probe microanalyzer. With the increase of the carbon content, MC carbides evolve from octahedral to well-developed dendrite, which promotes the formation of microporosity. Moreover, the volume fraction of porosity increases in the experimental alloys after solution heat treatment. As a result, the increase in the size of MC carbides and the porosity has a detrimental effect on the low temperature and high stress creep behavior of the alloys. The specimen crept at 850 °C and 586 MPa with the carbon content of 430 ppm shows the shortest rupture life due to the largest primary creep strain. However, the creep behavior of the alloy at 1120 °C and 140 MPa gets better as the carbon content increases from 88 to 430 ppm. TCP phase is observed near the fracture surfaces of the alloys, which explores as a potential cause for the creep rupture. However, the formation of TCP phase is effectively suppressed for decreasing segregation of the alloying elements, which results in the improvement of the creep life in the alloy with 430 ppm carbon at 1120 °C and 140 MPa.

  15. Thermal analysis of silicon carbide coating on a nickel based superalloy substrate and thickness measurement of top layers by lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, we investigate the capacity of the lock-in infrared thermography technique for the evaluation of non-uniform top layers of a silicon carbide coating with a nickel based superalloy sample. The method utilized a multilayer heat transfer model to analyze the surface temperature response. The modelling of the sample was done in ANSYS. The sample consists of three layers, namely, the metal substrate, bond coat and top coat. A sinusoidal heating at different excitation frequencies was imposed upon the top layer of the sample according to the experimental procedures. The thermal response of the excited surface was recorded, and the phase angle image was computed by Fourier transform using the image processing software, MATLAB and Thermofit Pro. The correlation between the coating thickness and phase angle was established for each excitation frequency. The most appropriate excitation frequency was found to be 0.05 Hz. The method demonstrated potential in the evaluation of coating thickness and it was successfully applied to measure the non-uniform top layers ranging from 0.05 mm to 1 mm with an accuracy of 0.000002 mm to 0.045 mm.

  16. The Effect of Boron and Zirconium on the Structure and Tensile Properties of the Cast Nickel-Based Superalloy ATI 718Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi; Madar, Karim Zangeneh

    2018-04-01

    The effects of boron and zirconium on cast structure, hardness, and tensile properties of the nickel-based superalloy 718Plus were investigated. For this purpose, five alloys with different contents of boron and zirconium were cast via vacuum induction melting and then purified via vacuum arc remelting. Microstructural analysis by light-optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and phase studies by x-ray diffraction analysis were performed. The results showed that boron and zirconium tend to significantly reduce dendritic arm spacing and increase the amount of Laves, Laves/gamma eutectic, and carbide phases. It was also found that boron led to the formation of B4C and (Cr, Fe, Mo, Ni, Ti)3B2 phases and zirconium led to the formation of intermetallic phases and ZrC carbide. In the presence of boron and zirconium, the hardness and its difference between dendritic branches and inter-dendritic spaces increased by concentrating such phases as Laves in the inter-dendritic spaces. These elements had a negative effect on tensile properties of the alloy, including ductility and strength, mainly because of the increase in the Laves phase. It should be noted that the largest degradation of the tensile properties occurred in the alloys containing the maximum amount of zirconium.

  17. Effect of homogenization heat treatments on the cast structure and tensile properties of nickel-base superalloy ATI 718Plus in the presence of boron and zirconium additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali, E-mail: saliho3ini@gmail.com; Madar, Karim Zangeneh; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-03-24

    The effect of homogenization heat treatment on cast structure, hardness, and tensile properties of the nickel-based superalloy 718plus in the presence of boron and zirconium additives were investigated. For this purpose, five alloys with different contents of boron (0.00–0.016 wt%) and zirconium (0.0–0.1 wt%) were cast by double vacuum process VIM/VAR and then were homogenized at 1075–1175 °C for 5–25 h. Microstructural investigation by OM and SEM and phase analysis by XRD were done and then hardness and high temperature tensile tests were performed on the homogenized alloys. The results show that the amount of the Laves phase is reduced by increases in time and temperature of homogenization. It was also found that increases in duration of homogenization at 1075 °C results in improving strength and ductility, while duration increase at 1175 °C is accompanied with degradation of them, which caused the reduction of needle-like delta phase on grain boundaries. Boron and zirconium had negative effects on the strength and ductility of the alloy by increasing the amount of Laves in the cast structure. By increasing these elements in alloy composition, more time is needed in order to fully eliminate the Laves by homogenization treatment.

  18. The Influence of the Coating Deposition Process on the Interdiffusion Behavior Between Nickel-Based Superalloys and MCrAlY Bond Coats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaß, M.; Frommherz, M.; Oechsner, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, interdiffusion between two nickel-based superalloys and two MCrAlY bond coats is investigated. The MCrAlY bond coats were applied using two different spraying processes, high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF) and low-pressure plasma spraying. Of primary interest is the evolution of Kirkendall porosity, which can form at the interface between substrate and bond coat and depends largely on the chemical compositions of the coating and substrate. Experimental evidence further suggested that the formation of Kirkendall porosity depends on the coating deposition process. Formation of porosity at the interface causes a degradation of the bonding strength between substrate and coating. After coating deposition, the samples were annealed at 1050 °C for up to 2000 h. Microstructural and compositional analyses were performed to determine and evaluate the Kirkendall porosity. The results reveal a strong influence of both the coating deposition process and the chemical compositions. The amount of Kirkendall porosity formed, as well as the location of appearance, is largely influenced by the coating deposition process. In general, samples with bond coats applied by means of HVOF show accelerated element diffusion. It is hypothesized that recrystallization of the substrate material is a main root cause for these observations.

  19. The contrasting roles of creep and stress relaxation in the time-dependent deformation during in-situ cooling of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M; Bhowmik, Ayan

    2017-09-11

    Time dependent plastic deformation in a single crystal nickel-base superalloy during cooling from casting relevant temperatures has been studied using a combination of in-situ neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and modelling. Visco-plastic deformation during cooling was found to be dependent on the stress and constraints imposed to component contraction during cooling, which mechanistically comprises creep and stress relaxation. Creep results in progressive work hardening with dislocations shearing the γ' precipitates, a high dislocation density in the γ channels and near the γ/γ' interface and precipitate shearing. When macroscopic contraction is restricted, relaxation dominates. This leads to work softening from a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Changes in lattice strains occur to a similar magnitude in both the γ and γ' phases during stress relaxation, while in creep there is no clear monotonic trend in lattice strain in the γ phase, but only a marginal increase in the γ' precipitates. Using a visco-plastic law derived from in-situ experiments, the experimentally measured and calculated stresses during cooling show a good agreement when creep predominates. However, when stress relaxation dominates accounting for the decrease in dislocation density during cooling is essential.

  20. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  1. Analysis of shot-peening and residual stress relaxation in the nickel-based superalloy RR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, B.J.; Gray, S.; Hardy, M.C.; Stekovic, S.; McPhail, D.S.; Shollock, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the residual stress relaxation of the nickel-based alloy RR1000 due to thermal exposure and dwell-fatigue loading. A number of different characterization methods, including X-ray residual stress analysis, electron back-scattered diffraction, microhardness testing and focused ion beam secondary electron imaging, contributed to a detailed study of the shot-peened region. Thermal exposure at 700 °C resulted in a large reduction in the residual stresses and work-hardening effects in the alloy, but the subsurface remained in a beneficial compressive state. Oxidizing environments caused recrystallization in the near surface, but did not affect the residual stress-relaxation behaviour. Dwell-fatigue loading caused the residual stresses to return to approximately zero at nearly all depths. This work forms part of an ongoing investigation to determine the effects of shot-peening in this alloy with the motivation to improve the fatigue and oxidation resistance at 700 °C

  2. Evolution of the Annealing Twin Density during δ-Supersolvus Grain Growth in the Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel™ 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain growth experiments were performed on Inconel™ 718 to investigate the possible correlation of the annealing twin density with grain size and with annealing temperature. Those experiments were conducted at different temperatures in the δ supersolvus domain and under such conditions that only capillarity forces were involved in the grain boundary migration process. In the investigated range, there is a strong inverse correlation of the twin density with the average grain size. On the other hand, the twin density at a given average grain size is not sensitive to annealing temperature. Consistent with previous results for pure nickel, the twin density evolution in Inconel™ 718 is likely to be mainly controlled by the propagation of the pre-existing twins of the growing grains; i.e., the largest ones of the initial microstructure. Almost no new twin boundaries are created during the grain growth process itself. Therefore, the twin density at a given average grain size is mainly dependent on the twin density in the largest grains of the initial microstructure and independent of the temperature at which grains grow. Based on the observations, a mean field model is proposed to predict annealing twin density as a function of grain size during grain growth.

  3. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) and electron probe micro ... gas turbines and they have designated this alloy as superalloy Superni-75. ... The nickel-based superalloy Superni-75 (19·5Cr-3Fe-0·3Ti-0·1C- Balance Ni) was ...

  4. Advanced Scale Bridging Microstructure Analysis of Single Crystal Ni-Base Superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parsa, A. B.; Wollgramm, P.; Buck, H.; Somsen, C.; Kostka, A.; Povstugar, I.; Choi, P.-P.; Raabe, D.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Müller, J.; Spiecker, E.; Demtroder, K.; Schreuer, J.; Neuking, K.; Eggeler, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2015), s. 216-230 ISSN 1438-1656 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : High temperature materials * Nickel based superalloys * EPMA * HRTEM Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.817, year: 2015

  5. A quantitative approach to study the effect of local texture and heterogeneous plastic strain on the deformation micromechanism in RR1000 nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birosca, S.; Di Gioacchino, F.; Stekovic, S.; Hardy, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a weakly textured material with relatively pore-free and homogeneous microstructure, the local texture can influence primary crack propagation and secondary crack initiation, depending on specific microtexture cluster size. Moreover, the plastic strain assessment and strain quantity within individual grains are essential for understanding the material susceptibility to crack initiation and propagation at various loading conditions and temperature ranges. In the current study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is applied to measure the plastic strain present in RR1000 nickel-based superalloy microstructure following thermo-mechanical fatigue tests. The EBSD plastic strain measurements are evaluated to identify the distinctive deformation mode within individual grains. It was evident from the overall statistical analyses carried out for over 2000 grains that cube (〈0 0 1〉//loading direction) and near cube orientations (φ 1 , Φ, φ 2 : 0, 0–15, 0) behaved as “soft” grains with a high Schmid factor and contained low geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density as a result of low strain hardening at the early stage of deformation for such grains. The near cube orientation (typically φ 1 , Φ, φ 2 : 0, 9, 0) was the softest orientation among the cube family. While the brass grains (〈1 1 1〉//loading direction) acted as “hard” grains that have the lowest Schmid factor with the highest Taylor factor and GND density compared with other oriented grains. A high GND content was found in the vicinity of the grain boundaries in the soft grains and on slip plane traces within the hard grains. It is concluded that GND absolute value for each grain can vary, as it is interrelated with deformation degree, but the GND locations within the grains give indications of the strain hardening state and deformation stages in hard and soft grains. Furthermore, the areas with random local texture contained high strain incompatibilities between neighbouring

  6. Effect of alumina-silica-zirconia eutectic ceramic thermal barrier coating on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of cast polycrystalline nickel-based superalloy at 900 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obrtlík, Karel; Čelko, L.; Chráska, Tomáš; Šulák, Ivo; Gejdoš, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, MAY (2017), s. 374-381 ISSN 0257-8972. [RIPT - International Meeting on Thermal Spraying /7./. Limoges, 09.12.2015-12.12.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20991S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal barrier coating * Nickel-based superalloy * Plasma spraying * High temperature fatigue * Fatigue life * Cyclic stress-strain curve Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis; Audio engineering, reliability analysis (UFM-A); Audio engineering, reliability analysis (UFP-V) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  7. Effects of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics of Ni-based superalloys: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Eren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based superalloys offer high strength, corrosion resistance, thermal stability and superb thermal fatigue properties. However, they have been one of the most difficult materials to machine due to these properties. Although we are witnessing improved machining strategies with the developing machining, tooling and inspection technologies, machining of nickel based superalloys is still a challenging task due to in-process strains and post process part quality demands.

  8. Factors which influence directional coarsening of Gamma prime during creep in nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.A.; Ebert, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the morphology of the gamma prime precipitate were examined as a function of time during creep at 982 C in 001 oriented single crystals of a Ni-Al-Mo-Ta superalloy. In this alloy, which has a large negative misfit of -0.80 pct., the gamma prime particles link together during creep to form platelets, or rafts, which are aligned with their broad faces perpendicular to the applied tensile axis. The effects of initial microstructure and alloy composition of raft development and creep properties were investigated. Directional coarsening of gamma prime begins during primary creep and continues well after the onset of second state creep. The thickness of the rafts remains constant up through the onset of tertiary creep a clear indication of the stability of the finely-spaced gamma/gamma prime lamellar structure. The thickness of the rafts which formed was equal to the initial gamma prime size which was present prior to testing. The single crystals with the finest gamma prime size exhibited the longest creep lives, because the resultant rafted structure had a larger number of gamma/gamma prime interfaces per unit volume of material. Reducing the Mo content by only 0.73 wt. pct. increased the creep life by a factor of three, because the precipitation of a third phase was eliminated

  9. Metallurgical joining of engine parts. Inertia welding of nickel superalloy HP compressor disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The main part of this paper describes upside metallurgical and mechanical work done at SNECMA, on inertia welding of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys ASTROLOY and N18, allowing appliance of this process to engine parts : Inertia welding of superalloys leads to deap microstructural changes in the H.A.Z. which have been, as well as upset, correlated to process parameters, weld geometry and base material microstructure; a full mechanical testing of welds shown properties equivalent to base material ones up to 650 C except for fatigue crack growth behavior under specific conditions (T>600 C-hold time at maximum load) which is drastically reduced for in weld plane propagation. A significant improvement of this later property has been done through post-welding heat treatment and optimization of welding parameters. Last part of this paper summarize the main teachings gained, on the complete welding procedure, from welding of scale one parts. (orig.)

  10. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  11. Optimising mechanical properties of hot forged nickel superalloy 625 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Nthambe; Coles, John; Rosochowska, Malgorzata; Lalvani, Himanshu; Hernandez, Jose; Ion, William

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging and subsequent heat treatment were resulting in substandard mechanical properties of nickel superalloy, Alloy 625, components. The low strength was found to be due to inadequate deformation during forging, excessive grain growth and precipitation of carbides during subsequent heat treatment. Experimentation in a drop forging company and heat treatment facility led to the establishment of optimal parameters to minimise grain size and mitigate the adverse effects of carbide precipitation, leading to successful fulfilment of mechanical property specifications. This was achieved by reducing the number of operations, maximising the extent of deformation by changing the slug dimensions and its orientation in the die, and minimising the time of exposure to elevated temperatures in both the forging and subsequent heat treatment processes to avoid grain growth.

  12. Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography of ruthenium-bearing nickel-base superalloys with focus on cast-microstructure and phase stability; Focused Ion Beam Nanotomographie von rutheniumhaltigen Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen mit Fokus auf Gussgefuege und Phasenstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenanovic, Samir

    2012-12-03

    The influence of rhenium and ruthenium on the multi component system nickel-base superalloy is manifold and complex. An experimental nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium within defined contents, named Astra, was used to investigate the influences of these two elements on the alloy system. The last stage solidification of nickel-base superalloys after Bridgman casting and the high temperature phase stability of these alloys, could be explored with the aid of focused ion beam nanotomography. FIB-nt therefore was introduced and realized at the chair of General Materials Properties of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Cast Astra alloys are like other nickel-base superalloys morphologically very inhomogeneous and affected by segregation. In the interdendritic region different structures with huge γ' precipitates are formed. These inhomogeneities and remaining eutectics degrade the mechanical properties, witch makes an understanding of the subsiding processes at solidification of residual melt important for the casting process and the heat treatment. This is why the last stage solidification in the interdendritic region was analyzed. With the help of focused ion beam nanotomography, three different structures identified from 2-D sections could be assigned to one original 3-D structure. It was pointed out, that only the orientation of the plane of the 2-D cut influences the appearance in the 2-D section. The tomography information was used to explain the development during solidification and to create a model of last stage solidification. The interdendritic region is solidifying under the development of eutectic islands. The structure nucleates eutectically epitaxially at primary dendrite arms, with formation of fine γ/γ' precipitates. During solidification the γ' precipitates coarsen in a rod-like structure, and end up in large γ' precipitates. Simulations and other investigations could approve this model. First three

  13. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►Oxidation products of Ni-based superalloy were studied in oxy-fuel combustion conditions. ► An oxidation-induced phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region. ► One of the two product phases was not in the Ni database of Thermo-Calc. ► This unknown phase is an ordered derivative of FCC structure of Ni–Ti(–Ta) system. ► This phase is likely detrimental to the mechanical integrity of the alloy in use. - Abstract: In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO 2 and O 2 . While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  14. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Nickel Superalloys: Opportunities for Innovation and Challenges Related to Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. S.; Raghavan, N.; Raplee, J.; Foster, S. J.; Frederick, C.; Haines, M.; Dinwiddie, R.; Kirka, M. K.; Plotkowski, A.; Lee, Y.; Dehoff, R. R.

    2018-06-01

    Innovative designs for turbines can be achieved by advances in nickel-based superalloys and manufacturing methods, including the adoption of additive manufacturing. In this regard, selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and selective laser melting (SLM) of nickel-based superalloys do provide distinct advantages. Furthermore, the direct energy deposition (DED) processes can be used for repair and reclamation of nickel alloy components. The current paper explores opportunities for innovation and qualification challenges with respect to deployment of AM as a disruptive manufacturing technology. In the first part of the paper, fundamental correlations of processing parameters to defect tendency and microstructure evolution will be explored using DED process. In the second part of the paper, opportunities for innovation in terms of site-specific control of microstructure during processing will be discussed. In the third part of the paper, challenges in qualification of AM parts for service will be discussed and potential methods to alleviate these issues through in situ process monitoring, and big data analytics are proposed.

  16. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  17. Numerical multi-criteria optimization methods for alloy design. Development of new high strength nickel-based superalloys and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettig, Ralf; Mueller, Alexander; Ritter, Nils C.; Singer, Robert F. [Institute of Science and Technology of Metals, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new approach for the design of optimum balanced metallic alloys is presented. It is based on a mathematical multi-criteria optimization method which uses different property models to predict the alloy behavior in dependency of composition. These property models are mostly based on computational thermodynamics (CALPHAD-method). The full composition range of the alloying elements can be considered using these models. In alloy design usually several contradicting goals have to be fulfilled. This is handled by the calculation of so-called Pareto-fronts. The aim of our approach is to guide the experimental research towards new alloy compositions that have a high probability of having very good properties. Consequently the number of required test alloys can be massively reduced. The approach will be demonstrated for the computer-aided design of a new Re-free superalloy with nearly identical creep strength as that of Re-containing superalloys. Our starting point for the design was to maintain the good properties of the gamma prime-phase in well-known alloys like CMSX-4 and to maximize the solid solution strengthening of W and Mo. The presented experimental measurements proof the excellent properties.

  18. High Temperature Deformation Mechanisms in a DLD Nickel Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Davies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of employing Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM technologies to produce components in the aerospace industry is significantly increasing. This can be attributed to their ability to offer the near-net shape fabrication of fully dense components with a high potential for geometrical optimisation, all of which contribute to subsequent reductions in material wastage and component weight. However, the influence of this manufacturing route on the properties of aerospace alloys must first be fully understood before being actively applied in-service. Specimens from the nickel superalloy C263 have been manufactured using Powder Bed Direct Laser Deposition (PB-DLD, each with unique post-processing conditions. These variables include two build orientations, vertical and horizontal, and two different heat treatments. The effects of build orientation and post-process heat treatments on the materials’ mechanical properties have been assessed with the Small Punch Tensile (SPT test technique, a practical test method given the limited availability of PB-DLD consolidated material. SPT testing was also conducted on a cast C263 variant to compare with PB-DLD derivatives. At both room and elevated temperature conditions, differences in mechanical performances arose between each material variant. This was found to be instigated by microstructural variations exposed through microscopic and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. SPT results were also compared with available uniaxial tensile data in terms of SPT peak and yield load against uniaxial ultimate tensile and yield strength.

  19. Predicting the morphologies of {\\gamma}' precipitates in cobalt-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Jokisaari, Andrea M.; Naghavi, Shahab S.; Wolverton, Chris; Voorhees, Peter W.; Heinonen, Olle G.

    2017-01-01

    Cobalt-based alloys with {\\gamma}/{\\gamma}' microstructures have the potential to become the next generation of superalloys, but alloy compositions and processing steps must be optimized to improve coarsening, creep, and rafting behavior. While these behaviors are different than in nickel-based superalloys, alloy development can be accelerated by understanding the thermodynamic factors influencing microstructure evolution. In this work, we develop a phase field model informed by first-princip...

  20. Effect of long-term aging at 8150C on the tensile properties and microstructural stability of four cobalt- and nickel-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, J.P.

    1976-08-01

    Two heats of Haynes alloy 25 and one heat each of Haynes alloy 188, Hastelloy N, and Inconel 625 were tensile tested after aging for 11,000 h at 816 0 C. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation were determined 24, 316, 760, and 982 0 C and compared with typical properties for these materials in the solution annealed condition. Toughness values were determined for these materials from their engineering stress-strain curves. The long-term aging treatment degraded ductility and toughness at room temperature but, contrary to behavior expected for overaging, enhanced them over those for the solution annealed condition in tests at 760 0 C. The tensile properties of the aged superalloys were correlated with mode of fracture and the amounts, identity, and morphology of the precipitates. Aging substantially depleted the hardener tungsten from the matrix in the cobalt-base alloys

  1. Aging of vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY protective layers and their interaction with nickel- and cobalt-based γ/γ'-superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terberger, Philipp J.

    2015-01-01

    γ/γ' single crystal superalloys with plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems are used as turbine rotor blades in gas turbines if the blades are exposed to high temperatures and high mechanical loads. A bond coat (BC) is part of the thermal barrier coating system. It protects the substrate from oxidation and ensures good bonding of the ceramic coating that serves as a thermal insulator. MCrAlY (M=Ni,Co) alloys are commonly used as BCs. They form a protective Al 2 O 3 layer. This study investigates four different vacuum plasma-sprayed MCrAlY BCs with and without Re after thermal treatment of up to 1000 h at 1044 C in air. The employed substrates are the Ni-based superalloy ERBO1 and the novel Co-based γ/γ' superalloy ERBOCo-1. Additionally, the ternary γ/γ' alloy Co-9Al-9W (in at.%) was aged with a BC for up to 500 h at 900 C. Up to now little is known about the interaction of the Co-based substrates and the BCs. Oxidation and Al depletion of the BC as well as the interdiffusion of BCs and substrates are analysed primarily on the basis of SEM/EDX and XRD. The effect of Y and Hf on the microstructure of the oxide scale is discussed. Rate constants show that Hf results in higher oxidation rates while Re slows down the oxidation. The influence of the alloying elements on the BC microstructure is described. For example, Co prevents the formation of γ' phase, Re slows down diffusion and results in the formation of brittle phases. The choice of substrate material has no measurable influence on the oxidation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) shows that the choice of substrate surface pre-treatment (grit blasting or grinding) has a major influence on the interdiffusion behaviour with the BC. Grinding results in a thinner IDZ and fewer topologically closed packed (TCP) phases. The reason for this is the recrystallisation of the single crystal substrate. A study of the influence of the substrate crystal

  2. Research on Liquid Forming Process of Nickel Superalloys Thin Sheet Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrcza-Michalska M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of drawability of thin sheet metals made of a nickel superalloy Inconel type. The manufacturing process of axisymmetric cup – cone and a closed section profile in the form of a circular tube were designed and analyzed. In both cases, working fluid-oil was used in place of the rigid tools. The process of forming liquid is currently the only alternative method for obtaining complex shapes, coatings, and especially if we do it with high-strength materials. In the case of nickel superalloys the search for efficient methods to manufacture of the shaped shell is one of the most considerable problems in aircraft industry [1-5]. However, the automotive industries have the same problem with so-called advanced high-strength steels (AHSS. Due to this, both industrial problems have been examined and the emphasis have been put on the process of liquid forming (hydroforming. The study includes physical tests and the corresponding numerical simulations performed, using the software Eta/Dynaform 5.9. Numerical analysis of the qualitative and quantitative forecasting enables the formability of materials with complex and unusual characteristics of the mechanical properties and forming technology. It has been found that only the computer aided design based on physical and numerical modeling, makes efficient plastic processing possible using a method of hydroforming. Drawability evaluation based on the determination of the mechanical properties of complex characteristics is an indispensable element of this design in the best practice of industrial manufacturing products made of thin sheet metals.

  3. On the Influence of Nb/Ti Ratio on Environmentally-Assisted Crack Growth in High-Strength Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A. A. N.; Crudden, D. J.; Collins, D. M.; Kuksenko, V.; Liebscher, C. H.; Armstrong, D. E. J.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Reed, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of Nb/Ti ratio on environmentally-assisted crack growth of three prototype Ni-based superalloys is studied. For these alloys, the yield strength is unaltered with increasing Nb/Ti ratio due to an increase in grain size. This situation has allowed the rationalization of the factors influencing damage tolerance at 700 °C. Primary intergranular cracks have been investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope and the analysis of electron back-scatter diffraction patterns. Any possible detrimental effect of Nb on the observed crack tip damage due to Nb-rich oxide formation is not observed. Instead, evidence is presented to indicate that the tertiary γ'-precipitates are dissolving ahead of the crack consistent with the formation of oxides such as alumina and rutile. Our results have implications for alloy design efforts; at any given strength level, both more and less damage-tolerant variants of these alloys can be designed.

  4. X-ray phase analysis of nickel superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayutin, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction technique for determining phase composition is proposed for an intermetallic system of NiAl-Ni 3 Al and is based on the comparison of X-ray interference line intensity for two phases. Its application to heat resistant intermetallic coatings of nickel base alloys has restrictions associated with coatings nonhomogeneity in thickness. These restrictions are noted to be not essential if the reflecting layer thickness does not exceed the thickness of a chemically homogeneous layer in the coating [ru

  5. Corrosion behavior of Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center; Kim, Min Jung [Sungkyunkwan Univ, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Materials Technology Research Center

    2015-07-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes {sup registered} 230 {sup registered} nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes {sup registered} 556 {sup registered}.

  6. Corrosion behavior of Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based super-alloys for integrated coal gasification combined cycle syngas plants. A plant exposure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Jieun; Kang, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Jong; Yun, Yongseung; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercially available Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples was investigated by exposure to coal-gasifying integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant facilities affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Engineering (2.005 MPa and 160-300 C). The morphological and microstructural analyses of the exposed samples were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis on the external surface of the recovered corrosion test samples to obtain information of the corrosion scale. These analyses based on the pre- and post-exposure corrosion test samples combined with thermodynamic Ellingham-Pourbaix stability diagrams provided preliminary insight into the mechanism of the observed corrosion behavior prevailing in the piping materials that connected the particulate removal unit and water scrubber of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle pilot plant. Uniform material wastage was observed after 46 hours of operation, and a preliminary corrosion mechanism was suggested: the observed material waste and corrosion behavior of the Haynes registered 230 registered nickel-based alloy samples cut off from the coal syngas integrated coal gasification combined cycle plant were explained by the formation of discontinuous (complex) oxide phases and subsequent chlorine-induced active oxidation under the predominantly reducing environment encountered. This contribution continues the already published studies of the Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloy Haynes registered 556 registered .

  7. Erosion–corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers used in thermal power plants are ... mechanism, resulting in the tube wall thinning and premature failure. The nickel-based superalloys can be used as boiler tube materials to increase the ...

  8. 3D imaging using X-Ray tomography and SEM combined FIB to study non isothermal creep damage of (111) oriented samples of γ / γ ′ nickel base single crystal superalloy MC2

    KAUST Repository

    Jouiad, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented investigation consisting of the association of X-Ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Focus Ion Beam (SEM-FIB) is conducted to perform a 3D reconstruction imaging. These techniques are applied to study the non-isothermal creep behavior of close (111) oriented samples of MC2 nickel base superalloys single crystal. The issue here is to develop a strategy to come out with the 3D rafting of γ\\' particles and its interaction whether with dislocation structures or/and with the preexisting voids. This characterization is uncommonly performed away from the conventional studied orientation [001] in order to feed the viscoplastic modeling leading to its improvement by taking into account the crystal anisotropy. The creep tests were performed at two different conditions: classical isothermal tests at 1050°C under 140 MPa and a non isothermal creep test consisting of one overheating at 1200°C and 30 seconds dwell time during the isothermal creep life. The X-Ray tomography shows a great deformation heterogeneity that is pronounced for the non-isothermal tested samples. This deformation localization seems to be linked to the preexisting voids. Nevertheless, for both tested samples, the voids coalescence is the precursor of the observed damage leading to failure. SEM-FIB investigation by means of slice and view technique gives 3D views of the rafted γ\\' particles and shows that γ corridors evolution seems to be the main creep rate controlling parameter. © 2012 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  9. Low heat input welding of nickel superalloy GTD-111 with Inconel 625 filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athiroj, Athittaya; Wangyao, Panyawat; Hartung, Fritz; Lothongkum, Gobboon [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2018-03-01

    GTD-111 precipitation-strengthened nickel-based superalloy is widely used in blades of gas turbine engines which operate at high temperature and in a hot localized corrosion atmosphere. After long-term exposure to high temperature, γ' precipitate is known to exhibit catastrophic changes in size and distribution which cause deterioration of its properties and failure of the component. In this study, a damaged blade removed from a land-based gas turbine generator was subjected to nonpre-heat-treated GTAW and laser welding repair with various welding powers in the range of 135 to 295 J x mm{sup -1}, followed by post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1473 K for 7200 s and strain aging at 1118 K for 86 400 s. Results show no significant relationship between welding powers, size and area fraction of the γ' precipitate in the fcc γ matrix in both GTAW and laser-welded specimens. The final γ' precipitate size and distribution depend mainly on PWHT parameters as γ' precipitates in all GTAW and laser welded specimens showed similar size and area fraction independently of the heat input from welding. Unmixed zones are observed in all laser welding specimens which may cause preferential weld corrosion during service. Microcrack occurrence due to welding and PWHT processes is also discussed.

  10. Effects of Stress Ratio and Microstructure on Fatigue Failure Behavior of Polycrystalline Nickel Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Guan, Z. W.; Wang, Q. Y.; Liu, Y. J.; Li, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of microstructure and stress ratio on high cycle fatigue of nickel superalloy Nimonic 80A were investigated. The stress ratios of 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8 were chosen to perform fatigue tests in a frequency of 110 Hz. Cleavage failure was observed, and three competing failure crack initiation modes were discovered by a scanning electron microscope, which were classified as surface without facets, surface with facets and subsurface with facets. With increasing the stress ratio from 0.1 to 0.8, the occurrence probability of surface and subsurface with facets also increased and reached the maximum value at R = 0.5, meanwhile the probability of surface initiation without facets decreased. The effect of microstructure on the fatigue fracture behavior at different stress ratios was also observed and discussed. Based on the Goodman diagram, it was concluded that the fatigue strength of 50% probability of failure at R = 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8 is lower than the modified Goodman line.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminide coatings on iron, nickel and superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, John T.; De, P.K.; Dubey, Vivekanand; Srinivasa, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Aluminide coatings are a class of intermetallic coatings applied on nickel and cobalt base superalloys and steels to protect them from different forms of environmental degradation at high temperatures. In this report a CVD system that can produce the aluminide coatings on iron, nickel and nickel base alloys has been described and the result of chemical vapor deposition of aluminide coatings on iron specimens, their characterization, and property evaluation have been presented. The CVD system consists of an AlCl 3 bath, a stainless steel retort as a hot-wall reacto, cold traps and vacuum system. Aluminium chloride vapor was carried in a stream of hydrogen gas at a flow rate of 150 SCCM (standard cubic centimeter per minute) into the CVD reactor maintained in the temperature range of 1173 - 1373 K and at a pressure of 1.33 kPa (10 Torr). Aluminum deposition takes place from aluminium subchlorides produced by reaction between AlCl 3 and pure aluminum kept in the CVD reactor. The aluminum diffuses into the iron samples and iron aluminide phases are formed at the surface. The coatings were shining bright and showed good adherence to the substrate. The coatings consisted of FeAl phase over a wide range of experimental conditions. The growth kinetics of the coating followed a parabolic rate law and the mean activation energy was 212 ±16 kJ/mol. Optical microscopic studies on the transverse section of the coating showed that the aluminide coating on iron consisted of two layers. The top layer had a thickness in the range of 20-50 μm, and the under layer had thickness ranging from 35 to 250 μm depending on coating temperature in two hours. The thickness of the aluminide layer increased with coating duration and temperature. Electron microprobe studies (EPMA) showed that the aluminum concentration decreased steadily as distance from the surface increased. TEM studies showed that the outer most layer had a B2 order (of the FeAl phase), which extended even into the under

  12. History Dependence of the Microstructure on Time-Dependent Deformation During In-Situ Cooling of a Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwisawas, Chinnapat; D'Souza, Neil; Collins, David M.; Bhowmik, Ayan; Roebuck, Bryan

    2018-05-01

    Time-dependent plastic deformation through stress relaxation and creep deformation during in-situ cooling of the as-cast single-crystal superalloy CMSX-4® has been studied via neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electro-thermal miniature testing, and analytical modeling across two temperature regimes. Between 1000 °C and 900 °C, stress relaxation prevails and gives rise to softening as evidenced by a decreased dislocation density and the presence of long segment stacking faults in γ phase. Lattice strains decrease in both the γ matrix and γ' precipitate phases. A constitutive viscoplastic law derived from in-situ isothermal relaxation test under-estimates the equivalent plastic strain in the prediction of the stress and strain evolution during cooling in this case. It is thereby shown that the history dependence of the microstructure needs to be taken into account while deriving a constitutive law and which becomes even more relevant at high temperatures approaching the solvus. Higher temperature cooling experiments have also been carried out between 1300 °C and 1150 °C to measure the evolution of stress and plastic strain close to the γ' solvus temperature. In-situ cooling of samples using ETMT shows that creep dominates during high-temperature deformation between 1300 °C and 1220 °C, but below a threshold temperature, typically 1220 °C work hardening begins to prevail from increasing γ' fraction and resulting in a rapid increase in stress. The history dependence of prior accumulated deformation is also confirmed in the flow stress measurements using a single sample while cooling. The saturation stresses in the flow stress experiments show very good agreement with the stresses measured in the cooling experiments when viscoplastic deformation is dominant. This study demonstrates that experimentation during high-temperature deformation as well as the history dependence of the microstructure during cooling plays a key role in deriving

  13. Superalloys. Volume 2. 1977-February 1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1977--Feb 78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1978-03-01

    Federally-funded research on cobalt- and nickel-based superalloys is cited. Casting and powder metallurgy of these alloys are covered. Properties such as heat resistance, corrosion resistance, microstructure, fracture, and creep are described. The use of these materials in nuclear reactors, gas turbine parts, and high-temperature equipment is a major part of this compilation

  14. Influence of dwell times on the thermomechanical fatigue behavior of a directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guth, S.; Petráš, Roman; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš; Man, Jiří; Lang, K. H.; Polák, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, NOV (2015), s. 426-433 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nickel base superalloy * Thermomechanical fatigue * Dwell time * Lifetime behavior * Damage mechanisms Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2015

  15. Studying the effect of Ruthenium on High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys and Determining the Universal Behavior of Ruthenium at Atomic Scale with respect to alloying elements, Stress and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriswaroop Dasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Any property of a material is a function of its microstructure and microstructure is a function of material composition. So, to maximize the desired properties of a material, one has to understand the evolution of microstructure which in turn is nothing but the reflection of the role of alloying elements. Research has not been done to understand the universal behavior of a certain base/alloying element. Let’s take the example of Cl- ion in HCl, we all know that in general, chloride ion can only be replaced by Fluoride or oxygen ion and that no other ion can replace it. But when you consider a metal like Ni, Co, Cr, Fe etc. there is no establishment that it behaves only in a certain way. Though I concord to the fact that discovery of universal behavior of Ni is lot complex than chloride ion, I think that future research should be focused in this direction also. Superalloys are the candidate materials required to improve thermal efficiency of a gas turbine by allowing higher turbine inlet gas temperatures. Gas turbines are the heart of local power systems, next generation jet engines and high performance space rockets. Recent research in superalloys showed that addition of some alloying elements in minor quantities can result in drastic change in properties. Such an alloying element is Ruthenium (Ru. Addition of Ruthenium to superalloys has shown improvement in mechanical properties by an order of magnitude. However reasons for such improvement are not known yet. Hence, there is a need to identify its role and discover the universal behavior of ruthenium to utilize it efficiently. In this proposal, we study materials with different compositions that are derived based on one ruthenium containing superalloy, and different thermomechanical history. Based on the evolution of microstructures and results of mechanical testing, we plan to determine the exact role of Ruthenium and prediction of its behavior with respect to other elements in the material

  16. Evaluation of Heat Capacity and Resistance to Cyclic Oxidation of Nickel Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przeliorz R.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of evaluation of heat resistance and specific heat capacity of MAR-M-200, MAR-M-247 and Rene 80 nickel superalloys. Heat resistance was evaluated using cyclic method. Every cycle included heating in 1100°C for 23 hours and cooling for 1 hour in air. Microstructure of the scale was observed using electron microscope. Specific heat capacity was measured using DSC calorimeter. It was found that under conditions of cyclically changing temperature alloy MAR-M-247 exhibits highest heat resistance. Formed oxide scale is heterophasic mixture of alloying elements, under which an internal oxidation zone was present. MAR-M-200 alloy has higher specific heat capacity compared to MAR-M-247. For tested alloys in the temperature range from 550°C to 800°C precipitation processes (γ′, γ″ are probably occurring, resulting in a sudden increase in the observed heat capacity.

  17. Low temperature gaseous nitriding of Ni based superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, K. M.; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr......In the present work the nitriding response of selected Ni based superalloys at low temperatures is addressed. The alloys investigated are nimonic series nos. 80, 90, 95 and 100 and nichrome (Ni/Cr...

  18. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  19. Solidification phenomena in nickel base brazes containing boron and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, S.K.; Lim, L.C.; Lai, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressants are used extensively in the repair and joining of aero-engine hot-section components. These melting point depressants form hard and brittle intermetallic compounds with nickel which are detrimental to the mechanical properties of brazed joints. The present investigation studied the microstructural evolution in nickel base brazes containing boron and/or silicon as melting point depressant(s) in simple systems using nickel as the base metal. The basic metallurgical reactions and formation of intermetallic compounds uncovered in these systems will be useful as a guide in predicting the evolution of microstructures in similar brazes in more complex systems involving base metals of nickel base superalloys. The four filler metal systems investigated in this study are: Ni-Cr-Si; Ni-Cr-B; Ni-Si-B and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B

  20. The effects of ruthenium on the phase stability of fourth generation Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Harada, Hiroshi; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Murakumo, Takao; Koizumi, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Toshiharu; Imai, Hachiro

    2006-01-01

    The formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases in nickel-base single crystal superalloys causes considerable degradation of the mechanical properties. It has recently been found that platinum-group metals can be effective in controlling the precipitation of such phases, and this extent of precipitation control requires further investigation. This study compares Ru-containing and non-Ru-containing single crystal superalloys. Scanning electron microscopy microstructural observations showed that the rate of TCP phase precipitations decreased through Ru addition. Transmission electron microscopy microstructural observations showed that the P phase, one of the TCP phases, was eliminated through the addition of Ru. The occurrence of this phenomenon will be discussed

  1. Niobium-base superalloys via powder metallurgy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides some insight into an area that has been neglected, namely the possibility of developing high-strength, niobium-base alloys by improved oxidation resistance via the consolidation of rapidly solidified powders. Powder metallurgy (P/M) is an attractive processing technique because of its flexibility and versatility, and it may provide the alloys with properties and workability not obtainable via metal casting. A critical review of both U.S. and Russian literature is presented along with suggestions on the most promising compositions and processing techniques available to meet these competing goals. Previous work on many niobium alloys reveals that long term properties are retained well above those obtained on nickel-base superalloys. Cast and wrought alloys extend specific strength beyond 1200 0 C (2200 0 F), but lack oxidation resistance. Remarkable oxidation resistance is obtained, however, on miniature castings of certain ternary alloys which are too brittle for any processing. A better understanding of the oxidation mechanism is necessary before the proper P/M (RST) approach is taken on compositions which could provide compatibility between the two competing goals through grain refinement and a homogeneous distribution of the contributory phases. Finally, ways to up-scale production of Nb powder are discussed, including thermodynamic feasibility for the direct reduction of NbCl/sub 5/ in a 1.5 MW plasma reactor

  2. Development of advanced P/M Ni-base superalloys for turbine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garibov Genrikh S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of evolution of powder metallurgy in Russia the task permanently formulated was the following: to improve strength properties of P/M superalloys without application of additional complex HIPed blanks deformation operation. On the other hand development of a turbine disk material structure to ensure an improvement in aircraft engine performance requires the use of special HIP and heat treatment conditions. To ensure maximum strength properties of disk materials it is necessary to form a structure which would have optimum size of solid solution grains, γ′-phases and carbides. Along with that heating of the material up to a temperature determined by solvus of an alloy ensures a stable and reproducible level of mechanical properties of the disks. The above-said can be illustrated by successful mastering of new complex-alloyed VVP-class superalloys with the use of powder size − 100 μm. Application of special HIP and heat treatment conditions for these superalloys to obtain the desired grain size and the strengthening γ′-phase precipitates allowed a noticeable improvement in ultimate tensile strength and yield strength up to ≥1600 MPa and ≥1200 MPa respectively. 100 hrs rupture strength at 650 ∘C and 750 ∘C was improved up to 1140 MPa and 750 MPa respectively. P/M VVP nickel-base superalloys offer higher characteristics in comparison with many superalloys designed for the same purposes. HIPed disc compacts manufactured from PREP-powder have a homogeneous micro- and macrostructure, a stable level of mechanical properties.

  3. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  4. L12-phase cutting during high temperature and low stress creep of a Re-containing Ni-base single crystal superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, A.; Maelzer, G. (ed.); Eggeler, G.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Reese, S.; Mack, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 11 (2007), s. 3951-3957 ISSN 0022-2461 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nickel-base superalloys * single crystals * creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.081, year: 2007

  5. Computational and Experimental Design of Fe-Based Superalloys for Elevated-Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, Peter K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fine, Morris E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ghosh, Gautam [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Asta, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Chain T. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Sun, Zhiqian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, Shenyan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Teng, Zhenke [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2012-04-13

    Analogous to nickel-based superalloys, Fe-based superalloys, which are strengthened by coherent B2- type precipitates are proposed for elevated-temperature applications. During the period of this project, a series of ferritic superalloys have been designed and fabricated by methods of vacuum-arc melting and vacuum-induction melting. Nano-scale precipitates were characterized by atom-probe tomography, ultrasmall- angle X-ray scattering, and transmission-electron microscopy. A duplex distribution of precipitates was found. It seems that ferritic superalloys are susceptible to brittle fracture. Systematic endeavors have been devoted to understanding and resolving the problem. Factors, such as hot rolling, precipitate volume fractions, alloy compositions, precipitate sizes and inter-particle spacings, and hyperfine cooling precipitates, have been investigated. In order to understand the underlying relationship between the microstructure and creep behavior of ferric alloys at elevated temperatures, in-situ neutron studies have been carried out. Based on the current result, it seems that the major role of β' with a 16%-volume fraction in strengthening ferritic alloys is not load sharing but interactions with dislocations. The oxidation behavior of one ferritic alloy, FBB8 (Fe-6.5Al-10Ni-10Cr-3.4Mo-0.25Zr-0.005B, weight percent), was studied in dry air. It is found that it possesses superior oxidation resistance at 1,023 and 1,123 K, compared with other creep-resistant ferritic steels [T91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo, weight percent) and P92 (9Cr-1.8W-0.5Mo, weight percent)]. At the same time, the calculation of the interfacial energies between the -iron and B2-type intermetallics (CoAl, FeAl, and NiAl) has been conducted.

  6. Double minimum creep of single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    WU, X.; Wollgramm, P.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Kostka, A.; Eggeler, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, JUN (2016), s. 242-260 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Single crystal Ni-base superalloys * Primary creep * Transmission electron microscopy * Dislocations * Stacking faults Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  7. Fatigue of superalloys and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoloff, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of intermetallic alloys and their composites is contrasted to that of nickel-base superalloys. The roles of microstructure and slip planarity are emphasized. Obstacles to use of intermetallics under cyclic loading conditions are described and future research directions are suggested

  8. Aspectos metalúrgicos de revestimentos dissimilares com a superliga à base de níquel inconel 625 Metallurgical aspects of dissimilar weld overlays of inconel 625 nickel based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Carvalho Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolongar a vida útil e aumentar a confiabilidade de equipamentos e tubulações de plantas de produção e processamento de petróleo é uma busca constante no setor de petróleo e gás. Tais aspectos dependem essencialmente do uso de ligas resistentes à corrosão. Neste contexto, a soldagem de revestimento com superligas à base de níquel tem sido uma alternativa interessante, pois confere aos equipamentos uma alta resistência à corrosão com um custo inferior, se comparado à fabricação de componentes ou tubulações maciças com superligas. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o comportamento metalúrgico de revestimento de superliga à base de níquel do tipo Inconel 625 depositados pelo processo TIG com alimentação de arame frio. As soldagens foram realizadas em uma bancada robotizada, empregando uma fonte eletrônica de soldagem com sistema de aquisição de dados para o monitoramento dos sinais de corrente e tensão. A caracterização microestrutural foi realizada através das técnicas de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e transmissão (MET, espectroscopia de energia dispersiva de raios-X (EDS. Os resultados mostraram que a microestrutura do metal de solda foi constituída por uma matriz γ com fases secundárias ricas em Nb. Foi encontrada a formação de precipitados complexos de carbonetos/nitretos de Ti e Nb.To extend the life and reliability of pipes and equipment in oil & gas production and processing settings is a continuous demand. These aspects are essentially dependent on corrosion resistant alloys used. In this context, the weld overlay with Ni-based superalloys is a great interesting alternative, since improve the corrosion resistance without increase the cost of manufacture when compared to massive equipment. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the metallurgical aspects of Inconel 625 weld overlays deposited by GTAW cold wire feed process. The welds were performed using a

  9. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  10. Nanoscale Origins of the Size Effect in the Compression Response of Single Crystal Ni-Base Superalloy Micro-Pillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Ying

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel superalloys play a pivotal role in enabling power-generation devices on land, sea, and in the air. They derive their strength from coherent cuboidal precipitates of the ordered γ’ phase that is different from the γ matrix in composition, structure and properties. In order to reveal the correlation between elemental distribution, dislocation glide and the plastic deformation of micro- and nano-sized volumes of a nickel superalloy, a combined in situ nanoindentation compression study was carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM on micro- and nano-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB milling of Ni-base superalloy CMSX4. The observed mechanical response (hardening followed by softening was correlated with the progression of crystal slip that was revealed using FIB nano-tomography and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS elemental mapping. A hypothesis was put forward that the dependence of material strength on the size of the sample (micropillar diameter is correlated with the characteristic dimension of the structural units (γ’ precipitates. By proposing two new dislocation-based models, the results were found to be described well by a new parameter-free Hall–Petch equation.

  11. High-temperature γ (FCC/γ′ (L12 Co-Al-W based superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knop Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interim results from the development of a polycrystalline Co-Al-W based superalloy are presented. Cr has been added to provide oxidation resistance and Ni has then been added to widen and stabilise the γ′ phase field. The alloy presented has a solvus of 1010 °C and a density of 8.7 g cm−3. The room temperature flow stress is over 1000 MPa and this reduces dramatically above 800 °C. The flow stress anomaly is observed. A microstructure with both ∼ 50 nm γ′ produced on cooling and larger 100–200 nm γ′ can be obtained. Isothermal oxidation at 800 °C in air for 200 h gave a mass gain of 0.96 mg cm−2. After hot deformation in the 650–850 °C temperature range, both anti phase boundaries (APBs and stacking faults could be observed. An APB energy of 71 mJ m−2 was measured, which is comparable to that found in commercial nickel superalloys.

  12. Study on the hot corrosion behavior of a cast Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Guo, J.T.; Zhang, J.; Yuan, C.; Zhou, L.Z.; Hu, Z.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research

    2010-07-01

    Hot corrosion behavior of Nickel-base cast superalloy K447 in 90% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 10% NaCl melting salt at 850 C and 900 C was studied. The hot corrosion kinetic of the alloy follows parabolic rate law under the experimental conditions. The external layer is mainly Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale which is protective to the alloy, the intermediate layer is the Ti-rich phase, and the internal layer is mainly the international oxides and sulfides. With increased corrosion time and temperature, the oxide scales are gradually dissolved in the molten salt and then precipitate as a thick and non-protective scale. Chlorides cause the formation of volatile species, which makes the oxide scale disintegrate and break off. The corrosion kinetics and morphology examinations tend to support the basic dissolution model for hot corrosion mechanisms. (orig.)

  13. High temperature creep properties of directionally solidified CM-247LC Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Mau-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui, E-mail: srjian@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Yeh, An-Chou [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chen-Ming [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China); Juang, Jenh-Yih [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-08

    This study explores the effects of cooling rate after solution heat treatment on the high temperature/low stress (982 °C/200 MPa) creep properties of CM-247LC Nickel base superalloy. Cooling rate was controlled by blowing argon gas, air cooling, and furnace cooling, which, in turn, gave rise to corresponding cooling rates (from 1260 °C to 800 °C) of 18.7, 7.4, and 0.19 °C/s, respectively. The results indicated that higher cooling rate from the solution heat treatment temperature led to finer γ′ precipitates and much improved tertiary creep as well as rupture life time in high-temperature creep test. The microstructural analyses using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that finer γ′ precipitates and narrower γ channel width could result in denser rafting structure which might have hindered the climb of dislocations across the precipitates rafts.

  14. TEM microstructural analysis of creep deformed CM186LC single crystal Ni-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Blackler, M. [Howmet Ltd., Exeter (United Kingdom); Barnard, P.M. [ALSTOM Power Turbo-Systems Technology Centre, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The nickel based single crystal superalloy CM186LC was extensively investigated as a potential low cost material for industrial gas turbine vanes within the COST522 programme. The alloy exhibits inhomogeneous structure consisting of dendritic regions and eutectic colonies. In the present work attention is focused on microstructural changes observed in single crystal CM186LC following creep deformation at 750 C. Creep tests were conducted at 750 C with an applied stress of 560 or 675 MPa for up to 11440 hours. The microstructure o ruptured and terminated specimens was investigated by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. TEM analysis revealed the microstructural changes in the CM186LC at primary and secondary creep as well as after creep rupture. (orig.)

  15. Predictive Analysis for the Thermal Diffusion of the Plasma-Assisted Machining of Superalloy Inconel-718 Based on Exponential Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shao-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel base and titanium base materials have been widely applied to engines in aerospace industry, and these engines are essential components of airplanes. The machining characteristics of aerospace materials may cause machining cutters to be worn down in a short time and thus reduce the accuracy of processing. The plasma-assisted machining adopted in the research is a kind of the complex machining method. In the cases of nickel base and titanium base alloys, the method can heat workpieces in an extremely short duration to soften the materials for the ease of cutting so that the cutting force, cutter wear, and machining cost will all be reduced. The research adopted plasma heating to soften parts of the materials and aimed to explore the heating of nickel base alloy. The temperature variation of the materials was investigated and measured by adjusting the current and feed velocity. Moreover, Inconel-718 superalloy was adopted for the comparison with nickel base alloy for the observation of the influence and change brought by heat, and the method of exponential smoothing was adopted to conduct the prediction and analysis of thermal diffusion for understanding the influence and change brought by electric current on nickel base materials. Finally, given the current from 20 A to 80 A and feed velocity from 1,000 mm/min to 3,000 mm/min, the influence of thermal diffusion was investigated and the related model was built.

  16. High temperature oxidation and corrosion behavior of Ni-base superalloy in He environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyoeng Geun; Park, Ji Yeon; Jung, Su jin

    2010-11-01

    Ni-base superalloy is considered as a IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) material for VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor). The helium environment in VHTR contains small amounts of impure gases, which cause oxidation, carburization, and decarburization. In this report, we conducted the literature survey about the high temperature behavior of Ni-base superalloys in air and He environments. The basic information of Ni-base superalloy and the basic metal-oxidation theory were briefly stated. The He effect on the corrosion of Ni-base superalloy was also summarized. This works would provide a brief suggestion for the next research topic for the application of Ni-base superalloy to VHTR

  17. Aging of vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY protective layers and their interaction with nickel- and cobalt-based γ/γ'-superalloys; Alterung von Vakuum-plasmagespritzten MCrAlY-Schutzschichten und ihre Wechselwirkung mit Nickel- und Cobalt-basierten γ/γ'-Superlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terberger, Philipp J.

    2015-07-01

    γ/γ' single crystal superalloys with plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems are used as turbine rotor blades in gas turbines if the blades are exposed to high temperatures and high mechanical loads. A bond coat (BC) is part of the thermal barrier coating system. It protects the substrate from oxidation and ensures good bonding of the ceramic coating that serves as a thermal insulator. MCrAlY (M=Ni,Co) alloys are commonly used as BCs. They form a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This study investigates four different vacuum plasma-sprayed MCrAlY BCs with and without Re after thermal treatment of up to 1000 h at 1044 C in air. The employed substrates are the Ni-based superalloy ERBO1 and the novel Co-based γ/γ' superalloy ERBOCo-1. Additionally, the ternary γ/γ' alloy Co-9Al-9W (in at.%) was aged with a BC for up to 500 h at 900 C. Up to now little is known about the interaction of the Co-based substrates and the BCs. Oxidation and Al depletion of the BC as well as the interdiffusion of BCs and substrates are analysed primarily on the basis of SEM/EDX and XRD. The effect of Y and Hf on the microstructure of the oxide scale is discussed. Rate constants show that Hf results in higher oxidation rates while Re slows down the oxidation. The influence of the alloying elements on the BC microstructure is described. For example, Co prevents the formation of γ' phase, Re slows down diffusion and results in the formation of brittle phases. The choice of substrate material has no measurable influence on the oxidation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) shows that the choice of substrate surface pre-treatment (grit blasting or grinding) has a major influence on the interdiffusion behaviour with the BC. Grinding results in a thinner IDZ and fewer topologically closed packed (TCP) phases. The reason for this is the recrystallisation of the single crystal substrate. A study of the influence of the substrate

  18. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  19. High temperature properties of polycrystalline γ"'-strengthened cobalt-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a stable γ"'-phase in Co-based superalloys opened up a pathway for the development of a new high temperature material class, which is similar in microstructure and properties to the modern γ"'-hardened Ni-based superalloys. In this work, the first attempt was done to check the influence of several for Ni-based superalloys typical alloying elements on the properties of the new Co-based superalloys. It became clear that the basic characteristics of the first experimental alloys are similar to those of the γ"'-hardened Ni-based alloys. The results of the multinary experimental alloys show that, based on the insight gained so far, targeted alloy development is possible. These materials have the potential to be used as disc materials in turbines.

  20. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Etude des mecanismes de formation des microstructures lors du brasage isotherme de superalliages a base de nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vargas, Jose

    This thesis reports theoretical and experimental investigations carried out to understand the mechanisms of microstructure formation during isothermal brazing, produced by brazing Inconel 625 and MC2 nickel-based superalloys with filler metal BNi-2. Firstly, studies were made on pure Ni to interpret microstructure's formation with simplified alloy chemistry. Microstructure formation have been studied when varying time at constant temperature (isothermal kinetics), but also when varying temperature for constant hold time (isochronal kinetics). The chemical composition and crystallography of the present phases have been identified, with the following results : (i) the fraction of dissolved base metal has been found proportional to the initial thickness of the brazing alloy, so that the composition of the liquid remains homogeneous with a precise initial equilibrium composition during the whole brazing process, (ii) the melting of the joint occurs in two steps : at lower temperature, it involves only partially melting, and boron diffusion in pure Ni leads to the precipitation of fine Ni3B borides at the interface ; in a second stage, at higher temperature, melting is complete and thermodynamic equilibrium requires significant dissolution of nickel, which also involves the dissolution of part of borides already formed. Secondly, nickel plating technique was used on Inconel 625 nickel-based superalloy. A thin layer of Ni with varying thickness, has been electrodeposited to observe the gradual dissolution of Inconel and microstructural features formation due to the presence of superalloy alloying elements. It has been observed that the nickel coating does not prevent precipitation in the base metal as boron diffuse rapidly through the coating width. In the intermediate nickel plating width, fragile precipitates of nickel borides have been observed, because the contribution of Inconel alloying elements to the melt was very limited. In absence of nickel plating on the

  2. High Temperature Degradation of Powder-processed Ni-based Superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Roupcová, Pavla; Dymáček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 85-94 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : powder materials * polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy * creep machine grips * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  3. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  4. Competing fatigue failure behaviors of Ni-based superalloy FGH96 at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Guolei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Duoqi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue experiments were performed on a polycrystalline P/M processed nickel-based superalloy, FGH96 at 600 °C to investigate competing fatigue failure behaviors of the alloy. The experiments were performed at four levels of stress (from high cycle fatigue to low cycle fatigue) at stress ratio of 0.05. There was large variability in fatigue life at both high and low stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the failure surfaces. Three types of competing failure modes were observed (surface, sub-surface and internal initiated failures). Crack initiation sites were gradually changed from the surface to the interior with the decreasing of stress level. Roles of microstructures in competing failure mechanism were analyzed. There were six kinds of fatigue crack initiation modes: (1) surface inclusion initiated; (2) surface facet initiated; (3) sub-surface inclusion initiated; (4) sub-surface facet initiated; (5) internal inclusion initiated; (6) internal facet initiated. Inclusions at surface were the life-limiting microstructures at higher stress levels. The probability of occurrence of inclusions initiated is gradually reduced with decreasing of stress level, simultaneously the probability of occurrence of facets initiated is increasing. The existence of the inclusions resulted in large life variability at higher stress levels, while heterogeneity of material caused by random combinations of grains was the main cause of fatigue variability at lower stress levels.

  5. Competing fatigue failure behaviors of Ni-based superalloy FGH96 at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Guolei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-engine(CICAAE), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Shi, Duoqi, E-mail: shdq@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-engine(CICAAE), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Fatigue experiments were performed on a polycrystalline P/M processed nickel-based superalloy, FGH96 at 600 °C to investigate competing fatigue failure behaviors of the alloy. The experiments were performed at four levels of stress (from high cycle fatigue to low cycle fatigue) at stress ratio of 0.05. There was large variability in fatigue life at both high and low stresses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the failure surfaces. Three types of competing failure modes were observed (surface, sub-surface and internal initiated failures). Crack initiation sites were gradually changed from the surface to the interior with the decreasing of stress level. Roles of microstructures in competing failure mechanism were analyzed. There were six kinds of fatigue crack initiation modes: (1) surface inclusion initiated; (2) surface facet initiated; (3) sub-surface inclusion initiated; (4) sub-surface facet initiated; (5) internal inclusion initiated; (6) internal facet initiated. Inclusions at surface were the life-limiting microstructures at higher stress levels. The probability of occurrence of inclusions initiated is gradually reduced with decreasing of stress level, simultaneously the probability of occurrence of facets initiated is increasing. The existence of the inclusions resulted in large life variability at higher stress levels, while heterogeneity of material caused by random combinations of grains was the main cause of fatigue variability at lower stress levels.

  6. Microstructural Changes during High Temperature Service of a Cobalt-Based Superalloy First Stage Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superalloys are a group of alloys based on nickel, iron, or cobalt, which are used to operate at high temperatures (T > 540°C and in situations involving very high stresses like in gas turbines, particularly in the manufacture of blades, nozzles, combustors, and discs. Besides keeping its high resistance to temperatures which may approach 85% of their melting temperature, these materials have excellent corrosion resistance and oxidation. However, after long service, these components undergo mechanical and microstructural degradation; the latter is considered a major cause for replacement of the main components of gas turbines. After certain operating time, these components are very expensive to replace, so the microstructural analysis is an important tool to determine the mode of microstructure degradation, residual lifetime estimation, and operating temperature and most important to determine the method of rehabilitation for extending its life. Microstructural analysis can avoid catastrophic failures and optimize the operating mode of the turbine. A case study is presented in this paper.

  7. Erosion-corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in the real service environment of the boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D.; Bhagat, R. [Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering & Technology, Ferozepur (India)

    2009-04-15

    The super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers used in thermal power plants are subjected to unacceptable levels of surface degradation by the combined effect of erosion-corrosion mechanism, resulting in the tube wall thinning and premature failure. The nickel-based superalloys can be used as boiler tube materials to increase the service life of the boilers, especially for the new generation ultra-supercritical boilers. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the erosion-corrosion behaviour of Ni-based superalloy Superni-75 in the real service environment of the coal-fired boiler of a thermal power plant. The cyclic experimental study was performed for 1000 h in the platen superheater zone of the coal-fired boiler where the temperature was around 900{sup o}C. The corrosion products have been characterized with respect to surface morphology, phase composition and element concentration using the combined techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (SEM/EDAX) and electron probe micro analyser (EPMA). The Superni-75 performed well in the coal-fired boiler environment, which has been attributed mainly to the formation of a thick band of chromium in scale due to selective oxidation of the chromium.

  8. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  9. Performance of nickel base superalloy components in gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine......The topic of this thesis is the microstructural behaviour of hot section components in the industrial gas turbine...

  10. Effect of Squareness of Initial γ' Precipitates on Creep-Rupture Life of a Ni-Base Single Crystal Superalloy at 760/982 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenbin; Peng, Zhifang; Luo, Yushi; Xie, Hongji; Jin, Haipeng; Zhao, Yunsong; Mei, Qingsong

    2018-05-01

    An approach to determination of squareness of initial γ' precipitates (S 2D) is proposed to evaluate its effect on creep-rupture life (t r) of nickel-base single crystal (SC) superalloys. It is found that the 760/982 °C rupture life varied with the change in regional S 2D caused by redistribution of W when 1st-step aging temperature changed in full heat treatment on superalloy DD83 investigated. The longest creep-rupture life occurred at the highest value/the lowest difference in S 2D in the interdendritic regions/between the typical dendritic regions in DD83. It is also found that S 2D is a weighted function of the area fraction (F 2D), spacing (h), and size (d) of γ' precipitates and is closely related to t r in a series of SC superalloys. In addition, the variation of S 2D with F 2D (here, thermodynamic mole fraction is approximately expressed by F 2D) through lattice misfit (δ) in the SC superalloys with F 2D ranging from 60 to 75 pct is well correlated. Therefore, to reveal and to better understand these relationships and correlations may help to optimize the phase variables in order to achieve a long rupture life of SC superalloys. In addition, functions to reveal the interrelationships of F 2D, volume fraction (F 3D), S 2D, and cuboidness (S 3D) of initial γ' precipitates are derived considering their shape changes. All of these are hoped to be helpful in practical applications and in understanding the true meaning of the related variables.

  11. Kinetics of Grain Growth in 718 Ni-Base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Haynes® 718 Ni-base superalloy has been investigated by use of modern material characterization, metallographic and heat treatment equipment. Grain growth annealing experiments at temperatures in the range of 1050 – 1200 oC (1323–1473K for time durations in the range of 20 min-22h have been conducted. The kinetic equations and an Arrhenius-type equation have been applied to compute the grain-growth exponent n and the activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy. The grain growth exponent, n, was computed to be in the range of 0.066-0.206; and the n values have been critically discussed in relation to the literature. The activation energy for grain growth, Qg, for the investigated alloy has been computed to be around 440 kJ/mol; and the Qg data for the investigated alloy has been compared with other metals and alloys and ceramics; and critically analyzed in relation to our results.

  12. Characterisation of As-deformed microstructure of ODS NI-Base superalloy and ODS ferritic steel prior to directional recrystallisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.M.; Memon, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The materials studied are unusual in the sense that they have been prepared from mechanically alloyed procedures, including compaction and hot extrusion. It was felt necessary to characterise the initial microstructure thoroughly prior to directional recrystallisation of the alloys. Following consolidation by hot extrusion, dispersion strengthened superalloys appear to display a very fine sub-micron grain size consisting of both dislocation free recrystallised material and un- recrystallised regions of high dislocation density. It is found that there is a very fine dislocation cell structure in the ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Ferritic stainless Steel prior to recrystallisation treatment, which shows that alloy is in old-deformed condition after mechanical alloying, extrusion I hot-working. This is in contrast to the mechanically alloyed Nickel Base Superalloy, which have consistently been found to be in primary recrystallisation state following extrusion. In order to understand the recrystallisation behaviour of the two mechanically illoyed materials with commercial designations MA6000 and MA956, a measurement of the orientation relationship between adjacent grains in the as- deformed ODS alloys has also been carried out using Transmission Electron microscope. (author)

  13. Life Prediction of Low Cycle Fatigue for Ni-base Superalloy GTD111 DS at Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Yeol; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Si Yeon; Chang, Sung Yong; Chang, Sung Ho [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    GTD111 DS of nickel base superalloy has been used for gas turbine blades. In this study, low cycle fatigue test was conducted on the GTD111 DS alloy by setting conditions similar to the real operating environment. The low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature, 760 °C, 870 °C, and various strain amplitudes. Test results showed that fatigue life decreased with increasing total strain amplitude. Cyclic hardening response was observed at room temperature and 760 °C; however, tests conducted at 870 °C showed cyclic softening response. Stress relaxation was observed at 870 °C because creep effects occurred from holding time. A relationship between fatigue life and total strain range was obtained from the Coffin-Manson method. The fratography using a SEM was carried out at the crack initiation and propagation regions.

  14. Formation of carbides and their effects on stress rupture of a Ni-base single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.R.; Jin, T.; Zhao, N.R.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2003-01-01

    Creep tests of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy with minor C addition and non-carbon were carried out at different temperatures and stresses. Correlations between microstructural change and testing temperature and stress were enabled through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), detailing the rafting microstucture and carbides precipitation. The results showed that minor carbon addition prolonged the second stage of creep strain curves and improved creep properties. Some carbide was precipitated during creep tests in modified alloy. M 23 C 6 carbide precipitated at lower temperature (871-982 deg. C), while (M 6 C) 2 carbide precipitated at higher temperature (>1000 deg. C), all of which was considered to be beneficial to creep properties. A small amount of MC carbide formed during solidification and its decomposition product (M 6 C) 1 were detrimental to mechanical properties, which together with micropores provided the site of initiation of cracks and led to the final fracture

  15. Coarsening behaviour and interfacial structure of γ′ precipitates in Co-Al-W based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, V.A.; Barnard, J.S.; Rahman, K.M.; Yan, H.-Y.; Midgley, P.A.; Dye, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work discusses the effects of alloying on the coarsening behaviour of the L1 2 ordered γ ′ phase and the structure of the γ/γ ′ interfaces in three Co-Al-W base superalloys aged at ∼90 °C below the respective solvus temperatures: Co-7Al-7W, Co-10Al-5W-2Ta and Co-7Al-7W-20Ni (at.%). The coarsening kinetics are adequately characterised by the classical Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Co-7Al-7W exhibited much slower coarsening than its quaternary derivatives. Alloying can be exploited to modify the coarsening kinetics either by increasing the solvus temperature by adding tantalum, or by adding nickel to shift the rate controlling mechanism towards dependence on the diffusion of aluminium rather than tungsten. Lattice resolution STEM imaging was used to measure the widths of the order-disorder (structural) and Z-contrast (compositional) gradients across the γ/γ ′ interfaces. Similarly to nickel base superalloys, the compositional gradient was found to be wider than the structural. Co-7Al-7W-20Ni had much wider interface gradients than Co-7Al-7W and Co-10Al-5W-2Ta, which suggests that its γ ′ phase stoichiometry is less constrained. A possible correlation between temperature and misfit normalised r vs. t 1/3 coarsening rate coefficients and the structural gradient width has also been identified, whereby alloys with wider interfaces exhibit faster coarsening rates.

  16. Alloying effects of refractory elements in the dislocation of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The alloying effects of W, Cr and Re in the [100] (010 edge dislocation cores (EDC of Ni-based single crystal superalloys are investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory (DFT. The binding energy, Mulliken orbital population, density of states, charge density and radial distribution functions are discussed, respectively. It is clearly demonstrated that the addition of refractory elements improves the stability of the EDC systems. In addition, they can form tougher bonds with their nearest neighbour (NN Ni atoms, which enhance the mechanical properties of the Ni-based single crystal superalloys. Through comparative analysis, Cr-doped system has lower binding energy, and Cr atom has evident effect to improve the systemic stability. However, Re atom has the stronger alloying effect in Ni-based single crystal superalloys, much more effectively hindering dislocation motion than W and Cr atoms.

  17. Multiscale modelling of single crystal superalloys for gas turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.

    2009-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used for power generation and for the propulsion of aircraft and vessels. Their most severely loaded parts, the turbine rotor blades, are manufactured from single crystal nickel-base superalloys. The superior high temperature behaviour of these materials is attributed to

  18. Investigation of the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Nickel Superalloys Processed in Shear Forming / Identyfikacja Właściwości Mechanicznych Oraz Mikrostruktury Superstopów Niklu Przetwarzanych W Procesie Kształtowania Obrotowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaba K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of the mechanical properties and microstructure of the material in initial state and parts made from nickel superalloy Inconel®718 in the rotary forming process with laser heating. In the first step was carried out basic research of chemical composition, mechanical properties, hardness and microstructure of sheet in initial state. Then from the metal sheet, in industrial conditions, was made axisymmetric parts in the flow and shear forming with laser heating. Parts were subjected to detailed studies focused on the analysis of changes in the mechanical properties and microstructure in the relation to the material in initial state. The analysis was based on the tests results of strength and plastic properties, hardness, microstructural observations and X-ray microanalysis in the areas where defects appear and beyond. The results are presented in the form of tables, charts, and photographs of the microstructure.

  19. An Abnormal Increase of Fatigue Life with Dwell Time during Creep-Fatigue Deformation for Directionally Solidified Ni-Based Superalloy DZ445

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Biao; Ren, Weili; Deng, Kang; Li, Haitao; Liang, Yongchun

    2018-03-01

    The paper investigated the creep-fatigue behavior for directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy DZ445 at 900 °C. It is found that the fatigue life shows an abnormal increase when the dwell time exceeds a critical value during creep-fatigue deformation. The area of hysteresis loop and fractograph explain the phenomenon quite well. The shortest life corresponds to the maximal area of hysteresis loop, i. e. the maximum energy to be consumed during the creep-fatigue cycle. The fractographic observation of failed samples further supports the abnormal behavior of fatigue life.

  20. Development of a Ni-based superalloy with cellular structure and interconnected micro porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabe, A.; Lopez, E.; Gil-Sevillano, J.

    1998-01-01

    A cellular metallic material with interconnected porosity of controlled size of an order of 10 μm has been developed by electrochemical dissolution of tungsten grains in a W-Ni-Fe heavy alloy. The nickel superalloy with sponge structure and high surface/volume ratio can also be processed recycling chips from heavy metal machining (Patent number p9700191, 1997). Applications for the new materials could be found as support for catalysts, high temperature filters for corrosive fluids, burners, etc. (Author) 10 refs

  1. Oxygen-induced intergranular fracture of the nickel-base alloy IN718 during mechanical loading at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a transition in the mechanical-failure behavior of nickel-base superalloys from ductile transgranular crack propagation to time-dependent intergranular fracture when the temperature exceeds about 600 °C. This transition is due to oxygen diffusion into the stress field ahead of the crack tip sufficient to cause brittle decohesion of the grain boundaries. Since very high cracking rates were observed during fixed-displacement loading of IN718, it is not very likely that grain boundary oxidation governs the grain-boundary-separation process, as has been proposed in several studies on the fatigue-damage behavior of the nickel-base superalloy IN718. Further studies on bicrystal and thermomechanically processed specimens of IN718 have shown that this kind of brittle fracture, which has been termed "dynamic embrittlement", depends strongly on the structure of the grain boundaries.

  2. A Review on Inertia and Linear Friction Welding of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanfar, Ahmad; Jahazi, Mohammad; Cormier, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Inertia and linear friction welding are being increasingly used for near-net-shape manufacturing of high-value materials in aerospace and power generation gas turbines because of providing a better quality joint and offering many advantages over conventional fusion welding and mechanical joining techniques. In this paper, the published works up-to-date on inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys are reviewed with the objective to make clarifications on discrepancies and uncertainties reported in literature regarding issues related to these two friction welding processes as well as microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the Ni-based superalloy weldments. Initially, the chemical composition and microstructure of Ni-based superalloys that contribute to the quality of the joint are reviewed briefly. Then, problems related to fusion welding of these alloys are addressed with due consideration of inertia and linear friction welding as alternative techniques. The fundamentals of inertia and linear friction welding processes are analyzed next with emphasis on the bonding mechanisms and evolution of temperature and strain rate across the weld interface. Microstructural features, texture development, residual stresses, and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar polycrystalline and single crystal Ni-based superalloy weldments are discussed next. Then, application of inertia and linear friction welding for joining Ni-based superalloys and related advantages over fusion welding, mechanical joining, and machining are explained briefly. Finally, present scientific and technological challenges facing inertia and linear friction welding of Ni-based superalloys including those related to modeling of these processes are addressed.

  3. Machinability of nickel based alloys using electrical discharge machining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Adam; Gokul, A. K.; Bharani Dharan, M. P.; Jeevakarthikeyan, R. V. S.; Uthayakumar, M.; Thirumalai Kumaran, S.; Duraiselvam, M.

    2018-04-01

    The high temperature materials such as nickel based alloys and austenitic steel are frequently used for manufacturing critical aero engine turbine components. Literature on conventional and unconventional machining of steel materials is abundant over the past three decades. However the machining studies on superalloy is still a challenging task due to its inherent property and quality. Thus this material is difficult to be cut in conventional processes. Study on unconventional machining process for nickel alloys is focused in this proposed research. Inconel718 and Monel 400 are the two different candidate materials used for electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Investigation is to prepare a blind hole using copper electrode of 6mm diameter. Electrical parameters are varied to produce plasma spark for diffusion process and machining time is made constant to calculate the experimental results of both the material. Influence of process parameters on tool wear mechanism and material removal are considered from the proposed experimental design. While machining the tool has prone to discharge more materials due to production of high energy plasma spark and eddy current effect. The surface morphology of the machined surface were observed with high resolution FE SEM. Fused electrode found to be a spherical structure over the machined surface as clumps. Surface roughness were also measured with surface profile using profilometer. It is confirmed that there is no deviation and precise roundness of drilling is maintained.

  4. MGI-oriented High-throughput Measurement of Interdiffusion Coefficient Matrices in Ni-based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the research hotspots in the field of high-temperature alloys was to search the substitutional elements for Re in order to prepare the single-crystal Ni-based superalloys with less or even no Re addition. To find the elements with similar or even lower diffusion coefficients in comparison with that of Re was one of the effective strategies. In multicomponent alloys, the interdiffusivity matrix were used to comprehensively characterize the diffusion ability of any alloying elements. Therefore, accurate determination of the composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivities matrices of different elements in γ and γ' phases of Ni-based superalloys was high priority. The paper briefly introduces of the status of the interdiffusivity matrices determination in Ni-based superalloys, and the methods for determining the interdiffusivities in multicomponent alloys, including the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method and recently proposed numerical inverse method. Because the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method is of low efficiency, the experimental reports on interdiffusivity matrices in ternary and higher order sub-systems of the Ni-based superalloys were very scarce in the literature. While the numerical inverse method newly proposed in our research group based on Fick's second law can be utilized for high-throughput measurement of accurate interdiffusivity matrices in alloys with any number of components. After that, the successful application of the numerical inverse method in the high-throughput measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in alloys is demonstrated in fcc (γ phase of the ternary Ni-Al-Ta system. Moreover, the validation of the resulting composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivity matrices is also comprehensively made. Then, this paper summarizes the recent progress in the measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in γ and γ' phases of a series of core ternary Ni-based superalloys achieved in

  5. σ and η Phase formation in advanced polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, Stoichko, E-mail: santonov@hawk.iit.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Northwestern University Center for Atom Probe Tomography (NUCAPT), 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Helmink, Randolph C.; Sun, Eugene [Rolls-Royce Corporation, 450 S. Meridian Street, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (United States); Tin, Sammy [Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    In polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, grain boundary precipitation of secondary phases can be significant due to the effects they pose on the mechanical properties. As new alloying concepts for polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys are being developed to extend their temperature capability, the effect of increasing levels of Nb alloying additions on long term phase stability and the formation of topologically close packed (TCP) phases needs to be studied. Elevated levels of Nb can result in increased matrix supersaturation and promote the precipitation of secondary phases. Long term thermal exposures on two experimental powder processed Ni-base superalloys containing various levels of Nb were completed to assess the stability and precipitation of TCP phases. It was found that additions of Nb promoted the precipitation of η-Ni{sub 6}AlNb along the grain boundaries in powder processed, polycrystalline Ni-base superalloys, while reduced Nb levels favored the precipitation of blocky Cr and Mo – rich σ phase precipitates along the grain boundary. Evaluation of the thermodynamic stability of these two phases in both alloys using Thermo-calc showed that while σ phase predictions are fairly accurate, predictions of the η phase are limited.

  6. MC Carbide Characterization in High Refractory Content Powder-Processed Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Stoichko; Chen, Wei; Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Sun, Eugene; Tin, Sammy

    2018-04-01

    Carbide precipitates in Ni-based superalloys are considered to be desirable phases that can contribute to improving high-temperature properties as well as aid in microstructural refinement of the material; however, they can also serve as crack initiation sites during fatigue. To date, most of the knowledge pertaining to carbide formation has originated from assessments of cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. As powder-processed Ni-based superalloys are becoming increasingly widespread, understanding the different mechanisms by which they form becomes increasingly important. Detailed characterization of MC carbides present in two experimental high Nb-content powder-processed Ni-based superalloys revealed that Hf additions affect the resultant carbide morphologies. This morphology difference was attributed to a higher magnitude of elastic strain energy along the interface associated with Hf being soluble in the MC carbide lattice. The composition of the MC carbides was studied through atom probe tomography and consisted of a complex carbonitride core, which was rich in Nb and with slight Hf segregation, surrounded by an Nb carbide shell. The characterization results of the segregation behavior of Hf in the MC carbides and the subsequent influence on their morphology were compared to density functional theory calculations and found to be in good agreement, suggesting that computational modeling can successfully be used to tailor carbide features.

  7. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  8. Microstructural aspects of Ni-based superalloy 693

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.S.; Sengupta, P.; Tewari, R.; Kain, V.; Dey, G.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Raj, K.

    2009-01-01

    Alloy 693 is an austenitic, precipitation-hardenable Ni-based superalloy. It is a promising material for high temperature fuel cell, petrochemical processing industry, high temperature waste and biomass incinerators and as thermal processing equipment, burner nozzles, melter pot material and in other areas. Microstructure plays quite often a major role in regulating the properties of the materials. Keeping this in view, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to characterize the microstructure of Alloy 693. Microanalyses of the phases were performed by using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and TEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The alloy in as-received condition under an optic microscope and SEM revealed the presence of predominantly finer intergranular precipitates and randomly distributed coarser precipitates of various morphologies. EPMA of spherical-shaped coarse precipitate indicated that the major constituent of this precipitate has been chromium. Besides this, niobium-rich irregular-shaped coarse precipitate was also detected. The finer grain boundary precipitates in the alloy appeared to be of Cr-carbide. TEM examination on as-received alloy indicated very uniform distribution of a large volume fraction of fine precipitates in the austenite matrix. Selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern, dark-field TEM and detailed analyses confirmed that these fine precipitates have been ordered Ni 3 Al type phase. TEM investigation also revealed the presence of coarse particles of various morphologies. Analyses of such particles indicated this phase as M 6 C type. EDS analyses indicated that the major constituents of these coarse particles have been Cr and Ni. Minor elements like Fe, Al and Nb were also detected in all the particles with some variation of their contents from particle to particle. TEM investigation on annealed (1373 K/30 minutes, WQ) specimen of Alloy 693

  9. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ′(Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni 3 Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ′ and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C

  10. Effect of Build Angle on Surface Properties of Nickel Superalloys Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Ernesto E.; Eshraghi, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Aerospace, automotive, and medical industries use selective laser melting (SLM) to produce complex parts through solidifying successive layers of powder. This additive manufacturing technique has many advantages, but one of the biggest challenges facing this process is the resulting surface quality of the as-built parts. The purpose of this research was to study the surface properties of Inconel 718 alloys fabricated by SLM. The effect of build angle on the surface properties of as-built parts was investigated. Two sets of sample geometries including cube and rectangular artifacts were considered in the study. It was found that, for angles between 15° and 75°, theoretical calculations based on the "stair-step" effect were consistent with the experimental results. Downskin surfaces showed higher average roughness values compared to the upskin surfaces. No significant difference was found between the average roughness values measured from cube and rectangular test artifacts.

  11. High-Strength Aluminium Alloys and Their Use in Foundry Industry of Nickel Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysz S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Of great importance in the selection of materials for cast structures is keeping a proper balance between the mechanical and plastic properties, while preserving the relevant casting properties. This study has been devoted to an analysis of the choice and application of high-strength aluminium-based alloys maintaining sufficient level of casting properties. The high level of tensile strength (Rm > 500 MPa matched with satisfactory elongation (A > 3% is important because materials of this type are used for cast parts operating in the aerospace, automotive, and military industries. These beneficial relationships between the high tensile strength and toughness are relatively easy to obtain in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys subjected to plastic forming and proper heat treatment. In gravity cast products, on the other hand, whether poured into sand moulds or metal moulds (dies, obtaining this favourable combination of properties poses a number of research problems (mostly resulting from the alloy chemical composition as well as technical and technological difficulties.

  12. Fatigue studies of superalloys in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masaki

    1985-01-01

    In the past 15 years, several national projects were advanced to develop high temperature machinery, such as high temperature gas-cooled reactors, gas turbines and fusion reactors. Before, the studies on the strength of superalloys were rarely carried out, however, by the above research works, superalloys are in rapid progress. Because these machinery are subjected to temperature cycles and vibration stress, the fatigue failure is the main concern in the safety analysis of the components. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present status of the fatigue research on the alloys for high temperature use in Japan. The superalloys used for gas turbine and HTGR components are listed, and the materials tested were mostly the alloys of nickel base, cobalt base or iron base. In the above national projects, the main purpose was to clarify the high temperature properties including fatigue properties, to develop the method of forecasting the life span and to develop better materials. As the topics about the fatigue research on superalloys, the development of the method for forecasting the life span, the effect of directional solidification, coating and HIP process on the fatigue strength of gas turbine materials, the effect of helium and aging on the fatigue strength of HTGR materials, the fatigue strength of weldment of HTGR materials and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Intermediate Co/Ni-base model superalloys — Thermophysical properties, creep and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenk, Christopher H.; Neumeier, Steffen; Engl, Nicole M.; Fries, Suzana G.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Weiser, Martin; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Göken, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of γ′-strengthened Co–Ni–Al–W–Cr model superalloys extending from pure Ni-base to pure Co-base superalloys have been assessed. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and thermodynamic calculations match well and show that the γ′ solvus temperature decreases with increasing Co-content. The γ/γ′ lattice misfit is negative on the Ni- and positive on the Co-rich side. High Ni-contents decelerate the oxidation kinetics up to a factor of 15. The creep strength of the Ni-base alloy increases by an order of magnitude with additions of Co before it deteriorates strongly upon higher additions despite an increasing γ′ volume fraction.

  14. Precipitation in solid solution and structural transformations in single crystals of high rhenium ruthenium-containing nickel superalloys at high-temperature creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Petrushin, N.V.; Zaitsev, D.V.; Treninkov, I.A.; Filonova, E.V. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    The phase composition and structure of single crystals of two superalloys (alloy 1 and alloy 2) were investigated in this work. For alloy 1 (Re - 9 wt%) the kinetics of precipitation in solid solution at heat treatment (HT) was investigated. TEM and X-Ray examinations have revealed that during HT rhombic phase (R-phase) precipitation (Immm class (BCR)) occurs. The TTT diagram is plotted, it contains the time-temperature area of the existence of R-phase particles. The element content of R-phase is identified (at. %): Re- 51.5; Co- 23.5; Cr- 14.8; Mo- 4.2; W- 3.3; Ta- 2.7. For alloy 2 (Re - 6.5 wt %, Ru - 4 wt %) structural transformations at high-temperature creep are investigated. By dark-field TEM methods it is established, that in alloy 2 the additional phase with a rhombic lattice is formed during creep. Particles of this phase precipitate in {gamma}-phase and their quantity increases during high-temperature creep. It is revealed that during creep 3-D dislocation network is formed in {gamma}-phase. At the third stage of creep the process of inversion structure formation is observed in the alloy, i.e. {gamma}'-phase becomes a matrix. Thus during modeling creep the volume fraction of {gamma}'-phase in the samples increases from 30% (at creep duration of 200 hrs) up to 55% (at 500 hrs). The processes of structure formation in Re and Ru-containing nickel superalloys are strongly affected by decomposition of solid solution during high-temperature creep that includes precipitation of additional TCP-phases. (orig.)

  15. Rapid solidification and dynamic compaction of Ni-base superalloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Hales, S. J.; Powers, W. O.; Fraser, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    A Ni-base superalloy containing 13Al-9Mo-2Ta (in at. percent) has been characterized in both the rapidly solidified condition and after dynamic compaction. Dynamically compacted specimens were examined in the as-compacted condition and observations related to current theories of interparticle bonding. In addition, the recrystallization behavior of the compacted material at relatively low temperature (about 0.5-0.75 Tm) was investigated.

  16. The influence of high temperature on the microstructure properties of Ni-based superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Král, Petr; Dymáček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 190-198 ISSN 1335-8987. [Deformation and Fracture in PM Materials. Stará Lesná, 26.10.2014-29.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI4/406; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : powder materials * Ni-based PM superalloy * grip of creep machine * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  17. Phase-transformation and subgrain-deformation characteristics in a cobalt-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, M.L.; Reetz, B.; Liaw, P.K.; Reimers, W.; Choo, H.; Brown, D.W.; Saleh, T.A.; Klarstrom, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanical behavior of a cobalt-based superalloy was investigated. → Two diffraction techniques were used to study deformation mechanisms of materials. → In-situ neutron diffraction provides the volume-averaged information. → The peak-profile analysis reveals the information on a subgrain level. → The material exhibited a transformation texture for the HCP phase under loading. - Abstract: A complimentary set of experiments, in situ neutron diffraction and ex situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, were used to study the phase-transformation and subgrain-deformation characteristics of a cobalt-based superalloy. The neutron diffraction indicated a strain-induced phase transformation in the cobalt-based superalloy under uniaxial tension and compression. The synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed stacking-fault accumulation and twinning under the same loading conditions. The extent of transformation was found to be greater under tension than under compression. Tensile plastic strains below 2% were accommodated by the stacking-fault creation, while those greater than 2% were accommodated by the phase transformation. Twinning was found to be more active under compressive loading than under tensile loading.

  18. Effect of cobalt on microstructural parameters and mechanical properties of Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takanobu; Imai, Hachiro; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Kobayashi, Toshiharu; Koizumi, Yutaka; Harada, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The alloying effect of Cobalt (Co) to microstructural parameters and mechanical properties, such as partitioning ratios of alloying elements and creep strength, of Re-bearing Ni-base single crystal superalloys have been investigated. The second generation single crystal superalloys, TMS-82+, Ni-7.8Co-4.9Cr-1.9Mo-8.7W-5.3Al-6.0Ta-2.4Re-0.1Hf, in mass% (8Co) was compared to a Co-free (0Co) and 15 mass% Co (15Co) alloy which had the same chemical composition as TMS-82+ except that Co was changed. It was shown that the partitioning ratios of alloying elements trend to k(=X γ /X' γ )=1, as the content of Co was increased. Furthermore, it was found that there was suitable content of Co for the creep strength under various temperature-stress conditions. (author)

  19. Recrystallization of the ODS superalloy PM-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandim, H.R.Z.; Hayama, A.O.F.; Raabe, D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary recrystallization of a -fiber textured coarse-grained oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-based superalloy (PM-1000) has been investigated by high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction. The annealing behavior of this alloy is quite complex. Even at high annealing temperatures (e.g. 1200 deg. C), recrystallization is only partial. The microstructure of this superalloy in the annealed state consists of a blurred subgrain structure, coarse grains with sizes of about 10-20 μm at the pre-existing grain boundaries and a significant fraction of small crystals in the interior of the recovered grains. These small grains are elongated and display anisotropic growth. In the present paper we present a detailed explanation for this peculiar microstructure. Particular focus is placed on the origin of the new grains in the recovered structure in a [1 0 0]-oriented grain

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of edge dislocation piled at cuboidal precipitate in Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Kisaragi; Naito, Masato; Tomita, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the fundamental mechanism of dislocations in the γ/γ' microstructure of Ni-based superalloy, three molecular dynamics simulations are conducted on the behavior of edge dislocations nucleated from a free surface and proceeding in the pure Ni matrix (γ) toward cuboidal Ni 3 Al precipitates (γ') under shear force. One involves dislocations near the apices of two precipitates adjoining each other with the distance of 0.04 μm, as large as the width of the γ channel in real superalloys. Others simulate dislocations piled at the precipitates as well, however, the scale of the microstructure is smaller than that in real superalloys by one order of magnitude, and one of them have precipitates with atomistically sharp edge. Dislocations are pinned at precipitates and bowed-out in the γ channel, then they begin to penetrate into the precipitate at the edge in both the real-scale and smaller microstructures when the precipitates have blunt edges. On the other hand, an edge dislocation splits into a superpartial in the γ' precipitate and a misfit screw dislocation bridging between two adjacent precipitates at the atomistically sharp edge of γ' precipitates. It is also observed that two superpartials glide in the precipitate as a superdislocation with anti-phase boundary (APB), of which the width is evaluated to be about 4 nm. (author)

  1. The Influence of Impurities in Feed Ingots on the Quality of Castings Made from Nickel Superalloy IN-713C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the impact of impurities in the feed ingots (master heat on the precipitation of impurities in the ATD thermal analysis probe castings. This impurities occur mostly inside shrinkage cavities and in interdendritic space. Additionally, insufficient filtration of liquid alloy during pouring promotes the transfer of impurities into the casting. The technology of melting superalloys in vacuum furnace prevents the removal of slag from the surface of molten metal. Because of that, the effective method of quality assessment of feed ingots in order to evaluate the existence of impurities is needed. The effectiveness of ATD analysis in evaluation of purity of feed ingots was researched. In addition the similarities of non-metallic inclusions in feed ingots and in castings were observed.

  2. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  3. First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Wang; Chong-Yu, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni 3 Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni 3 Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill rule of mixtures. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  4. Low-Cobalt Powder-Metallurgy Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Highly-stressed jet-engine parts made with less cobalt. Udimet 700* (or equivalent) is common nickel-based superalloy used in hot sections of jet engines for many years. This alloy, while normally used in wrought condition, also gas-atomized into prealloyed powder-metallurgy (PM) product. Product can be consolidated by hot isostatically pressing (HIPPM condition) and formed into parts such as turbine disk. Such jet-engine disks "see" both high stresses and temperatures to 1,400 degrees F (760 degrees C).

  5. Mechanical characterization of superalloys for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this work is the selection of structural materials that can be used in the temperature range 600-900 0 C for a gas cooled space reactor producing electricity. Superalloys fit best the temperature range required. Five nickel base alloys are chosen for their good mechanical behaviour: HAYNES 230, HASTELLOY S, HASTELLOY X, HASTELLOY XR and PYRAD 38D. Metallography, tensile and hardness tests are realized. Sample contraction is evidenced for some creep tests, under low stress: 20MPa at 800 0 C, on HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY X, probably related to the structural evolution of these materials corresponding to a decrease of the crystal parameter [fr

  6. Material science studies on the formation and growth of pores in the production and creep of single-crystal nickel-based superalloys; Werkstoffwissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zur Bildung und zum Wachstum von Poren bei der Herstellung und beim Kriechen einkristalliner Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Heinrich Joergen

    2015-02-20

    Single crystal Ni-base superalloys (SX) are used for blades in fossil fuel fired power plants and aero engines. Here they have to withstand high mechanical stresses at temperatures close to their melting point. The blades are manufactured by a Bridgman type of directional solidification, followed by a multiple step heat treatment. During the dendritic solidification, pores can form due to undissolved gas, macroshrinkage by inadequate gating and microshrinkage caused by poor feeding between dendrites. Additional pores can form in the interdendritic regions during the multiple step heat treatment which follows solidification. It is believed, that these pores form on the basis of a Kirkendall effect which accounts for the fast diffusion of Al atoms away from microstructural regions with non-equilibrium γ/γ' eutectic. During creep, pores can grow and change their shapes. It has been shown, that during creep in the high temperature / low stress regime new pores form, which are smaller than those pores that can be found in the undeformed material. In the present work, the evolution of porosity in the single crystal Ni-base superalloy ERBO/1 during processing and creep is investigated. Quantitative microstructural analyses were performed on metallographic cross sections. Sampling fields of 4500 x 1000 μm{sup 2} were investigated by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with quantitative image analysis. Interrupted creep tests with a miniature tensile creep specimen were performed with load direction parallel to left angle 100 right angle and left angle 110 right angle direction, respectively. Pore parameters (area, perimeter, Feret's diameter) for individual pores were obtained and two form factors were introduced. The evolution of the compiled statistical distributions of pore parameters and shape factors are discussed. The results are compared to recent findings by Link et al., 2006 and Maelzer et al., 2007. In the present study it was shown

  7. Mesoscale modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution during dynamic recrystallization of a Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fei [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Cui, Zhenshan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai (China); Ou, Hengan [University of Nottingham, Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Long, Hui [University of Sheffield, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Microstructural evolution and plastic flow characteristics of a Ni-based superalloy were investigated using a simulative model that couples the basic metallurgical principle of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) with the two-dimensional (2D) cellular automaton (CA). Variation of dislocation density with local strain of deformation is considered for accurate determination of the microstructural evolution during DRX. The grain topography, the grain size and the recrystallized fraction can be well predicted by using the developed CA model, which enables to the establishment of the relationship between the flow stress, dislocation density, recrystallized fraction volume, recrystallized grain size and the thermomechanical parameters. (orig.)

  8. Phase transformation and liquid density redistribution during solidification of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influences of chemical segregation and phase transformation on liquid density variation during solidification of Ni-based supperalloy Inconel 718 were investigated using SEM and EDS. It was found that significant segregation in liquid prompts high Nb phase to precipitate directly from liquid, which results in the redistribution of alloy elements and liquid density in their vicinity. The term “inter-precipitate liquid density” is therefore proposed and this concept should be applied to determine the solidification behavior of superalloy Inconel 718.

  9. Ir-based refractory superalloys by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) process (II prealloyed powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Harada, H.

    2002-02-01

    Five prealloyed powder samples prepared from binary Ir-based refractory superalloys were sintered at 1800 °C for 4 h by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS). No metal loss was observed during sintering. The relative densities of the sintered specimens all exceeded 90% T.D. The best one was Ir-13% Hf with the density of 97.82% T.D. Phases detected in sintered samples were in accordance with the phase diagram as expected. Fractured surfaces were observed in two samples (Ir-13% Hf and Ir-15% Zr). Some improvements obtained by using prealloyed powders instead of elemental powders, which were investigated in the previous studies, were presented.

  10. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Aoshuang; Xiong, Junjiang; Lyu, Zhiyang; Li, Kuang; Du, Yisen; Chen, Kejiao; Man, Ziyu

    2016-01-01

    A modified model is developed to characterize and evaluate high-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures by considering the stress ratio effect. The model is informed by the relationship surface between maximum nominal stress, stress ratio and fatigue life. New formulae are derived to deal with the test data for estimating the parameters of the proposed model. Fatigue tests are performed on Co-based superalloy 9CrCo subjected to constant amplitude loading a...

  11. New Mechanistic Models of Long Term Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzic, Jamie J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Evans, T. Matthew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Greaney, P. Alex [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2018-05-15

    The report describes the development of a discrete element method (DEM) based modeling approach to quantitatively predict deformation and failure of typical nickel based superalloys. A series of experimental data, including microstructure and mechanical property characterization at 600°C, was collected for a relatively simple, model solid solution Ni-20Cr alloy (Nimonic 75) to determine inputs for the model and provide data for model validation. Nimonic 75 was considered ideal for this study because it is a certified tensile and creep reference material. A series of new DEM modeling approaches were developed to capture the complexity of metal deformation, including cubic elastic anisotropy and plastic deformation both with and without strain hardening. Our model approaches were implemented into a commercially available DEM code, PFC3D, that is commonly used by engineers. It is envisioned that once further developed, this new DEM modeling approach can be adapted to a wide range of engineering applications.

  12. Hydrogen Annealing Of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, John C.; Murphy, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Annealing at temperature equal to or greater than 2,200 degrees F in atmosphere of hydrogen found to increase ability of single-crystal superalloys to resist oxidation when subsequently exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures almost as high. Supperalloys in question are principal constituents of hot-stage airfoils (blades) in aircraft and ground-based turbine engines; also used in other high-temperature applications like chemical-processing plants, coal-gasification plants, petrochemical refineries, and boilers. Hydrogen anneal provides resistance to oxidation without decreasing fatigue strength and without need for coating or reactive sulfur-gettering constituents. In comparison with coating, hydrogen annealing costs less. Benefits extend to stainless steels, nickel/chromium, and nickel-base alloys, subject to same scale-adhesion and oxidation-resistance considerations, except that scale is chromia instead of alumina.

  13. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    superalloys for gas turbines and strategies for manufacture. O P SINHA*, M ... Superalloys; tramp elements; creep and stress rupture properties; vacuum induction melting. 1. Introduction ... The physical metallurgy of superalloys demands the.

  14. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical studies on novel co-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Leonhard

    2013-02-27

    improved oxidation resistance due to their beneficial effect on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation (especially at 900 C and higher) and due to additional generation of titanium- and silicon-rich phases, respectively, without altering the γ/γ'-microstructure. Moreover, the titanium-containing alloy is reported to exhibit excellent creep properties at 850 C and hence this material is expected to be the most promising alloy system for further optimisation. In contrast, additions of silicon lead to silicon-containing phases at the oxide/alloy interface, within precipitates, and at the grain boundaries, which are expected to impair the mechanical properties. Additions of nickel most probably enhance solubility of boron within the alloy matrix and therefore the previously described positive boron-effect gets eliminated. Based on knowledge of other alloy systems, small amounts of the rare earth element yttrium are reported to improve the oxidation resistance. However, 0.005 atomic percent of yttrium in Co-Al-W-B alloys do not lead to the expected effect, presumably due to insufficient amounts of the minor element. Electrochemical measurements on the unoxidised Co-Al-W-B superalloy and pure cobalt in aqueous solutions of different pH reveal significantly improved corrosion resistance with increasing pH value due to the formation of a duplex layer, i.e. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or CoOOH species on top of a Co(OH){sub 2} film. Upon polarisation, both materials show primary and secondary passivation in alkaline 0.1 M NaOH solution, whereas limited passivation can be observed in neutral 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and active dissolution in acidic 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Further investigations in neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution reveal limited initial passivation followed by severe pitting corrosion at higher potentials. High temperature oxide scales on the alloy surface are highly efficient barriers against corrosive attack over the entire polarisation range from -1 V to +2 V (vs. Ag

  15. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  16. Designing Nanoscale Precipitates in Novel Cobalt-based Superalloys to Improve Creep Resistance and Operating Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, David C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Seidman, David N. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Wolverton, Christopher [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Saal, James E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Bocchini, Peter J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Sauza, Daniel J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    High-temperature structural alloys for aerospace and energy applications have long been dominated by Ni-base superalloys, whose strength and creep resistance can be attributed to microstructures consisting of a large volume fraction of ordered (L12) γ'-precipitates embedded in a disordered’(f.c.c.) γ-matrix. These alloys exhibit excellent mechanical behavior and thermal stability, but after decades of incremental improvement are nearing the theoretical limit of their operating temperatures. Conventional Co-base superalloys are solid-solution or carbide strengthened; although they see industrial use, these alloys are restricted to lower-stress applications because the absence of an ordered intermetallic phase places an upper limit on their mechanical performance. In 2006, a γ+γ' microstructure with ordered precipitates analogous to (L12) Ni3Al was first identified in the Co-Al-W ternary system, allowing, for the first time, the development of Co-base alloys with the potential to meet or even exceed the elevated-temperature performance of their Ni-base counterparts. The potential design space for these alloys is complex: the most advanced Ni-base superalloys may contain as many as 8-10 minor alloying additions, each with a specified purpose such as raising the γ' solvus temperature or improving creep strength. Our work has focused on assessing the effects of alloying additions on microstructure and mechanical behavior of γ'-strengthened Co-base alloys in an effort to lay the foundations for understanding this emerging alloy system. Investigation of the size, morphology, and composition of γ' and other relevant phases is investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3-D picosecond ultraviolet local electrode atom probe tomography (APT). Microhardness, compressive yield stress at ambient and elevated temperatures, and compressive high-temperature creep measurements are employed to

  17. Castability of Traditionally Wrought Ni-Based Superalloys for USC Steam Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J; Hawk, J A; Evens, N; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    The high temperature components within conventional coal fired power plants are manufactured from ferritic/martensitic steels. In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions the efficiency of pulverized coal steam power plants must be increased. The proposed steam temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) power plant is high enough (760°C) that ferritic/martensitic steels will not work due to temperature limitations of this class of materials; thus Ni-based superalloys are being considered. The full size castings are quite substantial: ~4in thick, several feet in diameter and weigh 5-10,000lb each half. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled in order to produce relevant microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed in order to better deploy the alloy constituents. The castability of two traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys to which minor alloy adjustments have been made in order to improve foundry performance is further explored.

  18. Creep Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior for Ni-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Yoshiko; Yokobori, A. Toshimitsu, Jr.; Sugiura, Ryuji; Ozeki, Go; Matsuzaki, Takashi

    The structural components which are used in high temperature gas turbines have various shapes which may cause the notch effect. Moreover, the site of stress concentration might have the heterogeneous microstructural distribution. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the creep fracture mechanism for these materials in order to predict the life of creep fracture with high degree of accuracy. In this study, the creep crack growth tests were performed using in-situ observational testing machine with microscope to observe the creep damage formation and creep crack growth behavior. The materials used are polycrystalline Ni-base superalloy IN100 and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy CM247LC which were developed for jet engine turbine blades and gas turbine blades in electric power plants, respectively. The microstructural observation of the test specimens was also conducted using FE-SEM/EBSD. Additionally, the analyses of two-dimensional elastic-plastic creep finite element using designed methods were conducted to understand the effect of microstructural distribution on creep damage formation. The experimental and analytical results showed that it is important to determine the creep crack initiation and early crack growth to predict the life of creep fracture and it is indicated that the highly accurate prediction of creep fracture life could be realized by measuring notch opening displacement proposed as the RNOD characteristic.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  20. A probabilistic-based approach to monitoring tool wear state and assessing its effect on workpiece quality in nickel-based alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Niaki, Farbod

    The objective of this research is first to investigate the applicability and advantage of statistical state estimation methods for predicting tool wear in machining nickel-based superalloys over deterministic methods, and second to study the effects of cutting tool wear on the quality of the part. Nickel-based superalloys are among those classes of materials that are known as hard-to-machine alloys. These materials exhibit a unique combination of maintaining their strength at high temperature and have high resistance to corrosion and creep. These unique characteristics make them an ideal candidate for harsh environments like combustion chambers of gas turbines. However, the same characteristics that make nickel-based alloys suitable for aggressive conditions introduce difficulties when machining them. High strength and low thermal conductivity accelerate the cutting tool wear and increase the possibility of the in-process tool breakage. A blunt tool nominally deteriorates the surface integrity and damages quality of the machined part by inducing high tensile residual stresses, generating micro-cracks, altering the microstructure or leaving a poor roughness profile behind. As a consequence in this case, the expensive superalloy would have to be scrapped. The current dominant solution for industry is to sacrifice the productivity rate by replacing the tool in the early stages of its life or to choose conservative cutting conditions in order to lower the wear rate and preserve workpiece quality. Thus, monitoring the state of the cutting tool and estimating its effects on part quality is a critical task for increasing productivity and profitability in machining superalloys. This work aims to first introduce a probabilistic-based framework for estimating tool wear in milling and turning of superalloys and second to study the detrimental effects of functional state of the cutting tool in terms of wear and wear rate on part quality. In the milling operation, the

  1. Enhancing the Oxidation Performance of Wrought Ni-Base Superalloy by Minor Additions of Active Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    We show that the oxidation performance of Cr2O3-forming superalloy based upon the Ni-Cr-W system is significantly improved by the presence of minor concentrations of La, Si and Mn, which outweigh the detrimental effect of high W concentration in the alloy. Although Cr2O3 is known to transform into volatile CrO3 at temperatures ≥950 °C, the respective protection is extended to temperatures reaching 1150 °C, which has also been correlated with the beneficial effects of La, Si and Mn. During high-temperature oxidation, an inner protective La- and Si-modified layer of α-Cr2O3 in contact with the superalloy substrate is developed and shielded by an outermost layer of MnCr2O4. The distribution of La and Si in the inner oxide layer has been characterized down to the scale of transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are elucidated.

  2. Role of tantalum in the hot corrosion of a Ni-base single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.X.; Wang, D.; Liu, T.; Zhang, G.; Lou, L.H.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ta is beneficial to hot corrosion resistance. • Ta promoted the formation of a new type sulphide TaS 2 . • Thermodynamic factors affect the constituent of sulphide layer. • Ta can substitute Cr for sulphur catcher in hot corrosion. • The result provides new perspective in hot corrosion resistant superalloys design. - Abstract: Hot corrosion behaviour of a Ni-base single crystal superalloy with low Cr, Ti and high Ta contents in molten sodium sulphate (Na 2 SO 4 ) at 900 °C in static air was investigated using the “deposit recoat” method. The corrosion scale was composed of an outer NiO layer, an inner Al 2 O 3 -dominant oxide network layer and a (CrS x(1.000

  3. High Temperature Degradation of Powder-processed Ni-based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Luptáková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work is to study the high temperature degradation of the powder-processed polycrystalline superalloy Ni-15Cr-18Co-4Al-3.5Ti-5Mo. This superalloy has been applied as material for grips of a creep machine. The material was exposed at 1100 °C for about 10 days at 10 MPa stress. During the creep test occurred unacceptable creep deformation of grips as well as severe surface oxidation with scales peeling off. Three types of the microstructure were observed in the studied alloy: (i unexposed state; (ii heat treated (annealing - 10 min/1200 °C and (iii after using as a part of the equipment of the creep machine during the creep test. It is shown that the microstructure degradation resulting from the revealed γ´ phase fcc Ni3(Al,Ti particles preferentially created at the grain boundaries of the samples after performing creep tests affects mechanical properties of the alloy and represents a significant contribution to all degradation processes affecting performance and service life of the creep machine grips. Based on investigation and obtained results, the given material is not recommended to be used for grips of creep machine at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  4. Very High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Based Single-Crystal Superalloys at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellon, A.; Cormier, J.; Mauget, F.; Hervier, Z.; Nadot, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) properties at high temperature of Ni-based single-crystal (SX) superalloys and of a directionally solidified (DS) superalloy have been investigated at 20 kHz and a temperature of 1000 °C. Under fully reversed conditions (R = - 1), no noticeable difference in VHCF lifetimes between all investigated alloys has been observed. Internal casting pores size is the main VHCF lifetime-controlling factor whatever the chemical composition of the alloys. Other types of microstructural defects (eutectics, carbides), if present, may act as stress concentration sites when the number of cycles exceed 109 cycles or when porosity is absent by applying a prior hot isostatic pressing treatment. For longer tests (> 30 hours), oxidation also controls the main crack initiation sites leading to a mode I crack initiation from oxidized layer. Under such conditions, alloy's resistance to oxidation has a prominent role in controlling the VHCF. When creep damage is present at high ratios (R ≥ 0.8), creep resistance of SX/DS alloys governs VHCF lifetime. Under such high mean stress conditions, SX alloys developed to retard the initiation and creep propagation of mode I micro-cracks from pores have better VHCF lifetimes.

  5. Improvement of stress-rupture property by Cr addition in Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.Y.; Feng, Q.; Cao, L.M.; Sun, Z.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Cr improved the stress-rupture life of single crystal superalloys significantly. → Cr increased the Re partitioning ratio and resulted in more negative misfit. → Mechanism for improving the stress-rupture life by Cr addition is addressed here. - Abstract: The effects of Cr addition on the microstructure and stress-rupture property have been investigated in three experimental Ni-based single crystal superalloys containing various levels of Cr addition (0-5.7 wt.%). The Re partitioning ratio increased and the lattice misfit became more negative with increasing the Cr addition in both dendrite core and interdendritic region. The changes of elemental partitioning behaviors and the lattice misfit show good agreement with the change of γ' morphology. Cr addition increased the stress-rupture life at 1100 deg. C/140 MPa significantly due to higher γ' volume fraction, more negative lattice misfit and a well rafting structure as well as less width of γ channels. High Cr addition (5.7 wt.%) increased the degree of Re and Cr supersaturation in the γ phase and promoted the formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases significantly under thermal exposure and creep deformation at 1100 deg. C.

  6. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  7. High temperature properties of polycrystalline γ{sup '}-strengthened cobalt-base superalloys; Hochtemperatureigenschaften polykristalliner γ{sup '}-gehaerteter Kobaltbasis-Superlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    The recent discovery of a stable γ{sup '}-phase in Co-based superalloys opened up a pathway for the development of a new high temperature material class, which is similar in microstructure and properties to the modern γ{sup '}-hardened Ni-based superalloys. In this work, the first attempt was done to check the influence of several for Ni-based superalloys typical alloying elements on the properties of the new Co-based superalloys. It became clear that the basic characteristics of the first experimental alloys are similar to those of the γ{sup '}-hardened Ni-based alloys. The results of the multinary experimental alloys show that, based on the insight gained so far, targeted alloy development is possible. These materials have the potential to be used as disc materials in turbines.

  8. Quantifying the effect of microstructure variability on the yield strength predictions of Ni-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiley, J.S. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Kim, S.L.; Parthasarathy, T.A. [UES, Inc., Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Loughnane, G.T. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States); Kublik, R.; Salem, A.A. [Materials Resources LLC, Dayton, OH 45402 (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Physics-based models for predicting the mechanical behavior of Ni-based superalloys as a function of microstructure features require the use of microstructure data for calibration and verification. Accurate representation of the heterogeneity of microstructure features requires accurate selection of the representative microstructure data size (i.e. image size). Thus, this work is carried out to address the influence of microstructure data size on the accuracy of a discrete dislocation dynamic model in predicting the critical resolved share stress (CRSS) of IN100. Microstructure features from backscattered electron images were extracted using image processing techniques. Single point statistics (e.g. area fraction, precipitate size, and distance between γ' particles) and higher order statistics using two-point correlations were calculated from segmented 2-D images. Modified Bhattacharyya Coefficient analysis techniques were employed to calculate three-dimensional particle size distributions. Results indicate a significant influence of the microstructure data size on the calculated CRSS.

  9. On the nature of γ′ phase cutting and its effect on high temperature and low stress creep anisotropy of Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jácome, L. A.; Nörtershäuser, P.; Somsen, C.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Eggeler, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, MAY (2014), s. 246-264 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ni-base single crystal superalloys * Creep * Anisotropy * Dislocation * Rafting Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 4.465, year: 2014

  10. Analysis of laser beam weldability of Inconel 738 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbewande, A.T.; Buckson, R.A.; Ojo, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of pre-weld heat treated laser beam welded IN 738 superalloy to heat affected zone (HAZ) cracking was studied. A pre-weld heat treatment that produced the minimal grain boundary liquation resulted in a higher level of cracking compared to those with more intergranular liquation. This deviation from the general expectation of influence of intergranular liquation extent on HAZ microfissuring is attributable to the reduction in the ability of the base alloy to accommodate welding tensile stress that accompanied a pre-weld heat treatment condition designed to minimize intergranular liquation. Furthermore, in contrast to what has been generally reported in other nickel-based superalloys, a decrease in laser welding speed resulted in increased HAZ cracking in the IN 738, which can be attributed to exacerbated process instability at lower welding speeds.

  11. Phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in Ni-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Yuhki; Murata, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Masahiko [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering; Koyama, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The morphological evolution of the ({gamma} + {gamma}') microstructure in Ni-based superalloys is investigated by a series of phase-field simulations. In the simulation for simple aging heat treatment, the effect of elastic constant inhomogeneity between the {gamma} and {gamma}' phases is investigated. The elastic anisotropy or the shear modulus is changed independently in the simulation. The variation of the anisotropy affects the morphology, particle size distribution and coarsening kinetics of the {gamma}' phase, whereas the variation of the shear modulus does not affect them. In the simulation for high temperature creep, formation and collapse of the rafted structure are reproduced under the assumption that the creep strain in the {gamma} matrix increases with creep time. This morphological evolution is related to the change in the energetically stable morphology of the {gamma}' phase with increasing the creep strain. (orig.)

  12. Effect of heat treatment on microstructures and tensile properties of Ni-base superalloy M963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, L.Z.; Zheng, Q.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Tieu, A.K.; Lu, C.; Zhu, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of solution treatment (ST) on tensile properties of M963 Ni-base superalloy tested at 800 deg. C has been investigated. The detailed microstructures, fracture surfaces and dislocation structures are examined through energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing solution treated temperature, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increase, however, the elongation decreases. Microstructural observations show that the morphologies of carbide, primary γ' and re-precipitated γ' change significantly with increasing solution treated temperature. The main deformation mode is γ' by-pass when solution treated temperature is lower than 1220 deg. C, and changes to γ' shearing at 1230 deg. C. The interface of carbide with matrix is the main site of crack initiation and propagation under all testing conditions

  13. Segregation assisted microtwinning during creep of a polycrystalline L12-hardened Co-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, Lisa P.; Messé, Olivier M.D.M.; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Göken, Mathias; Neumeier, Steffen; Rae, Catherine M.F.

    2017-01-01

    A polycrystalline L1 2 -hardened Co-base superalloy was creep deformed at 750 °C. The investigation of the deformed microstructure in the transmission electron microscope revealed microtwinning to be the prevailing deformation mechanism. The detected twins spanned the entire grain and cut through both, γ and γ′. Detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations indicated that twin growth takes place by the slip of single a/6 〈112〉 partial dislocations along the twin boundary. Further analysis of the twin boundaries in the γ′ phase revealed segregation of elements known to decrease the stacking fault energy and a local depletion of γ′ forming elements. We propose that this segregation behavior enables subsequent a/6〈112〉 dislocations to easily slip along the twin boundary and further thicken the twins in the process.

  14. High temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of Ni-base superalloy M963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, L.Z.; Zheng, Q.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Tieu, A.K.; Lu, C.; Zhu, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic stress-strain response and the low cycle fatigue life behavior of solution treated Ni-base superalloy M963 were studied. Fully reversed strain-controlled tests were performed at temperature range from 700 to 950 deg. C in air at a constant total strain rate. The dislocation characteristics and failed surface observation were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The alloy exhibited the cyclic hardening, softening, or stable cyclic stress response, which was dependent on the temperature and total strain range. The fracture surface observation revealed that fatigue crack initiation was transgranular and closely related to the total strain range; however, fatigue crack propagation exhibited a strong dependence on testing temperature. The dramatic reduction in fatigue life and intergranular cracking observed at 900 and 950 deg. C were attributed to oxidation

  15. Atom probe tomography of Ni-base superalloys Allvac 718Plus and Alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, L., E-mail: viskari@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Stiller, K. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Atom probe tomography (APT) allows near atomic scale compositional- and morphological studies of, e.g. matrix, precipitates and interfaces in a wide range of materials. In this work two Ni-base superalloys with similar compositions, Alloy 718 and its derivative Allvac 718Plus, are subject for investigation with special emphasis on the latter alloy. The structural and chemical nuances of these alloys are important for their properties. Of special interest are grain boundaries as their structure and chemistry are important for the materials' ability to resist rapid environmentally induced crack propagation. APT has proved to be suitable for analyses of these types of alloys using voltage pulsed APT. However, for investigations of specimens containing grain boundaries and other interfaces the risk for early specimen fracture is high. Analyses using laser pulsing impose lower electrical field on the specimen thereby significantly increasing the success rate of investigations. Here, the effect of laser pulsing was studied and the derived appropriate acquisition parameters were then applied for microstructural studies, from which initial results are shown. Furthermore, the influence of the higher evaporation field experienced by the hardening {gamma}' Ni{sub 3}(Al,Nb) precipitates on the obtained results is discussed. -- Research highlights: {yields} Laser pulsed APT is shown to be a good method for analysis of Ni-based superalloys. {yields} The evaporation field is shown to be different for different phases which affects reconstructions. {yields} B and P are shown to segregate to grain boundaries. {yields} Initial results of {delta}-phase analysed by APT are shown.

  16. Grinding of Inconel 713 superalloy for gas turbines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, J.; Kyncl, J.; Kolařík, K.; Beránek, L.; Pitrmuc, Z.; Medřický, Jan; Pala, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 14-15 ISSN 1213-2489 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Casting defects * Gas turbine * Grinding * Nickel superalloy * Residual stresses Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  17. Innovative technologies for powder metallurgy-based disk superalloys: Progress and proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Lin, Jia; Chang-Chun, Ge; Qing-Zhi, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Powder metallurgy (PM) superalloys are an important class of high temperature structural materials, key to the rotating components of aero engines. In the purview of the present challenges associated with PM superalloys, two novel approaches namely, powder preparation and the innovative spray-forming technique (for making turbine disk) are proposed and studied. Subsequently, advanced technologies like electrode-induction-melting gas atomization (EIGA), and spark-plasma discharge spheroidization (SPDS) are introduced, for ceramic-free superalloy powders. Presently, new processing routes are sought after for preparing finer and cleaner raw powders for disk superalloys. The progress of research in spray-formed PM superalloys is first summarized in detail. The spray-formed superalloy disks specifically exhibit excellent mechanical properties. This paper reviews the recent progress in innovative technologies for PM superalloys, with an emphasis on new ideas and approaches, central to the innovation driving techniques like powder processing and spray forming. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50974016 and 50071014).

  18. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni based Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Awadi, G.A., E-mail: gaberelawdi@yahoo.com [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cyclotron Project, Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Samad, S., E-mail: salem_abdelsamad@yahoo.com [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cyclotron Project, Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Elshazly, Ezzat S. [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Metallurgy Dept., Abo-zabal, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Supperalloy good resistance to high temperature oxidation. • Ni-base alloy IN738 and Inconel 617 good resistance to hot corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of supperalloys depending on environment of abrasive ions such as (NaCl or NaSO{sub 4}). • Hot corrosion resistance depend on what the oxides phases where formed. - Abstract: Superalloys are extensively used at high temperature applications due to their good oxidation and corrosion resistance properties in addition to their high stability were made at high temperature. Experimental measurements of hot corrosion at high temperature of Inconel 617 and Inconel 738 superalloys. The experiments were carried out at temperatures 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C for different exposure times to up to 100 h. The corrosive media was NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} sprayed on the specimens. Seven different specimens were used at each temperature. The corrosion process is endothermic and the spontaneity increased by increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be Ea = 23.54 and E{sub a} = 25.18 KJ/mol for Inconel 738 and Inconel 617 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) was used to analyze the formed scale. The morphology of the specimen and scale were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the major corrosion products formed were NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and Co Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinles, in addition to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Effect of tensile mean stress on fatigue behavior of single-crystal and directionally solidified superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Two nickel base superalloys, single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf, were studied in view of the potential usage of the former and usage of the latter as blade materials for the turbomachinery of the space shuttle main engine. The baseline zero mean stress (ZMS) fatigue life (FL) behavior of these superalloys was established, and then the effect of tensile mean stress (TMS) on their FL behavior was characterized. At room temperature these superalloys have lower ductilities and higher strengths than most polycrystalline engineering alloys. The cycle stress-strain response was thus nominally elastic in most of the fatigue tests. Therefore, a stress range based FL prediction approach was used to characterize both the ZMS and TMS fatigue data. In the past, several researchers have developed methods to account for the detrimental effect of tensile mean stress on the FL for polycrystalline engineering alloys. However, the applicability of these methods to single crystal and directionally solidified superalloys has not been established. In this study, these methods were applied to characterize the TMS fatigue data of single crystal PWA 1480 and directionally solidified MAR-M 246 + Hf and were found to be unsatisfactory. Therefore, a method of accounting for the TMS effect on FL, that is based on a technique proposed by Heidmann and Manson was developed to characterize the TMS fatigue data of these superalloys. Details of this method and its relationship to the conventionally used mean stress methods in FL prediction are discussed.

  20. Environmental aspects on LCF-life of Ni-base superalloys during long term operation; Miljoeinverkan paa LCF-egenskaper vid laanga drifttider hos superlegeringar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moverare, Johan; Leijon, Gunnar; Palmert, Frans

    2012-02-15

    The applicability of fine grain polycrystalline nickel base superalloys in gas or steam turbine applications is often limited by their susceptibility to fast intergranular cracking during fatigue in combination with extended hold times at high temperatures and high tensile stresses. This effect is further enhanced in corrosive environments even at moderate temperatures such as 400-600 deg In this study the negative effect of SO{sub 2} + water vapour on the low cycle fatigue resistance of three different nickel based superalloys (Nimonic 901, Inconel 718 and 718 plus) has been studied at 450 deg and 550 deg. A negative effect was found on both the crack initiation and crack propagation process. The effect increases with increasing temperature and is likely to be influenced by both the chemical composition and the grain size of the material. The negative effect of water vapour + SO{sub 2} is manifested by a decreased resistance to cyclic plastic deformation and a transition from transcrystalline to intercrystalline fracture behaviour. In Nimonic 901 this negative effect increases with the degree of plastic deformation. For lower mechanical strain amplitudes where the number of cycles and the total exposure time is increased the environmental impact is reduced. Similar trends can also be noticed for the other alloys. The surface corrosion in air and in SO{sub 2} + water vapour are found to be rather similar in this study and it is therefore concluded that the surface scale can remain adherent and protective if the strains on the oxide scale are low. However, for LCF tests with higher strain ranges, the oxide scale will rupture preferably at the grain boundaries and intergranular microcracks will initiate which promotes inward diffusion of embritteling elements such as oxygen and sulphur. Inconel 718 seems to be more sensitive to SO{sub 2} + water vapour than Nimonic 901 when tested at 450. The overall resistance to LCF is however still higher in Inconel 718 for the

  1. Time-temperature influence on the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Nb superalloys in contact with Na2SO4-V2O5 molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, E.; Pardo, A.; Hernaez, J.; Hierro, P.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion rate data obtained by the polarization resistance method in nickel-base superalloys in contact with Na 2 SO 4 -V 2 O 5 molten mixtures are presented. The instrumental technique is also described. Time-temperature influence on the corrosion kinetics in the described conditions is discussed (Author)

  2. Design of high entropy alloys based on the experience from commercial superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Huang, Y.; Wang, J.; Liu, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have been drawing increasing attention recently and gratifying results have been obtained. However, the existing metallurgic rules of HEAs could not provide specific information of selecting candidate alloys for structural applications. Our brief survey reveals that many commercial superalloys have medium and even to high configurational entropies. The experience of commercial superalloys provides a clue for helping us in the development of HEAs for structural applications.

  3. Looking for New Polycrystalline MC-Reinforced Cobalt-Based Superalloys Candidate to Applications at 1200°C

    OpenAIRE

    Patrice Berthod

    2017-01-01

    For applications for which temperatures higher than 1150°C can be encountered the currently best superalloys, the γ/γ′ single crystals, cannot be used under stress because of the disappearance of their reinforcing γ′ precipitates at such temperatures which are higher than their solvus. Cobalt-based alloys strengthened by refractory and highly stable carbides may represent an alternative solution. In this work the interest was focused on MC carbides of several types. Alloys were elaborated wit...

  4. Microstructural causes of negative creep in cast superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation examines by means of microstructural investigations and modelling calculations two types of superalloys: the nickel-base cast alloy IN 738 LC (γ'-hardened, containing MC and M 23 C 6 carbides), and the cobalt-base cast alloy FSX 414 (containing M 23 C 6 carbides, solid solution-hardened). The task was to determine the causes of microstructural volume contraction, in order to improve and facilitate explanation and extrapolation of the materials' long-term behaviour at high temperatures, and to derive if possible information on appropriate measures preventing negative creep, which may lead to critical damage of bolted joints, for instance. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Computational thermodynamics and genetic algorithms to design affordable γ′-strengthened nickel–iron based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancret, F

    2012-01-01

    Computational thermodynamics based on the CALPHAD approach (Thermo-Calc software) are used to design creep-resistant and affordable superalloys for large-scale applications such as power plants. Cost is reduced by the introduction of iron and by avoiding the use of expensive alloying elements such as Nb, Ta, Mo, Co etc. Strengthening is ensured by the addition of W, and of Al and Ti to provoke the precipitation of γ′. However, the addition of iron reduces the maximum possible volume fraction of γ′. The latter is maximized automatically using a genetic algorithm during simulation, while keeping the alloys free of undesirable phases at high temperatures. New superalloys with 20 wt% Cr are designed, with Fe content up to 37 wt%. They should be forgeable, weldable, oxidation resistant and significantly cheaper than existing alloys with equivalent properties. (paper)

  6. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osoba, L.O. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada); Ding, R.G. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ojo, O.A., E-mail: ojo@cc.umanitoba.ca [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of {gamma}-{gamma}' eutectic in {gamma}' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO{sub 2} laser beam joining technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  7. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes 282 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osoba, L.O.; Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone (FZ) microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes 282 (HY 282) superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification. Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti–Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Weld FZ solidification cracking, which is sometimes associated with the formation of γ–γ' eutectic in γ' precipitation strengthened nickel-base superalloys, was not observed in the HY 282 superalloy. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material. - Highlights: ► A newly developed superalloy was welded by CO 2 laser beam joining technique. ► Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. ► Identified interdendritic microconstituents consist of MC-type carbides. ► Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance.

  8. The interaction of reaction-bonded silicon carbide and inconel 600 with a nickel-based brazing alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, J. R.; Pugh, M. D.; Drew, R. A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The objective of the present research was to join reaction-bonded silicon carbide (RBSC) to INCONEL 600 (a nickel-based superalloy) for use in advanced heat engine applications using either direct brazing or composite interlayer joining. Direct brazing experiments employed American Welding Society (AWS) BNi-5, a commercial nickel-based brazing alloy, as a filler material; composite interlayers consisted of intimate mixtures of α-SiC and BNi-5 powders. Both methods resulted in the liquid filler metal forming a Ni-Si liquid with the free Si in the RBSC, which, in turn, reacted vigorously with the SiC component of the RBSC to form low melting point constituents in both starting materials and Cr carbides at the metal-ceramic interface. Using solution thermodynamics, it was shown that a Ni-Si liquid of greater than 60 at. pct Ni will decompose a-SiC at the experimental brazing temperature of 1200 ‡C; these calculations are consistent with the experimentally observed composition profiles and reaction morphology within the ceramic. It was concluded that the joining of RBSC to INCONEL 600 using a nickel-based brazing alloy is not feasible due to the inevitability of the filler metal reacting with the ceramic, degrading the high-temperature properties of the base materials.

  9. Segregation in welded nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.I.; Shoaib, K.A.; Ahmad, M.; Shaikh, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    Segregation effects have been investigated in nickel-base alloys monel 400, inconel 625, hastelloy C-276 and incoloy 825, test welded under controlled conditions. Deviations from the normal composition have been observed to varying extents in the welded zone of these alloys. Least effect of this type occurred in Monel 400 where the content of Cu increased in some of the areas. Enhancement of Al and Ti has been found over large areas in the other alloys which has been attributed to the formation of low melting slag. Another common feature is the segregation of Cr, Fe or Ti, most likely in the form of carbides. Enrichment of Al, Ti, Nb, Mb, Mo, etc., to different amounts in some of the areas of these materials is in- terpretted in terms of the formation of gamma prime precipitates or of Laves phases. (author)

  10. Creep Behaviour of Modified Mar-247 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analysis of creep behaviour in short term creep tests of cast MAR-247 nickel-based superalloy samples made using various modification techniques and heat treatment. The accelerated creep tests were performed under temperature of 982 °C and the axial stresses of σ = 150 MPa (variant I and 200 MPa (variant II. The creep behaviour was analysed based on: creep durability (creep rupture life, steady-state creep rate and morphological parameters of macro- and microstructure. It was observed that the grain size determines the creep durability in case of test conditions used in variant I, durability of coarse-grained samples was significantly higher.

  11. On the Occurrence of Liquation During Linear Friction Welding of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, F.; Shahriari, D.; Jahazi, M.; Cormier, J.; Flipo, B. C. D.

    2017-06-01

    A combination of experimental and analytical methods was used to study the possible occurrence of liquation during LFW of the newly developed AD730TM Ni-based superalloy. LFWed joints were produced using a semi-industrial size facility and the interfaces of the joints as well as the ejected flash were examined using optical and Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM). Physical simulation of the LFW thermal cycle, using thermomechanical simulator Gleeble™ 3800, showed that incipient melting started from 1473 K (1200 °C). The analytical model, calibrated by experiments, predicted that the highest temperature of the interface was about 1523 K (1250 °C). The constitutive equations based on lattice and pipe diffusion models were developed to quantify the self-diffusivity of the elements and control the extent of liquation by considering the effect of LFW process parameters. Analytical results show that the application of compressive stresses during LFW results in 25 times increase in the diffusion of Ni atoms at the weld interface. Therefore, no presence of re-solidified phases, i.e., occurrence of liquation, was observed in the microstructure of the weld zone or the flash in the present study. Based on the obtained results, a methodology was developed for designing the optimum pressure above which no liquation, and hence cracking, will be observable.

  12. Thermo-Viscoplastic Behavior of Ni-Based Superalloy Haynes 282 and Its Application to Machining Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodríguez-Millán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni-based superalloys are extensively used in high-responsibility applications in components of aerospace engines and gas turbines with high temperature service lives. The wrought, γ’-strengthened superalloy Haynes 282 has been recently developed for applications similar to other common superalloys, such as Waspaloy or Inconel 718, with improved creep behavior, thermal stability, and fabrication ability. Despite the potential of Haynes 282, there are still important gaps in the knowledge of the mechanical behavior of this alloy. In fact, it was not possible to find information concerning the mechanical behavior of the alloy under impulsive loading. This paper focuses on the mechanical characterization of the Haynes 282 at strain rates ranging from 0.1 to 2800 s−1 and high temperatures ranging from 293 to 523 K using Hopkinson bar compression tests. The experimental results from the thermo-mechanical characterization allowed for calibration of the Johnson–Cook model widely used in modeling metallic alloy’s responses under dynamic loading. Moreover, the behavior of Haynes 282 was compared to that reported for Inconel 718, and the results were used to successfully model the orthogonal cutting of Haynes 282, being a typical case of dynamic loading requiring previous characterization of the alloy.

  13. Strain-induced γ{sup '}-coarsening during aging of Ni-based superalloys under uniaxial load. Modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushongera, Leslie T.

    2016-07-28

    Turbine blades which are used in the hot paths of aerospace or industrial gas turbines are usually manufactured as casted single crystalline parts. However, even though grain boundaries are excluded, the degradation behavior of respectively developed single crystal nickel-base superalloys, is still quite complex involving a number of very different microscopic effects. One of these is the diffusion-limited coarsening of the γ{sup '}-precipitates. Long-term aging or creep loading along the <100> crystallographic orientation results in the anisotropic coarsening of the γ{sup '}-precipitates. In the end, the microstructure contains quite large, irregularly shaped precipitates or plate-like precipitates aligned either parallel (P-type rafts) or perpendicular (N-type rafts) to the loading direction. This behavior is detrimental for the properties of these materials since their superior properties emanate from the size, morphology and distribution of the γ{sup '}-precipitates [R. Reed: Cambridge University Press, (2006)]. In order to efficiently design these materials, the phenomenon of coarsening should be known in detail to optimize the materials accurately. On this background, the general objective of this thesis is to develop an integrated computational approach for simulating morphological evolution in single crystal Ni-base superalloys. As a first step towards that aim, a multi-component phase field model coupled to inputs from CALPHAD-type and kinetic databases for the relevant driving forces was developed based on the grand-potential formalism similar to Plapp [Phys. Rev. E, 84: 031601 (2011)]. The thermodynamic formulation of the model was validated by comparisons to ThermoCalc equilibrium calculations and DICTRA sharp-interface simulations. Phase field approaches that allow for anisotropies of the interfacial energy sufficiently high so that the interface develops sharp corners due to missing crystallographic orientations were formulated. This

  14. Hot corrosion behavior of Ni-based superalloys in lithium molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Lim, Jong Ho; Chung, Joon Ho; Hur, Jin Mok; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seoung Won

    2004-01-01

    The Li-reduction process involves the chemical reduction of spent fuel oxides by liquid lithium metal in a molten LiCl salt bath at 650 .deg. C followed by a separate electrochemical reduction of lithium oxide (Li 2 O), which builds up in the salt bath. This process requires a high purity inert gas atmosphere inside remote hot cell nuclear facility to prevent unwanted Li oxidation and fires during the handling of chemically active Li metal. In light of the limitations of the Li-reduction process, a direct electrolytic reduction technology is being developed by KAERI to enhance process safety and economic viability. The electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of oxygen in a molten LiCl electrolyte, which results in a chemically aggressive environment that is too corrosive for typical structural materials. Even so, the electrochemical process vessel must be resilient at 650 .deg. C in the presence of oxygen to enable high processing rates and an extended service life. But, the mechanism and the rate of the corrosion of metals in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt under oxidation condition are not clear. In the present work, the corrosion behavior and corrosion mechanism of Ni-based superalloys have been studied in the molten salt of LiCl-Li 2 O under oxidation condition

  15. Production and Characterization of WC-Reinforced Co-Based Superalloy Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün, Özgür; Dinler, İlyas

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt-based superalloy matrix composite materials were produced through the powder metallurgy technique using element powders at high purity and nano-sized wolfram carbide (WC) reinforcement in this study. An alloy that had the same chemical composition as the Stellite 6 alloy but not containing carbon was selected as the matrix alloy. The powder mixtures obtained as a result of mixing WC reinforcing member and element powders at the determined ratio were shaped by applying 300 MPa of pressure. The green components were sintered under argon atmosphere at 1240 °C for 120 minutes. The densities of the sintered components were determined by the Archimedes' principle. Microstructural characterization was performed via X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope examinations, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. Hardness measurements and tensile tests were performed for determining mechanical characteristics. The relative density values of the sintered components increased by increasing the WC reinforcement ratio and they could almost reach the theoretical density. It was determined from the microstructural examinations that the composite materials consisted of fine and equiaxed grains and coarse carbides demonstrating a homogeneous dispersion along the microstructure at the grain boundaries. As it was the case in the density values, the hardness and strength values of the composites increased by increasing the WC ratio.

  16. Directional Solidification Microstructure of a Ni-Based Superalloy: Influence of a Weak Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.

  17. High temperature low cycle fatigue behavior of a directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy DZ951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhaokuang; Yu Jinjiang; Sun Xiaofeng; Guan Hengrong; Hu Zhuangqi

    2008-01-01

    Total strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests were performed at a temperature range from 700 to 900 deg. C in ambient air condition on a directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy DZ951. The fatigue life of DZ951 alloy does not monotonously decrease with increasing temperature, but exhibits a strong dependence on the total strain range. The dislocation characteristics and failed surface observation were evaluated through transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The alloy exhibits cyclic hardening, softening or cyclic stability as a whole, which is dependent on the testing temperature and total strain range. At 700 deg. C, the cyclic plastic deformation process is the main cause of fatigue failure. At 900 deg. C, the failure mostly results from combined fatigue and creep damage under total strain range from 0.6 to 1.2% and the reduction in fatigue life can be taken as the cause of oxidation, creep and cyclic plastic deformation under total strain range of 0.5%

  18. Effect of carbides on the creep properties of a Ni-base superalloy M963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, L.Z.; Zheng, Q.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.; Tieu, A.K.; Lu, C.; Zhu, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of carbides on the creep properties of a cast Ni-base superalloy M963 tested at 800 and 900 deg. C over a broad stress range has been investigated. Correlation between the carbides and creep properties of the alloy is enabled through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During high temperature creep tests, the primary MC carbide decomposes sluggishly and a large amount of secondary carbides precipitate. The cubic and acicular M 6 C carbide precipitates at the dendritic core region. Extremely fine chromium-rich M 23 C 6 carbide precipitates preferentially at grain boundaries. The M 6 C and M 23 C 6 carbides are found to be beneficial to the creep properties of the alloy. At lower temperature (800 deg. C), the interface of MC carbide with matrix is one of the principal sites for crack initiation. At higher temperature (900 deg. C), the oxidation and the precipitation of μ phase are the main factors for significant loss in creep strength of the alloy

  19. Nucleation of recrystallisation in castings of single crystal Ni-based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Harshal N.; Panwisawas, Chinnapat; Jones, C. Neil; Reed, Roger C.; Rae, Catherine M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Recrystallisation in single crystal Ni-based superalloys during solution heat treatment results in a significant cost to the investment casting industry. In this paper two sources of surface nucleation have been identified in the alloy CMSX-4 ® . Firstly, Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) has revealed micro-grains of γ′, between 2 and 30 μm diameter in the layer of surface eutectic found in the upper part of the casting. These have high angle boundaries with respect to the bulk single crystal and a fraction coarsen during solution heat treatment. Secondly, in the lower regions where surface eutectic does not form, locally deformed regions, 5–20 μm deep, form where the metal adheres to the mould. The local strain causes misorientations up to ≈20° with respect the bulk single crystal, and after heat treatment these regions develop into small grains of similar low-angle misorientations. However, they also form twins to produce further grains which have mobile high-angle boundaries with respect to the bulk single crystal. Experiments have shown that micro-grains at the surface grow to cause full recrystallisation where there is sufficient strain in the bulk material, and by removing these surface defects, recrystallisation can be completely mitigated. Etching of the cast surface is demonstrated to be an effective method of achieving this.

  20. Effects of stacking fault energy on the creep behaviors of Ni-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Chenggang; Han, Guoming; Cui, Chuanyong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The decrease of SFE could promote the dislocation dissociation. • The creep mechanisms were significantly affected by the SFE of the alloys. • The creep properties of the alloys improved with the decrease of SFE by facilitating the microtwinning process. - Abstract: Cobalt in a 23 wt.% Co containing Ni-base superalloys was systematically substituted by Ni in order to study the effects of stacking fault energy (SFE) on the creep mechanisms. The deformation microstructures of the alloys during different creep stages at 725 °C and 630 MPa were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the creep life increased as the SFE decreased corresponding to the increase of Co content in the alloys. At primary creep stage, the dislocation was difficult to dissociate independent of SFE. In contrast, at secondary and tertiary creep stages the dislocations dissociated at γ/γ′ interface and the partial dislocation started to shear γ′ precipitates, leaving isolated faults (IFs) in high SFE alloy, while the dislocations dissociated in the matrix and the partials swept out the matrix and γ′ precipitates creating extended stacking faults (ESFs) or deformation microtwins which were involved in diffusion-mediated reordering in low SFE alloy. It is suggested that the deformation microtwinning process should be favorable with the decrease of SFE, which could enhance the creep resistance and improve the creep properties of the alloys

  1. Thermomechanical behavior of different Ni-base superalloys during cyclic loading at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The material behavior of three Ni-base superalloys (Inconel® 718, Allvac® 718PlusTM and Haynes® 282® during in-phase cyclic mechanical and thermal loading was investigated. Stress controlled thermo-mechanical tests were carried out at temperatures above 700 ∘C and different levels of maximum compressive stress using a Gleeble® 3800 testing system. Microstructure investigations via light optical microscopy (LOM and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM as well as numerical precipitation kinetics simulations were performed to interpret the obtained results. For all alloys, the predominant deformation mechanism during deformation up to low plastic strains was identified as dislocation creep. The main softening mechanism causing progressive increase of plastic strain after preceding linear behavior is suggested to be recrystallization facilitated by coarsening of grain boundary precipitates. Furthermore, coarsening and partial transformation of strengthening phases was observed. At all stress levels, Haynes® 282® showed best performance which is attributable to its stable microstructure containing a high phase fraction of small, intermetallic precipitates inside grains and different carbides evenly distributed along grain boundaries.

  2. Mechanical properties of Ni-base superalloys in high temperature steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Changheui; Kim, Donghoon; Sah, Injin; Lee, Ho Jung

    2015-01-01

    The effects of environmental damages on the mechanical properties of Ni-base superalloys, Alloy 617 and Haynes 230, were evaluated for VHTR-HTSE applications. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature after ageing at 900 deg. C in vacuum, steam, and steam + 20 vol.% H2 environments up to 3 000 h. Also, creep rupture test were performed in air, steam, and steam + 20 vol.% H2 environments. The degradations such as oxidation, decarburization, and redistribution of carbides were studied in view of the interaction of materials with the environment. During the long-term ageing at 900 deg. C in vacuum, secondary phases such as M23C6 and M6C were precipitated and coarsened, which caused increase in tensile strength and decrease in ductility. For the specimens aged in steam environments, surface and internal oxides acted as preferential sites for crack initiation and consequently, decreased the tensile and creep strength. Also, the formation of decarburization region resulted in glide plane failure during tensile test and reduction in creep rupture life due to grain boundary migration and recrystallisation. During creep tests, tensile stress caused the crack and void formation in oxide layer. Consequently, fast diffusion of oxidant occurred and environmental damage were accelerated. Among the test conditions, such environmental damage was much severe in steam environments. (authors)

  3. Theromdynamics of carbon in nickel-based multicomponent solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1978-04-01

    The activity coefficient of carbon in nickel, nickel-titanium, nickel-titanium-chromium, nickel-titanium-molybdenum and nickel-titanium-molybdenum-chromium alloys has been measured at 900, 1100 and 1215 0 C. The results indicate that carbon obeys Henry's Law over the range studied (0 to 2 at. percent). The literature for the nickel-carbon and iron-carbon systems are reviewed and corrected. For the activity of carbon in iron as a function of composition, a new relationship based on re-evaluation of the thermodynamics of the CO/CO 2 equilibrium is proposed. Calculations using this relationship reproduce the data to within 2.5 percent, but the accuracy of the calibrating standards used by many investigators to analyze for carbon is at best 5 percent. This explains the lack of agreement between the many precise sets of data. The values of the activity coefficient of carbon in the various solid solutions are used to calculate a set of parameters for the Kohler-Kaufman equation. The calculations indicate that binary interaction energies are not sufficient to describe the thermodynamics of carbon in some of the nickel-based solid solutions. The results of previous workers for carbon in nickel-iron alloys are completely described by inclusion of ternary terms in the Kohler-Kaufman equation. Most of the carbon solid solution at high temperatures in nickel and nickel-titantium alloys precipitates from solution on quenching in water. The precipitate is composed of very small particles (greater than 2.5 nm) of elemental carbon. The results of some preliminary thermomigration experiments are discussed and recommendations for further work are presented

  4. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: First-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Ni-base model superalloys: Ni/Ni3Al multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Chong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    A model system consisting of Ni[001](100)/Ni3Al[001](100) multi-layers are studied using the density functional theory in order to explore the elastic properties of single crystal Ni-based superalloys. Simulation results are consistent with the experimental observation that rafted Ni-base superalloys virtually possess a cubic symmetry. The convergence of the elastic properties with respect to the thickness of the multilayers are tested by a series of multilayers from 2γ'+2γ to 10γ'+10γ atomic layers. The elastic properties are found to vary little with the increase of the multilayer's thickness. A Ni/Ni3Al multilayer with 10γ'+10γ atomic layers (3.54 nm) can be used to simulate the mechanical properties of Ni-base model superalloys. Our calculated elastic constants, bulk modulus, orientation-dependent shear modulus and Young's modulus, as well as the Zener anisotropy factor are all compatible with the measured results of Ni-base model superalloys R1 and the advanced commercial superalloys TMS-26, CMSX-4 at a low temperature. The mechanical properties as a function of the γ' phase volume fraction are calculated by varying the proportion of the γ and γ' phase in the multilayers. Besides, the mechanical properties of two-phase Ni/Ni3Al multilayer can be well predicted by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill rule of mixtures.

  5. Multi-Scale Computational Modeling of Ni-Base Superalloy Brazed Joints for Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Bryan

    Brazed joints are commonly used in the manufacture and repair of aerospace components including high temperature gas turbine components made of Ni-base superalloys. For such critical applications, it is becoming increasingly important to account for the mechanical strength and reliability of the brazed joint. However, material properties of brazed joints are not readily available and methods for evaluating joint strength such as those listed in AWS C3.2 have inherent challenges compared with testing bulk materials. In addition, joint strength can be strongly influenced by the degree of interaction between the filler metal (FM) and the base metal (BM), the joint design, and presence of flaws or defects. As a result, there is interest in the development of a multi-scale computational model to predict the overall mechanical behavior and fitness-for-service of brazed joints. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to generate data and methodology to support such a model for Ni-base superalloy brazed joints with conventional Ni-Cr-B based FMs. Based on a review of the technical literature a multi-scale modeling approach was proposed to predict the overall performance of brazed joints by relating mechanical properties to the brazed joint microstructure. This approach incorporates metallurgical characterization, thermodynamic/kinetic simulations, mechanical testing, fracture mechanics and finite element analysis (FEA) modeling to estimate joint properties based on the initial BM/FM composition and brazing process parameters. Experimental work was carried out in each of these areas to validate the multi-scale approach and develop improved techniques for quantifying brazed joint properties. Two Ni-base superalloys often used in gas turbine applications, Inconel 718 and CMSX-4, were selected for study and vacuum furnace brazed using two common FMs, BNi-2 and BNi-9. Metallurgical characterization of these brazed joints showed two primary microstructural regions; a soft

  6. Eutectic gamma (Nickel)/gamma vprime(Nickel Aluminide) delta (Nickel Niobium) polycrystalline nickel-base superalloys: Chemistry, processing, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mengtao

    Directionally solidified (D.S.) gamma(Ni)/gamma'(Ni 3A1)-delta(Ni3Nb) eutectic alloys were considered as candidate turbine blade materials. Currently, the properties of polycrystalline gamma/gamma'-delta alloys are of interest as they inherit many advantageous attributes from the D.S. gamma/gamma'-delta alloys. This thesis is therefore dedicated towards the development of a fundamental understanding of these novel eutectic alloys from several important perspectives. This thesis will first be focused on quantifying the effect of several elements. A set of Ni-Cr-Al-Nb alloy compositions with increasing levels of Cr was designed to investigate the influence of Cr on the primary phase formation, solidus and liquidus temperatures and g-d eutectic morphology. A matrix of complex gamma/gamma'-delta alloy compositions with the same (Ta+Nb) content but varying Ta/Nb ratios was designed to study the influence of Ta on elemental segregation and solid state partitioning behaviors. Thermodynamic predicaitons using the Computherm Pandat database (PanNi7) were compared to experimental results in these investigations. The second part of this thesis will provide a more general understanding of the effects of common elements. A large number of experimental alloys covering a broad range of compositions were selected for the analysis. Important alloy attributes were characterized as a function of element concentration. Linear regression analysis was performed to reveal the relative effectiveness of different elements. An extensive comparison between the experimental observations and Pandat predictions was provided to critically evaluate the strength and weakness of existing thermodynamic database model in this novel alloy system. The last part of this thesis emphasizes the development of cast and wrought processes for cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloys as a cost effective alternative to the powder metallurgy route. Hot rolling of workpieces encapsulated within a steel can was performed on a simple model cast gamma/gamma'-delta alloy (897). The influence of different deformation levels on breaking down the dendritic structure and promoting fine and homogenized microstructure was investigated. The mechanical soundness associated with different microstructures generated by different hot rolling processes was compared via compression and creep testing.

  7. Fatigue strain mapping via digital image correlation for Ni-based superalloys: The role of thermal activation on cube slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, Alberto W.; Nicolas, Andrea; Sangid, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    A deformation mechanism map for a Ni-based superalloy is presented during cyclic loading at low (300 °C), intermediate (550 °C), and high (700 °C) temperatures for low (0.7%) and high (1.0%) applied strain amplitudes. Strain mapping is performed via digital image correlation (DIC) during interrupted fatigue experiments at elevated temperatures at 1, 10, 100 and 1000 cycles, for each specified loading and temperature condition. The DIC measurements are performed in a scanning electron microscope, which allows high-resolution measurements of heterogeneous slip events and a vacuum environment to ensure stability of the speckle pattern for DIC at high temperatures. The cumulative fatigue experiments show that the slip bands are present in the first cycle and intensify with number of cycles; resulting in highly localized strain accumulation. The strain mapping results are combined with microstructure characterization via electron backscatter diffraction. The combination of crystal orientations and high-resolution strain measurements was used to determine the active slip planes. At low temperatures, slip bands follow the {111} octahedral planes. However, as temperature increases, both the {111} octahedral and {100} cubic slip planes accommodate strain. The activation of cubic slip via cross-slip within the ordered intermetallic γ’ phase has been well documented in Ni-based superalloys and is generally accepted as the mechanism responsible for the anomalous yield phenomenon. The results in this paper represent an important quantifiable study of cubic slip system activity at the mesoscale in polycrystalline γ-γ’ Ni-based superalloys, which is a key advancement to calibrate the thermal activation components of polycrystalline deformation models.

  8. Influence of γ' precipitates on Portevin–Le Chatelier effect of Ni-based superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yulong [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Tian, Chenggang [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Fu, Shihua, E-mail: fushihua@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Han, Guoming [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Cui, Chuanyong, E-mail: chycui@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Qingchuan, E-mail: zhangqc@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2015-06-25

    The γ′ precipitate plays a critical role in improving the mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys. An undesirable phenomenon referred to as the Portevin–Le Chatelier (PLC) effect always appears in Ni-based superalloys deformed within specific ranges of strain rate and temperature. In order to systematically investigate the influence of the γ′ precipitates on the PLC effect, four Ni-based superalloys with various γ′ contents were designed and fabricated. Microscopic observations from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the volume fraction of the γ′ phase was consistent with the designed value. Furthermore, analysis of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results revealed that the γ matrix of all the alloys consisted of the same components. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed at strain rates and temperatures ranging from 1×10{sup −4} to 3×10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and 300–500 °C, respectively. We found that the ultimate strength increased while the elongation decreased with increasing γ′ content. In addition, the serration changed from type A to type B and to type C with increasing temperature, decreasing strain rate or increasing γ′ content; the amplitude of type B serrations was described by unimodal or bimodal distributions. Increasing volume fraction of γ′ precipitates shifted the region in which the PLC effect occurred, to the range of low temperatures and high strain rates. Moreover, the serration amplitude increased with increasing γ′ content at a given temperature, which indicated that the γ′ precipitate increases the dynamic strain ageing (DSA) effect.

  9. Fatigue strain mapping via digital image correlation for Ni-based superalloys: The role of thermal activation on cube slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Alberto W.; Nicolas, Andrea; Sangid, Michael D., E-mail: msangid@purdue.edu

    2017-05-17

    A deformation mechanism map for a Ni-based superalloy is presented during cyclic loading at low (300 °C), intermediate (550 °C), and high (700 °C) temperatures for low (0.7%) and high (1.0%) applied strain amplitudes. Strain mapping is performed via digital image correlation (DIC) during interrupted fatigue experiments at elevated temperatures at 1, 10, 100 and 1000 cycles, for each specified loading and temperature condition. The DIC measurements are performed in a scanning electron microscope, which allows high-resolution measurements of heterogeneous slip events and a vacuum environment to ensure stability of the speckle pattern for DIC at high temperatures. The cumulative fatigue experiments show that the slip bands are present in the first cycle and intensify with number of cycles; resulting in highly localized strain accumulation. The strain mapping results are combined with microstructure characterization via electron backscatter diffraction. The combination of crystal orientations and high-resolution strain measurements was used to determine the active slip planes. At low temperatures, slip bands follow the {111} octahedral planes. However, as temperature increases, both the {111} octahedral and {100} cubic slip planes accommodate strain. The activation of cubic slip via cross-slip within the ordered intermetallic γ’ phase has been well documented in Ni-based superalloys and is generally accepted as the mechanism responsible for the anomalous yield phenomenon. The results in this paper represent an important quantifiable study of cubic slip system activity at the mesoscale in polycrystalline γ-γ’ Ni-based superalloys, which is a key advancement to calibrate the thermal activation components of polycrystalline deformation models.

  10. Introduction to superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Chenggong

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have developed mechanical devices to satisfy their needs, Jet aircraft was thrust into public awareness with the 1937 flight of Hans Von Ohains turbine engine Heinkel in Germany and an independent development, the 1939 flight of Whittle's engine in England. Since that time, progress in jet propulsion and industrial gas turbines has been a growing engineering technology of immense importance. This opened a new era of engineering material called superalloy. Superalloy is an alloy developed for elevated temperature service usually based on group VIIA elements, where relatively severe mechanical stressing is encountered, and where high surface stability is frequently required. The title of the speech is T he Effect of a Changing Environment on the requirements of Engine Materials . In this speech, the author emphasized that may changes in the business environment have occurred in recent years, the aircraft engine business is rapidly changing from a military focus to a commercial one, speed to market will assume greater importance in the engine industry, and greater attention to customer value will be required to remain competitive etc. However the superalloys will continue to be developed in the future. (author) 14 figs

  11. Assessing phase stability and element distribution in Co-base superalloys at elevated temperatures by in situ TEM heating experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeler, Yolita; Mueller, Julian; Spiecker, Erdmann [Lehrstuhl fuer Mikro- und Nanostrukturforschung and Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy (CENEM), Department Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Co-based alloys, of a composition of Co-12Al-9W, form a stable two phase γ/γ{sup '} microstructure at 900 C. γ{sup '} cubes, consisting of the L12 crystal structure are coherently embedded in a solid solution fcc (A1) γ matrix. To ensure precipitate hardening at temperatures, which are relevant to practical applications, 700-1100 C, as experienced in gas turbine applications, the stability of the γ/γ{sup '} phases is of fundamental importance. In this analysis in situ TEM studies with chip-based heating systems (by DENS solution) are applied on new Co-based superalloys. After in situ heating at apr. 900 C and controlled quenching with different quenching rates the elemental distribution at the γ/γ{sup '} interface is measured using ChemiSTEM EDX. Exploiting the driving force for interface movement resulting from temperature-dependent volume fraction of γ and γ{sup '} insight into the diffusion of individual alloying elements and the relationship between local chemistry and ordering can be gained from transient phenomena. The experimental results will be compared with theoretical calculations. This work has been carried out within the framework of the SFB-TR 103 ''Single Crystal Superalloys''.

  12. Molecular dynamics study on the evolution of interfacial dislocation network and mechanical properties of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan-Lin; Wu, Wen-Ping; Nie, Kai

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of misfit dislocation network at γ /γ‧ phase interface and tensile mechanical properties of Ni-based single crystal superalloys at various temperatures and strain rates are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the simulations, it is found that with the increase of loading, the dislocation network effectively inhibits dislocations emitted in the γ matrix cutting into the γ‧ phase and absorbs the matrix dislocations to strengthen itself which increases the stability of structure. Under the influence of the temperature, the initial mosaic structure of dislocation network gradually becomes irregular, and the initial misfit stress and the elastic modulus slowly decline as temperature increasing. On the other hand, with the increase of the strain rate, it almost has no effect on the elastic modulus and the way of evolution of dislocation network, but contributes to the increases of the yield stress and tensile strength. Moreover, tension-compression asymmetry of Ni-based single crystal superalloys is also presented based on MD simulations.

  13. Computer Aided Design of Ni-Based Single Crystal Superalloy for Industrial Gas Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianping; Gong, Xiufang; Yang, Gongxian; Wang, Haiwei; Li, Haisong; Chen, Xueda; Gao, Zhenhuan; Xu, Yongfeng; Yang, Ming

    The influence of molybdenum, tungsten and cobalt on stress-rupture properties of single crystal superalloy PWA1483 has been investigated using the simulated calculation of JMatPro software which ha s been widely used to develop single crystal superalloy, and the effect of alloying element on the stability of strengthening phase has been revealed by using the Thermo-Calc software. Those properties calculation results showed that the increasing of alloy content could facilitate the precipitation of TCP phases and increase the lattice misfit between γ and γ' phase, and the effect of molybdenum, tantalum was the strongest and that of cobalt was the weakest. Then the chemical composition was optimized, and the selected compositions showed excellent microstructure stability and stress-rupture properties by the confirmation of d-electrons concept and software calculation.

  14. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A., E-mail: mgonzalez@comimsa.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martinez, D.I., E-mail: dorairma@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, A., E-mail: betinperez@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Guajardo, H., E-mail: hguajardo@frisa.com [FRISA Aerospace, S.A. de C.V., Valentin G. Rivero No. 200, Col. Los Trevino, C.P. 66150, Santa Caterina N.L. (Mexico); Garza, A., E-mail: agarza@comimsa.com [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V. (COMIMSA), Ciencia y Tecnologia No.790, Saltillo 400, C.P. 25295 Saltillo Coah. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates (357-442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates in 'ogdoadically' diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical {gamma} Prime precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous microstructures of {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  15. Interdiffusion between Ni-based superalloy and MCrAlY coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John; Horsewell, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Interdiffusion at the interface between a Co-36.5Ni-17.5Cr-8Al-0.5Y, MCrAlY coating and the underlying IN738 superalloy was studied in a large matrix of specimens isothermally heat treated for up to 12,000 hours at temperatures 875oC, 925oC or 950oC. Modelled results using the finite difference...

  16. Fatigue crack growth from handling surface anomalies in a nickel based superalloy at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourdin Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft engine manufacturers have to demonstrate that handling surface anomalies in sensitive areas of discs are not critical for in-service life of a component. Currently, the models used consider anomalies as long cracks propagating from the first cycle, which introduces a certain degree of conservatism when calculating the fatigue life of surface flaws. Preliminary studies have shown that the first stages of crack propagation from surface anomalies are responsible for the conservative results. Thus, the aim of the study is to characterize the crack propagation from typical surface anomalies and to establish a new crack growth model, which can account for the micro-propagation stage. To separate the effects of the geometry of the anomalies and the residual stress state after introduction of the surface flaws, two V-type anomalies are studied: scratches and dents. Different studies have shown that the residual stresses beneath the anomalies seem to control the fatigue life of samples exhibiting scratches and dents. In order to monitor the crack micro-propagation, a direct current potential drop technique, coupled with heat tints is used during fatigue tests at elevated temperature. Thermal treatments releasing the residual stresses are also used to decouple the effect of crack morphology and residual stresses.

  17. Evaluation of the Low Heat Input Process for Weld Repair of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, J.; Richards, N. L.

    2011-10-01

    The repair of turbine blades and vanes commonly involves gas tungsten arc welding or an equivalent process, but unfortunately these components are often susceptible to heat-affected zone (HAZ) cracking during the weld repair process. This is a major problem especially in cast alloys due to their coarse-grain size and where the (Al + Ti) contents is in excess of 3-4%; vacuum brazing is also used but mainly on low stress non-rotating components such as vanes. Micro-welding has the potential to deposit small amounts of filler at low heat input levels with minimum HAZ and thus is an attractive process for depositing a quality weld. As with conventional fusion processes, the filler alloy is deposited by the generation of a low power arc between a consumable electrode and the substrate. The low heat input of this process offers unique advantages over more common welding processes such as gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, laser, and electron beam welding. In this study, the low heat input characteristic of micro-welding has been used to simulate weld repair using Inconel (IN) (Inconel and IN are trademarks of INCO Alloys International) 625, Rene (Rene is a trademark of General Electric Company) 41, Nimonic (Nimonic is a trademark of INCO Alloys International) 105 and Inconel 738LC filler alloys, to a cast Inconel 738LC substrate. The effect of micro-welding process parameters on the deposition rate, coating quality, and substrate has been investigated.

  18. Grain Boundary Engineering for Assessing Durability and Aging Issues with Nickel-Based Superalloys, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE) approach, successfully demonstrated in Phase I, that microstructural optimization provides a very significant improvement in...

  19. Grain Boundary Engineering for Assessing Durability and Aging Issues with Nickel-Based Superalloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integran Technologies USA Inc.(Pittsburgh, PA) is pleased to provide this proposal in response to the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Request for Proposal...

  20. Residual stresses analysis in ball end milling of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junteng; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai; Luo, Ming [Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

    2017-11-15

    Inconel 718 is widely used in the aviation, space, automotive and biomedical industries because of its outstanding properties. Near-surface residual stresses that are induced by ball end milling in Inconel 718 can be crucial for the performance and service time of the machined parts. In this paper, the influences of cutting conditions, including the use of cutting parameters, cutting fluid and spindle angles, on the residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated experimentally. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that residual stress distributions are highly influenced by cutting parameters, especially the depth of cut and cutting speed. The milling operation with cooling induces more compressive stresses trend and the magnitude of the residual stresses increases in the tensile direction with the increase of spindle angles. These cutting induced effects were further discussed with respect to thermal- mechanical coupling theory and some observations made by optical microscopy. From this investigation, it is suggested that the machining process parameters are not the smaller the better for the control of residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718. (author)

  1. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Aoshuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified model is developed to characterize and evaluate high-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures by considering the stress ratio effect. The model is informed by the relationship surface between maximum nominal stress, stress ratio and fatigue life. New formulae are derived to deal with the test data for estimating the parameters of the proposed model. Fatigue tests are performed on Co-based superalloy 9CrCo subjected to constant amplitude loading at four stress ratios of −1, −0.3, 0.5 and 0.9 in three environments of room temperature (i.e., about 25 °C and elevated temperatures of 530 °C and 620 °C, and the interaction mechanisms between the elevated temperature and stress ratio are deduced and compared with each other from fractographic studies. Finally, the model is applied to experimental data, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed model. It is shown that new model has good correlation with experimental results.

  2. Improvement of the Oxidation Resistance of CoNiCrAlY Bond Coats Sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel onto Nickel Superalloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Fossati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CoNiCrAlY powders with similar granulometry and chemical composition, but different starting reactivity toward oxygen, were sprayed onto superalloy substrates by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel producing coatings of similar thicknesses. After spraying, samples were maintained at 1,273 K in air for different test periods of up to 5,000 hours. Morphological, microstructural, compositional and electrochemical analyses were performed on the coated samples in order to assess the high temperature oxidation resistance provided by the two different powders. The powder with higher starting reactivity towards oxygen improves the oxidation resistance of the coated samples by producing thinner and more adherent thermally grown oxide layers.

  3. Comparison of Thermodynamic Predictions and Experimental Observations on B Additions in Powder-Processed Ni-Based Superalloys Containing Elevated Concentrations of Nb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Stoichko; Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Sun, Eugene; Tin, Sammy

    2018-03-01

    Boron additions to Ni-based superalloys are considered to be beneficial to the creep properties of the alloy, as boron has often been reported to increase grain boundary cohesion, increase ductility, and promote the formation of stable boride phases. Despite the importance, it is not well understood whether these improvements are associated with the presence of elemental boron or stable borides along the grain boundaries. In this investigation, two experimental powder-processed Ni-based superalloys containing elevated levels of Nb were found to exhibit increased solubility for B in the γ matrix when compared to similar commercial Ni-based superalloys. This resulted in an overall lower B concentration at grain boundaries that suppressed boride formation. As the predictive capability of CALPHAD database models for Ni-based superalloys have improved over the years, some discrepancies may still persist around compositionally heterogeneous features such as grain boundaries. Improved quantification of the characteristic partitioning of B as a function of the bulk alloy composition is required for understanding and predicting the stability of borides.

  4. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies of {sigma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Jianxin, E-mail: jianxin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Pan [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Feng Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Han Xiaodong; Mao Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2012-09-25

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM micrograph of {sigma} phase; (b) HRTEM image of {sigma}/{gamma} interface corresponding to the area of the white frame in (a); (c) an enlarged image of area from the white frame in (b). The combination of {sigma}/{gamma} interface appears very well, and a two-atomic-layer step is shown on the {sigma}/{gamma} interface. In addition, {sigma} phase has the orientation relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elemental characteristic of {sigma} phase is studied by HAADF techniques and EDS analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial characteristics of {sigma}/{gamma} interface are revealed by HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An atomic structural {sigma}/{gamma} interface with a two-atomic-layer step has been proposed. - Abstract: By means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field image technique (HAADF), morphological of plate-shaped {sigma} phase and interfacial characteristics between plate-shaped {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase in Ni-based single crystal superalloys have been studied. On the basis of HRTEM observations, an atomic structural interface between {sigma} phase and {gamma} phase with a step has been proposed. {sigma} Phase has the relationship of [0 0 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 2{sup Macron }]{sub {sigma}}, (2{sup Macron} 2 0){sub {gamma}}//(1{sup Macron} 1 0){sub {sigma},} (2{sup Macron }2{sup Macron} 0){sub {gamma}}//(1 1 1){sub {sigma}}; [0 1 1]{sub {gamma}}//[1 1 0]{sub {sigma}}, (1 1{sup Macron} 1){sub {gamma}}//(0 0 1{sup Macron }){sub {sigma}} with the {gamma} phase. The compositional characteristics of the {sigma} phase which

  5. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ γ/γ' > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially tungsten

  6. A simplified physics-based model for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Dougal, Roger A.; Weidner, John W.; Gao, Lijun

    This paper presents a simplified model of a nickel hydrogen battery based on a first approximation. The battery is assumed uniform throughout. The reversible potential is considered primarily due to one-electron transfer redox reaction of nickel hydroxide and nickel oxyhydroxide. The non-ideality due to phase reactions is characterized by the two-parameter activity coefficients. The overcharge process is characterized by the oxygen reaction. The overpotentials are lumped to a tunable resistive drop to fit particular battery designs. The model is implemented in the Virtual Test Bed environment, and the characteristics of the battery are simulated and in good agreement with the experimental data within the normal operating regime. The model can be used for battery dynamic simulation and design in a satellite power system, an example of which is given.

  7. Application of Finite Element, Phase-field, and CALPHAD-based Methods to Additive Manufacturing of Ni-based Superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Trevor; Lindwall, Greta; Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Lane, Brandon M; Zhang, Fan; Kattner, Ursula R; Lass, Eric A; Heigel, Jarred C; Idell, Yaakov; Williams, Maureen E; Allen, Andrew J; Guyer, Jonathan E; Levine, Lyle E

    2017-10-15

    Numerical simulations are used in this work to investigate aspects of microstructure and microseg-regation during rapid solidification of a Ni-based superalloy in a laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process. Thermal modeling by finite element analysis simulates the laser melt pool, with surface temperatures in agreement with in situ thermographic measurements on Inconel 625. Geometric and thermal features of the simulated melt pools are extracted and used in subsequent mesoscale simulations. Solidification in the melt pool is simulated on two length scales. For the multicomponent alloy Inconel 625, microsegregation between dendrite arms is calculated using the Scheil-Gulliver solidification model and DICTRA software. Phase-field simulations, using Ni-Nb as a binary analogue to Inconel 625, produced microstructures with primary cellular/dendritic arm spacings in agreement with measured spacings in experimentally observed microstructures and a lesser extent of microsegregation than predicted by DICTRA simulations. The composition profiles are used to compare thermodynamic driving forces for nucleation against experimentally observed precipitates identified by electron and X-ray diffraction analyses. Our analysis lists the precipitates that may form from FCC phase of enriched interdendritic compositions and compares these against experimentally observed phases from 1 h heat treatments at two temperatures: stress relief at 1143 K (870 °C) or homogenization at 1423 K (1150 °C).

  8. Atom-probe field-ion microscopy investigation of CMSX-4 Ni-base superalloy laser beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    CMSX-4 superalloy laser beam welds were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM). The weld microstructure consisted of fine (10- to 50-nm) irregularly shaped γ' precipitates (0.65 to 0.75 volume fraction) within the γ matrix. APFIM compositions of the γ and γ' phases were found to be different from those in the base metal. Concentration profiles across the γ and γ' phases showed extensive variations of Cr, Co and Al concentrations as a function of distance within the γ phase. Calculated lattice misfits near the γ/γ' interface in the welds are positive values compared to the negative values for base metal. (orig.)

  9. Investigation of selected thermo-physical properties in the Co-based superalloy: Experiment and application study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kasala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-physical properties are the critical input parameters in computational models of solidification and casting simulations. In thermodynamics, the enthalpy is quotient of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. Differential thermal analysis has been used to study melting and solidification paths in the cobalt based superalloy FSX-414. The temperature enthalpy curve was determined from differential thermal analysis curves obtained from solidification curves. A solidification simulation of a cobalt base multi-component alloy casting was carried out to predict cooling and shrinkage porosity in the casting of a turbine engine vane segment. The effect of latent heat on the heat transfer calculation was considered by enthalpy method.

  10. Integrated design of Nb-based superalloys: Ab initio calculations, computational thermodynamics and kinetics, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, G.; Olson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    An optimal integration of modern computational tools and efficient experimentation is presented for the accelerated design of Nb-based superalloys. Integrated within a systems engineering framework, we have used ab initio methods along with alloy theory tools to predict phase stability of solid solutions and intermetallics to accelerate assessment of thermodynamic and kinetic databases enabling comprehensive predictive design of multicomponent multiphase microstructures as dynamic systems. Such an approach is also applicable for the accelerated design and development of other high performance materials. Based on established principles underlying Ni-based superalloys, the central microstructural concept is a precipitation strengthened system in which coherent cubic aluminide phase(s) provide both creep strengthening and a source of Al for Al 2 O 3 passivation enabled by a Nb-based alloy matrix with required ductile-to-brittle transition temperature, atomic transport kinetics and oxygen solubility behaviors. Ultrasoft and PAW pseudopotentials, as implemented in VASP, are used to calculate total energy, density of states and bonding charge densities of aluminides with B2 and L2 1 structures relevant to this research. Characterization of prototype alloys by transmission and analytical electron microscopy demonstrates the precipitation of B2 or L2 1 aluminide in a (Nb) matrix. Employing Thermo-Calc and DICTRA software systems, thermodynamic and kinetic databases are developed for substitutional alloying elements and interstitial oxygen to enhance the diffusivity ratio of Al to O for promotion of Al 2 O 3 passivation. However, the oxidation study of a Nb-Hf-Al alloy, with enhanced solubility of Al in (Nb) than in binary Nb-Al alloys, at 1300 deg. C shows the presence of a mixed oxide layer of NbAlO 4 and HfO 2 exhibiting parabolic growth

  11. Study on Plastic Deformation Characteristics of Shot Peening of Ni-Based Superalloy GH4079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L. Q.; Liang, Y. L.; Hu, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the X-ray stress diffractometer, surface roughness tester, field emission scanning electron microscope(SEM), dynamic ultra-small microhardness tester were used to measure the surface residual stress and roughness, topography and surface hardness changes of GH4079 superalloy, which was processed by metallographic grinding, turning, metallographic grinding +shot peening and turning + shot peening. Analysized the effects of shot peening parameters on shot peening plastic deformation features; and the effects of the surface state before shot peening on shot peening plastic deformation characteristics. Results show that: the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness of GH4079 superalloy were increased by shot peening, in addition, the increment of the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness induced by shot peening increased with increasing shot peening intensity, shot peening time, shot peening pressure and shot hardness, but harden layer depth was not affected considerably. The more plastic deformation degree of before shot peening surface state, the less increment of the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness induced by shot peening.

  12. Microstructure-sensitive Crystal Viscoplasticity for Ni-base Superalloys Targeting Long-term Creep-Fatigue Interaction Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Richard W.

    2017-09-30

    The aim of this project is to develop a microstructure-sensitive crystal viscoplasticity (CVP) model for single-crystal Ni-base superalloys to model the behavior of the material and components in the hot gas path sections of industrial gas turbines (IGT). Microstructure degradation associated with aging critical to predicting long-term creep-fatigue interactions will be embedded into the model through the γ' precipitate morphology evolution by coupling the coarsening drivers and kinetics into the constitutive equations of the CVP model. Model parameters will be determined using new experimental protocols that involve systematically artificially aging the alloy under different stress conditions to determine the relationship between the size and morphology g' precipitates on the creep and thermomechanical fatigue response.

  13. High temperature oxidation behavior of aluminide on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahamsyah H.Latief; Koji Kakehi; El-Sayed M.Sherif

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on oxidation behavior of coated Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations has been carried out at 1100 1C. It has been found that the {100} surface shows a better oxidation resistance than the {110} one, which is attributed that the {110}surface had a slightly higher oxidation rate when compared to the {100} surface. The experimental results also indicated that the anisotropic oxidation behavior took place even with a very small difference in the oxidation rates that was found between the two surfaces. The differences of the topologically close packed phase amount and its penetration depth between the two surfaces, including the ratio of α-Al2O3 after 500 h oxidation, were responsible for the oxidation anisotropy.

  14. Microstructure-sensitive Crystal Viscoelasticity for Ni-base Superalloys Targeting Long-term Creep-Fatigue Interaction Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Richard W

    2016-09-30

    The aim of this project is to develop a microstructure-sensitive crystal viscoplasticity (CVP) model for single-crystal Ni-base superalloys to model the behavior of the material and components in the hot gas path sections of industrial gas turbines (IGT). Microstructure degradation associated with aging critical to predicting long-term creep-fatigue interactions will be embedded into the model through the γ' precipitate morphology evolution by coupling the coarsening drivers and kinetics into the constitutive equations of the CVP model. Model parameters will be determined using new experimental protocols that involve systematically artificially aging the alloy under different stress conditions to determine the relationship between the size and morphology g' precipitates on the creep and thermomechanical fatigue response.

  15. Statistical Study of the Effects of the Composition on the Oxidation Resistance of Ni-Based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jun Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of alloying elements (Co, Cr, Mo, W, Al, Ti, and Ta on the oxidation resistance of Ni-based superalloys are studied using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM. The statistical analysis showed that Al and Ta generally improve the oxidation resistance of the alloy, whereas Ti and Mo degrade the oxidation resistance. Co, Cr, and W did not alter oxidation rate significantly when examined by the mass gain averaged for all model alloys. However, it is remarkable that the degree of the effects of alloying elements varied with the concentration of other elements. Further, the effect of each element was sometimes found to be reversed for alloy groups specified by the concentration of another element.

  16. In situ TEM investigation on the precipitation behavior of μ phase in Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shuang; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Li, Cai-Fu; Zhou, Yizhou; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of μ phase in Ni-base single crystal superalloys was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A layer-by-layer growth process with a ledge propagation mechanism was first observed during in situ precipitation. Three types of μ phase with different morphologies were found, which grow along [001] μ with (001) μ planar defects, [-111] μ with (1–12) μ planar defects, as well as both directions with mixed planar defects. High-resolution TEM image and established atomic models reveal a basic growth mechanism of μ phase by stacking on (001) μ plane and randomly forming coherent planar defects, while the nucleation of incoherent (1–12) μ planar defects at the early stage of precipitation plays an important role in affecting the basic growth mechanism. The frequent faults during the stacking process of the sub-unit layers within μ lattice should be responsible for the defect formation. -- Graphical abstract: In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal the layer-by-layer growth mechanism of μ phase precipitated in Ni-base single crystal superalloys. Three types of μ phase with different morphologies were formed at 1050 °C, which grows along [001] μ with (001) μ planar defects, [-111] μ with (1–12) μ planar defects, as well as both directions with mixed planar defects respectively. Formation of (001) μ micro-twin and stacking fault is the essential feature for precipitated μ phase, while nucleation of incoherent (1–12) μ planar defects plays an important role in changing growth method. Display Omitted

  17. Microstructural stability and mechanical properties of a boron modified Ni–Fe based superalloy for steam boiler applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changshuai, E-mail: cswang@imr.ac.cn; Guo, YongAn; Guo, Jianting; Zhou, Lanzhang, E-mail: lzz@imr.ac.cn

    2015-07-15

    Ni–Fe based superalloys are being considered as boiler materials in 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal fired power plants due to their excellent oxidation and hot corrosion resistance, outstanding workability and low cost. In this paper, the microstructural stability and mechanical properties of a boron (B) modified Ni–Fe based superalloy designed for 700 °C A-USC during thermal exposure at 650–750 °C for up to 5000 h were investigated. The results show that adding boron has no apparent influence on the major precipitates, including spherical γ′ and blocky MC. However, the amount of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} decreases markedly after standard heat treatment. During long-term thermal exposure, the addition of boron has no influence on γ′ coarsening, η phase precipitation and primary MC degeneration, but decreases the growth rate of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} along grain boundary. The stress rupture life and ductility are obviously improved after the addition of B. Meanwhile, the yield strength of B-doped alloy almost keeps the same level as that without boron addition. The fracture surface characterization exhibits that the dimples increase significantly after adding boron. During long-term thermal exposure, the elongation of the alloy with B addition increases slightly, but, for the alloy without B addition, the elongation obviously increases. The improvement of the stress rupture life and ductility can be attributed to the increase of grain boundary strength and the optimization of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide distribution at grain boundary.

  18. Microstructural stability and mechanical properties of a boron modified Ni–Fe based superalloy for steam boiler applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changshuai; Guo, YongAn; Guo, Jianting; Zhou, Lanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Ni–Fe based superalloys are being considered as boiler materials in 700 °C advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal fired power plants due to their excellent oxidation and hot corrosion resistance, outstanding workability and low cost. In this paper, the microstructural stability and mechanical properties of a boron (B) modified Ni–Fe based superalloy designed for 700 °C A-USC during thermal exposure at 650–750 °C for up to 5000 h were investigated. The results show that adding boron has no apparent influence on the major precipitates, including spherical γ′ and blocky MC. However, the amount of M 23 C 6 decreases markedly after standard heat treatment. During long-term thermal exposure, the addition of boron has no influence on γ′ coarsening, η phase precipitation and primary MC degeneration, but decreases the growth rate of M 23 C 6 along grain boundary. The stress rupture life and ductility are obviously improved after the addition of B. Meanwhile, the yield strength of B-doped alloy almost keeps the same level as that without boron addition. The fracture surface characterization exhibits that the dimples increase significantly after adding boron. During long-term thermal exposure, the elongation of the alloy with B addition increases slightly, but, for the alloy without B addition, the elongation obviously increases. The improvement of the stress rupture life and ductility can be attributed to the increase of grain boundary strength and the optimization of M 23 C 6 carbide distribution at grain boundary

  19. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content

  20. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman

    2015-09-01

    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  1. Deformation mechanisms at intermediate creep temperatures in the Ni-base superalloy Rene 88 DT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, G.B.; Sarosi, Peter M.; Whitis, Deborah H.; Mills, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Creep deformation substructures in superalloy Rene 88 DT have been investigated at two applied stress levels after small-strain (0.5%) creep at 650 deg. C using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Clear differences in creep strength and substructures have been observed as a function of applied stress. It has been established that at intermediate temperatures microtwinning caused by the passage of Shockley partial dislocations on successive {1 1 1} planes is the dominant deformation process at low applied stress. At higher applied stress the mechanism changes to planar shearing of the matrix by 1/2 unit dislocations and Orowan looping of the precipitates. Detailed experimental evidences for these operating processes are shown and possible explanation is provided

  2. The metallurgy of superalloys part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelazim, M.E.; Hammad, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    This is part I of the report titled 'the metallurgy of superalloys'. In this part the structure, phases and systems of superalloys are reviewed. The role of alloying elements in the design of superalloys and the mechanical properties of superalloys are also reviewed. Superalloys are important in high temperature technology, especially above 700 degree c. They are 'super' mainly because their creep and stress rupture resistances are very high. Superalloys are based on an austenitic matrix including secondary phases, mainly gamma precipitates, inter and intragranular carbides mainly M 23 C 6 and M 6 C. They are classified into three systems, Ni-base, Fe-Ni base and Ce-base alloys. Different alloying elements mainly Cr, Mo, Al, Ti are added to increase the strength either by solid solution hardening (Cr, Mo, Al), precipitation hardening (A 1, Ti to produce gamma) or by dispersion hardening (Cr, Mo to form M 23 C 6 and M 6 C carbides) and to increase the oxidation resistance (Cr, Al). 3 tab., 2 fig

  3. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: ningke521@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s{sup −1}. The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s{sup −1}) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s{sup −1}), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s{sup −1} and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T{sub opi}: 1140 °C, ε{sub opi}: 1.0 s{sup −1}) with

  4. Hot deformation behavior and hot working characteristic of Nickel-base electron beam weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Yongquan; Yao, Zekun; Guo, Hongzhen; Fu, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Hot deformation behavior of electron beam (EB) Nickel-base weldments was investigated. • The constitutive equation represented by temperature, strain rate and true strain was developed. • Processing map approach was adopted to optimize the hot forging process of EB weldments. • True strain has a great effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). -- Abstract: The electron beam welding (EBW) of Nickel-base superalloys was conducted, and the cylindrical compression specimens were machined from the central part of the electron beam (EB) weldments. The hot deformation behavior of EB weldments was investigated at the temperature of 960–1140 °C and the strain rate of 0.001–1.0 s −1 . The apparent activation energy of deformation was calculated to be 400 kJ/mol, and the constitutive equation that describes the flow stress as a function of strain rate and deformation temperature was proposed for modeling of the hot deformation process of EB weldments. The processing map approach was adopted to investigate the deformation mechanisms during the hot plastic deformation and to optimize the processing parameters of EB weldments. It is found that the true strain has a significant effect on the efficiency of power dissipation (η). The η value in the safe processing domain (1140 °C, 1.0 s −1 ) increases from 0.32 to 0.55. In the unsafe processing domain (1080 °C, 0.001 s −1 ), however, the η value greatly decreases with the increase of strain. When the strain is 0.40, the efficiency of power dissipation becomes negative. The flow instability is predicted to occur since the instability parameter ξ(ε) becomes negative. The hot deformation of EB weldments can be carried out safely in the domain with the strain rate range of 0.1–1.0 s −1 and the temperature range of 960–1140 °C. When the height reduction is about 50%, the optimum processing condition is (T opi : 1140 °C, ε opi : 1.0 s −1 ) with the peak efficiency of 0

  5. Precipitate microstructure evolution in exposed IN738LC superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, Pavel, E-mail: strunz@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Petrenec, Martin [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Gasser, Urs [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Tobiáš, Jiří; Polák, Jaroslav [Institute of Physics of Materials of the AS CR, Brno (Czech Republic); Šaroun, Jan [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Evolution of γ′-phase morphology in IN738LC Ni-base superalloy was examined by SANS. • In situ tests at high temperatures revealed trimodal precipitate distribution. • Formation, dissolution and (slow) kinetics of small γ′ precipitates was determined. • Equilibrium volume fraction of γ′ phase is significantly higher than 45%. • The small γ′ precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. -- Abstract: Nickel base superalloy IN738LC has been studied after low-cycle fatigue by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Samples subjected to high-temperature low-cycle fatigue were annealed at various temperatures to change the size and the distribution of precipitates. Ex and in situ SANS and TEM studies were performed. It was found that additional precipitates are formed either during slow cooling from high temperatures or after reheating above 570 °C. Their size and distribution were evaluated. The precipitates arise regardless the application of the mechanical load. Nevertheless, these small precipitates influence low-cycle fatigue resistance. From the SANS data, it can be also deduced that the equilibrium volume fraction of γ′-precipitates at temperatures from room temperature to 825 °C is significantly higher than 45%. The kinetics of formation of small and medium-size γ′ precipitates at 700 and 800 °C was determined as well.

  6. Deformation-phase transformation coupling mechanism of white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jin [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250353 (China); Liu, Zhanqiang, E-mail: melius@sdu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China); Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Shandong University, Ministry of Education, Shandong (China); Lv, Shaoyu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Ni-based superalloy represents a significant metal portion of the aircraft critical structural and engine components. When these critical structural components in aerospace industry are manufactured with the objective to reach high reliability levels and excellent service performance, surface integrity is one of the most relevant parameter used for evaluating the quality of finish machined surfaces. In the study of surface integrity, the formation white layer is a very important research topic. The formation of white layer on the Ni-based superalloy machined surface will reduce the machined parts service performance and fatigue life. This paper was conducted to determine the effects of cutting speed on white layer formation in high speed machining of FGH95 Ni-based superalloy. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to analyze the elements and microstructures of white layer and bulk materials. The statistical analysis for grain numbers was executed to study the influence of cutting speed on the grain refinement in the machined surface. The investigation results showed that white layer exhibits significantly different microstructures with the bulk materials. It shows densification, no obvious structural features characteristic. The microstructure and phase of Ni-based solid solution changed during cutting process. The increase of cutting speed causes the increase of white layer thickness when the cutting speed is less than 2000 m/min. However, white layer thickness reduces with the cutting speed further increase. The higher the cutting speed, the more serious grains refinement in machined surface. 2-D FEM for machining FGH95 were carried out to simulate the cutting process and obtained the cutting temperature field, cutting strain field and strain rate field. The impact mechanisms of cutting temperature, cutting strain and strain rates on white layer formation were analyzed. At last, deformation-phase transformation

  7. Time-temperature influence on the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr-Nb superalloys in contact with Na sub 2 SO sub 4 -V sub 2 O sub 5 molten mixtures. Influencia del tiempo y de la temperatura en la resistencia a la corrosion de superaleaciones Ni-Cr-Nb en presencia de mezclas Na sub 2 SO sub 4 - V sub 2 O sub 5 fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, E.; Pardo, A.; Hernaez, J.; Hierro, P. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) Dept. Ciencias de Materiales)

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion rate data obtained by the polarization resistance method in nickel-base superalloys in contact with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} molten mixtures are presented. The instrumental technique is also described. Time-temperature influence on the corrosion kinetics in the described conditions is discussed (Author)

  8. Compositional variations for small-scale gamma prime (γ′) precipitates formed at different cooling rates in an advanced Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.Q.; Francis, E.; Robson, J.; Preuss, M.; Haigh, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Size-dependent compositional variations under different cooling regimes have been investigated for ordered L1 2 -structured gamma prime (γ′) precipitates in the commercial powder metallurgy Ni-based superalloy RR1000. Using scanning transmission electron microscope imaging combined with absorption-corrected energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we have discovered large differences in the Al, Ti and Co compositions for γ′ precipitates in the size range 10–300 nm. Our experimental results, coupled with complementary thermodynamic calculations, demonstrate the importance of kinetic factors on precipitate composition in Ni-based superalloys. In particular, these results provide new evidence for the role of elemental diffusion kinetics and aluminium antisite atoms on the low-temperature growth kinetics of fine-scale γ′ precipitates. Our findings have important implications for understanding the microstructure and precipitation behaviour of Ni-based superalloys, suggesting a transition in the mechanism of vacancy-mediated diffusion of Al from intrasublattice exchange at high temperatures to intersublattice antisite-assisted exchange at low temperatures

  9. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  10. The effects of Ta on the stress rupture properties and microstructural stability of a novel Ni-base superalloy for land-based high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Lee, Tung L.; Gorley, Michael J.; Wang, Yue; Xiao, Chengbo; Li, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An equiaxed superalloy has high rupture life equivalent to single crystal alloy DD3. • Low Cr and high W superalloys possess good microstructrual stability at 850–1100 °C. • Tantalum promotes, strengthens and stabilizes the eutectic γ′ and MC carbides. • Excessive Ta leads to form harmful abnormal primary α and plate-like M 6 C phases. • Proper Ta can improve the stress rupture life at intermediate and high temperatures. - Abstract: A novel polycrystalline Ni-base superalloy was developed for land-based high temperature applications, such as isothermal forging dies and industrial gas turbines. The alloy possessed surprisingly high stress rupture life of 52 h at 1100 °C/118 MPa which is comparable to the first generation single crystal (SC) superalloy and exhibited good microstructural stability. The effects of Ta addition on the phase change, stress rupture properties and microstructural stability of the alloy were investigated. The results indicated that Ta is a γ′-former and promotes the formation of eutectic γ′. The alloys with ∼7 vol.% eutectic γ′ possess higher stress rupture life at 1100 °C/118 MPa than the alloys with higher ∼20 vol.% eutectic. However, ∼20 vol.% excessive eutectic phases will enhance the stress rupture life at intermediate temperature of 760 °C for 686 MPa but weaken high temperature stress rupture properties. The (Al + Ta) content over 14.4 at.% led to the formation of large amounts of eutectic γ′ and exceeded the solubility of W and Mo in the residue liquid pool, which then promoted the precipitation of primary α-(W,Mo) and M 6 C phases. Tantalum was also found as a strong MC carbides forming element. The order of ability to form monocarbide decreased from NbC to TaC to TiC. 6Al–0Ta (wt.%) alloys possessed good microstructural stability with no harmful topologically close-packed (TCP) phases being observed after thermal exposure at 850 °C/3000 h, 900 °C/1000 h. Only trace amounts of

  11. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  12. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  13. Anisotropic constitutive equations for the viscoplastic behaviour of the single crystal superalloy CMSX-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, G.; Schubert, F.

    1997-09-01

    Nickel-base superalloy blades of the first rotor stage in a gas turbine have to withstand extremely severe thermomechanical loading conditions. Single crystal blades exhibit a highly anisotropic deformation behaviour and are subjected to triaxial stress fields induced by complex cooling systems. Consequently the prediction of their deformation behaviour requires constitutive equations based on multiaxial formulations. The microstructural evolution of γ/γ' superalloys during the service time modifies the material properties and has therefore to be taken into account in the constitutive equations. For the modelling of the anisotropic, viscoplastic behaviour of single crystal blades taking into account the evolution of the microstructure, a microstructure-dependent, orthotropic Hills potential, whose anisotropy coefficients are connected to the edge length of the γ'-particles, is applied. The prediction was validated by investigating the deformation behaviour of the superalloy CMSX-4 in the range of temperatures [750 C-950 C]. If the shape of γ'-particles remain cubic, for example, in creep testing at low temperatures (up to about 850 C), the microstructure-dependent potential leads to the cubic version of the Hills potential. The prediction is in good agreement with creep results for left angle 001 right angle - and left angle 111 right angle - orientated specimens but overestimates the creep resistance of left angle 011 right angle - orientated specimens. (orig.)

  14. Mechanical characterization of superalloys for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the choice of materials usable between 600 and 900 0 C for nuclear space reactor structures. The main criterion of selection for these materials is their good creep behaviour. Consequently, macroscopic theories of creep and several extrapolation methods were described. Superalloys seem the best materials for the studied range of temperatures. Five of them, base nickel, ones unusual in nuclear industry were selected for their good mechanical properties. Three of them are industrial alloys: the first, HAYNES 230 is a recent one, HASTELLOY S and X are more standard materials. The last two, HASTELLOY XR and PYRAD 38 D are issued from special fabrications. Creep tests metallographic investigations, hardness and tensile tests were performed. A contraction of samples was observed during some creep tests under a low stress, 20MPa at 800 0 C, for HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY X. This could be due to a structural evolution of these materials connected to a decrease of the cristalline parameter. In addition, correlations were observed between certain characteristics determined from slow tensile tests and short duration creep tests. These correlations present a large interest because, at the present time, creep tests cannot be executed on irradiated materials in our laboratories. Consequently creep behaviour of irradiated materials seem may be deduced. Further studies are needed to explain and confirm the behaviour of the most interesting materials under low stresses: HAYNES 230 and HASTELLOY XR to anticipate their behaviour in working conditions [fr

  15. Implementation of a structural dependent model for the superalloy IN738LC in ABAQUS-code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.; Betten, J.; Penkalla, H.J.

    1994-05-01

    Superalloys, mainly consisting of nickel, are used for applications in aerospace as well as in stationary gas turbines. In the temperature range above 800 C the blades, which are manufactured of these superalloys, are subjected to high centrifugal forces and thermal induced loads. For computer based analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the blades models for the stress-strain behaviour are necessary. These models have to give a reliable description of the stress-strain behaviour, with emphasis on inelastic affects. The implementation of the model in finite element codes requires a numerical treatment of the constitutive equations with respect to the given interface of the used code. In this paper constitutive equations for the superalloy IN738LC are presented and the implementation in the finite element code ABAQUS with the numerical preparation of the model is described. In order to validate the model calculations were performed for simple uniaxial loading conditions as well as for a complete cross section of a turbine blade under combined thermal and mechanical loading. The achieved results were compared with those of additional calculations by using ABAQUS, including Norton's law, which was already implemented in this code. (orig.) [de

  16. Nickel-based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha A.

    2015-11-02

    The demand for energy storage technologies is rapidly increasing in portable electronics, transportation, and renewable energy systems. Thus, the objective of this research is to develop and enhance the performance of Ni-based electrochemical supercapacitors by optimizing synthesis conditions and design of the electrode materials. Conventional and on-chip supercapacitors were developed with notable performance enhancement. For conventional supercapacitors, a uniform and conformal coating process was developed to deposit Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon microfibers in-situ by a simple chemical bath deposition at room temperature. The microfibers conformally-coated with Ni(OH)2 make direct physical contacts with essentially every single nanoflakes, leading to more efficient electron transport. Using this strategy, we have achieved devices that exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 on the carbon microfibers (1416 F/g vs. 275 F/g). For on-chip storage applications, microfabricated supercapacitors were developed using a combination of top-down photolithography and bottom-up CBD. The resulting Ni(OH)2 micro-supercapacitors show high-rate redox activity up to 500 V/s and an areal cell capacitance of 16 mF/cm2 corresponding to a volumetric stack capacitance of 325 F/cm3. This volumetric capacitance is 2-fold higher than carbon and metal oxide based micro-supercapacitors. Furthermore, these micro-supercapacitors show a maximum energy density of 21 mWh/cm3, which is superior to the Li-based thin film batteries. To enhance cycling stability, Ni-Cu-OH and Ni-Co-OH ternary electrodes have been prepared with different Ni:Cu and Ni:Co ratios by CBD at room temperature on carbon microfibers. It is observed that the electrodes with Ni:Cu and Ni:Co composition ratio of 100:10 results in an optimum capacitance and cycling stability. For the optimum composition, Ni-Co-OH with

  17. Intermediate temperature embrittlement of one new Ni-26W-6Cr based superalloy for molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Li [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Xiangxi [University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, Chuanyong [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Huang, Hefei; Leng, Bin [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Zhijun, E-mail: lizhijun@sinap.ac.cn [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, Xingtai [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Ni-26W-6Cr based superalloy is considered a potential structure material for the molten salt reactors due to its high strength and good compatibility with the fluoride salt. In the present work, the temperature dependence of the tensile behavior of the alloy was studied by tensile tests in the temperature range of 25–850 °C. This alloy exhibited a good ductility at RT and 450 °C, a ductility minimum from 650 to 750 °C and an intermediate ductility at 850 °C. TEM and EBSD characterization was performed on specimens tested at three typical temperature points (RT, 650 °C and 850 °C) to determine the deformation and fracture mechanisms accounting for the intermediate temperature embrittlement. At RT, the grain boundaries can accommodate enough dislocations to provide compatibility of the sliding between adjacent grains, then M{sub 6}C carbides act as crack origins and cause the fracture. In case of 650 °C, the grain boundaries cannot withstand the local stress even if only a small number of dislocation pile-ups exist. The premature cracks at grain boundaries impede the development of plastic deformation from single slips to multiple ones and cause the low ductility. If tested at 850 °C, the fracture process is retarded by the dynamic recovery and local dynamic recrystallization at crack tips.

  18. 3D digital image correlation investigation of PLC effect in a new Ni-Co base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Fu, S. H.; Cheng, T.; Huo, X.; Zhang, Q. C.

    2013-06-01

    Repeated plastic instability accompanying serrated yielding in stress-strain curves and localization of deformation is observed during plastic deformation of many metallic alloys when tensile specimens are deformed under certain experimental conditions of temperature, strain rate, and pre-deformation. This phenomenon is referred to as the Portevin- Le Chatelier (PLC) effect. TMW alloy, a newly developed Ni-Co base superalloy for aircraft engine application, also exhibit PLC effect during tensile test at temperatures ranging from 300 ° to 600 °, which are also the temperature range for engine working. In this paper, a 3D digital image correlation (3D DIC) measurement system was established to observe the localization of deformation (PLC band) in a tensile test performed on TMW alloy specimen at temperature of 400 °. The 3D DIC system, with displacement measurement accuracy up to 0.01 pixels and strain measurement accuracy up to 100 μɛ, has a high performance in displacement field calculation with more than 10000 points every second on a 3.1G Hz CPU computer. The test result shows that, the PLC bands are inclined at an angle of about 60° to the tensile axis. Unlike tensile test performed on aluminums alloy, the widths of PLC bands of TMW alloy specimen, ranging from 4 mm to 4.5 mm, are much greater than the specimen thickness (0.25 mm).

  19. Improvement of creep-rupture properties by serrated grain boundaries in high-tungsten cobalt-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Manabu

    1993-01-01

    The improvement of creep-rupture properties by serrated grain boundaries was investigated using cobalt-base superalloys containing about 14 to 20 wt.% tungsten at 1089 and 1311 K. Serrated grain boundaries improved both the rupture life and the ductility, especially under lower stresses at 1089 K. The increase in rupture life was larger in the alloys containing a larger amount of W. Ductile grain boundary fracture surfaces, which involved dimple patterns and grain boundary ledges, were observed in the specimens with serrated grain boundaries whereas brittle grain boundary facets were observed in the specimens with normal straight grain boundaries ruptured at 1089 K. The strengthening by serrated grain boundaries was also effective at 1311 K, but there was little difference in rupture life between the specimens with serrated grain boundaries and those with straight grain boundaries under lower stresses, since serrated grain boundaries developed also in the specimens with straight grain boundaries according to grain boundary precipitates forming during creep at 1311 K. The increase in W content of the alloys led to the increase in rupture life of the specimens with serrated grain boundaries at 1089 and 1311 K. (orig.) [de

  20. Creep deformation-induced antiphase boundaries in L12-containing single-crystal cobalt-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggeler, Yolita M.; Titus, Michael S.; Suzuki, Akane; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Creep-induced antiphase boundaries (APBs) in new Co-base single-crystal superalloys with coherent embedded L1 2 -γ′ precipitates have been observed. APBs formed during single-crystal tensile creep tests performed at 900 °C under vacuum at stresses between 275 and 310 MPa. The alloys investigated contained 30–39 at.% Ni, which was added to the Co–Al–W ternary system to expand the γ–γ′ phase field and increase the γ′-solvus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using two-beam conditions with fundamental and superlattice reflections was performed for defect characterization. The Burgers vector b of dislocations associated with the APBs was determined to be of type b = a 0 /2[011] and a 0 /2[011 ¯ ]. The displacement vectors, R, of the APBs matched the dislocation Burgers vectors, with R = b = a 0 /2[011]. APBs were observed in nearly every precipitate beyond 0.5% creep strain for the compositions investigated. The implications for high-temperature properties are discussed

  1. Partitioning and nanostructural evolution in model Ni-based superalloys containing W, Re, and Ru studied on a subnanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isheim, D.; Seidman, D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Modern Ni-based sueralloys, for example, Rene N6, rely on a complex microstructure and microchemistry to achieve their superior mechanical and physical properties with up to 10 or more alloying additions. Refractory metal additions are known to improve the high-temperature creep-resistance and the influence and interactions with various alloying additions have drawn much attention. We study partitioning behavior of the alloying elements, growth and coarsening kinetics of γ' (L1 2 structure) precipitates in a series of model superalloys containing W, Re, and Ru in the earlier stages of the transformation with precipitates several tens of nanometers in diameter. The three-dimensional elemental spatial distribution with respect to γ' (L1 2 structure) precipitates, their heterophase interfaces, and their temporal evolution with high-temperature aging are characterized by 3D atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy with subnanometer resolution. The overall microstructure is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which helps in the spanning of length scales. The experimental characterization provides important input parameters for modeling of partitioning and nanostructural evolution by ThermoCalc and PrecipiCalc and thus allows for a critical test of the predictive capabilities of these models. (author)

  2. Noburnium: Systems design of niobium superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Abhijeet

    2005-11-01

    A systems-based approach, integrating quantum mechanical calculations with efficient experimentation, was employed to design niobium-based superalloys. The microstructural concept of gamma-gamma' nickel-based superalloys was adopted, where, the coherent gamma ' aluminides act both as the strengthening phase and a source of aluminum for Al2O3 passivation. Building on previous research, the selected bcc-type ordered aluminide was L2 1 structured Pd2HfAl phase. Comprehensive phase relations were measured on Nb-Pd-Hf-Al prototype alloys, and key tie-tetrahedra were identified. Aluminide precipitation in a bcc matrix was demonstrated in designed Nb+Pd2HfAl alloys. Thermodynamic databases were developed by integrating first-principles calculations with measured phase relations. Atomic volume models were developed for the bcc matrix and the Pd2HfAl phase and matrix elements which would reduce lattice misfit were identified. An experimental 2-phase alloy demonstrated a misfit of 3%. A modified Wagner's model was used to predict the required transient properties to form external Al2O3. The principal oxidation design goal was to decrease the oxygen permeability ( NSOx DO ) divided by the aluminum diffusivity (DAl) by 5 orders of magnitude. A multicomponent mobility database was developed to predict the diffusivities. Guided by first-principles calculations the effect of alloying elements on the oxygen diffusivity in Nb was measured, and the mobility database was experimentally validated. Based on the mobility database, it was found that increasing Al solubility in the bcc matrix greatly increased Al diffusivity. Alloying elements were identified that would increase Al solubility in the bcc matrix. Prototype alloys were prepared and the best oxidation performance was exhibited by a bcc+Nb2Al Nb-Hf-Al alloy, which exhibited parabolic oxidation behavior at 1300°C. The alloy was shown to have achieved the required 5 orders of magnitude reduction in the design parameter. The

  3. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  4. Electroless nickel-plating for the PWSCC mitigation of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Il Soon

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility study has been performed as an effort to apply the electroless nickel-plating method for a proposed countermeasure to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of nickel-base alloys in nuclear power plants. In order to understand the corrosion behavior of nickel-plating at high temperature water, the electrochemical properties of electroless nickel-plated alloy 600 specimens exposed to simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water were experimentally characterized in high temperature and high pressure water condition. And, the resistance to the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) test was investigated to check the durability of plated layers in high-velocity water-flowing environment at high temperature. The plated surfaces were examined by using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after exposures to the condition. From this study, it is found that the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-plated Alloy 600 is higher than that of electrolytic plating in 290 deg. C water

  5. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  6. A sulfidation-resistant nickel-base alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, G.Y.

    1989-01-01

    For applications in mildly to moderately sulfidizing environments, stainless steels, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys (e.g., alloys 800 and 330), and more recently Fe-Ni-Cr-Co alloys (e.g., alloy 556) are frequently used for construction of process equipment. However, for many highly sulfidizing environments, few existing commercial alloys have adequate performance. Thus, a new nickel-based alloy containing 27 wt.% Co, 28 wt.% Cr, 4 wt.% Fe, 2.75 wt.% Si, 0.5 wt.% Mn and 0.05 wt.% C (Haynes alloy HR-160) was developed

  7. Galvanic corrosion resistance of welded dissimilar nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Snyder, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A program for evaluating the corrosion resistance of various dissimilar welded nickel-base alloy combinations is outlined. Alloy combinations included ALLCORR, Hastelloy C-276, Inconel 72 and Inconel 690. The GTAW welding process involved both high and minimum heat in-put conditions. Samples were evaluated in the as-welded condition, as well as after having been aged at various condtions of time and temperature. These were judged to be most representative of process upset conditions which might be expected. Corrosion testing evaluated resistance to an oxidizing acid and a severe service environment in which the alloy combinations might be used. Mechanical properties are also discussed

  8. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  9. High temperature corrosion of nickel-base alloys in environments containing alkali sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Rachel; Flyg, Jesper; Caddeo, Sophie [Corrosion and Metals Research Institute, KIMAB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Fredrik [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspong (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    This work is directed towards producing data to assist in lifetime assessment of components in gas turbines run in severely polluted industrial environments where the main corrosive species is SO{sub 2}, which can condense to form alkali sulphates. Corrosion rates have been measured for the base materials, in order to assess the worst-case scenario, in which cracks or other damage has occurred to the protective coating. The information is expected to be of value to manufacturers, owners and inspectors of gas turbines. Six nickel-base superalloys were subject to thermal cycles of 160 hours duration, and 0.8mg/cm{sup 2} of 20 mol % Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 80mol% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was applied before each cycle. The test temperatures were 850 deg C and 900 deg C, with maximum test durations of 24 cycles and 12 cycles respectively. The metal loss was assessed by metallography of cross sections and the sulphidation attack was found to be very uneven. Mass change data indicated that the corrosion process was largely linear in character, and probability plots and estimations of the propagation rate of corrosion based on the linear growth assumption were produced. The performance of the alloys increased with increasing chromium content. The single crystal materials CMSX4 and MD2 showed such high corrosion rates that their use in severely contaminated industrial environments is considered inadvisable. The best performance was shown by Inconel 939 and Inconel 6203, so that even if cracks occur in the protective coating, a reasonable remaining lifetime can be expected for these materials. Sulphide formation occurred at the reaction front in all cases and mixed sulphides such as Ta-Ni or Ti-Nb sulphides were often present. The work has news value since very little long-term data is currently available for materials performance in severely sulphidising environments. The project goals in terms of exposures and metrology have been fully realised. Contributions have been made to the

  10. Fatigue Resistance of the Grain Size Transition Zone in a Dual Microstructure Superalloy Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Kantzos, P. T.; Telesman, J.; Gayda, J.; Sudbrack, C. K.; Palsa, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical property requirements vary with location in nickel-based superalloy disks. To maximize the associated mechanical properties, heat treatment methods have been developed for producing tailored microstructures. In this study, a specialized heat treatment method was applied to produce varying grain microstructures from the bore to the rim portions of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-based superalloy disk. The bore of the contoured disk consisted of fine grains to maximize strength and fatigue resistance at lower temperatures. The rim microstructure of the disk consisted of coarse grains for maximum resistance to creep and dwell crack growth at high temperatures up to 704 C. However, the fatigue resistance of the grain size transition zone was unclear, and needed to be evaluated. This zone was located as a band in the disk web between the bore and rim. Specimens were extracted parallel and transverse to the transition zone, and multiple fatigue tests were performed at 427 and 704 C. Mean fatigue lives were lower at 427 C than for 704 C. Specimen failures often initiated at relatively large grains, which failed on crystallographic facets. Grain size distributions were characterized in the specimens, and related to the grains initiating failures as well as location within the transition zone. Fatigue life decreased with increasing maximum grain size. Correspondingly, mean fatigue resistance of the transition zone was slightly higher than that of the rim, but lower than that of the bore. The scatter in limited tests of replicates was comparable for all transition zone locations examined.

  11. Ni/boride interfaces and environmental embrittlement in Ni-based superalloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Suchismita; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Hanlon, Timothy; Hall, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces through first-principles calculations. ► Fracture strengths of Ni/boride interfaces are higher than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► Ni/boride interfaces have higher resistance to O-embrittlement than Ni/Ni 3 Al and NiΣ5 grain boundaries. ► CrMo-borides are more effective than Cr-borides in resisting O-embrittlement. ► Electronegativity differences between alloying elements correlate with fracture strengths. - Abstract: Motivated by the vital role played by boride precipitates in Ni-based superalloys in improving mechanical properties such as creep rupture strength, fatigue crack growth rates and improved resistance towards environmental embrittlement , we estimate fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces through determination of their work of separation using first-principles simulations. We find that the fracture strength of Ni/boride interfaces is higher than that of other commonly occurring interfaces in Ni-alloys, such as Ni Σ-5 grain boundaries and coherent Ni/Ni 3 Al interfaces, and is less susceptible to oxygen-induced embrittlement. Our calculations show how the presence of Mo in Ni/M 5 B 3 (M = Cr, Mo) interfaces leads to additional reduction in oxygen-induced embrittlement. Through Electron-Localization-Function based analyses, we identify the electronic origins of effects of alloying elements on fracture strengths of these interfaces and observe that chemical interactions stemming from electronegativity differences between different atomic species are responsible for the trends in calculated strengths. Our findings should be useful towards designing Ni-based alloys with higher interfacial strengths and reduced oxygen-induced embrittlement.

  12. Elastic Properties of Novel Co- and CoNi-Based Superalloys Determined through Bayesian Inference and Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlet, Brent R.; Mills, Leah; Bales, Ben; Charpagne, Marie-Agathe; Murray, Sean P.; Lenthe, William C.; Petzold, Linda; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2018-06-01

    Bayesian inference is employed to precisely evaluate single crystal elastic properties of novel γ -γ ' Co- and CoNi-based superalloys from simple and non-destructive resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements. Nine alloys from three Co-, CoNi-, and Ni-based alloy classes were evaluated in the fully aged condition, with one alloy per class also evaluated in the solution heat-treated condition. Comparisons are made between the elastic properties of the three alloy classes and among the alloys of a single class, with the following trends observed. A monotonic rise in the c_{44} (shear) elastic constant by a total of 12 pct is observed between the three alloy classes as Co is substituted for Ni. Elastic anisotropy ( A) is also increased, with a large majority of the nearly 13 pct increase occurring after Co becomes the dominant constituent. Together the five CoNi alloys, with Co:Ni ratios from 1:1 to 1.5:1, exhibited remarkably similar properties with an average A 1.8 pct greater than the Ni-based alloy CMSX-4. Custom code demonstrating a substantial advance over previously reported methods for RUS inversion is also reported here for the first time. CmdStan-RUS is built upon the open-source probabilistic programing language of Stan and formulates the inverse problem using Bayesian methods. Bayesian posterior distributions are efficiently computed with Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC), while initial parameterization is randomly generated from weakly informative prior distributions. Remarkably robust convergence behavior is demonstrated across multiple independent HMC chains in spite of initial parameterization often very far from actual parameter values. Experimental procedures are substantially simplified by allowing any arbitrary misorientation between the specimen and crystal axes, as elastic properties and misorientation are estimated simultaneously.

  13. Oxidation behavior of HVOF sprayed Ni-5Al coatings deposited on Ni- and Fe-based superalloys under cyclic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, R.A.; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ni-5Al coating was obtained on three superalloy substrates viz. Superni 76, Superni 750 and Superfer 800 using high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process. Oxidation studies were carried out on both bare and coated superalloy substrates in air at 900 deg. C for 100 cycles. The weight change was measured at the end of each cycle and observed that the weight gain was high in Superni 750 alloy when compared to Superni 76 and Superfer 800. A nearly parabolic oxidation behavior was observed for Ni-5Al coated Superni 750 and Superfer 800 alloys but a Ni-5Al coated Superni 76 substrate showed a slight deviation. The scale was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The coating increased the oxidation resistance for all the alloy substrates at 900 deg. C. Among the three-coated superalloys, Superfer 800 substrate has shown the best resistance to oxidation. The protective nature of the Ni-5Al coated superalloys was due to the formation of protective oxide scales such as NiO, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3

  14. Identification of the partitioning characteristics of refractory elements in σ and γ phases of Ni-based single crystal superalloys based on first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Mao, Shengcheng [Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, Jianxin, E-mail: jianxin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The impurity formation energies of the σ and γ phases of Ni-based single crystal superalloys doped with W, Cr and Co in different sublattices have been investigated using first-principles based on the density functional theory. The bonding characteristics of the doped σ phase were analyzed with the valence charge densities and the density of the states. The results of the calculations indicated that the typical refractory element W, which has a large atomic size, preferentially partitions into the σ phase due to the nature of the bonding and the unique crystal structure with close-packed planes and large interstitial spaces. In addition, the site preference of refractory elements in γ phase was in the order of W, Cr and Co. - Highlights: • A reasonable σ phase model was adopted in our calculation. • The site preference of refractory elements in σ and γ phases was investigated. • The bonding characteristic was analyzed on the basis of electronic microstructures.

  15. Machine learning assisted first-principles calculation of multicomponent solid solutions: estimation of interface energy in Ni-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Mahesh; Lee, S. C.; Shim, Jae-Hyeok

    2018-02-01

    A disordered configuration of atoms in a multicomponent solid solution presents a computational challenge for first-principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The challenge is in identifying the few probable (low energy) configurations from a large configurational space before DFT calculation can be performed. The search for these probable configurations is possible if the configurational energy E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) can be calculated accurately and rapidly (with a negligibly small computational cost). In this paper, we demonstrate such a possibility by constructing a machine learning (ML) model for E({\\boldsymbol{σ }}) trained with DFT-calculated energies. The feature vector for the ML model is formed by concatenating histograms of pair and triplet (only equilateral triangle) correlation functions, {g}(2)(r) and {g}(3)(r,r,r), respectively. These functions are a quantitative ‘fingerprint’ of the spatial arrangement of atoms, familiar in the field of amorphous materials and liquids. The ML model is used to generate an accurate distribution P(E({\\boldsymbol{σ }})) by rapidly spanning a large number of configurations. The P(E) contains full configurational information of the solid solution and can be selectively sampled to choose a few configurations for targeted DFT calculations. This new framework is employed to estimate (100) interface energy ({σ }{{IE}}) between γ and γ \\prime at 700 °C in Alloy 617, a Ni-based superalloy, with composition reduced to five components. The estimated {σ }{{IE}} ≈ 25.95 mJ m-2 is in good agreement with the value inferred by the precipitation model fit to experimental data. The proposed new ML-based ab initio framework can be applied to calculate the parameters and properties of alloys with any number of components, thus widening the reach of first-principles calculation to realistic compositions of industrially relevant materials and alloys.

  16. Effects of alloying element and temperature on the stacking fault energies of dilute Ni-base superalloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, S L; Zacherl, C L; Fang, H Z; Wang, Y; Du, Y; Liu, Z K

    2012-12-19

    A systematic study of stacking fault energy (γ(SF)) resulting from induced alias shear deformation has been performed by means of first-principles calculations for dilute Ni-base superalloys (Ni(23)X and Ni(71)X) for various alloying elements (X) as a function of temperature. Twenty-six alloying elements are considered, i.e., Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Ir, Mn, Mo, Nb, Os, Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sc, Si, Ta, Tc, Ti, V, W, Y, Zn, and Zr. The temperature dependence of γ(SF) is computed using the proposed quasistatic approach based on a predicted γ(SF)-volume-temperature relationship. Besides γ(SF), equilibrium volume and the normalized stacking fault energy (Γ(SF) = γ(SF)/Gb, with G the shear modulus and b the Burgers vector) are also studied as a function of temperature for the 26 alloying elements. The following conclusions are obtained: all alloying elements X studied herein decrease the γ(SF) of fcc Ni, approximately the further the alloying element X is from Ni on the periodic table, the larger the decrease of γ(SF) for the dilute Ni-X alloy, and roughly the γ(SF) of Ni-X decreases with increasing equilibrium volume. In addition, the values of γ(SF) for all Ni-X systems decrease with increasing temperature (except for Ni-Cr at higher Cr content), and the largest decrease is observed for pure Ni. Similar to the case of the shear modulus, the variation of γ(SF) for Ni-X systems due to various alloying elements is traceable from the distribution of (magnetization) charge density: the spherical distribution of charge density around a Ni atom, especially a smaller sphere, results in a lower value of γ(SF) due to the facility of redistribution of charges. Computed stacking fault energies and the related properties are in favorable accord with available experimental and theoretical data.

  17. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2017-07-01

    Serpentine soils have elevated concentrations of trace metals including nickel, cobalt, and chromium compared to non-serpentine soils. Identifying the nickel bearing minerals allows for prediction of potential mobility of nickel. Synchrotron-based techniques can identify the solid-phase chemical forms of nickel with minimal sample treatment. Element concentrations are known to vary among soil particle sizes in serpentine soils. Sonication is a useful method to physically disperse sand, silt and clay particles in soils. Synchrotron-based techniques and sonication were employed to identify nickel species in discrete particle size fractions in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils to better understand solid-phase nickel geochemistry. Nickel commonly resided in primary serpentine parent material such as layered-phyllosilicate and chain-inosilicate minerals and was associated with iron oxides. In the clay fractions, nickel was associated with iron oxides and primary serpentine minerals, such as lizardite. Linear combination fitting (LCF) was used to characterize nickel species. Total metal concentration did not correlate with nickel speciation and is not an indicator of the major nickel species in the soil. Differences in soil texture were related to different nickel speciation for several particle size fractionated samples. A discussion on LCF illustrates the importance of choosing standards based not only on statistical methods such as Target Transformation but also on sample mineralogy and particle size. Results from the F-test (Hamilton test), which is an underutilized tool in the literature for LCF in soils, highlight its usefulness to determine the appropriate number of standards to for LCF. EXAFS shell fitting illustrates that destructive interference commonly found for light and heavy elements in layered double hydroxides and in phyllosilicates also can occur in inosilicate minerals, causing similar structural features and leading to false positive results in

  18. NASA/ORNL/AFRL Project Work on EBM LSHR: Additive Manufacturing of High-Temperature Gamma-Prime Strengthened Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Kirka, Michael M.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Carter, Robert W.; Semiatin, Sheldon L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Powder-bed fabrication of aerospace alloys may revolutionize production by eliminating the need for extensive machining and expensive tooling. Heated-bed electron-beam melting (EBM) offers advantages over non-heated laser additive manufacturing (AM) methods, including lower residual stress, reduced risk of contamination, slower cooling rates, and faster build times. NASA Glenn Research Center has joint project work with Oak Ridge National Lab and the Air Force Research Laboratory to explore the feasibility of fabricating advanced Ni-based gamma-prime superalloys with EBM AM.

  19. Looking for New Polycrystalline MC-Reinforced Cobalt-Based Superalloys Candidate to Applications at 1200°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Berthod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For applications for which temperatures higher than 1150°C can be encountered the currently best superalloys, the γ/γ′ single crystals, cannot be used under stress because of the disappearance of their reinforcing γ′ precipitates at such temperatures which are higher than their solvus. Cobalt-based alloys strengthened by refractory and highly stable carbides may represent an alternative solution. In this work the interest was focused on MC carbides of several types. Alloys were elaborated with atomically equivalent quantities in M element (among Ti, Ta, Nb, Hf, or Zr and in C. Script-like eutectic TiC, TaC, NbC, HfC, and ZrC carbides were successfully obtained in the interdendritic spaces. Unfortunately, only one type, HfC, demonstrated high morphological stability during about 50 hours at 1200°C. The concerned alloy, of the Co-25Cr-0.5C-7.4Hf type (in wt.%, was further characterized in flexural creep resistance and air-oxidation resistance at the same temperature. The creep behaviour was very good, notably by comparison with a more classical Co-25Cr-0.5C-7.5Ta alloy, proving that the interest of HfC is higher than the TaC one. In contrast the oxidation by air was faster and its behaviour not really chromia-forming. Significant improvements of this chemical resistance are expected before taking benefit from the mechanical superiority of this alloy.

  20. Stress corrosion cracking of nickel base alloys characterization and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, studies have been carried out in several laboratories to characterize the IGSCC (Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking) behaviour of nickel base alloys in aqueous environments. For their relative shortness, CERTs (Constant Extension Rate Tests) have been extensively used, especially at the Corrosion Department of the CEA. However, up to recently, the results obtained with this method remained qualitative. This paper presents a first approach to a quantitative interpretation of CERT results. The basic datum used is the crack trace depth distribution determined on a specimen section at the end of a CERT. It is shown that this information can be used for the calculation of initiation and growth parameters which quantitatively characterize IGSCC phenomenon. Moreover, the rationale proposed should lead to the determination of intrinsic cracking parameters, and so, to in-service behaviour prediction

  1. Evaluation of nickel-based materials for VHTR heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlet, H.; Gentzbittel, J.M.; Cabet, C.; Lamagnere, P.; Blat, M.; Renaud, D.; Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Pierron, D.

    2008-01-01

    Two available conventional nickel-based alloys (617 and 230) have been selected as structural materials for the advanced gas-cooled reactors, especially for the heat exchanger. An extensive research programme has been launched in France within the framework of the ANTARES programme to evaluate the performances of these materials in VHTR service environment. The experimental work is focused on mechanical properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance in the temperature range (700-1 000 deg C) over long time. Thus the experimental work includes creep and fatigue tests on as-received materials, short- and medium-term thermal exposure tests followed by tensile and impact toughness tests, short- and medium-term corrosion exposure tests under impure He environment. The status of the results obtained up to now is given in this paper. Additional tests such as long-term thermal ageing and long-term corrosion tests are required to conclude on the selection of the material. (author)

  2. Sea water Corrosion of Nickel based Plasma Spray Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, M.; Nanda, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Different types of erosion resistant coatings are applied/deposited on aero components, depending on the operating/working temperatures. Nickel based coating are applied on the air craft (compressor) components, which can sustain up to working temperature of 650°C. In the present investigation, to improve the compatibility between substrate (i.e. the machine component) and the top coat, application of bond coat is there. The application of Nickel based coating by thermal plasma spray technique has proven to be a satisfactory means of producing acceptable sealing surface with excellent abradability. Before the corrosion study, coated sample is subjected to hardness, thickness and porosity testing. Hence the result is being evaluated. The corrosion behavior of coating was studied by sea water immersion with a time period of 16 weeks. It is observed that, up to 9 weeks increase in weight of coating occurs in a sharp trend and then takes a decreasing trend. The weight gain of the samples has varied from 37.23% (with one week immersion in sea water) to a maximum of about 64.36% for six weeks immersion. Coating morphology and composition analysis of the coatings are studied using SEM and EDS. This behavior shows adsorption/deposition of the foreign particles with polygonal shape on the coating surface by sea water interaction. Foreign particles with polygonal shape deposited on the coating and with increase in immersion/treatment time, washing out of the deposited materials starts, which reflects the decreasing trend of weight gain of the specimen.

  3. On the thermal cyclic loading behaviour of a directional eutectic superalloy based on the Co-Cr-C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, U.W.; Nicoll, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various modifications of the eutectic, directionally solidified superalloy 73 C were investigated with respect to creep fatigue effects. This was carried out using a thermal cycling apparatus where a mechanical uniaxial load could be applied. A high volume fraction of carbides had an impairing effect on fatigue life. An improvement, however, could be obtained using low concentrations of refractory elements which form monocarbides. (orig.) [de

  4. Development of a Refractory High Entropy Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    hardened with HfC precipitates [2], Co-Re- or Co-Al-W-based alloys [3] or two-phase ( FCC + L12) refractory superalloys based on platinum group metals...Ni-based superalloys consisting of cuboids with the ordered L12 structure embedded in an FCC solid-solution matrix. Based on this microstructural...and 5). A comparison of the average atomic radii with the measured lattice parameters allows us to conclude that the disordered BCC phase forming

  5. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation. A unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Lin, Y.C.; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In authors' previous work (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi:10.1007/s00339-016-0371-6, 2016), the nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy was investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The characters of unloading curves were discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model was proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior of the studied Ni-based superalloy. Still, the functional relationships between the deformation temperature, strain rate, pre-strain and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model need to be established. In this study, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain on the parameters of the new constitutive model proposed in authors' previous work (Chen et al. 2016) are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate and pre-strain. (orig.)

  6. Effect of carbon additions on the as-cast microstructure and defect formation of a single crystal Ni-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarba, K.A.; Fuchs, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to reduce grain defects in large single crystal Ni-base superalloy components, carbon is intentionally added. In this study, the effect of carbon additions on the microstructure and solidification defect formation of a model Ni-based superalloy, LMSX-1, was examined. The results show that the tendency of the alloy to form all types of solidification defects decreased as the carbon content increased. The as-cast microstructures also exhibited a decrease in the amount of γ-γ' eutectic structure and an increase in the volume fraction of carbides and porosity, as the carbon content was increased. The carbides formed in these alloys were mostly of script-type MC carbides which formed continuous, dendritic networks in the interdendritic region. Microprobe analysis of the as-cast structures showed that the partitioning coefficients did not change with carbon additions. Therefore, the reduction in defect formation with increasing carbon content could not be attributed to changes in segregation behavior of alloying elements. Instead, the presence of these carbides in the interdendritic regions of the alloy appeared to have prevented the thermosolutal fluid flow

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Gamma(face-centered cubic) + Gamma Prime(L12) Precipitation-Strengthened Cobalt-based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Peter J.

    High-temperature structural alloys for aerospace and energy applications have long been dominated by Ni-based superalloys, whose high-temperature strength and creep resistance can be attributed to a two-phase microstructure consisting of a large volume fraction of ordered gamma'(L12)-precipitates embedded in a disordered gamma(f.c.c.)-matrix. These alloys exhibit excellent mechanical behavior and thermal stability, but after decades of incremental improvement, are nearing the theoretical limit of their operating temperatures. In 2006, an analogous gamma(f.c.c.) + gamma'(L12) microstructure was identified in the Co-Al-W ternary system with liquidus and solidus temperatures 50-150 °C higher than conventional Ni-based superalloys. The work herein focuses on assessing the effects of alloying additions on microstructure and mechanical behavior in an effort to lay the foundations for understanding this emerging alloy system. A variety of Co-based superalloys are investigated in order to study fundamental materials properties and to address key engineering challenges. Coarsening rate constants and temporal exponents are measured for gamma'(L1 2)-precipitates in a ternary Co-Al-W alloy aged at 650 °C and 750 °C. A series of Co-Al-W-B-Zr alloys are cast to study the influence of segregation of B and Zr to grain boundaries (GBs) on mechanical properties. Co-Ni-Al-W-Ti alloys with various amounts of Al, W, and Ti are cast in order to fabricate Co-based superalloys with decreased density and increased gamma'(L1 2)-solvus temperature. 2-D dislocation dynamics modeling is employed to predict how gamma'(L12)-precipitate size and volume fraction affect the mechanical properties of Ni- and Co-based superalloys. Compositional information such as phase concentrations, partitioning behavior, and GB segregation are measured with local electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography in alloys with fine microstructures and with scanning electron microscope (SEM) electron dispersive x

  8. A study on microstructures and extended defects in Ni- and Co-base superalloys. Development and application of advanced TEM techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Julian

    2016-04-21

    To improve the efficiency of stationary gas turbines and air craft jet engines, it is crucial to increase the maximum temperature capabilities of single crystalline superalloys by appropriate alloy design and microstructure tuning. The mechanical properties of superalloys are largely influenced by the physical constitution of the microstructure. To develop a better understanding of fundamental aspects of creep deformation, like the stress states, defect structures and other degradation processes, it is necessary to employ scale-bridging characterization. In the present work, Ni- and Co-based superalloys are investigated by a series of advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques and by the application of specifically developed characterization methods to identify dominating processes on atomic scale and hence to make a direct correlation to the macroscopic creep behavior. For instance, the misfit between γ and γ' in the initial microstructure is of great importance, since it strongly influences the rafting process and the interfacial dislocation network. To address the stress state, on the one hand misfit measurements in undeformed samples are conducted and are directly compared to finite-element simulations. On the other hand, deformed samples are investigated to assess the influence of an initial rafting process and the formation of an interface dislocation network. For this, characterization methods are used which are based on the evaluation of atomically resolved images and on electron diffraction. Moreover, the temperature dependency of the misfit and of the microstructure stability is specifically investigated for different Co-base alloys in in situ heating experiments. The characterization of defect structures in Ni-base superalloys after creep deformation builds the second pillar of this work. Specific cutting processes of superdislocations are studied to elucidate which atomic processes take place. A series of left angle 100 right angle and

  9. Microstructure and hot corrosion behavior of the Ni-based superalloy GH202 treated by laser shock processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jiangdong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Mechanical and Electrical Department, Nantong Shipping College, Nantong, Jiangsu 226010 (China); Zhang, Junsong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Hua, Yinqun, E-mail: huayq@ujs.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Chen, Ruifang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Li, Zhibao [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Ye, Yunxia [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of laser shock processing on microstructure, the residual stress, and hot corrosion behavior of the Ni-based superalloy GH202 were investigated. The microstructures of GH202 before and after laser shock processing (LSP) were characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). A large number of crystal defects (twins, dislocation arrays, and high dense tangles) were generated on the surface of GH202 treated with LSP. The cross-sectional compressive residual stress and micro-hardness of specimens treated by LSP were improved significantly. The corrosion kinetics of GH202 with or without LSP treatment at 800 °C and 900 °C were investigated. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the corrosion products mainly consist of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, CrS, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and Na{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. The surface and cross-section morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results confirmed that the crystal defects induced by LSP promotes the creation of diffusion paths for elements (Cr, Al, and Ti), allowing the formation of tiny homogeneous oxidation films in a very short time. Additionally, the spallation of oxidation film on the treated specimens was alleviated significantly. Overall, the hot corrosion resistance of Ni-based GH202 induced by LSP was improved in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaCl molten salt from 800 °C to 900 °C. - Highlights: • Microstructure changes of GH202 before and after LSP were observed by EBSD and TEM. • The hardness and residual compressive stress after LSP were significantly increased. • The increased diffusion paths for elements helped to form oxidation films quickly. • Hot corrosion resistance of GH202 after LSP was significantly improved.

  10. Nickel Oxide (NiO nanoparticles prepared by solid-state thermal decomposition of Nickel (II schiff base precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbar Dehno Khalaji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, plate-like NiO nanoparticles were prepared by one-pot solid-state thermal decomposition of nickel (II Schiff base complex as new precursor. First, the nickel (II Schiff base precursor was prepared by solid-state grinding using nickel (II nitrate hexahydrate, Ni(NO32∙6H2O, and the Schiff base ligand N,N′-bis-(salicylidene benzene-1,4-diamine for 30 min without using any solvent, catalyst, template or surfactant. It was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHN. The resultant solid was subsequently annealed in the electrical furnace at 450 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. Nanoparticles of NiO were produced and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD at 2θ degree 0-140°, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD and FT-IR results showed that the product is pure and has good crystallinity with cubic structure because no characteristic peaks of impurity were observed, while the SEM and TEM results showed that the obtained product is tiny, aggregated with plate-like shape, narrow size distribution with an average size between 10-40 nm. Results show that the solid state thermal decomposition method is simple, environmentally friendly, safe and suitable for preparation of NiO nanoparticles. This method can also be used to synthesize nanoparticles of other metal oxides.

  11. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  12. Initial Mechanical Testing of Superalloy Lattice Block Structures Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The first mechanical tests of superalloy lattice block structures produced promising results for this exciting new lightweight material system. The testing was performed in-house at NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Benchmark Test Facility, where small subelement-sized compression and beam specimens were loaded to observe elastic and plastic behavior, component strength levels, and fatigue resistance for hundreds of thousands of load cycles. Current lattice block construction produces a flat panel composed of thin ligaments arranged in a three-dimensional triangulated trusslike structure. Investment casting of lattice block panels has been developed and greatly expands opportunities for using this unique architecture in today's high-performance structures. In addition, advances made in NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program have extended the lattice block concept to superalloy materials. After a series of casting iterations, the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN 718, Inco Alloys International, Inc., Huntington, WV) was successfully cast into lattice block panels; this combination offers light weight combined with high strength, high stiffness, and elevated-temperature durability. For tests to evaluate casting quality and configuration merit, small structural compression and bend test specimens were machined from the 5- by 12- by 0.5-in. panels. Linear elastic finite element analyses were completed for several specimen layouts to predict material stresses and deflections under proposed test conditions. The structural specimens were then subjected to room-temperature static and cyclic loads in Glenn's Life Prediction Branch's material test machine. Surprisingly, the test results exceeded analytical predictions: plastic strains greater than 5 percent were obtained, and fatigue lives did not depreciate relative to the base material. These assets were due to the formation of plastic hinges and the redundancies inherent in lattice block construction

  13. Nickel-based anodic electrocatalysts for fuel cells and water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayi

    Our world is facing an energy crisis, so people are trying to harvest and utilize energy more efficiently. One of the promising ways to harvest energy is via solar water splitting to convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in hydrogen. Another of the options to utilize energy more efficiently is to use fuel cells as power sources instead of combustion engines. Catalysts are needed to reduce the energy barriers of the reactions happening at the electrode surfaces of the water-splitting cells and fuel cells. Nickel-based catalysts happen to be important nonprecious electrocatalysts for both of the anodic reactions in alkaline media. In alcohol fuel cells, nickel-based catalysts catalyze alcohol oxidation. In water splitting cells, they catalyze water oxidation, i.e., oxygen evolution. The two reactions occur in a similar potential range when catalyzed by nickel-based catalysts. Higher output current density, lower oxidation potential, and complete substrate oxidation are preferred for the anode in the applications. In this dissertation, the catalytic properties of nickel-based electrocatalysts in alkaline medium for fuel oxidation and oxygen evolution are explored. By changing the nickel precursor solubility, nickel complex nanoparticles with tunable sizes on electrode surfaces were synthesized. Higher methanol oxidation current density is achieved with smaller nickel complex nanoparticles. DNA aggregates were used as a polymer scaffold to load nickel ion centers and thus can oxidize methanol completely at a potential about 0.1 V lower than simple nickel electrodes, and the methanol oxidation pathway is changed. Nickel-based catalysts also have electrocatalytic activity towards a wide range of substrates. Experiments show that methanol, ethanol, glycerol and glucose can be deeply oxidized and carbon-carbon bonds can be broken during the oxidation. However, when comparing methanol oxidation reaction to oxygen evolution reaction catalyzed by current nickel-based

  14. Improvement of acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment by the addition of lanthanum cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hironori; Tanaka, Isao

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal phosphates are used as inorganic pigments, however these materials had a weak point for acid and base resistance. Because lanthanum phosphate is insoluble in acidic and basic solution, the addition of lanthanum cation was tried for the improvement of the acid and base resistance of nickel phosphate pigment. The lanthanum-doped nickel phosphates were prepared from phosphoric acid, nickel nitrate, and lanthanum nitrate solution. The additional effects of lanthanum cation were studied on the chemical composition, particle shape and size distribution, specific surface area, color, acid and base resistance of the precipitations and their thermal products

  15. Microstructural Architecture, Microstructures, and Mechanical Properties for a Nickel-Base Superalloy Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Martinez, E.; Gaytan, S. M.; Ramirez, D. A.; Machado, B. I.; Shindo, P. W.; Martinez, J. L.; Medina, F.; Wooten, J.; Ciscel, D.; Ackelid, U.; Wicker, R. B.

    2011-11-01

    Microstructures and a microstructural, columnar architecture as well as mechanical behavior of as-fabricated and processed INCONEL alloy 625 components produced by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) of prealloyed precursor powder are examined in this study. As-fabricated and hot-isostatically pressed ("hipped") [at 1393 K (1120 °C)] cylinders examined by optical metallography (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) exhibited an initial EBM-developed γ″ (bct) Ni3Nb precipitate platelet columnar architecture within columnar [200] textured γ (fcc) Ni-Cr grains aligned in the cylinder axis, parallel to the EBM build direction. Upon annealing at 1393 K (1120 °C) (hot-isostatic press (HIP)), these precipitate columns dissolve and the columnar, γ, grains recrystallized forming generally equiaxed grains (with coherent {111} annealing twins), containing NbCr2 laves precipitates. Microindentation hardnesses decreased from 2.7 to 2.2 GPa following hot-isostatic pressing ("hipping"), and the corresponding engineering (0.2 pct) offset yield stress decreased from 0.41 to 0.33 GPa, while the UTS increased from 0.75 to 0.77 GPa. However, the corresponding elongation increased from 44 to 69 pct for the hipped components.

  16. In situ observation of high temperature tensile deformation and low cycle fatigue response in a nickel-base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xudong, E-mail: lxdong0700@hotmail.com; Du, Jinhui; Deng, Qun

    2013-12-20

    High temperature tension and low cycle fatigue experiments of IN718 alloy have been performed in the electro-hydraulic servo system with scanning electron microscope at 455 °C. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation process are investigated in situ. Results show that the carbide and twin grain are the crack source of the low cycle fatigue of IN718 alloy, and the low cycle fatigue life of the alloy increases with the decrease in grain size.

  17. A coupled creep plasticity model for residual stress relaxation of a shot-peened nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Dennis J.; John, Reji; Brockman, Robert A.; Rosenberger, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a commonly used surface treatment process that imparts compressive residual stresses into the surface of metal components. Compressive residual stresses retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. During component loading history, shot-peened residual stresses may change due to thermal exposure, creep, and cyclic loading. In these instances, taking full credit for compressive residual stresses would result in a nonconservative life prediction. This article describes a methodical approach for characterizing and modeling residual stress relaxation under elevated temperature loading, near and above the monotonic yield strength of INI 00. The model incorporates the dominant creep deformation mechanism, coupling between the creep and plasticity models, and effects of prior plastic strain to simulate surface treatment deformation.

  18. A laser-treatment condition of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings on nickel-base superalloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yasuo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1987-06-01

    In order to seal the surface pores, two plasma-sprayed zirconia coatings (containing 8 wt.% CaC 2 and 8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) of about 200 microns thickness were partially melted with a CO 2 laser. Preliminary experiment had shown that the laser beam with a power density of 35 W/mm 2 could melt plasma-sprayed zirconia to depth of 50 to 80 microns at a scanning speed of about 300 mm/min. There was little porosity in the laser-treated region. However, straiations and mud-flat cracking of about 50 microns in depth were produced by the laser-treatment. Numerous fine particles of a few microns diameter were formed on the laser-treated surface, and microcracks were propagated between these fine particles. In the CaC 2 /ZrO 2 ceramic coating system, calcium content of the laser-treated region became less compared with that of the nontreated region. While, in the Y 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 system, yttrium distribution in the laser-treated area was more uniform than that in the nontreated area. This indicates that Y 2 O 3 /ZrO 2 system is more stable than CaC 2 /ZrO 2 system to laser treatment. (author)

  19. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yang; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-05-24

    Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  20. Investigations of early stage precipitation in a tungsten-rich nickel-base superalloy using SAXS and SANS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilles, R.; Mukherji, D.; Eckerlebe, H.; Karge, L.; Staron, P.; Strunz, Pavel; Lippmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 612, NOV (2014), s. 90-97 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : high temperature alloys * precipitation * synchrotron radiation * neutron scattering * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  1. Microstructure evolution and its influence on deformation mechanisms during high temperature creep of a nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Javad [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: javadsafari@yahoo.com; Nategh, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nategh@sharif.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interaction of dislocation with strengthening particles, including primary and secondary {gamma}', during different stages of creep of Rene-80 was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During creep of the alloy at 871 deg. C under stress of 290 MPa, the dislocation network was formed during the early stages of creep, and the dislocation glide and climb process were the predominant mechanism of deformation. The density of dislocation network became more populated during the later stages of the creep, and at the latest stage of the creep, primary particles shearing were observed alongside with the dislocation glide and climb. Shearing of {gamma}' particles in creep at 871 deg. C under stress of 475 MPa was commenced at the earlier creep times and governed the creep deformation mechanism. In two levels of examined stresses, as far as the creep deformation was controlled by glide and climb, creep curves were found to be at the second stage of creep and commence of the tertiary creep, with increasing creep rate, were found to be in coincidence with the particles shearing. Microstructure evolution, with regard to {gamma}' strengthening particles, led to particles growth and promoted activation of other deformation mechanisms such as dislocation bypassing by orowan loop formation. Dislocation-secondary {gamma}' particles interaction was detected to be the glide and climb at the early stages of creep, while at the later stages, the dislocation bypassed the secondary precipitation by means of orowan loops formation, as the secondary particle were grown and the mean inter-particle distance increased.

  2. Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions from Nickel Base Superalloys by Electromagnetic Levitation Melting in a Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjili, Mohsen Hajipour; Halali, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Samples of INCONEL 718 were levitated and melted in a slag by the application of an electromagnetic field. The effects of temperature, time, and slag composition on the inclusion content of the samples were studied thoroughly. Samples were compared with the original alloy to study the effect of the process on inclusions. Size, shape, and chemical composition of remaining non-metallic inclusions were investigated. The samples were prepared by Standard Guide for Preparing and Evaluating Specimens for Automatic Inclusion Assessment of Steel (ASTM E 768-99) method and the results were reported by means of the Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel (ASTM E 45-97). Results indicated that by increasing temperature and processing time, greater level of cleanliness could be achieved, and numbers and size of the remaining inclusions decreased significantly. It was also observed that increasing calcium fluoride content of the slag helped reduce inclusion content.

  3. An Investigation of the Hot Corrosion Protectivity Behavior of Platinum Modified Aluminide Coatings on Nickel-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    is unlimited. WCRT LAIISIPIcaiIo IP THIS P431 IEPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE* is REIPOT SECURilY CLASSIFICATION 1b RISTRtC7IVI MARKINGS la FURITY... grow until it forms a continuous surface layer. At this point, there is a parabolic decrease in the rate of oxidation and the surface stabilizes. If...surface as PtA1 2 and Pt 2 A13. Consequently, the platinum concentration gradient that develops is highest at the surface, but, rapidly diminishes as the

  4. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  5. Microstructural and mechanical approaches of the selective laser melting process applied to a nickel-base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaro, T.; Colin, C.; Bartout, J.D.; Nazé, L.; Sennour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the as-fabricated microstructure of the Nimonic 263 processed by selective laser melting. ► We optimized heat treatments to modify the microstructure and improve the mechanical properties. ► We tested through tensile tests the various microstructures in order to compare the effects of the heat treatments. - Abstract: This article aims at presenting the Nimonic 263 as-processed microstructure of the selective laser melting which is an innovative process. Because the melting pool is small and the scanning speed of the laser beam is relatively high, the as-processed microstructure is out-of-equilibrium and very typical to additive manufacturing processes. To match the industrial requirement, the microstructures are modified through heat treatments in order to either produce precipitation hardening or relieve the thermal stresses. Tensile tests at room temperature give rise to high mechanical properties close or above those presented by Wang et al. . However, it is noted a strong anisotropy as a function of the building direction of the samples because of the columnar grain growth.

  6. Modelling and simulation of superalloys. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogal, Jutta; Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Drautz, Ralf (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    Superalloys are multi-component materials with complex microstructures that offer unique properties for high-temperature applications. The complexity of the superalloy materials makes it particularly challenging to obtain fundamental insight into their behaviour from the atomic structure to turbine blades. Recent advances in modelling and simulation of superalloys contribute to a better understanding and prediction of materials properties and therefore offer guidance for the development of new alloys. This workshop will give an overview of recent progress in modelling and simulation of materials for superalloys, with a focus on single crystal Ni-base and Co-base alloys. Topics will include electronic structure methods, atomistic simulations, microstructure modelling and modelling of microstructural evolution, solidification and process simulation as well as the modelling of phase stability and thermodynamics.

  7. Microstructural study in a Fe–Ni-base superalloy during creep–rupture at intermediate temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jingbo [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xi’an Thermal Power Research Institute, Xingqing Road 136, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Gu, Yuefeng, E-mail: Gu.yuefeng@nims.go.jp [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Sun, Fei; Michinari, Yuyama [High Temperature Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Zhong, Zhihong [Departmant of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Yuan, Yong; Lu, Jintao [Xi’an Thermal Power Research Institute, Xingqing Road 136, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Creep–rupture behavior of a Fe–Ni-base alloy crept under various conditions has been studied using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that grain orientation did not change after the alloy crept at 700 °C/300 MPa and changed greatly crept at 700 °C/200 MPa. The recrystallization texture near rupture–fracture surface was observed after the alloy crept at 750 °C/150 MPa. A better creep performance was found in the samples with the occurrence of grain rotation dependence of the microstructure and the grain store energy.

  8. Aqueous electrochemistry of precipitation-hardened nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, K.; Ballinger, R.; Prybylowski, J.; Hwang, I.S.

    1990-11-01

    An investigation has been conducted to explore the importance of local crack tip electrochemical processes in precipitation-hardened Ni-Cr-Fe alloys driven by galvanic couples between grain boundary precipitates and the local matrix. The electrochemical behavior of γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] has been determined as a function of titanium concentration, temperature, and solution pH. The electrochemical behavior of Ni-Cr-Fe solid solution alloys has been investigated as a function of chromium content for a series of 10 Fe-variable Cr (6--18%)-balance Ni alloys, temperature, and pH. The investigation was conducted in neutral and pH3 solutions over the temperature range 25--300 degree C. The results of the investigation show that the electrochemical behavior of these systems is a strong function of temperature and composition. This is especially true for the γ' [Ni 3 (Al,Ti)] system where a transition from active/passive behavior to purely active behavior and back again occurs over a narrow temperature range near 100 degree C. Behavior of this system was also found to be a strong function of titanium concentration. In all cases, the Ni 3 (Al,Ti) phase was active with respect to the matrix. The peak in activity near 100 degree C correlates well with accelerated crack growth in this temperature range, observed in nickel-base alloy X-750 heat treated to precipitate γ' on the grain boundaries. 20 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Tungsten wire-nickel base alloy composite development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Moracz, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Further development and evaluation of refractory wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites is described. Emphasis was placed on evaluating thermal fatigue resistance as a function of matrix alloy composition, fabrication variables and reinforcement level and distribution. Tests for up to 1,000 cycles were performed and the best system identified in this current work was 50v/o W/NiCrAlY. Improved resistance to thermal fatigue damage would be anticipated for specimens fabricated via optimized processing schedules. Other properties investigated included 1,093 C (2,000 F) stress rupture strength, impact resistance and static air oxidation. A composite consisting of 30v/o W-Hf-C alloy fibers in a NiCrAlY alloy matrix was shown to have a 100-hour stress rupture strength at 1,093 C (2,000 F) of 365 MN/square meters (53 ksi) or a specific strength advantage of about 3:1 over typical D.S. eutectics.

  10. Precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys for sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, M.; Mukai, S.; Kudo, T.; Okada, Y.; Ikeda, A.

    1987-01-01

    SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) in sour gas environments of γ'(gamma prime: Ni/sub 3/(Ti and/or Al)) and γ''(gamma double prime: Ni/sub 3/Nb) precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys has been studied using the SSRT (Slow Strain Rate Tensile) test, anodic polarization measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The γ'-type alloy containing Ti was more susceptible to SCC in the SSRT tests up to 350 0 F(450 K) than the γ''-type alloy containing Nb. The susceptibility to SCC was related to their deformation structures in terms of stress localization and sensitivity to pitting corrosion in H/sub 2/S solutions. TEM observation showed the γ'-type alloy deformed by the superlattice dislocations in coplanar structures. This mode of deformation induced the stress localization to some boundaries such as grain boundary and as a result the susceptibility to SCC of the γ'-type alloy was increased. On the other hand, the γ''-type alloy deformed by the massive dislocation not in coplanar structures so that it was less susceptible to SCC in terms of the stress localization. The anodic polarization measurement suggested the γ'-type alloy was more susceptible to pitting corrosion compared with the γ''-type alloy

  11. Fabrication technology of CNT-Nickel Oxide based planar pseudocapacitor for MEMS and NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, E. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Gavrilin, I. M.; Gromov, D. G.; Gruzdev, N. E.; Gavrilov, S. A.; Dronov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication technology of planar pseudocapacitor (PsC) based on carbon nanotube (CNT) forest, synthesized using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, covered with thin nickel oxide layer deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, is demonstrated. Dependences of deposited oxide layers thickness on device specific capacities is studied. It is shown that pseudocapacity of nickel oxide thin layer increases specific capacity of the CNT's based device up to 2.5 times.

  12. Long-life fatigue test results for two nickel-base structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowbray, D.F.; Giaquinto, E.V.; Mehringer, F.J.

    1978-11-01

    The results are reported of fatigue tests on two nickel--base alloys, hot-cold-worked and stress-relieved nickel--chrome--iron Alloy 600 and mill-annealed nickel--chrome--moly--iron Alloy 625 in which S-N data were obtained in the life range of 10 6 to 10 10 cycles. The tests were conducted in air at 600 0 F, in the reversed membrane loading mode, at a frequency of approx. 1850 Hz. An electromagnetic, closed loop servo-controlled machine was built to perform the tests. A description of the machine is given

  13. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathal, M.V.; Ebert, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys

  14. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys.

  15. Effect of tensile dwell on high-temperature low-cycle fatigue and fracture behaviour of cast superalloy MAR-M247

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulák, Ivo; Obrtlík, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 185, NOV (2017), s. 92-100 ISSN 0013-7944. [ICMFM 2016 - International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals /18./. Gijón, 05.09.2016-07.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20991S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nickel-based superalloy * High-temperature low-cycle fatigue * Tensile dwell * Fatigue life * Damage mechanisms Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering , reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.151, year: 2016

  16. Microstructural characteristics of new type γ-γ` Co-9Al-9W cobalt-based superalloys in as-cast state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tomaszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented deals primary with the structure characteristics of a new type of cobalt-based superalloys Co-9Al-9W type, casted via induction melting process with partially dosing of Common problems described in literature are focused on difficulties in obtaining uniform distribution of tungsten, particularly in interdendritic areas. That was the reason for the modified casting process to be applied. The method of tungsten dosing into liquid melts of Co and Al allows to obtain microstructure characterized by considerably decreased microsegregation. The material obtained was analyzed by standard methods such as light and scanning microscopy with analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas. Additionally, the detailed analysis of the sub-grain level was made by S/TEM on thin foils collected from equiaxed grains zone of the ingot.

  17. An investigation of the effect of load ratio on near-threshold fatigue crack propagation in a Ni-Base superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schooling, J.M.; Reed, P.A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The near-threshold fatigue crack growth behavior of Waspaloy has been investigated to elucidate important parameters relevant to the development of a modelling program for fatigue behavior in Ni-base superalloys. At low values of load-ratio, R, threshold stress intensity values are found to be highly sensitive to R. This behavior is rationalized in terms of roughness induced crack closure. At high load ratios there is less sensitivity to R, and stage II behavior appears to persist to threshold. The threshold stress intensity at high R-ratios is lower than that for closure corrected Stage I (low load ratio) threshold behavior, indicating the existence of two intrinsic threshold values. This difference appears to be due not only to crack branching and deflection in Stage I, but also to be intrinsic difference in resistance to threshold behavior in the two growth modes. (author)

  18. Effect of transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding on the ductility of a Ni-base single crystal superalloy in a stress rupture test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.D.; Jin, T.; Zhao, N.R.; Wang, Z.H.; Sun, X.F.; Guan, H.R.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2008-01-01

    A Ni-base single crystal superalloy was transient liquid phase (TLP) bonded using a Ni-Cr-B amorphous foil at 1230 deg. C for 8 h. Stress rupture tests of the TLP joint and a matrix sample were carried out at 982 deg. C/248 MPa and 1010 deg. C/248 MPa. The microstructures and fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations were performed after creep rupture testing to examine the deformation substructures. The results show that the stress rupture ductility of TLP joints is significantly decreased compared to the matrix sample. This reduction of the ductility of TLP joints can be attributed to solid solution strengthening by boron atoms, subgrain boundaries formed in the bonding zone and the concentration of creep cavities formed during the last stage of the stress rupture test

  19. The ternary Ni—Al—Co embedded-atom-method potential for γ/γ' Ni-based single-crystal superalloys: Construction and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jun-Ping; Wang Chong-Yu; Yu Tao

    2014-01-01

    An Ni—Al—Co system embedded-atom-method potential is constructed for the γ(Ni)/γ'(Ni 3 Al) superalloy based on experiments and first-principles calculations. The stacking fault energies (SFEs) of the Ni(Co, Al) random solid solutions are calculated as a function of the concentrations of Co and Al. The calculated SFEs decrease with increasing concentrations of Co and Al, which is consistent with the experimental results. The embedding energy term in the present potential has an important influence on the SFEs of the random solid solutions. The cross-slip processes of a screw dislocation in homogenous Ni(Co) solid solutions are simulated using the present potential and the nudged elastic band method. The cross-slip activation energies increase with increasing Co concentration, which implies that the creep resistance of γ(Ni) may be improved by the addition of Co

  20. Changes in the properties of superalloys by long term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susukida, H.; Tsuji, I.; Kawai, H.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted in order to determine the effect of long term heating (max. 10000h at 850 0 and 950 0 C) on the microstructure, tensile properties, hardness and stress rupture properties of four kinds of superalloys. These superalloys are two kinds of solid solution hardened Ni-base superalloys Hastelloy X and Inconel 617 and two kinds of dispersion strengthened Ni-base superalloys TD-Ni and TD-NiCr. The result of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) Solid solution hardened superalloys: Many precipitates were observed in the grains and on the grain boundaries after 100 hours of heating, and the precipitates became coarse-grained by over 1000 hours of heating. This tendency was remarkable when they were heated at 950 0 C. With the change of their microstructure, their mechanical properties also changed, particularly their tensile ductility decreased remarkably. (2) Dispersion strengthened superalloys: Their microstructure and mechanical properties were almost unchanged by long term heating. (3) The authors proposed ''solid solution hardening value'' in order to grasp quantitatively the solid solution hardening which has been discussed by the content of each element hitherto. (auth.)

  1. Friction behavior of cobalt base and nickel base hardfacing materials in high temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Syotaro; Kano, Shigeki; Nakayama, Kohichi; Atsumo, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    A friction behavior of the hardfacing materials such as cobalt base alloy ''Stellite'' and nickel base alloy ''Colmonoy'' used in the sliding components of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor was investigated in various sodium environments. Also, friction tests on these materials were carried out in argon environment. And they were compared with those in sodium environment. The results obtained are as follows: (1) In argon, the cobalt base hardfacing alloy showed better friction behavior than the nickel base hardfacing alloy. In sodium, the latter was observed to have the better friction behavior being independent of the sodium temperature. (2) The friction coefficient of each material tends to become lower by pre-exposure in sodium. Particularly, this tendency was remarkable for the nickel base hardfacing alloy. (3) The friction coefficient between SUS 316 and one of these hardfacing materials was higher than that between latter materials. Also, some elements of hardfacing alloys were recognized to transfer on the friction surface of SUS 316 material. (4) It was observed that each tested material has a greater friction coefficient with a decrease of the oxygen content in sodium. (author)

  2. Solidification behaviors of a single-crystal superalloy under lateral constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuangqi Hu; Huaming Wang

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lateral constraints ahead of solidification interface on the solidification behaviors of a newly developed hot corrosion resistant single-crystal nickel-base superalloy was investigated under commercial single-crystal production conditions. The lateral constraints or section variations ahead of solidification front were found to have drastic influences both on the modes of solidification and the profiles of solute segregation. As lateral constraints were imposed ahead of the directionally solidifying interface, the solidification microstructure of the single-crystal superalloy changed suddenly, through a γ/γ' eutectic-free zone which is characterized by an extremely-fine and highly-developed dendrite network, from the original well-branched dendritic structure to a fine cellular-dendrite or regular cell structure, accompanying which the primary arm spacing, the severity of segregation and the amount of microporosity decreased remarkably. The newly formed cellular dendrite or cell structure transforms always gradually to the initial coarse dendrite structure as the lateral constraint is finally released whether gradually or sharply. Moreover, an abnormal porosity zone was readily observed in the initial section beneath and away from the eutectic-free zone. The solidification microstructural changes were attributed to the drastic dynamical changes in local solidification cooling conditions and in momentum transport during solidification due to the presence of lateral constraint

  3. Effect of HIP Combined with RHT Process on Creep Damage of DZ125 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tian-you

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four different processes of hot isostatic pressing (HIP combined with rejuvenation heat treatments (RHT were adopted to reveal the microstructural evolution of creep damaged DZ125 specimens, finally the mechanical properties were evaluated.The results show that both γ' precipitate degeneration and creep cavities for the creep damaged DZ125 superalloy are found after the pre-endurance damage test.However, the carbided compositions from MC type to M23C6 type or M6C type has not been observed for DZ125.In addition, it is found that the HIP temperature play a dominant role in the cavity healing process for the damaged specimens. The concentrically oriented γ' rafting structure and the incipient melting are observed at 1200℃ and 1250℃ respectively.Meanwhile, it is found that the appropriate HIP schedule adopted can effectively avoid the internal recrystallization for the directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy DZ125. The appropriate HIP schedule combined with RHT process can successfully restore the microstructure induced by creep damage and recover the degraded micro-hardness to the original one, in addition improve the creep rupture life.

  4. Regenerative heat treatments for the extension of the creep life of the superalloy IN-738

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.A.; Flewitt, P.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Uniaxial creep tests have been performed on the cast nickel-base superalloy IN-738 at 1023K and 1123K. Microstructural damage occurring during creep has been characterised using transmission electron microscopy of surface and extraction replicas. Considerable coarsening of the γ' precipitates occurs during creep causing a progressive loss of creep strength. Intermediate heat treatment of interrupted specimens regenerates a microstructure similar to the original, and on re-testing significant creep life extensions are observed. These heat treatments do not completely recover the creep life due to the development of grain boundary cavitation. Additional heat treatments were performed under a superimposed hydrostatic pressure of 138 MPa to remove these cavities. (orig.) [de

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the superalloy ATI Allvac 718Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zickler, Gerald A.; Schnitzer, Ronald; Radis, Rene; Hochfellner, Rainer; Schweins, Ralf; Stockinger, Martin; Leitner, Harald

    2009-01-01

    ATI Allvac 718Plus is a novel nickel-based superalloy, which was designed for heavy-duty applications in aerospace turbines. In the present study the high-resolution investigation techniques, atom probe tomography, electron microscopy and in situ high-temperature small-angle neutron scattering were used for a comprehensive microstructural characterization. The alloy contains nanometer-sized spherical γ' phase precipitates (Ni 3 (Al,Ti)) and plate-shaped δ phase precipitates (Ni 3 Nb) of micrometer size. The precipitation kinetics of the γ' phase can be described by a classical model for coarsening. The precipitation strongly influences the mechanical properties and is of high scientific and technological interest.

  6. Low Cost Heat Treatment Process for Production of Dual Microstructure Superalloy Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Tim; Kantzos, Pete; Furrer, David

    2003-01-01

    There are numerous incidents where operating conditions imposed on a component mandate different and distinct mechanical property requirements from location to location within the component. Examples include a crankshaft in an internal combustion engine, gears for an automotive transmission, and disks for a gas turbine engine. Gas turbine disks are often made from nickel-base superalloys, because these disks need to withstand the temperature and stresses involved in the gas turbine cycle. In the bore of the disk where the operating temperature is somewhat lower, the limiting material properties are often tensile and fatigue strength. In the rim of the disk, where the operating temperatures are higher than those of the bore, because of the proximity to the combustion gases, resistance to creep and crack growth are often the limiting properties.

  7. Thermal Analysis in the Technological “Step” Test of H282 Nickel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirowski Z.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Superalloys show a good combination of mechanical strength and resistance to surface degradation under the influence of chemically active environments at high temperature. They are characterized by very high heat and creep resistance. Their main application is in gas turbines, chemical industry, and in all those cases where resistance to creep and the aggressive corrosion environment is required. Modern jet engines could never come into use if not for progress in the development of superalloys. Superalloys are based on iron, nickel and cobalt. The most common and the most interesting group includes superalloys based on nickel. They carry loads at temperatures well in excess of the eighty percent of the melting point. This group includes the H282 alloy, whose nominal chemical composition is as follows (wt%: Ni - base, Fe - max. 1.5%, Al - 1.5% Ti - 2.1%, C - 0.06% Co - 10% Cr - 20% Mo - 8.5%. This study shows the results of thermal analysis of the H282 alloy performed on a cast step block with different wall thickness. Using the results of measurements, changes in the temperature of H282 alloy during its solidification were determined, and the relationship dT / dt = f (t was derived. The results of the measurements taken at different points in the cast step block allowed identifying a number of thermal characteristics of the investigated alloy and linking the size of the dendrites formed in a metal matrix (DAS with the thermal effect of solidification. It was found that the time of solidification prolonged from less than ome minute at 10 mm wall thickness to over seven minutes at the wall thickness of 44 mm doubled the value of DAS.

  8. Iron and silicon effect on the phase composition of nickel-beryllium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.M.; Zakharov, M.V.; Ajvaz'yan, N.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to specify phase composition and strengthening heat treatment conditions for nickel beryllium bronzes that are promising electrode materials for welding of high strength steels and nickel-base superalloys, the primary section of the quinternary Cu-Ni-Be-Fe-S system was studied at constant nickel and beryllium concentration and varying silicon and iron concentration (max. 4% of every element). The study was made using the metallographic and x-ray phase techniques, determination of alloy solidus temperature, and exessphase microhardness testing. Silicon additions are shown to decrease abruptly and those of iron, in contrast, somewhat to raise the solidus temperature of ternary Cu + 2% Ni + 0.3% Be alloy. When added concurrently, iron compensates for the damaging silicon effect on the solidus temperature of Cu-Ni-Be alloys. The excess phases formed can be used as strengthening agents of Cu-Ni-Be-Si-Fe alloys during quenching and subsequent aging

  9. Structural Performance of Inconel 625 Superalloy Brazed Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiang; Demers, Vincent; Cadotte, Eve-Line; Turner, Daniel; Bocher, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate tensile and fatigue behaviors of Inconel 625 superalloy brazed joints after transient liquid-phase bonding process. Brazing was performed in a vacuum furnace using a nickel-based filler metal in a form of paste to join wrought Inconel 625 plates. Mechanical tests were carried out on single-lap joints under various lap distance-to-thickness ratios. The fatigue crack initiation and crack growth modes were examined via metallographic analysis, and the effect of local stress on fatigue life was assessed by finite element simulations. The fatigue results show that fatigue strength and endurance limit increase with overlap distance, leading to a relatively large scatter of results. Fatigue cracks nucleated in the high-stressed region of the weld fillets from brittle eutectic phases or from internal brazing cavities. The present work proposes to rationalize the results by using the local stress at the brazing fillet. When using this local stress, all fatigue-obtained results find themselves on a single S- N curve, providing a design curve for any joint configuration in fatigue solicitation.

  10. The precipitation behavior of superalloy ATI Allvac 718Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickler, Gerald A.; Schnitzer, Ronald; Leitner, Harald [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Christian Doppler Laboratory Early Stages of Precipitation, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria); Radis, Rene [Christian Doppler Laboratory Early Stages of Precipitation, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Institute for Materials Science and Welding, Graz University of Technology (Austria); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Christian Doppler Laboratory Early Stages of Precipitation, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Stockinger, Martin [Boehler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co. KG., Kapfenberg (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    ATI Allvac 718Plus is a novel nickel-based superalloy, which was designed for heavy-duty applications in aerospace gas turbines. The precipitation kinetics of the intermetallic {delta} (Ni{sub 3}Nb) and {gamma}' (Ni{sub 3}(Al,Ti)) phases in this alloy are of scientific as well as technological interest because of their significant influence on the mechanical properties. Important parameters like grain size are controlled by coarse {delta} precipitates located at grain boundaries, whereas small {gamma}' precipitates are responsible for strengthening by precipitation hardening. In the present study, the microstructure is investigated by three-dimensional atom probe tomography and simulated by computer modeling using the thermo-kinetic software MatCalc. The results of numerical simulations and experimental data are compared and critically discussed. It is shown that the chemical compositions of the phases change during isothermal aging, and the precipitation kinetics of {delta} and {gamma}' phases interact with each other as shown in a time temperature precipitation (TTP) plot. The TTP plot shows C-shaped curves with characteristic discontinuities in the temperature range, where simultaneous and concurrent precipitation of the {delta} and {gamma}' phases occurs. This leads to a competition in the diffusion of Nb and Al, which are partly present in both phases. Thus, the present study gives important information on heat treatments for ATI Allvac 718Plus in order to achieve the desired microstructure and mechanical properties. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Segregation to grain boundaries in nimonic PE16 superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleship, D.J.; Wild, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Nimonic PE16 alloy is a nickel-based superalloy containing 34 wt.% iron and 16wt.% chromium with additions of molybdenum, titanium and aluminium. It is used in the fuel assembly of the UK advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR). This component supports significant loads in service and its mechanical integrity is therefore of paramount importance. Mechanical properties may be influenced by the grain size and grain boundary composition, both of which can themselves alter during service. Scanning Auger microscopy is a well-established method for investigating grain boundaries, and has now been applied to the study of PE16. In order to expose PE16 grain boundary surfaces it is necessary to hydrogen charge samples and fracture by pulling in tension at a slow strain rate within the ultra-high vacuum chamber of the Auger microprobe. A series of casts of nimonic PE16 alloy that have received a range of thermal ageing treatments have been fractured in an intergranular manner and the grain boundary composition determined. Segregation of trace and minority elements, particularly Mo and P, has been detected at grain boundaries. Significant variations between different as-manufactured casts were observed, whilst ageing brought about the growth of chromium-rich particles on the grain boundaries. Ductile fracture in PE16 followed a path through Ti(C, N) particles. Many of these particles incorporated large amounts of sulphur. (author)

  12. Hot corrosion studies on nickel-based alloys containing silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.W.; Simkovich, G.

    1976-01-01

    Alloys of Ni--Cr, Ni--Si and Ni--Cr--Si were oxidized and ''hot corroded'' in pure oxygen at 1000 0 C. In the oxidation experiments it was found that small amounts of either chromium or silicon in nickel increased the oxidation rates in comparison to pure nickel in accord with Wagner's parabolic oxidation theory. At high concentrations of the alloying elements the oxidation rates decreased due to the formation of oxide phases other than nickel oxide in the scale. Hot corrosion experiments were conducted on both binary and ternary alloys by oxidizing samples coated with 1.0 mg/cm 2 of Na 2 SO 4 in oxygen at 1000 0 C. In general it was found that high chromium and high silicon alloys displayed excellent resistance to the hot corrosion process gaining or losing less than 0.5 mg/cm 2 in 1800 min at temperature. Microprobe and x-ray diffraction studies of the alloy and the scale indicate that amorphous SiO 2 probably formed to aid in retarding both the oxidation and the hot corrosion process

  13. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  14. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  15. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  16. Respiratory cancer risks associated with low-level nickel exposure: an integrated assessment based on animal, epidemiological, and mechanistic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilkop, Steven K; Oller, Adriana R

    2003-04-01

    Increased lung and nasal cancer risks have been reported in several cohorts of nickel refinery workers, but in more than 90% of the nickel-exposed workers that have been studied there is little, if any evidence of excess risk. This investigation utilizes human exposure measurements, animal data from cancer bioassays of three nickel compounds, and a mechanistic theory of nickel carcinogenesis to reconcile the disparities in lung cancer risk among nickel-exposed workers. Animal data and mechanistic theory suggest that the apparent absence of risk in workers with low nickel exposures is due to threshold-like responses in lung tumor incidence (oxidic nickel), tumor promotion (soluble nickel), and genetic damage (sulfidic nickel). When animal-based lung cancer dose-response functions for these compounds are extrapolated to humans, taking into account interspecies differences in deposition and clearance, differences in particle size distributions, and human work activity patterns, the predicted risks at occupational exposures are remarkably similar to those observed in nickel-exposed workers. This provides support for using the animal-based dose-response functions to estimate occupational exposure limits, which are found to be comparable to those in current use.

  17. Mechanical and Microstructure Study of Nickel-Based ODS Alloys Processed by Mechano-Chemical Bonding and Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Belachew N.

    Due to the need to increase the efficiency of modern power plants, land-based gas turbines are designed to operate at high temperature creating harsh environments for structural materials. The elevated turbine inlet temperature directly affects the materials at the hottest sections, which includes combustion chamber, blades, and vanes. Therefore, the hottest sections should satisfy a number of material requirements such as high creep strength, ductility at low temperature, high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. Such requirements are nowadays satisfied by implementing superalloys coated by high temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems to protect from high operating temperature required to obtain an increased efficiency. Oxide dispersive strengthened (ODS) alloys are being considered due to their high temperature creep strength, good oxidation and corrosion resistance for high temperature applications in advanced power plants. These alloys operating at high temperature are subjected to different loading systems such as thermal, mechanical, and thermo-mechanical combined loads at operation. Thus, it is critical to study the high temperature mechanical and microstructure properties of such alloys for their structural integrity. The primary objective of this research work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructure properties of nickel-based ODS alloys produced by combined mechano-chemical bonding (MCB) and ball milling subjected to high temperature oxidation, which are expected to be applied for high temperature turbine coating with micro-channel cooling system. Stiffness response and microstructure evaluation of such alloy systems was studied along with their oxidation mechanism and structural integrity through thermal cyclic exposure. Another objective is to analyze the heat transfer of ODS alloy coatings with micro-channel cooling system using finite element analysis (FEA) to determine their feasibility as a stand-alone structural

  18. Design criteria for rhenium-reduced nickel-based single-crystal alloys. Identification and computer-assisted conversion; Designkriterien fuer rheniumreduzierte Nickelbasis-Einkristalllegierungen. Identifikation und rechnergestuetzte Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehler, Thomas

    2016-06-17

    In the present work, design criteria and property models for the creep strength optimization of rhenium-free nickel based single crystal Superalloys are investigated. The study focuses on a typical load condition of 1050 C and 150 MPa, which is representative for flight engine applications. Thereby the key aspect is to link chemical composition, manufacturing processes, microstructure formation and mechanistic understanding of dislocation creep through a computational materials engineering approach. Beside the positive effect of rhenium on solid solution hardening, a second mechanism in which rhenium increases high temperature creep strength is identified. It indirectly stabilizes precipitation hardening by reducing the coarsening kinetics of γ'-rafting. Five 1st and 2nd generation technical Superalloys show a comparable microstructure evolution for up to 2 % plastic elongation, while creep times differ by a factor of five. The application of a microstructure sensitive creep model shows that these coarsening processes can activate γ-cutting and thus lead to an increasing creep rate. Based on these calculations a threshold value of φ{sub γ/γ'} > 2,5 at 150 MPa is estimated. This ratio of matrix channel to raft thickness has been proofed for multiple positions by microstructure analysis of interrupted creep tests. The mechanism described previously can be decelerated by the enrichment of the γ-matrix with slow diffusing elements. The same principle also increases the solid solution strength of the γ-matrix. Therefore, the present work delivers an additional mechanistic explanation why creep properties of single phase nickel based alloys can be transferred to two phase technical Superalloys with rafted γ'-structure. Following, the best way to substitute both rhenium fundamental properties, namely a slow diffusion coefficient and a small solubility in g', has been investigated by means of CALPHAD-modeling. Only molybdenum and especially

  19. Effect of Low Angle Grain Boundaries on Mechanical Properties of DD5 Single Crystal Ni-base Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Jianchao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of low angle grain boundaries on the mechanical properties of second generation single crystal superalloy DD5 were investigated and the test specimens were prepared by using seeds. The results show that at 870 ℃, the yield strength and breaking strength showed no difference when the angle is below 16.1°. The elongation is higher than 15% when the angle is below 11.4°, but the elongation decreases quickly when angle is above 11.4°. At 980 ℃/250 MPa, the rupture life is higher than 130 h when the angle is below 5.1°, and decreased slowly when the angle is above 5.1°. The rupture life still remaines 85% when the angle is 14.8°. But the rupture life decreases quickly when the angle is above 14.8°.At 1093 ℃/158 MPa, the rupture life is higher than 30 h when the angle is below 5.1°, and decreases when the angle is above 5.1°.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy of a CMSX-4 Ni-Base Superalloy Produced by Selective Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza B. Parsa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the microstructures of superalloy specimens produced using selective electron beam melting additive manufacturing were characterized. The materials were produced using a CMSX-4 powder. Two selective electron beam melting processing strategies, which result in higher and lower effective cooling rates, are described. Orientation imaging microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and conventional high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to investigate the microstructures. Our results suggest that selective electron beam melting processing results in near equilibrium microstructures, as far as γ′ volume fractions, the formation of small amounts of TCP phases and the partitioning behavior of the alloy elements are concerned. As expected, higher cooling rates result in smaller dendrite spacings, which are two orders of magnitude smaller than observed during conventional single crystal casting. During processing, columnar grains grow in <100> directions, which are rotated with respect to each other. There are coarse γ/γ′ microstructures in high angle boundary regions. Dislocation networks form low angle boundaries. A striking feature of the as processed selective electron beam melting specimens is their high dislocation density. From a fundamental point of view, this opens new possibilities for the investigation of elementary dislocation processes which accompany solidification.

  1. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  2. Influence of sub-solvus solution heat treatment on γ′ morphological instability in a new Ni–Cr–Co-based powder metallurgy superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.P.; Liu, G.Q.; Wu, K.; Hu, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A special γ′ morphological instability in a new Ni–Cr–Co-based P/M superalloy was studied. • Three heat treatments were applied to the alloy and microstructures were observed. • Microstructure of the alloy was homogenized by sub-solvus solution heat treatment. • Sub-solvus solution heat treatment influences morphology of γ′ fan-type structures. • Sub-solvus solution heat treatment makes γ′ fan-type structures regular and stable. -- Abstract: The influence of the sub-solvus solution heat treatment on the microstructure, especially the γ′ morphology (γ′ fan-type structure), and microhardness of a new Ni–Cr–Co-based powder metallurgy superalloy was studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and microhardness testing. The results show that sub-solvus solution heat treatment changes the microstructure of an as-forged alloy. It makes large primary γ′ phases at grain boundaries smaller and the distribution of secondary γ′ phases in the interior of the grains more homogeneous. Moreover, the grain boundaries widen because of the supplementary precipitate. The sub-solvus solution heat treatment before the super-solvus solution heat treatment does not change nucleation sites of the γ′ fan-type structures which precipitate during the super-solvus solution heat treatment. However, it influences the morphology of γ′ fan-type structures. Length distribution of the secondary γ′ dendrites in fan-type structures changes from a bimodal to a unimodal distribution, which means the lengths of the secondary γ′ dendrites become more uniform. Applying a sub-solvus solution heat treatment after the super-solvus solution heat treatment causes the secondary γ′ dendrites to be broken off in the fan-type structures and a refinement of the γ′ phases, and this improves stability of the γ′ phases

  3. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  4. Effect of holes on the room temperature tensile behaviors of thin wall specimens with (210) side surface of Ni-base single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.J.; Liu, T.; Pu, S. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xu, H. [Materials Fatigue and Fracture Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, L., E-mail: wangli@imr.ac.cn [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Lou, L.H. [Superalloys Division, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 72, Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-10-25

    Tensile properties of Ni-base single crystal superalloy plate specimens with and without a hole at room temperature were studied in the present paper. During the testing process, an ARAMIS system based on the digital image correlation technique and in-situ scanning electron microscopy were employed to in-situ observe the strain distribution and slip traces development on the sample surfaces. It was demonstrated that the yield stress was decreased with the appearance of a hole due to the stress concentration. The results were analyzed based on the stress and strain states of specimens and the slip traces development observed on specimen surfaces. - Graphical abstract: The strain distribution for samples without and with a hole, respectively. - Highlights: • Tensile tests of plate specimens without and with a hole were performed. • Surface strain fields were in-situ observed by ARAMIS system. • Slip traces development on sample surfaces was in-situ observed by SEM. • The hole deteriorated both the tensile strength and elongation of the samples. • Tensile strength of specimens without and with a hole was discussed respectively.

  5. Optical and structural characterization of nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales-Hurtado, M.A.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel oxide-based thin films were obtained using the chemical bath deposition method on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor solution used was a mixture of nickel nitrate, urea, and deionized water. Molar concentration of nickel (0.3-1.0 M), deposition time, and immersing cycles were considered as deposition variables. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data reveal that all as-deposited films correspond to the transparent turbostratic phase α(II)-Ni(OH) 2 . However, the rate of deposition depends on nickel content in the solution. After annealing in air at temperatures above of 300 deg. C, the films are transformed to the NiO phase and show a grey/black color. In these films, scanning electron microscopy images show aggregates of thin stacked sheets on their surface, such aggregates can be easily removed leaving only a thin NiO layer of about 30 nm adhered firmly to the substrate, regardless of nickel concentration in the solution and deposition time. In order to obtain thicker NiO films with good optical properties a procedure is developed performing several immersing-annealing cycles

  6. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  7. Standard practice for electrolytic extraction of phases from Ni and Ni-Fe base superalloys using a hydrochloric-methanol electrolyte

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the isolation of carbides, borides, TCP (topologically close-packed), and GCP (geometrically close-packed) phases (Note 1) in nickel and nickel-iron base gamma prime strengthened alloys. Contamination of the extracted residue by coarse matrix (gamma) or gamma prime particles, or both, reflects the condition of the alloy rather than the techniques mentioned in this procedure. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Preparation of Inconel 740 superalloy by electron beam smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiaogang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Tan, Yi, E-mail: tanyi@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); You, Qifan; Shi, Shuang; Li, Jiayan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Ye, Fei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wei, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A novel method, namely electron beam smelting (EBS) technology was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. The microstructures, hardness and oxidation behavior were characterized and compared with the traditionally prepared Inconel 740 superalloy. The results imply that the solution treatment gives rise to the coarsening of γ′ precipitates, with further aging treatment, the γ′ precipitates with size of less than 30 nm are distributed dispersively in the matrix, leading to a decreasing of the lattice parameters and an increasing of the misfit. The γ′ precipitates result in shearing mechanism of weakly pair coupling. The EBS 740 superalloy produces better properties than that prepared in the traditional method in both precipitation strengthening effect and oxidation resistance. - Highlights: • Electron beam smelting, a new method, was used to prepare the Inconel 740 superalloy. • The EBS 740 shows higher strengthening effect than 740 made in traditional method. • The EBS 740 shows better oxidation resistance than traditional 740. • It shows application prospect of EBS technology in preparing Ni-base superalloys.

  9. Cycle aging studies of lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide-based batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Heck, Michael; Santarelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The cycle aging of a commercial 18650 lithium-ion battery with graphite anode and lithium nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide-based cathode at defined operating conditions is studied by regular electrochemical characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and post-mortem analysis.

  10. Tungsten determination in heat resistant nickel-base-alloys by the method of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorczyk, S.; Wycislik, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of atomic absorption was developed. It allows for the tungsten to be determined in heatresistant nickel-base-alloys within the range 0.01 to 7%. It consists in precipitating tungsten acid in the presence of alkaloids with its following decomposition by hydrofluoric acid in the teflon bomb. (author)

  11. Oxidation behavior of a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T., E-mail: liuchunting76@yahoo.com.c [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Ma, J. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061 (China); Sun, X.F. [State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-02-18

    The oxidation behavior of a single-crystal Ni-base superalloy DD32 was studied in air at 900 and 1000 {sup o}C and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). At 900 and 1000 {sup o}C, two oxidation steps appear in the oxidation kinetics. The first one is controlled by NiO growth and the second by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth until a continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer formed under the previously grown NiO layer after a critical time. The variations in the chemical composition due to segregations, which resulted from the solidification process, led to the formation of different kinds of oxide scale on the dendritic and interdendritic area during oxidation between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C. The scales formed between 900 and 1000 {sup o}C were complicated, and consisted of three layers: an outer columnar NiO layer with a small amount of CoO, an intermediate layer mainly composed of W{sub 20}O{sub 58}, CrTaO{sub 4}, a small amount of spinels NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, an inner continuous layer of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  12. Thermal barrier coatings with a double-layer bond coat on Ni{sub 3}Al based single-crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Xu, Zhenhua; Mu, Rende [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); He, Limin, E-mail: he_limin@yahoo.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Huang, Guanghong [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Cao, Xueqiang, E-mail: xcao@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • Thermal barrier coatings with a double-layer bond coat of (Ni,Pt)Al and NiCrAlYSi. • Good adherence at all interfaces within TBC system. • The underlying (Ni,Pt)Al layer can supply abundant Al content for the upper NiCrAlYSi layer. • Crack nucleation, propagation and coalescence lead to the failure of coating. -- Abstract: Electron-beam physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with a double-layer bond coat of (Ni,Pt)Al and NiCrAlYSi were prepared on a Ni{sub 3}Al based single-crystal superalloy. Phase and cross-sectional microstructure of the developed coatings were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The experimental results show good adherence at all interfaces within this system. Furthermore, oxidation resistance and elements interdiffusion behavior of the double-layer bond coat were also investigated. The double-layer bond coat system exhibits a better scale adherence than the single layer bond coat systems since the underlying (Ni,Pt)Al layer can supply abundant Al for the upper NiCrAlYSi layer. Finally, thermal cycling behavior of the double-layer bond coat TBC was evaluated and the failure mechanism was discussed. Crack nucleation, propagation and coalescence caused by TGO growth stress and the thermal expansion mismatch stress between TGO and bond coat can be mainly responsible for the spallation of this coating.

  13. The influence of microstructure on the measurement of γ-γ'lattice mismatch in single-crystal Ni-base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, M.; Wolf, J.G.; Pollock, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Lattice mismatch in multicomponent high refractory single-crystalline Ni-base superalloys has been measured in situ by hot-stage X-ray diffraction. Prior to X-ray examination, all samples were subjected to long-term aging treatments at 1120 C to relieve coherency stresses. The resolution of the individual γ and γ' peaks at high Bragg angles in the X-ray spectra and the magnitude of the misfit was found to be sensitive to the microstructure of the material. When the precipitation of coherent γ' during cooling from the aging temperature could largely be suppressed, the corresponding matrix peaks were narrower and of higher intensity as compared with samples where cooling γ'was present. Also, a slightly larger misfit, 0.04%, was measured in the microstructures where the cooling γ' was not present. Procedures for deconvoluting X-ray data are outlined in detail, and the experimental results are discussed in terms of changes in phase compositions and misfit strains produced by the cooling γ'. (orig.)

  14. Results of the Electron-Beam Button Melting of very clean Ni-base superalloys for the identification of nonmetallic inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauner, F.; Stephan, H.; Stumpp, H.

    1986-02-01

    The reliability of components made of high strength materials is substantially influenced by their cleanliness. For example, the ductility, the fatigue-characteristics and the stress resistance of high strength alloys can be improved by increasing the cleanliness along with decreasing the inclusion size to below 25 ..mu..m. For the analysis of such high clean alloys with decreasing size of nonmetallic inclusions, the metallographic texting methods become troublesome and inexact for a dependable quality control. The Electron-Beam Button Melt Test offers a possibility for the examination and qualification of the small amounts of different inclusions in the high clean materials. During a process-controlled melting procedure, inclusions of high density sink to the bottom of a water-cooled copper crucible. Low density inclusions float to the pool surface and are concentrated in the upper center of the button by means of a controlled solidification of the melting pool. For the utilization of the process in the production quality control, development and research, we have developed the Electron-Beam Button Melting Furnace ES 1/07/30 B. In this paper we will present results of the application of the ES1/07/30 B. In this paper we will present results of the application of the ES 1/07/30 B to the EB-Button melting of the Ni-Base Superalloys IN718 and Astroloy. (orig.).

  15. Analysis of the dislocation content in a deformed Co-based superalloy by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, D.; Klimanek, P.; Muehle, U.; Martin, U.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper compares the dislocation densities as determined in a Co-based superalloy (CoNi22Cr22W14) after creep and tensile deformation by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray profile analysis (XRD). After creep tests the dislocation densities obtained by both methods are in good agreement, which is the result of a nearly homogeneous dislocation distribution. The relationship between the dislocation density and the flow stress meets the Taylor equation. After tensile deformation the dislocation densities determined by TEM and XRD differ systematically from each other, but in both cases also a Taylor relationship can be obtained. The constant α of the dislocation interaction derived by TEM is much larger than in the creep tests and also than that of the XRD, which agrees well with the creep data. The difference between the TEM and the XRD results is the consequence of the dislocation cell structure much more developed in the tensile specimens, which leads to an underestimation of the dislocation density in TEM because of overweighting the cell interior. By fitting the Fourier coefficients of the X-ray diffraction line shapes with a bimodal distribution of the defect content (composite model), dislocation densities of the cell interior can be estimated that correspond well to the TEM data. (orig.)

  16. Beyond Ni-based superalloys: Development of CoRe-based alloys for gas turbine applications at very high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukherji, D.; Roesler, J.; Strunz, Pavel; Gilles, R.; Schumacher, G.; Piegert, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 9 (2011), s. 1125-1132 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Co-base alloy * Rhenium * Electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.830, year: 2011

  17. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  18. High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrodes Based on Nickel Oxide-coated Nickel Foam Prepared by Sparking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuminjak, Yaowamarn; Daothong, Suphaporn; Kuntarug, Aekapong; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Horprathum, Mati; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Singjai, Pisith

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO particles (3-10 nm) were sparked on Ni foams with varying times (45-180 min). • Larger NiO nanoparticles were aggregated to foam-like structure at a longer time. • The optimal time of 45 min led to a high specific capacity of 920 C/g at 1 A/g. • The specific capacity remained as high as 699 (76% of 920) C/g at 20 A/g. • The optimal electrode exhibited 96% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 4 A/g. - Abstract: In this work, high-performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes were developed based on nickel oxide (NiO)-coated nickel (Ni) foams prepared by a sparking method. NiO nanoparticles deposited on Ni foams with varying sparking times from 45 to 180 min were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the electrochemical energy storage characteristics of the electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that NiO nanoparticles sparked on Ni foam with a longer time would be agglomerated and formed a foam-like network with large pore sizes and a lower surface area, leading to inferior charge storage behaviors. The NiO/Ni foam electrode prepared with the shortest sparking of 45 min displayed high specific capacities of 920 C g"-"1 (1840 F g"-"1) at 1 A g"-"1 and 699 (76% of 920) C g"-"1 at 20 A g"-"1 in a potential window of 0-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl as well as a good cycling performance with 96% capacity retention at 4 A g"-"1 after 1000 cycles and a low equivalent series resistance of 0.4 Ω. Therefore, NiO/Ni foam electrodes prepared by the sparking method are highly promising for high-capacity energy storage applications.

  19. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers.

  20. Inconel type resistive alloys based on ultrahigh purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsarin, K.A.; Matsarin, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    The new nickel high-ohm alloys (ρ = 1.2-1.4 μOhm · m), containing the W, Al, Mo alloying elements in the quantity, not exceeding their solubility in a solid solution, are developed on the basis of the Inconel-type standard alloy. The optical composition of the alloy was determined by the results of the alloy was determined by the results of the electric resistance measurement and technological effectiveness indices (relative to the pressure and workable metal yield). The following optimal component concentrations were established: 14-17 %Cr; 10-12 %Fe; 0.5-1.0 %Cu; 1.0-1.5 %Mn; 0.1-0.2 %C; 0.4-0.6 %Si; 0.5-3.0 %W; 5-16 %Mo; 0.5-2.0 %Al; the remainder - Ni. The new alloys are recommended as materials for resistive elements of direct-glow cathode nodes of low capacity electron tubes [ru

  1. Design of a braze alloy for fast epitaxial brazing of superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegert, S.; Laux, B.; Rösier, J.

    2012-07-01

    For the repair of directionally solidified turbine components made of nickel-based superalloys, a new high-temperature brazing method has been developed. Utilising heterogeneous nucleation on the crack surface, the microstructure of the base material can be reproduced, i.e. single crystallinity can be maintained. In contrast to commonly used eutectic braze alloys, such as nickel-boron or nickel-silicon systems, the process is not diffusion controlled but works with a consolute binary base system. The currently applied epitaxial brazing methods rely on isothermal solidification diffusing the melting point depressants into the base material until their concentration is reduced so that the liquid braze solidifies. Contrary, the identified Ni-Mn consolute system enables a temperature driven epitaxial solidification resulting in substantially reduced process duration. The development of the braze alloys was assisted using the CALPHAD software Thermo-Calc. The solidification behaviour was estimated by kinetic calculations with realistic boundary conditions. Finally, the complete system, including braze alloy as well as substrate material, was modelled by means of DICTRA. Subsequently, the thermodynamic properties of the braze alloys were experimentally analysed by DSC measurements. For brazing experiments 300 μm wide parallel gaps were used. Complete epitaxial solidification, i.e. the absence of high-angle grain boundaries, could be achieved within brazing times being up to two orders of magnitude shorter compared to diffusion brazing processes. Theoretically and experimentally evaluated process windows reveal similar shapes. However, a distinct shift has to be stated which can be ascribed to the limited accuracy of the underlying thermodynamic databases.

  2. Effect of the microstructure on the creep behavior of PM Udimet 720 superalloy--experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, Sophie; Couturier, Raphaeel; Guetaz, Laure; Burlet, Helene

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy processed Udimet 720 is a high creep strength nickel-based superalloy considered for high temperature turbine disks for nuclear gas cooled reactors working under 700 deg. C. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained microstructures have been obtained by applying respectively a subsolvus or a supersolvus solution treatments, followed by ageing treatments. In both microstructures, the distribution of the strengthening γ' precipitates has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The creep curves of the coarse-grained microstructure show the three usual creep stages. On the contrary, the creep curves of the fine-grained microstructure show a transition directly from primary to apparent tertiary creep without any obvious steady state. According to TEM analyses, Orowan loops surround Udimet 720 CR γ' and U720 HS γ' at high stress whereas U720 HS γ' are sheared at low stress. To describe the behavior of the superalloy Udimet 720, a specific creep model is developed on the basis of McLean and Dyson models including physical damage parameters

  3. Effect of Process Variables on the Inertia Friction Welding of Superalloys LSHR and Mar-M247

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, D. W.; Senkov, O. N.; Shivpuri, R.; Semiatin, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of inertia friction welding process parameters on microstructure evolution, weld plane quality, and the tensile behavior of welds between dissimilar nickel-base superalloys was established. For this purpose, the fine-grain, powder metallurgy alloy LSHR was joined to coarse-grain cast Mar-M247 using a fixed level of initial kinetic energy, but different combinations of the flywheel moment of inertia and initial rotation speed. It was found that welds made with the largest moment of inertia resulted in a sound bond with the best microstructure and room-temperature tensile strength equal to or greater than that of the parent materials. A relationship between the moment of inertia and weld process efficiency was established. The post-weld tensile behavior was interpreted in the context of observed microstructure gradients and weld-line defects.

  4. Intermetallic nickel silicide nanocatalyst-A non-noble metal-based general hydrogenation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Pavel; Agostini, Giovanni; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Lund, Henrik; Agapova, Anastasiya; Junge, Henrik; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogenation reactions are essential processes in the chemical industry, giving access to a variety of valuable compounds including fine chemicals, agrochemicals, and pharmachemicals. On an industrial scale, hydrogenations are typically performed with precious metal catalysts or with base metal catalysts, such as Raney nickel, which requires special handling due to its pyrophoric nature. We report a stable and highly active intermetallic nickel silicide catalyst that can be used for hydrogenations of a wide range of unsaturated compounds. The catalyst is prepared via a straightforward procedure using SiO 2 as the silicon atom source. The process involves thermal reduction of Si-O bonds in the presence of Ni nanoparticles at temperatures below 1000°C. The presence of silicon as a secondary component in the nickel metal lattice plays the key role in its properties and is of crucial importance for improved catalytic activity. This novel catalyst allows for efficient reduction of nitroarenes, carbonyls, nitriles, N-containing heterocycles, and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. Moreover, the reported catalyst can be used for oxidation reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen and is capable of promoting acceptorless dehydrogenation of unsaturated N-containing heterocycles, opening avenues for H 2 storage in organic compounds. The generality of the nickel silicide catalyst is demonstrated in the hydrogenation of over a hundred of structurally diverse unsaturated compounds. The wide application scope and high catalytic activity of this novel catalyst make it a nice alternative to known general hydrogenation catalysts, such as Raney nickel and noble metal-based catalysts.

  5. The development of additive manufacturing technique for nickel-base alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, Ahmad; Basuki, Arif

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-base alloys are an attractive alloy due to its excellent mechanical properties, a high resistance to creep deformation, corrosion, and oxidation. However, it is a hard task to control performance when casting or forging for this material. In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) process has been implemented to replace the conventional directional solidification process for the production of nickel-base alloys. Due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing process, AM is considered as a substitute technique for the existing. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the previous work related to the AM techniques for Ni-base alloys while highlighting current challenges and methods to solving them. The properties of conventionally manufactured Ni-base alloys are also compared with the AM fabricated alloys. The mechanical properties obtained from tension, hardness and fatigue test are included, along with discussions of the effect of post-treatment process. Recommendations for further work are also provided.

  6. In Situ Investigation with Neutrons on the Evolution of γ ' Precipitates at High Temperatures in a Single Crystal Ni-Base Superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilles, R.; Mukherji, D.; Eckerlebe, H.; Strunz, Pavel; Rösler, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 278, - (2011), s. 42-47 ISSN 1022-6680 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1453 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron scattering * SANS * superalloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical investigations on nickel-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obigodi-Ndjeng, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high-temperature oxidation behavior of different Ni-base alloys. In addition, electrochemical characterization of the alloy's corrosion behavior was carried out, including comparison of the properties of native passive films grown at room temperature and high temperature oxide scales. PWA 1483 (single-crystalline Ni-base superalloy) and model alloys Ni-Cr-X (where X is either Co or Al) were oxidized at 800 and 900 C in air for different time periods. The superalloy showed the best oxidation behavior at both temperatures, which might be due to the fact that the oxidation growth function is subparabolic for the model alloys and parabolic for the superalloy at 800 C. At higher temperatures, changes in the kinetics are induced, as the oxides grow faster, thus only PWA 1483 growth follows the parabolic law. Different scales in a typical sandwich form were detected, with the inner layer comprised of mostly Cr 2 O 3 , the middle layer was mixture of different oxides and spinels, depending on the alloying elements, and the oxide at the interface oxygen/oxide was found to be NiO. The influence of sample preparation could also be shown, as rougher surfaces change the oxidation kinetics from parabolic and subparabolic for polished samples to linear. The influence of moisture on the oxidation behavior of the 2 nd generation single crystal Ni-base superalloys (PWA 1484, PWA 1487, CMSX 4, Rene N5 and Rene N5+) was studied at 1000 C after 100 h oxidation period. It was found that the moisture increased the oxidation rate and mostly the transient oxides growth rate. The water vapor content in air also influenced the behavior of these alloys, as they showed a higher mass gain in air + 30% water vapor than in air + 10% water vapor. The alloys PWA 1484 and CMSX 4 showed respectively the worst and best behavior in all the studied atmospheres. The addition of reactive elements, such as Yttrium, Hafnium and Lanthanum is likely to enhance the oxidation behavior of PWA

  8. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation. A new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Li, Kuo-Kuo [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China); Lin, Y.C. [Central South University, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Changsha (China); Central South University, Light Alloy Research Institute, Changsha (China); Chen, Jian [Changsha University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, Changsha (China)

    2016-09-15

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi:10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain. (orig.)

  9. The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy during hot deformation. A new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Song; Li, Kuo-Kuo; Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear unloading behavior of a typical Ni-based superalloy is investigated by hot compressive experiments with intermediate unloading-reloading cycles. The experimental results show that there are at least four types of unloading curves. However, it is found that there is no essential difference among four types of unloading curves. The variation curves of instantaneous Young's modulus with stress for all types of unloading curves include four segments, i.e., three linear elastic segments (segments I, II, and III) and one subsequent nonlinear elastic segment (segment IV). The instantaneous Young's modulus of segments I and III is approximately equal to that of reloading process, while smaller than that of segment II. In the nonlinear elastic segment, the instantaneous Young's modulus linearly decreases with the decrease in stress. In addition, the relationship between stress and strain rate can be accurately expressed by the hyperbolic sine function. This study includes two parts. In the present part, the characters of unloading curves are discussed in detail, and a new elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior based on the experimental findings. While in the latter part (Chen et al. in Appl Phys A. doi:10.1007/s00339-016-0385-0, 2016), the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain on the parameters of this new constitutive model are analyzed, and a unified elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model is proposed to predict the unloading behavior at arbitrary deformation temperature, strain rate, and pre-strain. (orig.)

  10. Mechanical behavior of superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreen, S.

    1986-04-01

    Recent developments affecting the mechanical behavior of superalloys over three ranges of operating temperatures are reviewed. At lower temperatures, activity has been focused on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility in light water reactor and sour gas well environments. The susceptibility to intergranular crack growth is critically dependent upon the grain boundary chemistry, and a method of minimizing the sensitivity of the boundaries to attack has been pursued. At intermediate temperatures, considerable effort has been directed toward increasing the tensile and fatigue strengths. The higher strength materials, however, show increased fracture sensitivity. In particular, embrittlement due to diffusion into the grain boundaries of aggressive species, such as oxygen or sulfur from the environments, becomes a problem. Minor element alloying additions of boron, zirconium, magnesium, etc., are helpful in retarding the degradation caused by the environment. At higher temperatures, the major thrust is toward improving the creep strength. The weak link in the materials, which is the transverse grain boundaries, has been eliminated by the use of specialized processing steps to produce either directionally solidified materials with minimum transverse grain boundaries, or single crystal materials. Single crystal materials permit alloying and heat treating modifications that further enhance the creep strength. The materials are very anisotropic in properties, but are successfully used in turbine blades and could be useful in other special applications

  11. LCF- and LCF/HCF-behaviour of the superalloy MAR-M247LC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmedin, Domnin; Lang, Karl-Heinz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde I

    2010-07-01

    The fatigue behaviour of the Nickel-base superalloy Mar-M247LC was investigated at 650 C in air environment under total strain control. Pure low cycle fatigue (LCF) loading, pure high cycle fatigue (HCF) loading and superimposed LCF/HCF loading were realised. In LCF tests with a strain ratio of zero and a hold time of 60 seconds the cyclic deformation and the lifetime behaviour was investigated. The dependence of the fatigue limit on the mean strain was estimated in HCF tests at a frequency of 60 Hz using an ultimate number of cycles of ten million. Finally the influence of superimposed HCF and LCF loadings was examined. At high total strain ranges of the HCF loading the lifetime of the superalloy as reduced about more than one magnitude compared to the lifetime under pure LCF loading. With decreasing HCF loadings the reduction of the lifetime decreases. This life time reduction can be explained by the interaction of the LCF and the superimposed HCF loading. Crack initiation and first crack propagation is predominantly induced by the LCF loading. After reaching an adequate long fatigue crack length the superimposed HCF loading contributes considerably to the crack growth. This contribution can be determined evaluating the distance between the LCF marking lines which form on the fracture surface. The higher the superimposed HCF loading was the longer the distance between the LCF marking lines and the lower the crack length were when first LCF marking lines could be recognized. On the basis of this cognition the life time under superimposed LCF/HCF loading was modelled using a model basing on fracture mechanics. (orig.)

  12. On γ and γ' phases composition in IN-100 superalloy after high-temperature exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, P.; Principi, G.; Ramous, E.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry and volume fraction of UPSILON' phase in IN-100 superalloy after high-temperature exposure in furnace and in service have been examined. Increasing the time of exposure aluminium plus titanium content remains nearly constant and very close to 25 at.%; the little decrease of nickel together with the increase of iron and molybdenum suggest that the last two elements are preferentially occupying Ni-type sites, according to the pair potential model of UPSILON'. (orig.)

  13. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanming; Yang, Jianguo; Fu, Wei; Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang

    2016-01-01

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  14. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yanming [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); Yang, Jianguo, E-mail: yangjianguo@hit.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Fu, Wei [Shanghai Baosteel Industry Technological Service Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 201900 (China); Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  15. High-temperature resistant MeCrAlY+Al coatings obtained by ARC-PVD method on Ni Base superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swadzba, L.; Maciejny, A.; Mendala, B.; Supernak, W.

    1999-01-01

    Investigations of obtaining high temperature coatings on the Ni base superalloys by the ARC-PVD method, using exothermic reaction processes between Ni and Al with NiAl intermetallic formation are presented in the article. By the diffusion heating at 1050 o C NiAl high temperature diffusion coating containing 21% at. Al and 50 μm thick was obtained. In the next stage coatings with more complex chemical composition NiCoCrAlY were formed. The two targets were applied for formation of complex NiCoCrAlY coatings. The good consistence between the chemical composition of the targets and the coatings and an uniform distribution of elements in the coatings were shown. Then the surface was covered with aluminium also by the ARC-PVD method. In the vacuum chamber of the equipment a synthesis reaction between NiCoCrAlY and Al with the formation NiAl intermetallics of high Co, Cr, Y content was initiated by the changes in process parameters. The final heat treatment of coatings was conducted in the air and vacuum at 1050 o C. The strong segregation of yttrium in to the oxide scale in the specimens heated in the air was shown. It was possible to obtain NiAl intermetallic phas