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Sample records for ng l-1 pond

  1. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  2. Survey of PAH in low density residential stormwater ponds in coastal South Carolina: false dark mussels (Mytilopsis leucophaeata) as potential biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Alan T; Weinstein, John E; Lewitus, Alan J

    2008-09-01

    The distribution of PAHs was studied in sediment and false dark mussels, Mytilopsis leucophaeata, of three brackish stormwater retention ponds on Kiawah Island, a gated residential community and golf resort. Impervious surface in pond watersheds ranged from 5 to 30%. Sediment concentrations were lower than those found in other studies of suburban residential areas, and there were no significant differences among ponds or seasons. Mean summation PAH16 values for sediments in Ponds 67, 100, and 37 were 184.7+/-101.3ng g(-1), 67.5+/-26.0ng g(-1), and 84.3+/-75.5ng g(-1), respectively. Mussel summation PAH16 concentrations from Pond 67 in August (mean 734.5+/-148.1ng g(-1)), and from Pond 37 in December (mean 1115.1+/-87.7ng g(-1)), were significantly higher than other ponds. Mean summation PAH16 values for mussels in Ponds 67, 100, and, 37 were 555.9+/-219.7ng g(-1), 312.5+/-99.1ng g(-1) and 737.8+/-419.8ng g(-1), respectively. The mean biota-to-sediment ratio was 7.6+/-8.1. Isomer ratios generally suggested pyrogenic sources. False dark mussels are a promising indicator species for PAH contamination because they are abundant, easy to sample, bioaccumulate PAH profiles representative of the time-integrated sediment profiles, and their PAH levels are less variable than either stormwater or sediment samples.

  3. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and potential sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozhong; Ni Honggang; Guan Yufeng; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the potential input sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to fish farming environments in South China, samples of seven various environmental matrices were collected from October 2006-September 2007. Tri- to deca-BDEs were detected in all samples analyzed, with mean concentrations (±standard deviations) at 5.7 ± 3.6 ng/L in pond water, 15 ± 11 ng/g dry wt. in pond sediment, 12 ± 3.8 ng/g dry wt. in bank soil, 21 ± 20 ng/g lipid wt. in fish, and 93 ± 62 ng/g lipid wt. in fish feeds. In addition, BDE-209 was the major constituent in all samples except fish and BDE-47 was predominant in fish samples. Relatively high abundances of BDE-49 were detected in all the samples compared to those in the penta-BDE technical products. Several bioaccumulation factors were evaluated. Finally, statistical analyses suggested that fish feed, as well as pond water at a lesser degree, may have been the major source of PBDEs in freshwater farmed fish. - Occurrence and sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of the Pearl River Delta, South China are examined.

  4. Optimal screening interval for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen levels (≤1.0 ng/mL) in a prostate cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Satoko; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Matsuyama, Satoko; Naito, Renato; Yasuda, Kenji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    To optimize the rescreening schedule for men with low baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, we evaluated men with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL in PSA-based population screening. We enrolled 8086 men aged 55-69 years with baseline PSA levels of ≤1.0 ng/mL, who were screened annually. The relationships of baseline PSA and age with the cumulative risks and clinicopathological features of screening-detected cancer were investigated. Among the 8086 participants, 28 (0.35 %) and 18 (0.22 %) were diagnosed with prostate cancer and cancer with a Gleason score (GS) of ≥7 during the observation period, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer at 12 years were 0.42, 1.0, 3.4, and 4.3 % in men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.4, 0.5-0.6, 0.7-0.8, and 0.9-1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Those with GS of ≥7 had cumulative probabilities of 0.42, 0.73, 2.8, and 1.9 %, respectively. The cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer were significantly lower when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL compared with 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Prostate cancer with a GS of ≥7 was not detected during the first 10 years of screening when baseline PSA levels were 0.0-0.6 ng/mL and was not detected during the first 2 years when baseline PSA levels were 0.7-1.0 ng/mL. Our study demonstrated that men with baseline PSA levels of 0.0-0.6 ng/mL might benefit from longer screening intervals than those recommended in the guidelines of the Japanese Urological Association. Further investigation is needed to confirm the optimal screening interval for men with low baseline PSA levels.

  5. Mercury methylation in high and low-sulphate impacted wetland ponds within the prairie pothole region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggarth, Cameron G.J.; Hall, Britt D.; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Using enriched stable 201 Hg injections into intact sediment cores, we provide the first reported Hg methylation potential rate constants (k m ) in prairie wetland ponds (0.016–0.17 d −1 ). Our k m values were similar to other freshwater wetlands and did not differ in ponds categorized with high compared to low surface water concentrations of sulphate. Sites with high sulphate had higher proportions of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment (2.9 ± 1.6% vs. 1.0 ± 0.3%) and higher surface water MeHg concentrations (1.96 ± 1.90 ng L1 vs. 0.56 ± 0.55 ng L1 ). Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small, and likely due to high ionic activity. Our work suggests while k m measurements are useful for understanding mercury cycling processes, they are less important than surface water MeHg concentrations for assessing MeHg risks to biota. Significant differences in MeHg concentrations between sites with high and low sulphate concentrations may also inform management decisions concerning wetland remediation and creation. - Highlights: • Wetlands of the PPR provide many vital ecosystem services, but can have high MeHg concentrations. • Methylation potentials in prairie ponds are similar to other freshwater wetlands. • MeHg and %MeHg in surface water of high sulphate ponds was greater than low sulphate ponds. • Sediment-porewater partitioning coefficients were small compared to other systems. • Potential methylation rate constants did not correlate to surface water concentrations. - Prairie wetland ponds with higher sulphate concentrations have greater sediment and surface water methylmercury concentrations, but potential methylation rates do not differ

  6. Prostate health index significantly reduced unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA 2-10 ng/mL and PSA >10 ng/mL: Results from a Multicenter Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly A; Packiam, Vignesh; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Zheng, Siqun L; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2017-08-01

    The performance of prostate health index (phi) in predicting prostate biopsy outcomes has been well established for patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2 and 10 ng/mL. However, the performance of phi remains unknown in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, the vast majority in Chinese biopsy patients. We aimed to assess the ability of phi to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade disease (Gleason Score ≥7) on biopsy in a Chinese population. This is a prospective, observational, multi-center study of consecutive patients who underwent a transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy at four hospitals in Shanghai, China from August 2013 to December 2014. In the cohort of 1538 patients, the detection rate of PCa was 40.2%. phi had a significantly better predictive performance for PCa than total PSA (tPSA). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.90 and 0.79 for phi and tPSA, respectively, P 10 ng/mL (N = 838, 54.5%). The detection rates of PCa were 35.9% and 57.7% in patients with tPSA 10.1-20 and 20.1-50 ng/mL, respectively. The AUCs of phi (0.79 and 0.89, for these two groups, respectively) were also significantly higher than tPSA (0.57 and 0.63, respectively), both P 10 ng/mL). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical disease-free survival in localized carcinoma of prostate treated with external beam irradiation: comparison of American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus or 1 ng/mL as endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Carlos A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lockett, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To compare postirradiation biochemical disease-free survival using the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus or elevation of postirradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level beyond 1 ng/mL as an endpoint and correlate chemical failure with subsequent appearance of clinically detected local recurrence or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: Records of 466 patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with irradiation alone between January 1987 and December 1995 were analyzed; 339 patients were treated with bilateral 120 deg. arc rotation and, starting in 1992, 117 with three-dimensional conformal irradiation. Doses were 68-77 Gy in 1.8 to 2 Gy daily fractions. Minimum follow-up is 4 years (mean, 5.5 years; maximum, 9.6 years). A chemical failure was recorded using the ASTRO Consensus or when postirradiation PSA level exceeded 1 ng/mL at any time. Clinical failures were determined by rectal examination, radiographic studies, and, when clinically indicated, biopsy. Results: Six-year chemical disease-free survival rates using the ASTRO Consensus according to pretreatment PSA level for T1 tumors were: ≤4 ng/mL, 100%; 4.1-20 ng/mL, 80%; and >20 ng/mL, 50%. For T2 tumors the rates were: ≤4 ng/mL, 91%; 4.1-10 ng/mL, 81%; 10.1-20 ng/mL, 55%; 20.1-40 ng/mL, 63%; and >40 ng/mL, 46%. When postirradiation PSA levels higher than 1 ng/mL were used, the corresponding 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates for T1 tumors were 92% for pretreatment PSA levels of ≤4 ng/mL, 58-60% for levels of 4.1-20 ng/mL, and 30% for levels >20 ng/mL. For T2 tumors, the 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates were 78% in patients with pretreatment PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL, 45% for 10.1-40 ng/mL, and 25% for >40 ng/mL. Of 167 patients with T1 tumors, 30 (18%) developed a chemical failure, 97% within 5 years from completion of radiation therapy; no patient has developed a local recurrence or distant

  9. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level ≤1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Darren M.; McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.; Stewart, David P.; Stranex, Stephen; Eakin, Ruth L.; Houston, Russell F.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to ≤1 ng/mL after ≥2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapy was ≤1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was ≤1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of ≤1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after ≥2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of ≤1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments

  10. Clinical utility of serum folate measurement in tertiary care patients: Argument for revising reference range for serum folate from 3.0 ng/mL to 13.0 ng/mL

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    Gurmukh Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assess the need for folate testing, frequency of corrective action, and determine reference level for serum folate. Methods: Serum folate levels in 5313 samples from 4448 patients, and clinical data were reviewed for patient characteristics and for (a evidence of corrective action in patients with serum folate values 25.7 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of serum folate levels, in patients, 25.7 ng/mL the sample was collected after supplementation with folic acid. Of the 128 patients with serum folate 60% of the patients. Since serum folate levels ≥13.0 ng/mL are needed for optimal prevention of neural tube defects in the embryo/fetus, we propose that normal serum folate level should be designated to be ≥13.0 ng/mL. Keywords: Serum folate, Prevalence of folate deficiency, Neural tube defects, Optimum serum folate level, Utility of folate testing

  11. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  12. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L-1 levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noppe, H.; Verheyden, K.; Gillis, W.; Courtheyn, D.; Vanthemsche, P.; De Brabander, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, β-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L -1 levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C 18 speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS 2 ) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS 2 ). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L -1 level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples

  13. Determination of eight nitrosamines in water at the ng L{sup -1} levels by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles, Cristina; Pitarch, Elena; Sancho, Juan V; Lopez, Francisco J [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {center_dot} Eight N-nitrosamines in water by LC(APCI)MS/MS QqQ analysis. {center_dot} Validation at two levels: 10 ng L{sup -1} (LOQ) and 100 ng L{sup -1} in drinking water. {center_dot} Developed method applied to different types of water samples. {center_dot} NDMA was the analyte more frequently detected and at the highest concentration levels. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a sensitive method for detection and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopirrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitroso-n-dipropylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) in drinking water. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode with a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The simultaneous acquisition of two MS/MS transitions in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) for each compound, together with the evaluation of their relative intensity, allowed the simultaneous quantification and reliable identification in water at ppt levels. Empirical formula of the product ions selected was confirmed by UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS accurate mass measurements from reference standards. Prior to LC-MS/MS QqQ analysis, a preconcentration step by off-line SPE using coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges (by passing 500 mL of water sample) was necessary to improve the sensitivity and to meet regulation requirements. For accurate quantification, two isotope labelled nitrosamines (NDMA-d{sub 6} and NDPA-d{sub 14}) were added as surrogate internal standards to the samples. The optimized method was validated at two concentration levels (10 and 100 ng L{sup -1}) in drinking water samples, obtaining satisfactory recoveries (between 90 and 120%) and precision (RSD < 20%). Limits of detection were found to be in the range of 1-8 ng L{sup -1

  14. 226Ra and 228Ra activities associated with agricultural drainage ponds and wetland ponds in the Kankakee Watershed, Illinois-Indiana, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidle, W.C.; Shanklin, D.; Lee, P.Y.; Roose, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background radioactivity is elevated in many agricultural drainage ponds and also constructed wetland ponds in the Kankakee watershed. During 1995-1999, gross-α and -β activities were measured up to 455 and 1650 mBq L -1 , respectively. 226 Ra and 228 Ra averaged 139 and 192 mBq L -1 in controlled drainage ponds compared to 53 and 58 mBq L -1 for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, in native wetland ponds. Analyses of applied ammonium phosphate fertilizers near both native and controlled ponds indicate comparable 226 Ra/ 228 Ra and 228 Ra/ 232 Th activity ratios with only the surface waters in the controlled ponds. For example, 226 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratios in controlled ponds ranged from 0.79 to 0.91 and group with a local fertilizer batch containing FL phosphate compounds with 226 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratios of 0.83-1.04. Local soils of the Kankakee watershed have 226 Ra/ 228 Ra activity ratios of 0.54-0.70. Calculated Ra fluxes of waters, in drainage ditches associated with these controlled ponds, for 226 Ra ranged from 0.77 to 9.00 mBq cm -2 d -1 and for 228 Ra ranged from 1.22 to 8.43 mBq cm -2 d -1 . Ra activity gradients were measured beneath these controlled ponds both in agricultural landscapes and in constructed wetlands, all being associated with drainage ditches. Ra had infiltrated to the local water table but was below regulatory maximum contaminant limits. Still, measurable Ra activity was measured downgradient of even the constructed wetlands in the Kankakee watershed, suggesting that the attenuation of Ra was low. However, no Ra excess was observed in the riparian zone or the Kankakee River downgradient of the native wetland ponds

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein level > 1000 ng/mL as an exclusion criterion for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma meeting the Milan criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Bilal; Mehta, Neil; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Roberts, John P; Yao, Francis Y

    2014-08-01

    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been increasingly recognized as a marker for a poor prognosis after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many published reports, however, have included a large proportion of patients with HCC beyond the Milan criteria, and the effects of incorporating AFP as an exclusion criterion for LT remain unclear. We studied 211 consecutive patients undergoing LT for HCC within the Milan criteria according to imaging under the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease organ allocation system between June 2002 and January 2009. The majority (93.4%) had locoregional therapy before LT. The median follow-up was 4.5 years (minimum = 2 years). The Kaplan-Meier 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 94.3% and 83.4%, respectively. In a univariate analysis, significant predictors of HCC recurrence included vascular invasion [hazard ratio (HR) = 10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9-26, P 1000 ng/mL (HR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.3-15.3, P = 0.02), and an AFP level > 500 ng/mL (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.04-9.4, P = 0.04). In a multivariate analysis, vascular invasion was the only significant predictor of tumor recurrence (HR = 5.6, 95% CI = 1.9-19, P = 0.02). An AFP level > 1000 ng/mL was the strongest pretransplant variable predicting vascular invasion (odds ratio = 6.8, 95% CI = 1.6-19.1, P = 0.006). The 1- and 5-year rates of survival without recurrence were 90% and 52.7%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL and 95% and 80.3%, respectively, for patients with an AFP level ≤ 1000 ng/mL (P = 0.026). Applying an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL as a cutoff would have resulted in the exclusion of 4.7% of the patients fr m LT and a 20% reduction in HCC recurrence. In conclusion, an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL may be a surrogate for vascular invasion and may be used to predict posttransplant HCC recurrence. Incorporating an AFP level > 1000 ng/mL as an exclusion criterion for LT within the Milan criteria may further improve posttransplant

  16. Men presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values of over 100 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Mann; Rajcic, Branimir; Foreman, Darren; Moretti, Kim; O'Callaghan, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with prostate cancer presenting with a PSA level PSA level extracted from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (SA-PCCOC) database. Men included were diagnosed between January 1998 and August 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnostic PSA level: 500 ng/mL. Outcomes measured include overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Clinical stage, Gleason score and the presence of bony metastasis was evaluated to determine if they were prognostic factors in patients with PSA over 100 at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression were used to model overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes respectively. Of this cohort, 241 patients (4.2%) had a diagnostic PSA level >100 ng/mL. Patients with PSA >100 ng/mL have a significant reduction in five (29.1% vs 62.5% vs 87%) and ten-year (18.2% vs 36.7% vs 70.7%) overall survival when compared to men with diagnostic PSA 20-100 and PSA level at diagnosis. Overall survival was associated with PSA level, Gleason score and age. There was a linear increase in risk (overall survival) as PSA increased until 200 and no association thereafter. Models of overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality incorporating a risk stratification developed by Izumi et al. predicted overall survival but not prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of this stratification did not improve model accuracy. Only a small number of men (4.2%) with prostate cancer present with PSA >100 ng/mL at diagnosis. Overall survival at five and ten years was significantly poorer in patients with PSA >100 ng/mL. In this cohort of men presenting with PSA >100 at diagnosis, PSA level was not associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. Gleason score and metastases are significant prognostic factors in this group of men. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016

  17. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION OF PHYTOPLANKTONS IN DIFFERENTLY MANURED CARP PONDS

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    Ljubica Debeljak

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on qualitative composition of phytoplanktons in differently manured fish-ponds "Jelas" were carried out in 1996. The carp fingerling from larve to its second month was nurtured in three fish-ponds (A,B,C with the plantation of larves of 1,000,000 ind.ha-1. Larves and carp fry were nurtured by trouvit and wheat flour. The fish-pond A was controlled but not manured; the fish-pond B was fertilized by the total of 200 kg.ha-1 NPK (15:15:15 and the fish-pond C was fertilized by the total of 75 l.ha-1 of UAN and 75 kg.l-1 of NP (12:52. All fish-ponds had similar water chemism. In the qualitative composition of phytoplanktons there were stated 93 kinds, members of systematic groups Cyanophyta (10%, Euglenophyta (16.2%, Pyrrophyta (2%, Chrysophyta (39.4% and Chlorophyta (32%. All fish-ponds had similar qualitative composition of phytoplanktons with the flora similarity quotient from 65.5% to 72%.

  18. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

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    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  19. Fate of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in small ponds: a mass balance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Rawn, G.P.; Grift, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    The fate and distribution of 14 C-radiolabeled deltamethrin (1(R)[la(S),3a]-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate) were monitored for 306 days, following a single application at 10 g/ha to two small outdoor ponds (17 m 2 surface area). Initial concentrations of the insecticide in filtered water ranged from 1.28 to 2.50 μg/L. Deltamethrin ([ 14 C]cyclopropyl acid or benzyl alcohol labeled) rapidly partitioned into suspended solids, plants, sediment, and air, with a half-life of 2-4 h in water. Duckweed (Lemna sp.) and a submerged pondweed (Potamogeton berchtoldi) accumulated deltamethrin concentrations ranging from 253 to 1021 ng/g, respectively, at 24 h posttreatment. Sediments were the major sink for radioactivity at 306 days posttreatment, and intact deltamethrin was present at concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 ng/g. Deltamethrin levels in air above the water ranged from 10-100 ng/m 3 during a 48-h monitoring period following application. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) accumulated levels of extractable radioactivity 248-907-fold higher than concentrations in water 24 h posttreatment, but no fish mortality was observed

  20. Occurrence of fungal metabolites--fumonisins at the ng/L level in aqueous environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bocianowski, Jan; Perczak, Adam; Goliński, Piotr

    2015-08-15

    The B-series fumonisins (FBs) are some of the most prevalent mycotoxins produced as a secondary metabolite by Fusarium species growing on cereals. For decades they have been studied extensively in food and feed products, but there is no information about their occurrence in the aquatic environment or about how these mycotoxins are transported to the surface water and the groundwater. The aim of this study was to clarify the causes of fumonisin occurrence in aquatic ecosystems by examining the relation between mycotoxin contamination of crops and their levels in the aquatic environment. Water samples were collected from drainage ditches and wells or watercourses located in agricultural areas in the Wielkopolska region, Poland. Our research conducted on an annual basis showed the seasonal variability of fumonisin B1 concentration in the analyzed water samples, with the highest concentration in the post-harvest season (September to October) at 48.2 ng L(-1), and the lowest in winter and spring at 21.9 ng L(-1). Fumonisins B2 and B3 in water samples were not detected. Cereal samples were collected in the harvest season from each agricultural area close to tested water bodies. Mycotoxins were present in all cereal samples at concentrations from 43.3 to 1055.9 ng g(-1). Our results confirm that fumonisins are transported to aquatic systems by rainwater through soil. On the basis of available literature, this is the first report concerning the presence of fumonisin B1 in different aquatic environments. To date their ecotoxicological effects are largely unknown and require further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  2. Antibiotics in Crab Ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China: Occurrence, Temporal Variations, and Ecological Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are widely used in aquaculture, however, this often results in undesirable ecological effects. To evaluate the occurrence, temporal variations, and ecological risk of antibiotics in five crab ponds of Lake Guchenghu Basin, China, 44 antibiotics from nine classes were analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS. Twelve antibiotics belonging to six classes were detected in the aqueous phase of five crab ponds, among which sulfonamides and macrolides were the predominant classes, and six compounds (sulfamonomethoxine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, monensin, and florfenicol were frequently detected at high concentrations. In general, the antibiotic levels varied between different crab ponds, with the average concentrations ranging from 122 to 1440 ng/L. The antibiotic concentrations in crab ponds exhibited obvious seasonal variations, with the highest concentration and detection frequency detected in summer. Multivariate analysis showed that antibiotic concentrations were significantly correlated with environmental variables, such as total organic carbon, phosphate, ammonia nitrogen, and pH. Sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, erythromycin-H2O, and ciprofloxacin posed a high risk to algae, while the mixture of antibiotics could pose a high risk to aquatic organisms in the crab ponds. Overall, the usage of antibiotics in farming ponds should be comprehensively investigated and controlled to preserve a healthy aquaculture ecosystem.

  3. Limnology of Kharland (saline) ponds of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra in relation to prawn culture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, D N; Gaidhane, D M; Singh, H

    2006-01-01

    The coastal saline soils, Kharlands, have great potential for their use in aquaculture. This study has been taken up to understand the limnology of the ponds in Kharland area for assessing their prawn culture potential. This study was carried out during September, 1999 to August, 2001. Each Kharland pond has an area of 0.045 hectare. During the study, depth of pond water was 47.7 to 120.0 cm, temperature varied from 25.7 to 34.5 degrees C; transparency from nil to 65.0 cm; specific conductivity from 1.78 to 94.5 microS.cm(-1); total dissolved solids from 0.89 to 27.55 ppt; pH 5.42 to 8.25; dissolved oxygen 1.6 to 8 mg.l(-1); free carbon dioxide 10.00 to 44.00 mg.l(-1); total alkalinity 5.00 to 142.00 mg.l(-1); salinity 0.45 to 39.55 ppt; total hardness 245.00 to 5945.00; calcium 56.05 to 1827.6; magnesium 110.74 to 4507.75 mg.l(-1); dissolved organic matter 1.45 to 9.68 mg.l(-1); ammonia 1.00-8.00 microg.l(-1); nitrite nil to 20.00 micro l(-1) and nitrate 7.5 to 17.5 microg.l(-1). These Kharland ponds are unique in physio-chemical characteristics during their seasonal cycle. From July to October, these ponds have nearly freshwater while from November to May pond water becomes saline. Thus, there is a great possibility of taking up monoculture of both the freshwater and brackish water prawns as well as polyculture of prawns and fishes in the Kharland ponds.

  4. Determination of eight nitrosamines in water at the ng L-1 levels by liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripolles, Cristina; Pitarch, Elena; Sancho, Juan V.; Lopez, Francisco J.; Hernandez, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Eight N-nitrosamines in water by LC(APCI)MS/MS QqQ analysis. · Validation at two levels: 10 ng L -1 (LOQ) and 100 ng L -1 in drinking water. · Developed method applied to different types of water samples. · NDMA was the analyte more frequently detected and at the highest concentration levels. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a sensitive method for detection and quantification of eight N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor), N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), N-nitrosopirrolidine (NPyr), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip), N-nitroso-n-dipropylamine (NDPA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) in drinking water. The method is based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode with a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The simultaneous acquisition of two MS/MS transitions in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) for each compound, together with the evaluation of their relative intensity, allowed the simultaneous quantification and reliable identification in water at ppt levels. Empirical formula of the product ions selected was confirmed by UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS accurate mass measurements from reference standards. Prior to LC-MS/MS QqQ analysis, a preconcentration step by off-line SPE using coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges (by passing 500 mL of water sample) was necessary to improve the sensitivity and to meet regulation requirements. For accurate quantification, two isotope labelled nitrosamines (NDMA-d 6 and NDPA-d 14 ) were added as surrogate internal standards to the samples. The optimized method was validated at two concentration levels (10 and 100 ng L -1 ) in drinking water samples, obtaining satisfactory recoveries (between 90 and 120%) and precision (RSD -1 . The described methodology has been applied to different types of water samples: chlorinated from drinking water and wastewater treatment

  5. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g - 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g - 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g - 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

  6. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1975-03-01

    A Pu processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior in this ecosystem. About 8.1 kg of Pu was reported to have been discharged into waste trenches leading to the pond. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, 0.61 for 241 Am to 238 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Levels of Pu and Am in the interstitial water range from 0.5 to 13 pCi/g (dry wt. of sediment). For 238 Pu in pond water the mean concentration is 0.007 pCi/l, for 239 240 Pu it is 0.002 pCi/l, and for 241 Am it is 1.08 pCi/l. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments. (U.S.)

  7. Mitigation options for fish kills in L Lake and Pond C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1989-11-01

    This report concerns mitigation options for reducing or eliminating the fish kills that occur in L Lake and Pond C as a result of reactor operations. These kills occur when fish that have entered the discharge areas during outages are killed by the rapid rises in temperature that follow reactor re-starts. Factors that have been observed to influence the severity of the kills include the length of the outage, season during which the outage occurs, reactor power level, and size of the fish in the discharge area. Without mitigation, fish kills can be expected to occur in Pond C with approximately the same frequency and severity as in the past. Even in the absence of mitigation, however, it is unlikely that future fish kills in L Lake will be as severe as the large kill that occurred in December 1986. Fish abundance in Region 2 of L Lake (where severe kills occurred in the past) has declined over 90% since 1986, largely due to a reduction in the abundance of juvenile sunfish (which constituted approximately 99% of past kills). There are basically three categories of mitigation options: changes in reactor operations, methods to exclude fish from time discharge areas, and methods to promote the escapement of fish from the discharge area. These options vary in approach, scope, and anticipated expense. Most would need to be researched in greater depth before it would be possible to predict their effectiveness more definitively. While the options have the potential to greatly reduce mortalities, none can totally eliminate mortalities. The only way of ensuring the elimination of all mortalities is to reduce effluent temperatures to sublethal levels with properly designed and operated cooling technology. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitz A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Spitz,1 Marc Gittelman,2 Lawrence I Karsh,3 Sanja Dragnic,4 Ahmed M Soliman,5 Aditya Lele,6 Damian Gruca,7 Michael Norton4 1Orange County Urology Associates, Laguna Beach, CA, 221st Century Oncology/UroMedix-Aventura Division, Aventura, FL, 3The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, CO, 4US Medical Affairs, 5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 6Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA; 7Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA, a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels.Methods: In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49 or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151 depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks.Results: Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79% of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and

  9. Dissolved Oxygen Availability on Traditional Pond Using Silvofishery Pattern in Mahakam Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Fahmy Almadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of aquaculture system should meet the community’s basic need economically by taking into account the carrying capacity and environmental sustainability. The development of the environmentally friendly system such as silvofishery is being promoted by government however its yield has not reached the target yet. Dissolved oxygen availability is an important indicator which determines the success of the aquaculture system. The objective of the research was to determine dissolved oxygen availability on traditional pond systems using silvofishery pattern. Time series data collection was conducted once in 14 days with 2 measuring times; in the morning (06.00 am and in the evening (06.00 pm for 112 days. The research was conducted at four different silvofishery pond patterns, Pond Pattern 1 (0% mangrove canopy covered, Pond Pattern 2 (35% mangrove canopy covered, Pond Pattern 3 (67% mangrove canopy covered, and Pond Pattern 4 (75% mangrove canopy covered. Measurement was observed openly in the pond (in situ with parameters: dissolved oxygen, temperature, Water pH, Salinity, Transparency, Wind Speed, and Depth of Water Table, while chlorofil-a was ex-situ measured. The result from each parameter was compared to optimum concentration rate for shrimp growth. From the experiment, Pond Pattern 1 showed the most satisfaction results. Its dissolved oxygen availability during the research was ≥ 4 mg/L which was 5.88 mg/L ±0.48 mg/L in the evening (06.00 pm and 4.33 mg/L ±1.24 mg/L in the morning (06.00 am. It was also supported by optimum condition of other parameters such as temperature, Water pH, Salinity, Wind Speed, and Depth of Water Table. However, it was not supported by fertility and transparency of water. Thus, the traditional pattern of conservation still needs additional technology to maintain adequate dissolved oxygen availability for optimum shrimp growth.

  10. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of cadmium on feeding and growth of an Indian pond snail Lymnaea luteola L. under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of dissolved cadmium exposure on the survival, feeding, growth rates and accumulation in Indian pond snails Lymnaea luteola L. were examined for a period of 7 weeks. The concentrations of cadmium tested were 0, 10, 32, 100, 320, 560, and 1000 μg l -1 . Cadmium exposure significantly inhibited the feeding and growth rates. At higher Cd concentrations snails refused to consume food offered as plant Marsilia sp. leaves. Cadmium mainly accumulated in soft tissues in a dose-dependent manner. After 4 and 7 weeks of exposure, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of Cd was 10 μg l -1 and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 32 μg l -1 . Reduction of growth (decrease in wet weight) was noticed followed by a high mortality in higher Cd concentrations. Significant reduction in food consumption and growth rates was found at 32 μg l -1 and above Cd concentration. A significant relationship between Cd exposure and growth and feeding rates was noticed. The results obtained with these key aquatic organisms in the food chains complement those obtained with other aquatic organisms and gastropod snails. The findings of the present study and those of earlier studies suggested that Indian pond snail L. luteola are useful test organisms for ecotoxicology bioassays.

  11. Seasonal changes in submarine groundwater discharge to coastal salt ponds estimated using 226Ra and 228Ra as tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougham, A.L.; Moran, S.B.; Masterson, J.P.; Kelly, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal southern Rhode Island was estimated from measurements of the naturally-occurring radioisotopes 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600??y) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.75??y). Surface water and porewater samples were collected quarterly in Winnapaug, Quonochontaug, Ninigret, Green Hill, and Pt. Judith-Potter Ponds, as well as nearly monthly in the surface water of Rhode Island Sound, from January 2002 to August 2003; additional porewater samples were collected in August 2005. Surface water activities ranged from 12-83??dpm 100??L- 1 (60??dpm = 1??Bq) and 21-256??dpm 100??L- 1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. Porewater 226Ra activities ranged from 16-736??dpm 100??L- 1 (2002-2003) and 95-815??dpm 100??L- 1 (2005), while porewater 228Ra activities ranged from 23-1265??dpm 100??L- 1. Combining these data with a simple box model provided average 226Ra-based submarine groundwater fluxes ranging from 11-159??L m- 2 d- 1 and average 228Ra-derived fluxes of 15-259??L m- 2 d- 1. Seasonal changes in Ra-derived SGD were apparent in all ponds as well as between ponds, with SGD values of 30-472??L m- 2 d- 1 (Winnapaug Pond), 6-20??L m- 2 d- 1 (Quonochontaug Pond), 36-273??L m- 2 d- 1 (Ninigret Pond), 29-76??L m- 2 d- 1 (Green Hill Pond), and 19-83??L m- 2 d- 1 (Pt. Judith-Potter Pond). These Ra-derived fluxes are up to two orders of magnitude higher than results predicted by a numerical model of groundwater flow, estimates of aquifer recharge for the study period, and values published in previous Ra-based SGD studies in Rhode Island. This disparity may result from differences in the type of flow (recirculated seawater versus fresh groundwater) determined using each technique, as well as variability in porewater Ra activity. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Operation of a pond-cooler: the case of Berezovskaya GRES-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, O. G.; Kamoza, T. L.; Koyupchenko, I. N.; Savelyev, A. S.; Pen, R. Z.; Veselkova, N. S.; Kudryavtsev, M. D.

    2017-08-01

    Pond-coolers at heat and nuclear power stations are natural-technological systems, so the program of their monitoring should include the effect made by the SRPS (state regional power station) on the pond ecosystem, including thermal discharge of cooling water. The objectives of this study were development and implementation of a monitoring program for the cooling pond of Berezovskaya SRPS-1 on the chemical and biological water quality indicators and identification of patterns of the thermal and hydrochemical regime when operating the progressive power plant (from 1996 to 2015). The quality of the cooling water of the pond-cooler BGRES-1 was studied under full-scale conditions by selecting and analyzing the water samples of the pond in accordance with the principles of complexity, systematic observation, and consistency of timing their conduct with the characteristic hydrological phases. Processing of the obtained array of monitoring data by methods of mathematical statistics makes it possible to identify the main factors affecting the water quality of the pond. The data on water quality obtained during their monitoring and mathematical processing over a long time interval are the scientific basis for forecasting the ecological state of the pond, which is necessary to economically ensure the efficient energy production and safety of water use. Recommendations proposed by these authors, including those partially already implemented, have been to prevent the development of eutrophication processes in the pond-cooler: the construction of a dam that cuts off the main peat massif and cleaning the river banks forming the cooling pond.

  13. Effects of the herbicide metazachlor on macrophytes and ecosystem function in freshwater pond and stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Berghahn, R; Feibicke, M; Meinecke, S; Ottenströer, T; Schmiedling, I; Schmiediche, R; Schmidt, R

    2007-05-01

    The chloroacetamide metazachlor is a commonly used pre-emergent herbicide to inhibit growth of plants especially in rape culture. It occurs in surface and ground water due to spray-drift or run-off in concentrations up to 100 microgL(-1). Direct and indirect effects of metazachlor on aquatic macrophytes were investigated at oligo- to mesotrophic nutrient levels employing eight stream and eight pond indoor mesocosms. Five systems of each type were dosed once with 5, 20, 80, 200 and 500 microgL(-1) metazachlor and three ponds and three streams served as controls. Pronounced direct negative effects on macrophyte biomass of Potamogeton natans, Myriophyllum verticillatum and filamentous green algae as well as associated changes in water chemistry were detected in the course of the summer 2003 in both pond and stream mesocosms. Filamentous green algae dominated by Cladophora glomerata were the most sensitive organisms in both pond and stream systems with EC(50) ranging from 3 (streams) to 9 (ponds) microgL(-1) metazachlor. In the contaminated pond mesocosms with high toxicant concentrations (200 and 500 microgL(-1)), a species shift from filamentous green algae to the yellow-green alga Vaucheria spec. was detected. The herbicide effects for the different macrophyte species were partly masked by interspecific competition. No recovery of macrophytes was observed at the highest metazachlor concentrations in both pond and stream mesocosms until the end of the study after 140 and 170 days. Based on the lowest EC(50) value of 4 microgL(-1) for total macrophyte biomass, it is argued that single exposure of aquatic macrophytes to metazachlor to nominal concentrations >5 microgL(-1) is likely to have pronounced long-term effects on aquatic biota and ecosystem function.

  14. Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Al-Nimr, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ponds provide the most convenient and least expensive option for heat storage for daily and seasonal cycles. This is particularly important for a desalination facility, if steady and constant water production is required. If, in addition to high storage capacity, other favorable conditions exist, the salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are expected to be able to carry the entire load of a large-scale flash desalination plants without dependence upon supplementary sources. This paper presents a performance investigation of a SGSP coupled with desalination plant under Jordanian climatic conditions. This is particularly convenient in the Dead Sea region characterized by high solar radiation intensities, high ambient temperature most of the year, and by the availability of high concentration brine. It was found that a 3000 m 2 solar pond installed near the Dead Sea is able to provide an annual average production rate of 4.3 L min -1 distilled water compared with 3.3 L min -1 that would be produced by El Paso solar pond, which has the same surface area. Based on this study, solar ponds appear to be a feasible and an appropriate technology for water desalination near the Dead Sea in Jordan. -- Research highlights: → A performance investigation of a solar pond coupled with desalination plant. → Dead Sea area is characterized by availability of high solar radiation and brine. → The Dead Sea solar pond can provide production rate of 4.3 L min -1 . → El Paso solar pond has production rate of 3.32 L min -1 . The improvement is about 30%. → The solar pond with desalination investigated showed to be a feasible technology.

  15. Pond bank access as an approach for managing toxic cyanobacteria in beef cattle pasture drinking water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan E; Chislock, Michael F; Yang, Zhen; Barros, Mário U G; Roberts, John F

    2018-03-25

    Forty-one livestock drinking water ponds in Alabama beef cattle pastures during were surveyed during the late summer to generally understand water quality patterns in these important water resources. Since livestock drinking water ponds are prone to excess nutrients that typically lead to eutrophication, which can promote blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, we also assessed the threat of exposure to the hepatotoxin, microcystin. Eighty percent of the ponds studied contained measurable microcystin, while three of these ponds had concentrations above human drinking water thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 0.3 μg/L). Water quality patterns in the livestock drinking water ponds contrasted sharply with patterns typically observed for temperate freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Namely, we found several non-linear relationships between phytoplankton abundance (measured as chlorophyll) and nutrients or total suspended solids. Livestock had direct access to all the study ponds. Consequently, the proportion of inorganic suspended solids (e.g., sediment) increased with higher concentrations of total suspended solids, which underlies these patterns. Unimodal relationships were also observed between microcystin and phytoplankton abundance or nutrients. Euglenoids were abundant in the four ponds with chlorophyll concentrations > 250 μg/L (and dominated three of these ponds), which could explain why ponds with high chlorophyll concentrations would have low microcystin concentrations. Based on observations made during sampling events and available water quality data, livestock-mediated bioturbation is causing elevated total suspended solids that lead to reduced phytoplankton abundance and microcystin despite high concentrations of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Thus, livestock could be used to manage algal blooms, including toxic secondary metabolites, in their drinking water ponds by allowing them to walk in the

  16. Report on the effectiveness of flocculation for removal of 239Pu at concentrations of 1 pCi/L and 0.1 pCi/L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Bayhurst, G.K.; Mitchell, A.J.; Cisneros, M.R.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Attrep, M.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the effectiveness of flocculation for the removal of Pu from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pond waters spiked with 239 Pu at the 1.0 and 0.1 pCi/L level. The flocculation treatment procedure is described in detail. Results are presented for treatment studies for the removal of Pu from C-2 pond water spiked with 239 Pu and from distilled water spiked with 239 Pu

  17. The origin and fate of arsenic in coalbed natural gas-produced water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowder, J T; Kelleners, T J; Reddy, K J

    2010-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water contains small amounts of trace metals that can accumulate over time in produced water retention ponds. Within the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming, high concentrations of trace metals in pond water and their effect on shallow groundwater are potential concerns. A pond with a maximum As concentration of 146 microg L(-1) was studied in detail to determine the potential for groundwater pollution and to explain the cause for the high concentration of As. Infiltration characteristics, subsurface hydrology, our fall and pond water quality, isotope signatures, and trace metal balances were examined to assess the hydrology and geochemistry of the pond. The results indicated minimum or no infiltration of pond water and no measurable contamination of the shallow groundwater. The high As concentrations in the pond were determined to be the result of semi-continuous inputs of CBNG-produced water with low As concentrations (0.20-0.48 microg L(-1)), exasperated by low pond volumes during drought conditions. Because of reduced infiltration and high evaporation rates, As became concentrated over time. Reduced infiltration was most likely caused by the high sodium concentration and high sodium adsorption ratio of the CBNG-produced water, which disrupt soil structure. The findings for the pond and the techniques used may serve as a template for future impact assessments of other CBNG-produced water ponds and are relevant for the approximately 4000 ponds currently permitted in the PRB and for future ponds. Further studies are recommended in the use of playa landforms to store marginal-quality produced water.

  18. PSA Nadir of <0.5 ng/mL Following Brachytherapy for Early-Stage Prostate Adenocarcinoma is Associated With Freedom From Prostate-Specific Antigen Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Urology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Because limited information exists regarding whether the rate or magnitude of PSA decline following brachytherapy predicts long-term clinical outcomes, we evaluated whether achieving a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir (nPSA) <0.5 ng/mL following brachytherapy is associated with decreased PSA failure and/or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed our database of early-stage prostate adenocarcinoma patients who underwent brachytherapy, excluding those receiving androgen-deprivation therapy and those with <2 years follow-up. Median and mean pretreatment PSA were 6 ng/mL and 7.16 ng/mL, respectively. By clinical stage, 775 were low risk ({<=}T2a), 126 were intermediate risk (T2b), and 20 were high risk (>T2b). By Gleason score, 840 were low risk ({<=}6), 71 were intermediate risk (7), and 10 were high risk (>7). Patients were treated with brachytherapy only (I-125, n = 779, or Pd-103, n = 47), or brachytherapy + external-beam radiation therapy (n = 95). Median follow-up was 6.3 years. We noted whether nPSA <0.5 ng/mL was achieved and the time to achieve this nadir and tested for associations with pretreatment risk factors. We also determined whether this PSA endpoint was associated with decreased PSA failure or distant metastasis. Results: Absence of high-risk factors in clinical stage ({<=}T2b), Gleason score ({<=}7), and pretreatment PSA ({<=}20 ng/mL) was significantly associated with achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients achieving nPSA <0.5 ng/mL had significantly higher long-term freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) than nonresponders (5-year FFBF: 95.2 {+-} 0.8% vs. 71.5 {+-} 6.7%; p < 0.0005). Among responders, those who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had higher FFBF than those requiring >5 years (5-year FFBF: 96.7 {+-} 0.7% vs. 80.8 {+-} 4.6%; p < 0.0005). On multivariate analysis, patients who achieved nPSA <0.5 ng/mL in {<=}5 years had significantly higher FFBF than other

  19. High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8–10 and PSA Level ≤15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L. Christine; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) ≥8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS ≥8 and PSA level ≤15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

  20. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  1. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waajen, Guido; van Oosterhout, Frank; Douglas, Grant; Lürling, Miquel

    2016-06-15

    Many urban ponds experience detrimental algal blooms as the result of eutrophication. During a two year field experiment, the efficacy of five in situ treatments to mitigate eutrophication effects in urban ponds was studied. The treatments targeted the sediment phosphorus release and were intended to switch the ponds from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear-water state with a low phytoplankton biomass. Two eutrophic urban ponds were each divided into six compartments (300-400 m(2); 210-700 m(3)). In each pond the following treatments were tested: dredging in combination with biomanipulation (involving fish biomass control and the introduction of macrophytes) with and without the addition of the flocculant polyaluminiumchloride, interception and reduction of sediment phosphorus release with lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock(®)) in combination with biomanipulation with and without polyaluminiumchloride; biomanipulation alone; and a control. Trial results support the hypothesis that the combination of biomanipulation and measures targeting the sediment phosphorus release can be effective in reducing the phytoplankton biomass and establishing and maintaining a clear-water state, provided the external phosphorus loading is limited. During the experimental period dredging combined with biomanipulation showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.3 and 6.2 μg L(-1), compared to 268.9 and 52.4 μg L(-1) in the control compartments. Lanthanum-modified bentonite can be an effective alternative to dredging and in combination with biomanipulation it showed mean chlorophyll-a concentrations of 5.9 and 7.6 μg L(-1). Biomanipulation alone did not establish a clear-water state or only during a limited period. As the two experimental sites differed in their reaction to the treatments, it is important to choose the most promising treatment depending on site specific characteristics. In recovering the water quality status of urban ponds, continuing

  2. 2101-M pond closure plan. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izatt, R. D.; Lerch, R. E.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment.

  3. Water Quality Analysis Study Pond and Interim Storage for Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyah Sulistyani R; Husen Zamroni; Sudiyati

    2007-01-01

    Purification system of Storage facility of spent fuel which there is in Indonesia is integrated purification system. Reservoir pond of fuel contains approximately 995 m 3 demin water and in pond equipped with some of reservoir racks of spent fuel which must always avoid from factor-factor causing corrosion. In process of this purification system, water impurity which has been activation and also which is not is activation before will filtered and catch by passing of ion exchange so that will reduce conductivity and fuel coolant water activity. Water quality pond and canals links must fulfill specifications, among other: degree of acidity (pH) primary cooling water ranges from 5.5 and 6.5 ; its conductivity 1 - 8 μ S/cm, content analysis CI 0.03 - 0.06 ppm and NO 3 0.1 - 0.2 ppm, radionuclide activity Cs 137 742 Bq/l and Co 60 657 Bq/l and the temperature be kept of less than 40℃ to avoid from corrosion speed. (author)

  4. Water-quality and sediment-chemistry data of drain water and evaporation ponds from Tulare Lake Drainage District, Kings County, California March 1985 to March 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Trace element and major ion concentrations were measured in water samples collected monthly between March 1985 and March 1986 at the MD-1 pumping station at the Tulare Lake Drainage District evaporation ponds, Kings County, California. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides several times during the year. Salinity, as measured by specific conductance, ranged from 11,500 to 37,600 microsiemens/centimeter; total recoverable boron ranged from 4,000 to 16,000 micrg/L; and total recoverable molybdenum ranged from 630 to 2,600 microg/L. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium were 97 and 2 microg/L. Atrazine, prometone, propazine, and simazine were the only pesticides detected in water samples collected at the MD-1 pumping station. Major ions, trace elements, and selected pesticides also were analyzed in water and bottom-sediment samples from five of the southern evaporation ponds at Tulare Lake Drainage District. Water enters the ponds from the MD-1 pumping station at pond 1 and flows through the system terminating at pond 10. The water samples increased in specific conductance (21,700 to 90,200 microsiemens/centimeter) and concentrations of total arsenic (110 to 420 microg/L), total recoverable boron (12,000 to 80,000 microg/L) and total recoverable molybdenum (1,200 to 5,500 microg/L) going from pond 1 to pond 10, respectively. Pesticides were not detected in water from any of the ponds sampled. Median concentrations of total arsenic and total selenium in the bottom sediments were 4.0 and 0.9 microg/g, respectively. The only pesticides detected in bottom sediment samples from the evaporation ponds were DDD and DDE, with maximum concentration of 0.8 microg/kilogram. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  6. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site's river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site's river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft)

  7. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  8. Evaluation of winter resistance of age-1+ galician carp in Рrikarpattya ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region. Methodology. Analysis of the winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp was carried out at the base of the fish farm “Korop” during 2015-2017. Wintering took place in a 2.5 ha pond. Hydrochemical parameters were determined using general chemical tests. The temperature and oxygen regimes of water in ponds were determined by a thermo-oximeter. The material for the study were age-1+ Galician carp. Determination of fish culture parameters of the preparedness for wintering of the Galician carp was carried out according to the instructions for organizing the wintering of fish seeds in ponds. To analyze the physiological preparedness of carp for wintering, the method of zootechnical analysis was used. Findings. The stocking density of age-1+ Galician carp in the wintering pond was 1000 kg/ha. The average individual weight of fish seeds ranged from 1650 g during 2015-2016 season and 1760 g during 2016-2017. The condition factor of age-1+ Galician carp was within the normative values. During the wintering season, the chemical composition of the meat-fillet of the Galician carp at the second year of culturing was within the normative parameters. During wintering, the environmental conditions corresponded to the necessary fish culture requirements. The dissolved oxygen content in water during the winter period did not exceed the critical limits. The water temperature ranged from 1 ° C to 8 ° C. As a result of fish harvesting in the wintering pond, 1483 and 1291 specimens of age-2 Galician carp were obtained in 2016 and 2017, respectively. The average individual weight of fish was 1450 ± 191 g and 1528 ± 124 g. The total yield from wintering exceeded 90%. Originality. For the first time, an evaluation of winter resistance of age-1+ Galician carp in pond conditions of the Prykarpattya region was carried out. Practical value. The results of

  9. Determination of sub-ng g-1 levels of total inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2017-03-01

    A new and simple ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) procedure was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The various analytical variables affecting complex formation and extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The method is based on selective complex formation of As(III) and Se(IV) in the presence of excess As(V) and Se(VI) with toluidine red in the presence of tartaric acid at pH 4.5, and then extraction of the resulting condensation products into the micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether, Brij 35. Under optimised conditions, good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 4-225 and 12-400 ng l - 1 with limits of detection of 1.1 and 3.5 ng l - 1 for As(III) and Se(IV), respectively. The repeatability was better than 3.9% for both analytes (n = 10, 25 ng l - 1 ) while reproducibility ranged from 4.2% to 4.8%. The recoveries of As(III) and Se(IV) spiked at 25-100 ng l - 1 were in the range of 94.2-104.8%. After pre-concentration of a 5.0 ml sample, the sensitivity enhancement factors for As(III) and Se(IV) were 185 and 140, respectively. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) and spiked recovery experiments. The method was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable determination of total As and total Se by HG-AAS after pre-reduction with a mixture of L-cysteine and tartaric acid. Finally, the method was shown to be rapid and sensitive, with good results for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of total As and Se contents (as As(III) and Se(IV)) from food samples.

  10. [Studies on nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds around Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-ye; Ma, Xiu-ling; Yang, Gui-de; Chen, Zheng; Wu, Hong-lin; Xuan, Huai-xiang

    2010-07-01

    There are a lot of ponds around Chaohu Lake. According to location and runoff supply of ponds, the ponds are divided into three types: ponds inner vellage (PIV), ponds adjacent vellage (PAV) and ponds outer vellage (POV). The samples of water and sediment were collected from 136 ponds around Chaohu Lake and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in water and sediments were analyzed in this study. The results showed that mean contents of total nitrogen (TN), NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, total phosphorus (TP), soluble PO4(3-) -P and COD were 2.53, 0.65, 0.18, 0.02, 0.97, 0.38 and 51.58 mg x L(-1) in pond water, respectively; and mean contents of TN, NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, NO2- -N, TP, inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and loss of ignition (LOI) in pond sediment were 1575.36, 35.73, 13.30, 2.88, 933.19, 490.14, 414.75 mg x kg(-1) and 5.44%, respectively. The ponds of more than 90% presented eutrophication in the contents of total nitrogen and phosphorus in water. The contents of TN and NH4+ -N in water and sediment of PIV were significantly higher than that of POV. And the contents of inorganic nitrogen in pond water and sediment displayed a following order: NH4+ -N > NO3- -N > NO2- -N. Data analysis indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in water and sediment. The nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds mainly sourced farmlands and village land surface. The contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in ponds were affected by location and runoff supply of ponds. By retaining nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in runoff, the ponds can effectively decrease nutrient content into Chaohu Lake.

  11. Low percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a strong predictor of later detection of prostate cancer among Japanese men with serum levels of total PSA of 4.0 ng/mL or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mitsuharu; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Arai, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of the percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) on future prostate cancer risk. We examined serum total PSA (tPSA) and %fPSA annually in a prostate cancer-screening cohort between July 2001 and June 2011. Men with tPSA >4.0 ng/mL or tPSA of 2.0-4.0 ng/mL with %fPSA ≤12% were screened as positive and were recommended to undergo a biopsy. The study population consisted of 6368 men, aged 40-79 years, who had tPSA ≤4.0 ng/mL at initial screening and who subsequently underwent 1 or more screenings. We calculated the cumulative risk and hazard ratio of prostate cancer stratified by the initial %fPSA groups as quartiles of prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 119 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The lowest quartile of %fPSA (22.2%). For the subset with an initial tPSA ≤1.0 ng/mL, all men diagnosed with cancer had an initial %fPSA ≤33.3% (median). For the subset with tPSA >1.0 ng/mL, men with %fPSA ≤23.0% (median) had significantly higher risk for cancer than those with %fPSA >23.0% (P men with prostate cancer in whom pathologic findings were available, 79 (69.3%) had a Gleason score ≥3 + 4 = 7. A low %fPSA is a strong predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer among men with tPSA levels ≤4.0 ng/mL. Measurement of %fPSA might enhance the detection of high-grade cancer that warrants aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Road Salts as Environmental Constraints in Urban Pond Food Webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J.; Swan, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is an emerging environmental filter in urban aquatic ecosystems that receive chloride road salt runoff from vast expanses of impervious surface cover. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of chloride contamination on urban stormwater pond food webs through changes in zooplankton community composition as well as density and biomass of primary producers and consumers. From May – July 2009, we employed a 2×2×2 full-factorial design to manipulate chloride concentration (low = 177 mg L−1 Cl−/high = 1067 mg L−1 Cl−), gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles (presence/absence) and source of stormwater pond algae and zooplankton inoculum (low conductance/high conductance urban ponds) in 40, 600-L mesocosms. Road salt did serve as a constraint on zooplankton community structure, driving community divergence between the low and high chloride treatments. Phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll [a] µg L−1) in the mesocosms was significantly greater for the high conductance inoculum (Psalts among algal resources and zooplankton taxa, and further suggest that road salts can act as a significant environmental constraint on urban stormwater pond communities. PMID:24587259

  13. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  14. Dietary flexibility in three representative waterbirds across salinity and depth gradients in salt ponds of San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Tsao-Melcer, D. C.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fregien, S.; Athearn, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have existed in San Francisco Bay, California, for more than a century. In the past decade, most of the salt ponds have been retired from production and purchased for resource conservation with a focus on tidal marsh restoration. However, large numbers of waterbirds are found in salt ponds, especially during migration and wintering periods. The value of these hypersaline wetlands for waterbirds is not well understood, including how different avian foraging guilds use invertebrate prey resources at different salinities and depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary flexibility of waterbirds by examining the population number and diet of three feeding guilds across a salinity and depth gradient in former salt ponds of the Napa-Sonoma Marshes. Although total invertebrate biomass and species richness were greater in low than high salinity salt ponds, waterbirds fed in ponds that ranged from low (20 g l-1) to very high salinities (250 g l -1). American avocets (surface sweeper) foraged in shallow areas at pond edges and consumed a wide range of prey types (8) including seeds at low salinity, but preferred brine flies at mid salinity (40-80 g l-1). Western sandpipers (prober) focused on exposed edges and shoal habitats and consumed only a few prey types (2-4) at both low and mid salinities. Suitable depths for foraging were greatest for ruddy ducks (diving benthivore) that consumed a wide variety of invertebrate taxa (5) at low salinity, but focused on fewer prey (3) at mid salinity. We found few brine shrimp, common in higher salinity waters, in the digestive tracts of any of these species. Dietary flexibility allows different guilds to use ponds across a range of salinities, but their foraging extent is limited by available water depths. ?? 2009 USGS, US Government.

  15. Spatial organization of NG2 glial cells and astrocytes in rat hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-04-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ∼178, 364 μm(3) . The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and postrecording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The protective effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and insulin on nitric oxide inhibition and pathology in experimental diabetic rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, H.; Guven, G.; Tekin, N.; Akyuz, F.; Gurer, F.; Kucuk, F.; Ustuner, Mehmet C.; Yaylak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine on protective role of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and insulin on the liver in streptoozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This study was performed in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey in 2007. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups. These were untreated, diabetic control, STZ+insulin, STZ+L-NAME and STZ+insulin+L-NAME induced groups. The STZ was intraperitonally injected into 3 groups and includes insulin, L-NAME and their joint administrations as protective agents. The blood glucose and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined. The tissue samples were obtained at the end of the fourth week. The liver tissue distortions were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The serum glucose level was significantly higher in diabetic control (p=0.000), than the untreated group. The focal pseudo lobular structures without vena centralis increased portal fibrillary necrosis and bile duct stenosis with voagulation necrosis of the peripheral hepatocytes were more observed in diabetic group than the protective agent groups. In addition, insulin and L-NAME lead to hepatocyte regeneration and minimal mononuclear cell infiltration was noted. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibits NO level in STZ+L-NAME induced group. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester either alone or with insulin combination significantly attenuates the liver morphological disarrangements in STZ induced diabetic rats. (author)

  17. Waste Stabilisation Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Waste Stabilisation Ponds is the third volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely: facultative ponds anaerobic ponds aerated lagoons maturation ponds The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge managment for pond systems. About the series: The series is...

  18. Evaluation of the Eological Management and Enhancement Alernative for Remediation of the K1007-P1 Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-10-31

    An evaluation of the human and ecological risks associated with the P1 Pond and surrounding environs was conducted as part of the ETTP Site-Wide Remedial Investigation. The RI provides the basis for the focus on PCBs as the most important unacceptable risk to human and ecological health in the pond. Other P1 contaminants, media, or pathways of risk to receptors are identified in the RI, but are not addressed as a major risk reduction goal for the ETTP Site-Wide Feasibility Study. Therefore, the goal of the Ecological Management alternative is to reduce unacceptable risks associated with PCBs in fish. Many of the actions proposed for this alternative, however, are likely to reduce risks associated with other contaminants and their pathways. The high PCB concentrations in fish from the P1 Pond are most certainly due in part to the current ecological condition of the pond that maximizes PCB biomagnification. This basic assumption and the factors contributing to it were evaluated by conducting an intensive field study of the P1 Pond in the summer of 2004 (for a thorough presentation of current P1 Pond biological conditions, see Peterson et al. 2005). Major hypotheses regarding the P1 Pond's current fish community, PCB fate and transport processes, pond vegetation, and limnological conditions that contribute to the high PCB levels in fish were validated by the study (Appendix A), The results of the 2004 ecological assessment, in concert with long-term datasets obtained as part of the ETTP Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) and recent abiotic sampling for the RI, provide the basis for the assessment of current conditions.

  19. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asie, Erina Riak; Rumbang, Nyahu; Winarti, Sih; Sinaga, Soaloon

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag), P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag), P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag), and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag). The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L) from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag), L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag), L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag), and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag). Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1) fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2) the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  20. Optimisation of hydraulic performance to maximise faecal coliform removal in maturation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Nibis; Lloyd, Barry; Aldana, Gerardo

    2006-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim of improving faecal coliform (FC) and faecal streptococcus (FS) removal efficiencies in tertiary maturation stages of a sewage treatment plant in Southern England, where climatic conditions are sub-optimal. The research used intensive field assessments (bacteriological, general quality and hydraulic) to identify the parameters that affect the bacteriological quality of the effluent from three parallel maturation ponds (North, Central and South) of similar geometry and dimensions. An engineering intervention was carried out to convert the South pond to three channels to increase the L/W ratio from 9:1 to 79:1. Hydraulic tracer studies in the South pond with Rhodamine WT showed that the dispersion number 'd' was reduced from 0.37 (dispersed flow) to 0.074 by this intervention under similar flow conditions (4.5l/s). Hydraulic retention time was thus increased by 5h, delay in jet flow short-circuiting was increased from 2.5 to 17.5h thus increasing the exposure times for all elements. As a result of the intervention FC removal increased substantially. Maximum channel-lagoon efficiency of 99.84% was obtained at 4.5l/s and 19 degrees C, when exposure to sunlight was 17 h in summer. It is concluded that the channel configuration produces a higher hydraulic efficiency than conventional maturation ponds. It is therefore recommended as a viable engineering solution which permits a low-cost upgrading of plant performance, requiring no additional land, and with minimal maintenance costs.

  1. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C 0 , where the change in characteristic mass, m 0 , can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E max , maximum enhancement factor; E t , enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E v , enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps

  2. Impact of PSA density of transition zone as a potential parameter in reducing the number of unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with psa levels between 2.6 and 10.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hugo A Socrates; Iared, Wagner; Santos, José Eduardo Mourão; Solha, Raphael Sandes; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Ajzen, Sergio Aron

    2018-04-10

    To assess the accuracy of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) adjusted for the transition zone volume (PSATZ) in predicting prostate cancer by comparing the ability of several PSA parameters in predicting prostate cancer in men with intermediate PSA levels of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL and its ability to reduce unnecessary biopsies. This study included 656 patients referred for prostate biopsy who had a serum PSA of 2.6 - 10.0 ng/mL. Total prostate and transition zone volumes were measured by transrectal ultrasound using the prolate ellipsoid method. The clinical values of PSA, free-to-total (F/T) ratio, PSA density (PSAD) and PSATZ for the detection of prostate cancer were calculated and statistical comparisons between biopsy-positive (cancer) and biopsy-negative (benign) were conducted. Cancer was detected in 172 patients (26.2%). Mean PSA, PSATZ, PSAD and F/T ratio were 7.5 ng/mL, 0.68 ng/mL/cc. 0.25 ng/mL/cc and 0.14 in patients with prostate cancer and 6.29 ng/mL, 0.30 ng/mL/cc, 0.16 ng/mL/cc and 0.22 in patients with benign biopsies, respectively. ROC curves analysis demonstrated that PSATZ had a higher area under curve (0,838) than F/T ratio (0,806) (PPSA. Compared to other PSA related parameters, it was better in differentiating between prostate cancer and benign prostatic enlargement. Also, PSATZ could reduce a significant number of unnecessary biopsies. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  3. Heavy metal composition in stormwater and retention in ponds dependent on pond age, design and catchment type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J.; Grudinina, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals have toxic effects on flora and fauna in the aquatic environments and are of great concern in stormwater. Heavy metal runoff was studied in 37 stormwater ponds in Denmark with varying heavy metal load, catchment type and pond design. The studied metals were Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn...... difficult to retain. The removal efficiency in the ponds varied considerably, with the highest retention of Pb, Ni and Zn due to higher particulate fraction. The retention increased with increased pond volume-to-reduced catchment area ratio. In addition, the pond age affected the efficiency; whereas ponds...... less than 1-2 years efficiently removed all metals, 30-40-year-old ponds only removed Pb, Ni and Zn, but steeply decreasing over the years. Physical parameters such as pond size, age and sedimentation patterns were found to play a more significant role in the removal compared with chemical parameters...

  4. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riak Asie Erina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag, P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag, P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag, and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag. The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag, L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag, L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag, and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag. Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1 fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2 the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  5. Effects of water physico-chemical parameters on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus growth in earthen ponds in Teso North Sub-County, Busia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agano J. Makori

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-scale fish farmers in developing countries are faced with challenges owing to their limited information on aquaculture management. Nile tilapia farmers in Teso North Sub-County recorded lower yields than expected in 2009 despite having been provided with required inputs. Water quality was suspected to be the key factor responsible for the low yields. This study sought to assess the effects of earthen pond water physico-chemical parameters on the growth of Nile tilapia in six earthen fish ponds under semi-intensive culture system in Teso North Sub-County. The study was longitudinal in nature with pond water and fish being the units of analysis. Systematic sampling was used to select five ponds while a control pond was purposively selected based on its previously high harvest. Four ponds were fed by surface flow and two by underground water. Each pond was fertilized and stocked with 900 fry of averagely 1.4 g and 4.4 cm. Physico-chemical parameters were measured in-situ using a multi-parameter probe. Sixty fish samples were randomly obtained from each pond fortnightly for four months using a 10 mm mesh size and measured, weighed and returned into the pond. Mean range of physico-chemical parameters were: dissolved oxygen (DO 4.86–10.53 mg/l, temperature 24-26 °C, pH 6.1–8.3, conductivity 35–87 μS/cm and ammonia 0.01–0.3 mg/l. Temperature (p = 0.012 and conductivity (p = 0.0001 levels varied significantly between ponds. Overall Specific Growth Rate ranged between 1.8% (0.1692 g/day and 3.8% (1.9 g/day. Ammonia, DO and pH in the ponds were within the optimal levels for growth of tilapia, while temperature and conductivity were below optimal levels. As temperature and DO increased, growth rate of tilapia increased. However, increase in conductivity, pH and ammonia decreased fish growth rate. Temperature and DO ranging between 27 and 30 °C and 5–23 mg/l, respectively, and SGR of 3.8%/day and above are

  6. Effects of pond draining on biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usio, Nisikawa; Imada, Miho; Nakagawa, Megumi; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Takamura, Noriko

    2013-12-01

    Farm ponds have high conservation value because they contribute significantly to regional biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Japan pond draining is a traditional management method that is widely believed to improve water quality and eradicate invasive fish. In addition, fishing by means of pond draining has significant cultural value for local people, serving as a social event. However, there is a widespread belief that pond draining reduces freshwater biodiversity through the extirpation of aquatic animals, but scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of pond draining is lacking. We conducted a large-scale field study to evaluate the effects of pond draining on invasive animal control, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity relative to different pond-management practices, pond physicochemistry, and surrounding land use. The results of boosted regression-tree models and analyses of similarity showed that pond draining had little effect on invasive fish control, water quality, or aquatic biodiversity. Draining even facilitated the colonization of farm ponds by invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), which in turn may have detrimental effects on the biodiversity and water quality of farm ponds. Our results highlight the need for reconsidering current pond management and developing management plans with respect to multifunctionality of such ponds. Efectos del Drenado de Estanques sobre la Biodiversidad y la Calidad del Agua en Estanques de Cultivo. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Vapor generation and atom traps: Atomic absorption spectrometry at the ng/L level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ataman, O. Yavuz [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: ataman@metu.edu.tr

    2008-08-15

    Atom-trapping atomic absorption spectrometry is a technique that allows detection at the ng/L level for several analytes such as As, Se, Sb, Pb, Bi, Cd, In, Tl, Te, Sn and Hg. The principle involves generation of volatile species, usually hydrides, trapping these species on the surface of an atom trap held at an optimized temperature and, finally, revolatilizing the analyte species by rapid heating of the trap and transporting them in a carrier gas to a heated quartz tube, as commonly used with hydride generation AAS systems. A transient signal having, in most cases, a full width at half maximum of less than 1 s is obtained. The atom trap may be a quartz surface or a W-coil; the former is heated externally and the latter is heated resistively. Both collection and revolatilization temperatures are optimized. In some cases, the W-coil itself is used as an electrothermal atomizer and a heated quartz tube is then not needed. The evolution of these traps starts with the well-known Watling's slotted quartz tube (SQT), continues with atom trapping SQT and finally reaches the present traps mentioned above. The analytical figures of merit for these traps need to be standardized. Naturally, enhancement is on characteristic concentration, C{sub 0}, where the change in characteristic mass, m{sub 0}, can be related to trapping efficiency. Novel terms are suggested for E, enhancement factor; such as E{sub max}, maximum enhancement factor; E{sub t}, enhancement for 1.0 minute sampling and E{sub v}, enhancement for 1.0 mL of sample. These figures will allow easy comparison of results from different laboratories as well as different analytes and/or traps.

  8. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  9. Mercury in the atmosphere, snow and melt water ponds in the North Atlantic Ocean during Arctic summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspmo, Katrine; Temme, Christian; Berg, Torunn; Ferrari, Christophe; Gauchard, L Pierre-Alexis; Fain, Xavier; Wibetoe, Grethe

    2006-07-01

    Atmospheric mercury speciation measurements were performed during a 10 week Arctic summer expedition in the North Atlantic Ocean onboard the German research vessel RV Polarstern between June 15 and August 29, 2004. This expedition covered large areas of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans between latitudes 54 degrees N and 85 degrees N and longitudes 16 degrees W and 16 degrees E. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and mercury associated with particles (Hg-P) were measured during this study. In addition, total mercury in surface snow and meltwater ponds located on sea ice floes was measured. GEM showed a homogeneous distribution over the open North Atlantic Ocean (median 1.53 +/- 0.12 ng/m3), which is in contrast to the higher concentrations of GEM observed over sea ice (median 1.82 +/- 0.24 ng/m3). It is hypothesized that this results from either (re-) emission of mercury contained in snow and ice surfaces that was previously deposited during atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDE) in the spring or evasion from the ocean due to increased reduction potential at high latitudes during Arctic summer. Measured concentrations of total mercury in surface snow and meltwater ponds were low (all samples RGM and Hg-P without a significant diurnal variability. These results indicate that the production and deposition of these reactive mercury species do not significantly contribute to the atmospheric mercury cycle in the North Atlantic Ocean during the Arctic summer.

  10. Pond of Illusion: Interacting through Mixed Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    Pond of Illusion is a mixed reality installation where a virtual space (the pond) is injected between two real spaces. The users are in either of the real spaces, and they can see each other through windows in the virtual space as illustrated in Figure 1(left). The installation attracts people...... to a large display in either of the real spaces by allowing them to feed virtual fish swimming in the pond. Figure 1(middle) shows how a Microsoft Kinect mounted on top of the display is used for detecting throw motions, which triggers virtual breadcrumbs to be thrown into the pond for feeding the nearby...... fish. Of course, the fish may not be available because they are busy eating what people have thrown into the pond from the other side....

  11. 78 FR 56921 - South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-F2013227943] South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, Phase 2 (Ponds R3, R4, R5, S5, A1, A2W, A8, A8S, A19... South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project and consists of restoring and enhancing over 2,000 acres of... Pollution Control Plant located at 700 Los Esteros Road, San Jose, California. The details of the public...

  12. Phytosynthetic bacteria (PSB) as a water quality improvement mechanism in saline-alkali wetland ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-jun; Hu, Weng-Ying; Li, Quan-Yi

    2002-07-01

    The efficiency of phytosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to improve the water quality in saline-alkali ponds was studied, the result showed that (1) PSB application could increase the content of DO, NO3-(-)N and effective phosphorus (EP) in ponds; (2) the changes of COD were not evident, just effective in later period after PSB application; (3) PSB application could decrease the contents of NH4-(-)N (NH3-N), NO2-(-)N; (4) PSB application could improve the structure of the effective nitrogen (EN) and EP, stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, and increase primary productivity, and finally increase the commercial profits of ponds because of the increase of EP and the decrease of EN contents; (5) the effect-exerting speed of PSB was slower, but the effect-sustaining time was longer; (6) the appropriate concentration of PSB application in saline-alkali wetland ponds was 10 x 10(-6) mg/L, one-time effective period was more than 15 days. So PSB was an efficient water quality improver in saline-alkali ponds.

  13. Modeling Nitrogen Decrease in Water Lettuce Ponds from Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Gitta Agnes; Sunarsih

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents about the dynamic modeling of the Water Lettuce ponds as a form of improvement from the Water Hyacinth ponds. The purpose of this paper is to predict nitrogen decrease and nitrogen transformation in Water Lettuce ponds integrated with Waste Stabilization Ponds. The model consists of 4 mass balances, namely Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON), Particulate Organic Nitrogen (PON), ammonium (NH4+), Nitrate and Nitrite (NOx). The process of nitrogen transformation which considered in a Water Lettuce ponds, namely hydrolysis, mineralization, nitrification, denitrification, plant and bacterial uptake processes. Numerical simulations are performed by giving the values of parameters and the initial values of nitrogen compounds based on a review of previous studies. Numerical results show that the rate of change in the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the integration ponds of waste stabilization and water lettuce decreases and reaches stable at different times.

  14. Studies on the primary productivity of a polluted mangrove pond in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary productivity of a polluted mangrove pond in Lagos was investigated for six months (October 2010-March 2011) using the chlorophyll-a method. Air and water temperatures were high (≥21°C) while transparency was lower than 11.5 cm at the mangrove pond. Total suspended solids were ≥2.0 mg/L while total ...

  15. Defining the appropriate radiation dose for pretreatment PSA no. <=no. 10 ng/mL prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinover, Wayne H.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether a dose response exists for biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) control in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) no. =no. 7600 cGy. Median dose in these three groups was 7067 cGy, 7278 cGy, and 7734 cGy, respectively. Univariate analysis was performed to determine differences in bNED control (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] Consensus Guidelines definition of failure) by dose group for the entire cohort, for 310 good prognosis patients (T1-T2A, Gleason score 2-6, absence of PNI), and for 178 poor prognosis patients (T2B-T3 or Gleason score 7-10 or presence of PNI) . Multivariate analysis (MVA) was performed to determine if dose was an independent predictor of bNED control. Median follow-up was 36 months. Results: A dose response was not demonstrated for the entire group of patients with pretreatment PSA no. =no. 7600 cGy were associated with 5-year bNED control rates of 73%, 86%, and 89%, respectively (p = 0.12). MVA demonstrated prognosis group (p = 0.038) to be the only independent predictor of bNED control. Good prognosis patients had a 5-year bNED of 85% and no dose response was seen. The subgroup of poor prognosis patients demonstrated a 5-year bNED control rate of 81% and a dose response was seen for those receiving no. >=no. 7600 cGy, compared to the two lower dose groups (94% vs. 75% vs. 70%; p = 0.0062). MVA for the poor prognosis subset demonstrated dose (p = 0.01) to be the only independent predictor for improved bNED control. Conclusions: The poor prognosis subset of PSA no. <=no. 10 ng/mL prostate cancer patients benefit from dose escalation. A dose response is not demonstrated for prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA no. <=no. 10 ng/mL and other favorable features

  16. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  17. Interactions of an insecticide with competition and pond drying in amphibian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Amphibian populations are often imbedded in agricultural landscapes. Therefore the potential for contamination of their habitat is considerable. Our study examined the effects of an insecticide (carbaryl, a neurotoxin), on larval amphibian communities experiencing natural stresses of competition for resources, predation, and pond drying. In a set of experimental ponds, tadpoles of three anuran species (southern leopard frog [Rana sphenocephala], plains leopard frog [R. blairi], and the Woodhouse's toad [Bufo woodhousii]) were added to 1000-L ponds containing leaf litter, plankton, two newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), and four overwintered green frog (R. clamitans) tadpoles. We manipulated the overall tadpole density (low or high), pond hydroperiod (constant or drying), and chemical exposure (0, 3.5, 5.0, or 7.0 mg/L carbaryl) of the ponds. We measured mass, time, and survival to metamorphosis to determine treatment effects. Carbaryl positively affected Woodhouse's toad survival, although it had a negligible effect on both leopard frog species. Tadpole density interacted with the chemical treatment: Proportionately more Woodhouse's toads survived to metamorphosis in high-density environments than in low-density or control environments. Greater survival may be an indirect effect of increased algal food resources from carbaryl exposure. Most newts lost mass over the course of the experiment, although ponds with drying hydroperiods and high anuran density were the least favorable environments. Overwintered green frogs exposed to carbaryl had longer larval periods on average than did green frogs in control ponds. Our study demonstrated that even sublethal, short-lived contaminants can alter natural communities in ways that cannot be predicted from simple, one-factor studies.

  18. Wintertime Emissions from Produced Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.; Lyman, S.; Mansfield, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Every year oil and gas drilling in the U.S. generates billions of barrels of produced water (water brought to the surface during oil or gas production). Efficiently disposing of produced water presents a constant financial challenge for producers. The most noticeable disposal method in eastern Utah's Uintah Basin is the use of evaporation ponds. There are 427 acres of produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin, and these were used to evaporate more than 5 million barrels of produced water in 2012, 6% of all produced water in the Basin. Ozone concentrations exceeding EPA standards have been observed in the Uintah Basin during winter inversion conditions, with daily maximum 8 hour average concentrations at some research sites exceeding 150 parts per billion. Produced water contains ozone-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) which escape into the atmosphere as the water is evaporated, potentially contributing to air quality problems. No peer-reviewed study of VOC emissions from produced water ponds has been reported, and filling this gap is essential for the development of accurate emissions inventories for the Uintah Basin and other air sheds with oil and gas production. Methane, carbon dioxide, and VOC emissions were measured at three separate pond facilities in the Uintah Basin in February and March of 2013 using a dynamic flux chamber. Pond emissions vary with meteorological conditions, so measurements of VOC emissions were collected during winter to obtain data relevant to periods of high ozone production. Much of the pond area at evaporation facilities was frozen during the study period, but areas that actively received water from trucks remained unfrozen. These areas accounted for 99.2% of total emissions but only 9.5% of the total pond area on average. Ice and snow on frozen ponds served as a cap, prohibiting VOC from being emitted into the atmosphere. Emissions of benzene, toluene, and other aromatic VOCs averaged over 150 mg m-2 h-1 from unfrozen pond

  19. Samples of Asteroid Surface Ponded Deposits in Chondritic Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Lee, R.; Le, L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the many unexpected observations of asteroid 433 Eros by the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) mission was the many ponds of fine-grained materials [1-3]. The ponds have smooth surfaces, and define equipotential surfaces up to 10's of meters in diameter [4]. The ponds have a uniformly sub-cm grain size and appear to be cohesive or indurated to some degree, as revealed by slumping. The ponds appear to be concentrated within 30 degrees of the equator of Eros, where gravity is lowest. There is some insight into the mineralogy and composition of the ponds surfaces from NEAR spectroscopy [2,4,5,6]. Compared to the bulk asteroid, ponds: (1) are distinctly bluer (high 550/760 nm ratio), (2) have a deeper 1um mafic band, (3) have reflectance elevated by 5%.

  20. Determination of musks and other fragrance compounds at ng/L levels using CLSA (closed loop stripping analysis) and GC/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjans, D; Ventura, F

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA), a suitable tool for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds at low trace levels (ng/l), has been used to determine and quantify seven selected musks and two fragrances (Acetyl cedrene and Amberonne). The obtained extracts are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operating in the SIM mode. Quality parameters such as limit of detection; matrix effects; precision expressed as repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations of the method and an estimation of the uncertainty have been evaluated. The method has been applied to the analysis of wastewater effluents, surface water and tap water from different places in Europe. All samples contained differents musks at ng/l levels with the polycyclic musks Galaxolide and Tonalide and both fragrances, Amberonne and Acetyl cedrene, being the most abundant. These results suggest the importance of studying and controlling the presence of these ubiquitous environmental compounds in water systems.

  1. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  2. Effect of low quality effluent from wastewater stabilization ponds to receiving bodies, case of Kilombero sugar ponds and Ruaha river, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machibya, Magayane; Mwanuzi, Fredrick

    2006-06-01

    A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body). The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river) was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant) were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River) was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO) requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 - 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds) is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds) could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  3. Effect of Low Quality Effluent from Wastewater Stabilization Ponds to Receiving Bodies, Case of Kilombero Sugar Ponds and Ruaha River, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Mwanuzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a sewage system at Kilombero Sugar Company to review its design, configuration, effectiveness and the quality of influent and effluent discharged into the Ruaha river (receiving body. The concern was that, the water in the river, after effluent has joined the river, is used as drinking water by villages located downstream of the river. Strategic sampling at the inlet of the oxidation pond, at the outlet and in the river before and after the effluent has joined the receiving body (river was undertaken. Samples from each of these locations were taken three times, in the morning, noon and evening. The sample were then analysed in the laboratory using standard methods of water quality analysis. The results showed that the configuration and or the layout of the oxidation ponds (treatment plant were not in accordance with the acceptable standards. Thus, the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into the receiving body (Ruaha River was in the order of 41 mg/l and therefore not meeting several standards as set out both by Tanzanian and international water authorities. The Tanzanian water authorities, for example, requires that the BOD5 of the effluent discharged into receiving bodies be not more that 30 mg/l while the World Health Organization (WHO requires that the effluent quality ranges between 10 – 30 mg/l. The paper concludes that proper design of treatment plants (oxidation ponds is of outmost importance especially for factories, industries, camps etc located in rural developing countries where drinking water from receiving bodies like rivers and lakes is consumed without thorough treatment. The paper further pinpoint that both owners of treatment plants and water authorities should establish monitoring/management plan such that treatment plants (oxidation ponds could be reviewed regarding the change on quantity of influent caused by population increase.

  4. Pond-aquifer flow and water availability in the vicinity of two coastal area seepage ponds, Glynn and Bulloch Counties, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Rumman, Malek Abu

    2005-01-01

    /min at the end of the test (low pond stage and high hydraulic gradient). At the Bulloch County pond site, values ranged from -17.7 gal/min at the beginning of the test to 15 gal/min at the end of the test. Results at the two pond sites indicate that the use of excavated seepage ponds as sources for irrigation supply is limited by pond-storage volume and low net ground-water seepage rates during periods of low precipitation. Pumps withdrawing 1,000 gal/min for 10 hours per dayunder climatic and hydrologic conditions similar to those observed during pond pumping tests at each sitewould drain the Glynn County pond within 30 days and the Bulloch County pond within 3.5 days. Because the two pond sites are considered to represent the extremes of likely conditions to be encountered in the coastal Georgia area, it is likely that other seepage ponds would have similar storage-depletion rates.

  5. Removal of Chromium and Cadmium from Wastewater in Waste Stabilization Ponds, Yazd-Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Samaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have destructive and irreversible effects on the human, plants and animals. Some industries in Yazd enter industrial wastewater to municipal wastewater collection system. This can lead to high levels of heavy metals in wastewater and in turn in the wastewater treatment plant effluent. Methods: This study was carried out during four months from December 22, 2009 to May 20, 2010. The experiment was performed on the inflow, outlet of anaerobic pond and first and second facultative ponds of wastewater treatment plant and then transferred to the laboratory and measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The results of the experiments showed that the average cadmium concentrations in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0066, 0.0087, 0.0076, and 0.0083μg/l, respectively. The average amounts of chromium in the inflow, anaerobic pond outlet, and first and second facultative pond outlet were 0.0076, 0.0065, 0.0043, and 0.0056 μg/l, respectively. Cadmium concentration in the effluent was higher than standard. Conclusion: The comparison of the obtained data with Iranian standards for wastewater treatment for reuse in irrigation shows that the cadmium concentration exceeded the standard and the chromium concentration was lower than the standard. Therefore, it is not suitable for reuse in the crop farms and aquatic life

  6. Mechanisms for parasites removal in a waste stabilisation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Roberto; Blanco, Saúl; Torres-Villamizar, Linda A; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    A waste stabilisation pond (WSP) system formed by two anaerobic ponds, a facultative pond and a maturation pond was studied from December 2003 to September 2004 in north-western Spain in order to evaluate its efficiency in the removal of faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci), coliphages, helminth eggs and protozoan (oo)cysts (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). Furthermore, sediment samples were collected from the bottom of the ponds to assess the settling rates and thus determine the main pathogen removal mechanisms in the WSPs system. The overall removal ranged from 1.4 log units for coliphages in the cold period to 5.0 log units for E. coli in the hot period. Cryptosporidium oocysts were reduced by an average of 96%, Giardia cysts by 98% and helminth eggs by 100%. The anaerobic ponds showed significantly higher surface removal rates (4.6, 5.2 and 3.7 log (oo)cysts/eggs removed m(-2) day(-1), respectively) than facultative and maturation ponds. Sunlight and water physicochemical conditions were the main factors influencing C. parvum oocysts removal both in the anaerobic and maturation ponds, whereas other factors like predation or natural mortality were more important in the facultative pond. Sedimentation, the most commonly proposed mechanism for cyst removal had, therefore, a negligible influence in the studied ponds.

  7. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  8. Ecological conditions of ponds situated on blast furnace slag deposits located in South Gare Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Teesside, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, E; Davies, S; Perkins, B; Lamb, H; Hermanson, M; Soares, A; Stephenson, T

    2015-06-01

    Slag, a by-product from the iron and steel industry, has a range of applications within construction and is used in wastewater treatment. Historically considered a waste material, little consideration was given to the environmental impacts of its disposal. South Gare (a Site of Special Scientific Interest) located at the mouth of the Tees estuary, UK, formed on slag deposits used to create a sea wall and make the land behind permanent. Over time, ponds formed in depressions with the water chemistry, being significantly impacted by the slag deposits. Calcium levels reached 504 mg/L, nitrate 49.0 mg/L and sulphate 1,698 mg/L. These levels were also reflected in the composition of the sediment. pH (5.10-9.90) and electrical conductivity (2,710-3,598 µS/cm) were variable but often notably high. Pb, Cu and Cd were not present within the water, whilst Zn ranged from 0.027 to 0.37 mg/L. Heavy metal levels were higher in surface sediments. Zinc was most dominant (174.3-1,310.2 mg/L) followed by Pb (9.9-431 mg/L), Cu (8.4-41.8 mg/L) and Cd (0.4-1.1 mg/L). A sediment core provided a historical overview of the ponds. The ponds were unfavourable for aquatic biodiversity and unsuitable for drinking water abstraction.

  9. PYROLYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS OBTAINED FROM HIGH RATE ALGAE PONDS APPLIED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda eVargas E Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41,8 gm-2day-1 in pond A and at 47.1 gm-2day-1 in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solids removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60ml/min. The system was operated at 400°C, 500°C and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  10. Pyrolysis of Algal Biomass Obtained from High-Rate Algae Ponds Applied to Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas e Silva, Fernanda, E-mail: fervs@globo.com; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto [Institute of Hydraulic Research, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2015-06-30

    This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high-rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP) were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3 mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735 mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41.8 g·m{sup −2} day{sup −1} in pond A and at 47.1 g·m{sup −2} day{sup −1} in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solid removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60 ml/min. The system was operated at 400, 500, and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water) production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  11. Pyrolysis of Algal Biomass Obtained from High-Rate Algae Ponds Applied to Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas e Silva, Fernanda; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of the pyrolysis of algal biomass obtained from high-rate algae ponds treating sewage. The two high-rate algae ponds (HRAP) were built and operated at the São João Navegantes Wastewater Treatment Plant. The HRAP A was fed with raw sewage while the HRAP B was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The HRAP B provided higher productivity, presenting total solids concentration of 487.3 mg/l and chlorophyll a of 7735 mg/l. The algal productivity in the average depth was measured at 41.8 g·m −2 day −1 in pond A and at 47.1 g·m −2 day −1 in pond B. Algae obtained from the HRAP B were separated by the process of coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation. In the presence of alum, a separation efficiency in the range of 97% solid removal was obtained. After centrifugation the biomass was dried and comminuted. The biofuel production experiments were conducted via pyrolysis in a tubular quartz glass reactor which was inserted in a furnace for external heating. The tests were carried out in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at a flow rate of 60 ml/min. The system was operated at 400, 500, and 600°C in order to determine the influence of temperature on the obtained fractional yields. The studies showed that the pyrolysis product yield was influenced by temperature, with a maximum liquid phase (bio-oil and water) production rate of 44% at 500°C, 45% for char and around 11% for gas.

  12. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

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    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  13. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

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    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  14. Genotoxic Assessment of Some Inorganic Compounds in Desert Pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) in the Evaporation Pond from a Geothermal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Galván, Miguel; Arellano-García, Evarista; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Daesslé, Luis Walter

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of micro nucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) from a geothermal effluent pond is determined and compared to organisms kept in an aquarium. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes found in pupfish from the geothermal pond is 2.75 (±2.09) and only 0.44 (±0.52) in captivity organisms. Dissolved As in the ponds doubles the 340 µg L -1 US-EPA acute quality criteria for aquatic life and Hg equals the 1.77 µg L -1 chronic criteria. The organisms with high MNE also have significantly high Se, As and Hg concentrations in muscle and liver. Compared to international maximum allowable limits for fish consumption, there is 81× enrichment for Se, 6× for As and 5× for Hg. Although Se is not significantly enriched in water, it is likely that its bioaccumulation occurs via feeding of detritus. The desert pupfish has a significant resistance to extreme metal accumulations and to recover under unpolluted conditions.

  15. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  16. FEATURES OF PONDS ECOSYSTEM WHEN ECHINACEA PURPUREA (ECHINACEA PURPUREA L. MOENCH WERE USING IN CARP FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dobrjanska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Definition fish productivity of the experimental ponds, fixed set of chemical parameters, that are specific to the environmental condition of water, which is the process of growing fish in a certain relation to it, and the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different organs and tissues of carp. Methodology. The ponds was three breed groups one-years carp average weight 39,7 g (hybrid of carp and wild carp, crossbreed frames carp, lyubin scaly carp with planting density 1000 ind./ha. Control group of carp was fed extruded feed containing 20 % protein, and research group ― the same feed, which was added in the manufacturing process, chopped dried Echinacea purpurea in the amount of 1 %. The duration of the experiment was 86 days. Definition of hydro-chemical parameters was performed by standard methods in analytical chemistry. Quantitative determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water and the organs and tissues of fish was performed by direct absorption solution in propane-butane air flames using absorption spectrophotometer C-115-M1. Findings. It was reviewed ecological status of water bodies. Found that when used in feeding carp Echinacea purpurea increased fish productivity, reduced cost of feed for growing. Chemical composition of experimental ponds water, while virtually unchanged. The comparative characteristics of heavy metals in organs and tissues carp in this part of the diet. Originality. At first time investigated the influence of Echinacea purpurea by adding it to feed on fish productivity, accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of carp. Practical value. Fish productivity in the experimental ponds was higher by 20,4 % relative to control. Costs of feed per pound of gain decreased by 13,3 % when was used in fish feeding chopped dried Echinacea purpurea. Almost all metals accumulated in the organs and tissues of experimental groups of carp in a somewhat lesser extent.

  17. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  18. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  19. The role of NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathway in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis of early diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the function and mechanism of the NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathways which exists in the retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in diabetes mellitus(DMrats. METHODS: Some healthy SD rats were operated by means of single intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin based on the standard of 50mg/kg wight, after that the blood sugar value was greater than 16.7mmol/L as DM model, then randomly divided into 3 groups, each group was 10 rats. In addition to take 10 healthy SD rats as control group. Four groups of rats were bilaterally eyeball intravitreal injection in turn with NgR-siRNA virus 10μL(siRNA group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(DM group, NgR-siRNA virus-negative-control solution 10μL(siRNA blank group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(normal control group, and fed normally. During that time, some life indexes like blood glucose, body mass, etc. were measured and recorded. After 12wk, the expression of NgR and Rhoa, HE staining, and TUNNEL staining were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Western blot analysis: compared with normal control group, the expression of NgR and Rhoa in DM group and siRNA blank group increased significantly(PP>0.05; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the expression of those proteins significantly lowered in siRNA group. HE staining: compared with normal control group, some extent ganglion cells arranged disorder, irregular shape, spacing not consistent were all found in three groups of model rats; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, there was some improvement in siRNA group of ganglion cells about the order and shape size. TUNEL staining: compared with normal control group, there were retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in all of three groups of model rats. Compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the number of retinal ganglion cells apoptotic cells was less, and the shape of cells had improved significantly in siRNA group. CONCLUSION: In the DM phase, the expression of NgR and

  20. uG-LilyPond - Floating Plant Pond for Microgravity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed μG-LilyPond is an autonomous environmentally controlled floating plant cultivation system for use in microgravity. The μG-LilyPond concept expands the...

  1. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  2. Evaluation of PCA3 and multiparametric MRI’s: collective benefits before deciding initial prostate biopsy for patients with PSA level between 3-10ng/mL

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    Sezgin Okcelik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the contribution of multiparametric MRI and PCA3 assay, pre- decision of initial biopsy in PSA level between 3-10 ng/mL patients with normal digital rectal examination(DRE. Materials and Methods PSA level 3-10 ng/mL ,patients, with normal DRE results and no previous prostate biopsy history, were included in this study. Each patient underwent multiparametric MRI one week before biopsy. Urine sample taking for PCA3 examination preceded the biopsy. Systematic and targeted biopsies were conducted. Patients with high PSA levels were seperated into two groups as: high PCA3 scored and low PCA3 scored. Then each group was divided into two sub-groups as: MRI lesion positive and negative. Tumor incidence, positive predictive values(PPV and negative predictive values(NPV were calculated. Results 53 patients were included between February 2013 and March 2014.Mean age 61.22 ± 1.06. Mean PSA value 5.13 ± 0.19 ng / mL. Mean PCA3 score 98.01 ± 23.13 and mean prostate size was 48.96 ± 2.67 grams. Fourty nine patients had both PCA3 score and multiparametric MRI. The PCA3’s PPV value was 58.33%. If multiparametric MRI lesions are added to high PCA3 scores , the PPV appears to elevate to 91.66%. NPV of PCA3 was 96%. NPV was 95% when there was no lesion in the multiparametric MRI with low PCA3 scores. Sensitivity was 91.66% , specificity was 95% respectively. Conclusion Adding multimetric MRI can also support biopsy decision for patients with high PCA3 value. When PCA3 value is low, patients can be survailled without any need to take a MRI.

  3. The identification of plankton, water quality, blood cell, and histology in culture pond of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus which infected by viral nervous necrosis (VNN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuhar, U.; Rahayu, D. T.; Musa, M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    Currently, Viral Nervous Necrotic (VNN) is not only attacking the marine fish but also the freshwater fish like tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The aims of study to identify the type of plankton, water quality status, blood cell status, also histology of VNN infected tilapia obtained in culture ponds. The methods included plankton identification and water quality analysis from the infected fish pond in the Krakal, Blitar. The quality of blood cells and the histology of tilapia infected by VNN observed using a microscope with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The result show plankton in a fish pond of infected tilapia includes 3 divisions: Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Bacillariophyta and 2 phyla: Arthropoda, and Rotifera. The values of erythrocyte, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were smaller than normal tilapia, however, the leukocyte and macronucleus values of VNN-infected fish were higher than normal fish. The fish histology shows the vacuolation in the brain and eyes tissue. The water quality of the culture pond have the temperature, pH, turbidity, DO, CO2, NO3, PO4, TOM in the range of 30-32°C 7.0-9.0; 25cm; 6.082–7.44mg/L 3.98–9.08mg/L 1.039–1.139 mg/L; 0.051-0.054mg/L; and 11.377-13.905mg/L, respectively. VNN causing high leukocyte and macronuclei and the damaging in brain and eyes tissue in infected tilapia.

  4. PeRL: A circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A.B.K.; Sjoberg, Ylva; Gunther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, J.; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles; Boike, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1. 0 × 106 m2 down to 1. 0 × 102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1. 0 × 10 to 9. 4 × 101 km−2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45–99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps, study area

  5. High-density expression of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels in NG2 glia of rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Lin

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, a fourth type of glial cell in the mammalian CNS, undergo reactive changes in response to a wide variety of brain insults. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuronally expressed acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are implicated in various neurological disorders including brain ischemia and seizures. Acidosis is a common feature of acute neurological conditions. It is postulated that a drop in pH may be the link between the pathological process and activation of NG2 cells. Such postulate immediately prompts the following questions: Do NG2 cells express ASICs? If so, what are their functional properties and subunit composition? Here, using a combination of electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we present evidence to demonstrate that NG2 cells of the rat hippocampus express high density of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels compared with several types of hippocampal neurons. First, nucleated patch recordings from NG2 cells revealed high density of proton-activated currents. The magnitude of proton-activated current was pH dependent, with a pH for half-maximal activation of 6.3. Second, the current-voltage relationship showed a reversal close to the equilibrium potential for Na+. Third, psalmotoxin 1, a blocker specific for the ASIC1a channel, largely inhibited proton-activated currents. Fourth, Ca2+ imaging showed that activation of proton-activated channels led to an increase of [Ca2+]i. Finally, immunocytochemistry showed co-localization of ASIC1a and NG2 proteins in the hippocampus. Thus the acid chemosensor, the ASIC1a channel, may serve for inducing membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, thereby playing a crucial role in the NG2 cell response to injury following ischemia.

  6. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  7. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  8. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  9. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  10. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution.

  11. The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun; Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Pond color, which creates the visual appearance of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in summer, is quantitatively investigated using a two-stream radiative transfer model for ponded sea ice. The upwelling irradiance from the pond surface is determined and then its spectrum is transformed into RGB (red, green, blue) color space using a colorimetric method. The dependence of pond color on various factors such as water and ice properties and incident solar radiation is investigated. The results reveal that increasing underlying ice thickness Hi enhances both the green and blue intensities of pond color, whereas the red intensity is mostly sensitive to Hi for thin ice (Hi 1.5 m), similar to the behavior of melt-pond albedo. The distribution of the incident solar spectrum F0 with wavelength affects the pond color rather than its intensity. The pond color changes from dark blue to brighter blue with increasing scattering in ice, and the influence of absorption in ice on pond color is limited. The pond color reproduced by the model agrees with field observations for Arctic sea ice in summer, which supports the validity of this study. More importantly, the pond color has been confirmed to contain information about meltwater and underlying ice, and therefore it can be used as an index to retrieve Hi and Hp. Retrievals of Hi for thin ice (Hi measurements than retrievals for thick ice, but those of Hp are not good. The analysis of pond color is a new potential method to obtain thin ice thickness in summer, although more validation data and improvements to the radiative transfer model will be needed in future.

  12. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level <10 ng/mL Be Defined as the Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Taverna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy and the PSA <10 ng/mL can define the archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  13. Value of contrast-enhanced sonographic micro flow imaging for prostate cancer detection with t-PSA level of 4–10 ng/mL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yi-Fen; Li, Feng-Hua; Xie, Shao-Wei; Xia, Jian-Guo; Fang, Hua; Li, Hong-Li

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficiency of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic micro flow imaging (MFI) with conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer with serum total prostate-specific antigen (t-PSA) of 4.0–10.0 ng/mL. To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic MFI in detecting prostate cancer with t-PSA in diagnostic gray zone. Methods: 47 patients with t-PSA 4.0–10.0 ng/mL underwent gray scale, power Doppler TRUS and MFI examinations before ultrasound guided biopsies. Biopsies were performed at twelve sites in the base, the mid-gland and the apex of the prostate in each patient, when there was no abnormal ultrasound finding. When an abnormality was present at MFI, the biopsy specimen from the corresponding site was directed toward the abnormal finding. With histological results of prostate biopsy as reference standards, we assessed the cancer detection of these three methods. Results: 564 specimens were collected in this study, in which 101 were prostate cancer confirmed histologically. 152 of 564 specimens were demonstrated abnormal on MFI images, in which 71 were malignant and 81 were benign confirmed histologically. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for MFI in detecting prostate caner were 70.3%, 82.5%, 80.3%, 46.7% and 92.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and NPV for MFI were significantly better than gray scale (38.6%, 86.9%) and power Doppler (32.7%, 86.0%) (P < 0.001) TRUS. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic MFI could significantly improve the detection rate of prostate cancer with t-PSA in diagnostic gray zone (4–10 ng/mL) than conventional ultrasound.

  14. Thermal performance of shallow solar pond under open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sebaii, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)]. E-mail: aasebaii@yahoo.com; Aboul-Enein, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Ramadan, M.R.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt); Khallaf, A.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527 (Egypt)

    2006-05-15

    The thermal performance of a shallow solar pond (SSP) under an open cycle continuous flow heating mode for heat extraction has been investigated. A serpentine heat exchanger (HE), either welded to the absorber plate or immersed in the pond water, has been used for extracting the heat. Suitable computer programs have been developed based on analytical solutions of the energy balance equations for the various elements of the SSP in the presence of the HE. Numerical calculations have been performed to study the effect of different operational and configurational parameters on the pond performance. In order to improve the pond performance, optimization of the various dimensions of the pond with the HE has been performed. The effects of the design parameters of the HE's tube, i.e. length L{sub he}, diameter D and mass flow rate m-bar {sub f} of the fluid flowing through the HE, on the pond performance have been investigated. The outlet temperature of the HE's fluid T{sub fo} is found to increase with increase of the HE length L{sub he}, and it decreases with increase of the mass flow rate of the HE's fluid m-bar {sub f} up to typical values for these parameters. Typical values for L{sub he} and m-bar {sub f} are found to be 4m and 0.004kg/s beyond which the change in T{sub fo} becomes insignificant. Experiments have been performed for the pond under different operational conditions with a HE welded to the absorber plate. To validate the proposed mathematical models, comparisons between experimental and theoretical results have been performed. Good agreement has been achieved.

  15. Heating an aquaculture pond with a solar pool blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisely, B; Holliday, J E; MacDonald, R E

    1982-01-01

    A floating solar blanket of laminated bubble plastic was used to heat a 0.11 ha seawater pond of 1.3 m depth. The covered pond maintained daily temperatures 6 to 9/sup 0/C above two controls. Local air temperatures averaged 14 to 19/sup 0/C. Oysters, prawns, seasquirts, and fish in the covered pond all survived. After three weeks, the blanket separated. This was the result of pond temperatures exceeding 30/sup 0/C, the maximum manufacturer's specification. Floating blankets fabricated to higher specifications would be useful for maintaining above-ambient temperatures in small ponds or tanks in temporary situations during cold winter months and might have a more permanent use.

  16. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Williams Pond Dam (CT 00551), Thames River Basin, Lebanon, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    GRA&I UnTucea B WILLIAMS POND DAM ~~1Z~ CT 00551 _ Distribution/ Availabilit Y Codes Avail and/or Dis~tj pecialS RIVER BASIN ~lIILEBANON, COXNNECTICUT...Inspection Report. Alternatives to these recommendations r 1 would include reducing the Williams Pond water levels during expected periods of intense storm...Materials Branch Engi’neering Division FRED J. VNS. Jr., Member Chief, De ’ggn Branch Engineering Division SAUL COOPER, -r Chief, Water Control Branch

  17. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF...... with additional step increase in paCO2. Intracarotid infusion of 7.5 mg/kg NOLAG significantly attenuated the CO2-elicited CBF increase by about 45-65% at paCO2 values below 115 mmHg. Beyond this level, there was a lesser inhibition of about 27-35%. 30 mg/kg NOLAG had essentially the same effect as 7.5 mg....../kg NOLAG. 50 mg/kg NOLAG, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily for 4 days, also caused an attenuated CBF response to CO2, but the inhibitory effect was significantly less than with acute NOLAG administration in the paCO2 range of 61-90 mmHg. Infusion of L-arginine, 1 g/kg/h, prevented the effect of 7...

  18. Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing in captive pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sulistiono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro rearing was employed in captive pond at Citarate village, Lebak Regency (Banten from May to December 2008.  The rearing activity was done in captive pond sized 5x5x1.3 m3 divided into 22 smaller ponds sized 1x1x1.3 m3 with a hiding hole (constructed by pile stones, supported by two small ponds sized 30x40x40 cm3 for sea and fresh water stocks, respectively.  The coconut crab (N=22 individuals at cement pond I and N=18 individuals at cement pond II were reared in each small ponds (density: 1 individual/pond, feed by a piece of coconut (20-50 gram per individual in each cement pond.  The coconut and the water (sea and fresh water were replaced for 2-3 times per week. Result of the study showed that survival rate was around 82% (ponds I and 83% (ponds II, and mortality was around 18% (ponds I and 18% (ponds II. The coconut crab growth at captive ponds I and II were around 17.5 and 52 gram per month, respectively. Key words:  Preliminary study, rearing, coconut crab (Birgus latro   ABSTRAK Uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa (Birgus latro dilakukan di kolam penangkaran di Desa Citarate, Kabupaten Lebak (Banten pada Bulan Mei sampai Desember 2008.  Kegiatan pemeliharaan dilakukan pada bak semen berukuran 5x5x1.3 m2 yang terbagi menjadi 22 bak semen lebih kecil yang berukuran 1x1x1.3 m3 dilengkapi dengan tempat persembunyian (berupa tumpukan batu, serta bak kecil sebagai tempat penampungan air laut dan tawar masing-masing berukuran 30x40x40 cm3. Kepiting kelapa (N=22 ekor pada kolam I dan N=18 pada kolam II dimasukkan ke dalam setiap kolam (kepadatan 1 individu/kolam, dan diberikan pakan utama berupa potongan kelapa ukuran sekitar 20-50 gram per individu per kolam.  Penggantian kelapa dan air (tawar dan laut dilakukan 2-3 kali per minggu. Hasil uji coba pemeliharaan kepiting kelapa menunjukkan bahwa tingkat sintasan (survival rate di kolam peliharaan berkisar 82 (Kolam I dan 83% (Kolam II

  19. Exploring the Nature of Silicon-Noble Gas Bonds in H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi Compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio and density functional theory-based computations are performed to investigate the structure and stability of H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn. They are thermochemically unstable with respect to the dissociation channel producing Ng and H3SiNSi or HSiNSi. However, they are kinetically stable with respect to this dissociation channel having activation free energy barriers of 19.3 and 23.3 kcal/mol for H3SiXeNSi and H3SiRnNSi, respectively, and 9.2 and 12.8 kcal/mol for HSiXeNSi and HSiRnNSi, respectively. The rest of the possible dissociation channels are endergonic in nature at room temperature for Rn analogues. However, one three-body dissociation channel for H3SiXeNSi and one two-body and one three-body dissociation channels for HSiXeNSi are slightly exergonic in nature at room temperature. They become endergonic at slightly lower temperature. The nature of bonding between Ng and Si/N is analyzed by natural bond order, electron density and energy decomposition analyses. Natural population analysis indicates that they could be best represented as (H3SiNg+(NSi− and (HSiNg+(NSi−. Energy decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution from the orbital term (ΔEorb is dominant (ca. 67%–75% towards the total attraction energy associated with the Si-Ng bond, whereas the electrostatic term (ΔEelstat contributes the maximum (ca. 66%–68% for the same in the Ng–N bond, implying the covalent nature of the former bond and the ionic nature of the latter.

  20. Models and observations of Arctic melt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a striking transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is largely determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice-albedo feedback has played a significant role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a challenge to improving climate projections. It has been found that as the ponds grow and coalesce, the fractal dimension of their boundaries undergoes a transition from 1 to about 2, around a critical length scale of 100 square meters in area. As the ponds evolve they take complex, self-similar shapes with boundaries resembling space-filling curves. I will outline how mathematical models of composite materials and statistical physics, such as percolation and Ising models, are being used to describe this evolution and predict key geometrical parameters that agree very closely with observations.

  1. Geohydrology and limnology of Walden Pond, Concord, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Friesz, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The trophic ecology and ground-water contributing area of Walden Pond, in Concord and Lincoln, Mass., were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management from April 1997 to July 2000. Bathymetric investigation indicated that Walden Pond (24.88 hectares), a glacial kettle-hole lake with no surface inlet or outlet, has three deep areas. The maximum depth (30.5 meters) essentially was unchanged from measurements made by Henry David Thoreau in 1846. The groundwater contributing area (621,000 square meters) to Walden Pond was determined from water-table contours in areas of stratified glacial deposits and from land-surface contours in areas of bedrock highs. Walden Pond is a flow-through lake: Walden Pond gains water from the aquifer along its eastern perimeter and loses water to the aquifer along its western perimeter. Walden Pond contributing area also includes Goose Pond and its contributing area. A water budget calculated for Walden Pond, expressed as depth of water over the lake surface, indicated that 45 percent of the inflow to the lake was from precipitation (1.215 meters per year) and 55 percent from ground water (1.47 meters per year). The groundwater inflow estimate was based on the average of two different approaches including an isotope mass-balance approach. Evaporation accounted for 26 percent of the outflow from the lake (0.71 meters per year) whereas lake-water seepage to the groundwater system contributed 74 percent of the outflow (1.97 meters per year). The water-residence time of Walden Pond is approximately 5 years. Potential point sources of nutrients to ground water, the Concord municipal landfill and a trailer park, were determined to be outside the Walden Pond groundwater contributing area. A third source, the septic leach field for the Walden Pond State Reservation facilities, was within the groundwater contributing area. Nutrient budgets for the lake indicated that

  2. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  3. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  4. Comparison between field data and ultimate heat-sink cooling-pond and spray-pond models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1982-09-01

    Two previously published reports, NUREG-0693 and NUREG-0733, presented models and methods by which ultimate heat sink cooling ponds and spray ponds used for safety-related water supplies in nuclear power plants could be analyzed for design-basis conditions of heat load and meteorology. These models were only partially verified with field data. The present report compares the NRC models to data collected for NRC by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories on the performance of small geothermally heated ponds and spray ponds. These comparisons generally support the conclusion that the NRC models are useful tools in predicting ultimate heat sink performance

  5. PRODUCTIVITY OF GROWING PONDS WHEN APPLYING THE BACTERIAL FERTILIZER «PHOSPHOBAKTERIN»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Hryhorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" on the formation of the hydrochemical regime, development of the natural food supply and fish productivity in the growing ponds. Methodology. The work was conducted according to generally accepted hydrochemical,, microbiological, hydrobiological and fish farming methods. Findings The article presents the results of a study of the productivity of growing ponds with different methods of the application of the bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin". It was found that the hydrochemical regime of the experimental ponds was formed under the effect of the source of water supply and measures aimed at intensifying the development of the natural food supply and was favorable for the development of feed organisms and the cultivation of fish seeds. Application of the bacterial fertilizer at the beginning of the growing season along the water pond surface proved to be little effective for increasing the productivity of the pond ecosystem as a whole. A more effective method of increasing biological productivity, including fish productivity of growing ponds, was the application of "Phosphobacterin" during the growing season both on the bed and on the water surface in combination with the organic fertilizer - cattle humus. In the experimental pond under complex fertilization, the average phytoplankton biomass during the growing season was 1.5 times, bacterioplankton 1.1 times, zoobenthos 2.6 times higher, and the obtained total fish productivity was 1.2 times higher than in the control pond (when applying only cattle humus. Originality. The peculiarities of formation of hydrochemical and hydrobiological (phyto-, bacterio-, zooplankton, zoobenthos regimes of growing ponds and the fishery indices are studied, both for bacterial fertilizer "Phosphobacterin" independently and together with the traditional organic fertilizer - cattle humus. Practical value. Based on the obtained results

  6. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  7. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  8. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Marsh Restoration at Pond A17 Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  9. Transition in the fractal geometry of Arctic melt ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hohenegger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic melt season, the sea ice surface undergoes a remarkable transformation from vast expanses of snow covered ice to complex mosaics of ice and melt ponds. Sea ice albedo, a key parameter in climate modeling, is determined by the complex evolution of melt pond configurations. In fact, ice–albedo feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding melt pond evolution remains a significant challenge to improving climate projections. By analyzing area–perimeter data from hundreds of thousands of melt ponds, we find here an unexpected separation of scales, where pond fractal dimension D transitions from 1 to 2 around a critical length scale of 100 m2 in area. Pond complexity increases rapidly through the transition as smaller ponds coalesce to form large connected regions, and reaches a maximum for ponds larger than 1000 m2, whose boundaries resemble space-filling curves, with D ≈ 2. These universal features of Arctic melt pond evolution are similar to phase transitions in statistical physics. The results impact sea ice albedo, the transmitted radiation fields under melting sea ice, the heat balance of sea ice and the upper ocean, and biological productivity such as under ice phytoplankton blooms.

  10. Changes in tundra pond limnology: re-sampling Alaskan ponds after 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lougheed, Vanessa L; Butler, Malcolm G; McEwen, Daniel C; Hobbie, John E

    2011-09-01

    The arctic tundra ponds at the International Biological Program (IBP) site in Barrow, AK, were studied extensively in the 1970s; however, very little aquatic research has been conducted there for over three decades. Due to the rapid climate changes already occurring in northern Alaska, identifying any changes in the ponds' structure and function over the past 30-40 years can help identify any potential climate-related impacts. Current research on the IBP ponds has revealed significant changes in the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of these ponds over time. These changes include increased water temperatures, increased water column nutrient concentrations, the presence of at least one new chironomid species, and increased macrophyte cover. However, we have also observed significant annual variation in many measured variables and caution that this variation must be taken into account when attempting to make statements about longer-term change. The Barrow IBP tundra ponds represent one of the very few locations in the Arctic where long-term data are available on freshwater ecosystem structure and function. Continued monitoring and protection of these invaluable sites is required to help understand the implications of climate change on freshwater ecosystems in the Arctic.

  11. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate

  12. Inactivation of Escherichia coli in a baffled pond with attached growth: treating anaerobic effluent under the Sahelian climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, D A; Andrianisa, H A; Konaté, Y; Ndiaye, A; Maïga, A H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and understand the zero-level detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at the outlet of an improved waste stabilization pond. Wastewaters were collected from the International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) campus and were subjected to biological treatment. The system included two-stage Anaerobic Reactors followed by a Baffled Pond (AR-BP) with recycled plastic media as a medium for attached growth and a control pond (CP). Three vertical baffles were installed, giving four compartments in the baffled pond (BP). The research was conducted on the pilot scale from March to July 2014, by monitoring E. coli, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll-a in each compartment and at different depths. The results show that E. coli concentrations were lower in top layers of all compartments with an undetectable level in the last compartment up to 0.60 m deep. E. coli mean removal efficiencies and decay rates were achieved by significant difference in BP (4.5 log-units, 9.1 day(-1)) and CP (1.1 log-units, 1.1 day(-1)). Higher values of pH (≥9), temperature (≥32°C), DO (≥ 8 mg/L) and chlorophyll-a (≥ 1000 µg/L) were observed at the surface of BP, whereas lower values were shown at the bottom. Sedimentation combined with the synergetic effects of the physicochemical parameters and environmental factors would be responsible for the inactivation of E. coli in BP. It was concluded that the AR-BP could be applied as an alternative low-cost wastewater treatment technology for developing countries and recommended for reuse of their effluent for restricted peri-urban irrigation.

  13. Concentrations of methylmercury in invertebrates from wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Lara M.; Hall, Britt D.

    2012-01-01

    Prairie wetlands may be important sites of mercury (Hg) methylation resulting in elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water, sediments and biota. Invertebrates are an important food resource and may act as an indicator of MeHg exposure to higher organisms. In 2007–2008, invertebrates were collected from wetland ponds in central Saskatchewan, categorized into functional feeding groups (FFGs) and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg. Methylmercury and THg concentrations in four FFGs ranged from 0.2–393.5 ng·g −1 and 9.7–507.1 ng·g −1 , respectively. Methylmercury concentrations generally increased from gastropods with significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrate taxa. Surrounding land use (agricultural, grassland and organic agricultural) may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates, with invertebrate MeHg concentrations being higher from organic ponds (457.5 ± 156.7 ng·g −1 ) compared to those from grassland ponds (74.8 ± 14.6 ng·g −1 ) and ponds on agricultural lands (32.8 ± 6.2 ng·g −1 ). - Highlights: ► MeHg concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 393.5 ng·g −1 and generally increased with trophic level. ► Gastropods had significantly lower average MeHg concentrations compared to other invertebrates. ► Surrounding land use may influence MeHg concentrations in invertebrates. ► MeHg concentrations were higher in organic ponds compared to grassland and agricultural ponds. - Methylmercury concentrations in aquatic invertebrates in wetlands of the Great Plains of North America may differ depending on the land use of adjacent farmland.

  14. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  15. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  16. Arctic sea ice melt pond fractal dimension - explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Predrag

    As Arctic sea ice starts to melt in the summer, pools of melt water quickly form on its surface, significantly changing its albedo, and impacting its subsequent evolution. These melt ponds often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, when plotted as a function of pond size, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. Namely, while ice is impermeable, maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. We provide a possible explanation for this length scale by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness.

  17. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  18. Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Svobodová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of medicated feed, Rupin Special gran. ad us. vet. with oxytetracyclini chloridum as active ingredient (5 g kg-1 feed, on physical and chemical characteristics of a pond ecosystem and the health of carp of two age groups in a pilot operation. The medicated feed was administered in 8 doses (15 g kg-1 live weight. In the study, temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, microbiological, hydrobiological and hydrochemical variables of pond water were monitored. The fish health assessment was based on clinical, pathological-morphological and haematological examinations of 80 individuals in total. The examinations were made before, during, immediately after and 15 days after the administration of medicated feed. No effects on water quality were found. An important histological change after the application of 8 doses was the loss of haematopoietic tissue from the spleen, and dystrophic changes in the renal duct epithelium. A decrease in leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and in total blood plasma protein concentrations (P < 0.05 were observed already after the 3rd dose of Rupin Special. It follows from the results of the study that Rupin Special should be used in only 4 (exceptionally 6 doses, compared to the originally recommended 8 doses.

  19. Walden Pond, Massachusetts: Environmental Setting and Current Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction Walden Pond, in Concord, Massachusetts, is famous among lakes because of its unique social history. Walden was the setting for American naturalist Henry David Thoreau's well-known essay 'Walden; or, Life in the Woods,' first published in 1854. Thoreau lived and wrote at Walden Pond from July 1845 to September 1847. In 'Walden,' Thoreau combined highly admired writing on Transcendental philosophy with pioneering observations of aquatic ecology and physical aspects of limnology, the study of lakes. Because Thoreau also defended so effectively the value of living close to nature in the Walden woods, the pond is considered by many to be the birthplace of the American conservation movement. Visitors come from all over the world to the pond, which has been designated a National Historic Landmark, and its fame has resulted in a major fund drive to preserve the surrounding woods. Walden Pond has no surfacewater inflow or outflow, and much of its ground-water contributing area likely is preserved within the Walden Pond Reservation area (fig. 1). Only 15 miles from Boston, the pond is unusually clear and pristine for an urban-area lake. However, point sources of nutrients near the pond, and a large annual visitor attendance, concentrated during the summer when the swimming beach (fig. 2) is open, may contribute a nutrient load sufficient to change the pond environment. The occurrence of nuisance algal species, a recent beach closing, and an awareness of water-quality problems suffered by other ponds in the region raise concerns about the risk of ecological change at Walden Pond. Despite the role of Walden Pond as a cultural and environmental icon, little is known about the pond's ecological features, such as its internal nutrient cycling or the structure of its food web, nor have consistent measurements been made to determine whether these features are changing or are stable. Production rates of aquatic plants in lakes and ponds naturally undergo a slow increase

  20. Further contributions to the understanding of nitrogen removal in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, R K X; Rios, E N; Sánchez, I A

    2018-06-01

    A set of experiments were conducted in Brazil in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system (a four-maturation-pond series) treating an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent. Over a year and a half the pond series was monitored under two flow rate conditions, hence also different hydraulic retention times and surface loading rates. On-site and laboratory trials were carried out to assess: (i) ammonia losses by volatilization using acrylic capture chambers placed at the surface of the ponds; (ii) organic nitrogen sedimentation rates using metal buckets placed at the bottom of the ponds for collecting settled particulate matter; (iii) nitrogen removal by algal uptake based on the nitrogen content of the suspended particulate matter in samples from the ponds' water column. In addition, nitrification and denitrification rates were measured in laboratory-based experiments using pond water and sediment samples. The pond system achieved high nitrogen removal (69% total nitrogen and 92% ammonia removal). The average total nitrogen removal rates varied from 10,098 to 3,849 g N/ha·d in the first and the last ponds, respectively, with the following fractions associated with the various removal pathways: (i) 23.5-45.6% sedimentation of organic nitrogen; (ii) 13.1-27.8% algal uptake; (iii) 1.2-3.1% ammonia volatilization; and (iv) 0.15-0.34% nitrification-denitrification.

  1. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  2. Dynamics of Hexavalent Chromium in Four Types of Aquaculture Ponds and Its Effects on the Morphology and Behavior of Cultured Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood Keke

    2017-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a bio accumulative toxic metal in water and fish. It enters aquaculture ponds mainly through anthropogenic sources. Hexavalent chromium concentrations and its effects on the morphology and behavior of Clarias gariepinus were investigated from four aquaculture ponds for 12 weeks. Chromium was measured using diphenyl carbohdrazide method; alkalinity and hardness were measured using colometric method and analyzed with Bench Photometer. Temperature and pH were measured using pH/EC/TDS/Temp combined tester. Temporal and spatial replications of samples were done with triplicates morphological and behavioural effects of the metal on fish were observed visually. Chromium ranged from no detection to 0.05 mg/L, alkalinity 105 to 245 mg/L, hardness 80 to 165 mg/L, pH 6.35 to 8.03 and temperature 29.1 to 35.9°C. Trend in the chromium concentrations in the ponds is natural > earthen > concrete > collapsible. There was a significant difference ( P temperature among the four ponds. Significant positive correlation also existed between alkalinity, water hardness, pH, with chromium. Morphological and behavioural changes observed in the fish include irregular swimming, frequent coming to the surface, dark body colouration, mucous secretion on the body, erosion of gill epithelium, fin disintegration, abdominal distension and lethargy. High chromium concentration in natural pond was due to anthropogenic run-off of materials in to the pond. Acidic pH, low alkalinity, low water hardness also contributed to the high chromium concentration. Morphological and behavioural changes observed were attributed to the high concentrations, toxicity and bio accumulative effect of the metal. Toxicity of chromium to fish in aquaculture could threaten food security. Watershed best management practices and remediation could be adopted to reduce the effects of toxicity of chromium on pond water quality, fish flesh quality and fish welfare.

  3. The survey of biological absorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Wastewater stabilization pond algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nourisepehr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of aquatic habitats due to toxicity and accumulation of heavy metals leading to serious damage to organisms and their advance to the food chain. Chrome is one of these heavy metals for the three and six-valence oxides used in industry. Health risks such as carcinogenic hexavalent chromium have been For this reason, removal and reduction of environment is essential. Target of this study hexavalent chromium biosorption by waste stabilization pond algae is of the aquatic environment. Methods: This study was a fundamental applied; In this batch reactor, variables Was investigated pH(3,5,7,9,11, Contact time(30,60,120,180,240,300min, The concentration of hexavalent chromium(0.5,1,5mg And the concentration of algae(0.25, 0.5, 1, 3g. Liquid mixed municipal wastewater treatment stabilization pond was used for insemination. For the investigate the effects of variables pH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium values in a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask prepared and various amounts of dried algae (0.25-0.5-1- 3 g were added to it. Then became the shakers. After mixing, the filter paper was passed. The lab temperature was centrifuged for min10-5 rpm 2700 rpm. Then it was read at a wavelength absorbed by 540 nm. . Then collected was data to Excel and SPSS software. Finally was used for hexavalent chromium adsorption isotherm model equation of Langmuir and Freundlich. Results: This study shows that PH, contact time, the concentration of hexavalent chromium and chromium concentrations of algae optimal absorption by algae concentrations, respectively, in5 mg / l, min 120, 0.5 mg / l and is 1gr. Average maximum absorption of chromium Wastewater stabilization ponds by algae 97/2%, respectively. Correlation coefficients absorption curves of these models showed that Cr (VI adsorption isotherm on wastewater stabilization pond algae follows (= R.  Conclusion: The results showed that wastewater stabilization pond algae as a

  4. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  5. Biogeochemical ecology of aquaculture ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburd, R.S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two methods to determine rates of organic matter production and consumption were applied in shrimp aquaculture ponds. Several questions were posed: can net rates of organic matter production and consumption be determined accurately through application of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) mass balance in a pond with high advective through-put? Are organically loaded aquaculture ponds autotrophic? How do rates of organic production vary temporally? Are there diurnal changes in respiration rates? Four marine ponds in Hawaii have been evaluated for a 53 day period through the use of geochemical mass balances. All fluxes of DIC into and out of the ponds were considered. DIC was calculated from hourly pH measurements and weekly alkalinity measurements. Average uptake of DIC from the pond water, equivalent to net community production, revealed net autotrophy in all cases. Hourly and longer period variations in organic matter production rates were examined. The daily cycle dominated the variation in rates of net community production. Maximal rates of net community production were maintained for four to six hours starting in mid-morning. Respiration rates decreased rapidly during the night in two of the ponds and remained essentially constant in the others. A similar pattern of decreasing respiration at night was seen in freshwater shrimp ponds which were studied with incubations. A new method involving isotope dilution of 14 C-labeled DIC was used to measure respiration rates in light and dark bottles. This method is an inexpensive and convenient procedure which should also be useful in other environments. The incubations demonstrated that plankton respiration rates peak at or soon after solar noon and vary over the course of the day by about a factor of two

  6. Influence of selected water quality characteristics on the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin to Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Lizotte, R E

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) water quality characteristics on lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin aqueous toxicity to Hyalella azteca using natural water from 12 ponds and lakes in Mississippi, USA with varying water quality characteristics. H. azteca 48-h immobilization EC50 values ranged from 1.4 to 15.7 ng/L and 0.6 to 13.4 ng/L for lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, respectively. For both pyrethroids, EC50 values linearly increased as turbidity, suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon and chlorophyll a concentrations increased.

  7. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  8. Characterizing bacterial communities in tilapia pond surface sediment and their responses to pond differences and temporal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Limin; Barry, Kamira; Hu, Gengdong; Meng, Shunlong; Song, Chao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jianhong; Chen, Jiazhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial community compositions in the surface sediment of tilapia ponds and their responses to pond characteristics or seasonal variations were investigated. For that, three ponds with different stocking densities were selected to collect the samples. And the method of Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to amplify the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 662, 876 valid reads and 5649 operational taxonomic units were obtained. Further analysis showed that the dominant phyla in all three ponds were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. The phyla Planctomycetes, Firmicutes, Chlorobi, and Spirochaetae were also relatively abundant. Among the eight phyla, the abundances of only Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Spirochaetae were affected by seasonal variations, while seven of these (with the exception of Acidobacteria) were affected by pond differences. A comprehensive analysis of the richness and diversity of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and of the similarity in bacterial community composition in sediment also showed that the communities in tilapia pond sediment were shaped more by pond differences than by seasonal variations. Linear discriminant analysis further indicated that the influences of pond characteristics on sediment bacterial communities might be related to feed coefficients and stocking densities of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT).

  9. Implementation of reactive and predictive real-time control strategies to optimize dry stormwater detention ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Dry detention ponds have been widely implemented in U.S.A (National Research Council, 1993) and Canada (Shammaa et al. 2002) to mitigate the impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. The aim of such structures is to allow a temporary retention of the water during rainfall events, decreasing runoff velocities and volumes (by infiltration in the pond) as well as providing some water quality improvement from sedimentation. The management of dry detention ponds currently relies on static control through a fixed pre-designed limitation of their maximum outflow (Middleton and Barrett 2008), for example via a proper choice of their outlet pipe diameter. Because these ponds are designed for large storms, typically 1- or 2-hour duration rainfall events with return periods comprised between 5 and 100 years, one of their main drawbacks is that they generally offer almost no retention for smaller rainfall events (Middleton and Barrett 2008), which are by definition much more common. Real-Time Control (RTC) has a high potential for optimizing retention time (Marsalek 2005) because it allows adopting operating strategies that are flexible and hence more suitable to the prevailing fluctuating conditions than static control. For dry ponds, this would basically imply adapting the outlet opening percentage to maximize water retention time, while being able to open it completely for severe storms. This study developed several enhanced RTC scenarios of a dry detention pond located at the outlet of a small urban catchment near Québec City, Canada, following the previous work of Muschalla et al. (2009). The catchment's runoff quantity and TSS concentration were simulated by a SWMM5 model with an improved wash-off formulation. The control procedures rely on rainfall detection and measures of the pond's water height for the reactive schemes, and on rainfall forecasts in addition to these variables for the predictive schemes. The automatic reactive control schemes implemented

  10. Effect of nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine on cerebral blood flow response to changes in carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) for CBF variations associated with arterial carbon dioxide changes was investigated in halothane-anesthetized rats by using an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG). CBF was measured by intracarotid injection of 133Xe. In normocapnia......, intracarotid infusion of 1.5, or 7.5, or 30 mg/kg NOLAG induced a dose-dependent increase of arterial blood pressure and a decrease of normocapnic CBF from 85 +/- 10 to 78 +/- 6, 64 +/- 5, and 52 +/- 5 ml 100 g-1 min-1, respectively. This effect lasted for at least 2 h. Raising PaCO2 from a control level of 40...... to 68 mm Hg increased CBF to 230 +/- 27 ml 100 g-1 min-1, corresponding to a percentage CBF response (CO2 reactivity) of 3.7 +/- 0.6%/mm Hg PaCO2 in saline-treated rats. NOLAG attenuated this reactivity by 32, 49, and 51% at the three-dose levels. Hypercapnia combined with angiotensin to raise blood...

  11. Monitoring and Modelling of Salinity Behaviour in Drinking Water Ponds in Southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. A.; Williams, A.; Mathewson, E.; Rahman, A. K. M. M.; Ahmed, K. M.; Scheelbeek, P. F. D.; Vineis, P.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water in southern Bangladesh is provided by a variety of sources including constructed storage ponds, seasonal rainwater and, ubiquitously saline, shallow groundwater. The ponds, the communal reservoirs for harvested rainwater, also tend to be saline, some as high as 2 g/l. Drinking water salinity has several health impacts including high blood pressure associated major risk factor for several cardio-vascular diseases. Two representative drinking water ponds in Dacope Upazila of Khulna District in southwest Bangladesh were monitored over two years for rainfall, evaporation, pond and groundwater level, abstraction, and solute concentration, to better understand the controls on drinking water salinity. Water level monitoring at both ponds shows groundwater levels predominantly below the pond level throughout the year implying a downward gradient. The grain size analysis of the underlying sediments gives an estimated hydraulic conductivity of 3E-8 m/s allowing limited seepage loss. Water balance modelling indicates that the seepage has a relatively minor effect on the pond level and that the bulk of the losses come from the combination of evaporation and abstraction particularly in dry season when precipitation, the only inflow to the pond, is close to zero. Seasonal variation in salinity (electrical conductivities, EC, ranged between 1500 to 3000 μS/cm) has been observed, and are primarily due to dilution from rainfall and concentration from evaporation, except on one occasion when EC reached 16,000 μS/cm due to a breach in the pond levee. This event was analogous to the episodic inundation that occurs from tropical cyclone storm surges and appears to indicate that such events are important for explaining the widespread salinisation of surface water and shallow groundwater bodies in coastal areas. A variety of adaptations (either from practical protection measures) or novel alternative drinking sources (such as aquifer storage and recovery) can be applied

  12. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  13. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  14. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect...... on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...

  15. Biomass production of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond for biofuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, P; Umadevi, K

    2016-04-01

    Biodiesel gains attention as it is made from renewable resources and has considerable environmental benefits. The present investigation has focused on large scale cultivation of multipopulation microalgae in open air pond using natural sea water without any additional nutritive supplements for low cost biomass production as a possible source of biofuel in large scale. Open air algal pond attained average chlorophyll concentration of 11.01 µg/L with the maximum of 43.65 µg/L as well as a higher lipid concentration of 18% (w/w) with lipid content 9.3 mg/L on the 10th day of the culture; and maximum biomass of 0.36 g/L on the 7th day of the culture. Composition analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was performed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS). Multipopulation of algal biomass had 18% of total lipid content with 55% of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), 35.3% of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 9.7% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), revealing a potential source of biofuel production at low cost.

  16. Radionuclides behaviour in the silts-water system of a cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'khovik, Yu.A.; Kostyuchenko, N.G.; Koromyslichenko, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl' accident a considerable amount of radioisotopes (1-5x10 5 Ci) concentrated in a cooling pond. A year later the accident a level of water contamination decreased by 2 orders, whereas the radionuclide distribution changed perceptibly. Processes of water self-decontamination in the cooling pond were considered. A forecast of water radiactivity level in the cooling pond in the summer of 1988 was made. 3 refs.; 1 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  18. 120-D-1 (100-D) Ponds supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.; Zoric, J.P.

    1997-06-01

    This document is a supplement to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan and provides the unit-specific information needed to fully comply with the Washington Administrative Code 173-303 for contingency plans. The 100-D ponds are unlined surface impoundments that were mainly used to dispose of nondangerous wastewater, The ponds are designated as a single treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit because of potential corrosive characteristics of the wastewater. No waste is currently present at the 100-D Ponds

  19. Occurrence, distribution, and potential sources of antibiotics pollution in the water-sediment of the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafaei, Raheleh; Papari, Fatemeh; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Sahebi, Soleyman; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Sorial, George A; Asgari, Ghorban; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-06-15

    Occurrence and frequency of six most prescribed antibiotics (tetracycline, norfloxacin, azithromycin, anhydro erythromycin, cephalexin, and amoxicillin) were assessed in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf at Bushehr coastline, Iran. The antibiotics concentration in the influent and effluent of septic tank (the hospital WWTP), activated sludge (the hospital WWTP), and stabilization pond (municipal WWTP) ranged between 7.89 and 149.63, 13.49-198.47, 6.55-16.37 ng/L, respectively. Conventional treatment resulted in incomplete removal of most of the studied antibiotics. Furthermore, the activated sludge was more effective in terms of antibiotic elimination compared to the stabilization pond or septic tank. The mean concentration of antibiotics ranged 1.21-51.50 ng/L in seawater and 1.40-25.32 ng/g in sediments during summer and winter. Norfloxacin was the dominant detected antibiotic in seawater, sediments, and influent of two hospital WWTPs. Seasonal comparisons showed significant differences for erythromycin and amoxicillin concentrations in seawater. Spatial variation indicated the role of physicochemical properties on distribution of antibiotics in seawater and sediments. The results emphasize the need to pay attention to antibiotic contamination in water and sediments of the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muster

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013 high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( <  300 m a.s.l. land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1. 0 × 106 m2 down to 1. 0 × 102 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1. 0 × 10 to 9. 4 × 101 km−2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes representing 45–99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions in land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands

  1. Effects of invertebrate predators and a pesticide on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Michael J.; Davies, Warren

    2004-01-01

    The effects of increased trophic complexity, through the addition of predatory notonectids (Anisops deanei), on temporary pond microcosms used for aquatic toxicity testing were studied. Replicate microcosms were established using sediment from a dried temporary pond, and treated with one of four concentrations of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (0, 1, 10 or 50 μg/L), in the presence or absence of six A. deanei. The tanks were sampled regularly for nine weeks following the addition of the predators and the entire contents of each tank counted after 12 weeks. Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and non-parametric MANOVA showed that both Anisops and endosulfan at concentrations >10 μg/L significantly altered community structure. However, an interaction between the effects of Anisops and the effects of endosulfan was not detected. The addition of Anisops did not increase the variability of response and thus did not reduce the sensitivity of the test method

  2. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml−1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1, however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml−1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1, respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0–10.0 ng ml−1 and 10.1–20.0 ng ml−1. PMID:25926603

  3. Percent free prostate-specific antigen is effective to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen between 10.1 and 20.0 ng ml(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhou, Li-Qun; Cai, Xiao-Bing; Xie, Li-Ping; Huang, Yi-Ran; He, Da-Lin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Ding, Qiang; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Chang-Jun; Ren, Shan-Cheng; Wang, Fu-Bo; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhong-Quan; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Lu-Lin; Zheng, Jun-Hua; Ye, Zhang-Qun; Ye, Ding-Wei; Xu, Dan-Feng; Hou, Jian-Quan; Xu, Ke-Xin; Yuan, Jian-Lin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Pan, Tie-Jun; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Percent free prostatic-specific antigen (%fPSA) has been introduced as a tool to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with a serum PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 , however, it remains controversial whether %fPSA is effective in PSA range of 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 in both Chinese and Western population. In this study, the diagnostic performance of %fPSA and serum PSA in predicting prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade PCa (HGPCa) was analyzed in a multi-center biopsy cohort of 5915 consecutive Chinese patients who underwent prostate biopsy in 22 hospitals across China from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. The indication for biopsy was PSA>4.0 ng ml-1 or/and suspicious digital rectal examination. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed by three types of electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with recalibration to the World Health Organization standards. The diagnostics accuracy of PSA, %fPSA and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined by the area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC). %fPSA was more effective than PSA in men aged ≥60 years old. The AUC was 0.584 and 0.635 in men aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 , respectively. The AUC of %fPSA was superior to that of PSA in predicting HGPCa in patients ≥60 years old in these two PSA range. Our results indicated that %fPSA is both statistically effective and clinical applicable to predict prostate biopsy outcome in Chinese patients aged ≥60 years old with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng ml-1 and 10.1-20.0 ng ml-1 .

  4. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  5. The effect of sunny area ratios on the thermal performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Ismail; Karakilcik, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of sunny area ratio on model solar ponds in different geometries. • The sunny area ratio was calculated for 8 different cases. • The efficiency of the model solar pond was determined for 8 different cases. • The energy efficiencies of the solar pond are affected by the sizes of the solar pond, strongly. • The results help to select the sizes of the solar pond before construction. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of the sunny area ratios on thermal efficiency of model solar pond for different cases in Adiyaman, Turkey. For this purpose, we modeled the solar ponds to compute theoretical sunny area ratios of the zones and temperature distributions in order to find the performance of the model solar ponds. Incorporating the finite difference approach, one and two dimensional heat balances were written for inner zones and insulation side walls. Through, careful determination of the dimensions, insulation parameter and incoming solar radiation reaching the storage zone increased the efficiency of the solar pond. The efficiencies of the model solar pond were determined for case1a–2a–3a–4a to be maximum 14.93%, 20.42%, 23.51% and 27.84%, and for case1b–2b–3b–4b to be maximum 12.65%, 16.76%, 21.37% and 23.30% in August, respectively. With the increase of the sunny area ratio, the performance of the solar pond significantly increased. However, with the increasing rate of the surface area, performance increase rate decreased gradually. The results provide a strong perspective to determine the dimensions of the solar pond before starting the project of a solar pond

  6. Thermal performance experiments on ultimate heat sinks, spray ponds, and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.

    1976-12-01

    A program of measurement on a Battelle-Northwest (BNW) spray pond has been completed to prove an integrated instrumentation system for application in future field experiments. The measurement programs in the field will produce data of relevance to the design and understanding of performance for ultimate heat sinks as components of emergency core cooling systems. In the absence of active emergency cooling systems, the data will be obtained on analog systems--prime candidates among these are the naturally-occurring hot ponds at Yellowstone National Park and man-made hot cooling ponds at Savannah River National Laboratory as well as spray ponds at various industrial facilities. The proof experiment has provided data that not only illustrate the effectiveness of the instrumentation system but also display interesting site-specific heat transfer processes. The data to be obtained in the field will also be site specific but must be of generic applicability in modeling for design and performance purposes. The integrated instrumentation system will evolve, through modest modifications and substantial supplementation, to provide the requisite data for the more demanding situation of work in and about hot water

  7. Ponded infiltration tests at the Box Canyon site: data report and preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Paul; Faybishenko, Boris; Freifeld, Barry; Jacobsen, Janet; Lee, Ki Ha; Salve, Rohit; Zawislanski, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the design and present the main results of a two-week ponded infiltration test conducted in 1996 at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To investigate liquid flow and chemical transport in fractured basalt, the following types of instruments were installed in boreholes: tensiometers, suction lysimeters, thermistors, time domain reflectrometry probes, and electrical resisitivity probes. These probes were installed using an innovative technology of borehole instrumentation and completion using polyurethane foam injection. The probes were attached to plastic packers that were inflated using the polyurethane foam, and then the space between packers was back-filled with the foam in order to ensure the isolation of the instruments at different depths. Polyurethane foam showed great promise in enabling rapid, cost-effective installation of sensors and probes in fractured rock. A ponded infiltration test was conducted from 8/27/96 to 9/9/96, by maintaining water to an average depth of 23 cm in a rectangular infiltration pond. Within the 7 x 8 m pond, nine local infiltrometers (0.25 m diameter) were-installed to determine local values of the water flux. A slug of conservative tracer (KM) was added to the pond on 9/2/96, yielding a tracer concentration in the pond of approximately 3 g/L. The water supply to the pond was halted for two days so that the tracer concentration in the pond water would remain essentially constant. Thereafter, the water supply was re-established to maintain a constant water level. Installation procedures and measurement results for each type of probe are presented, along with a description of the data acquisition system. The attachments include a description of the calibration and testing of instrumentation. The data files can be found at the FTP site zenitMnel/ or the Web site http://www- esd.lbl.gov/ERT/inel/inel.htrnl

  8. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  9. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Alonzo Pond and the 1930 Logan Museum Expedition to North Africa - The Beloit College Symposium, edited by L. B. Breitborde, Logan Museum Bulletin (new series, vol. 1, no. 1, 1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Christenson

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available After a 32 year hiatus, the Logan Museum Bulletin returns with a number on the man who contributed to three of the first five numbers of the old series, Alonzo W. Pond. Pond is one of those archaeologists with a distinctive name most professionals recognize, but whose specific accom­plishments do not easily come to mind. For lithic analysts, his work on flintknapper Halvor Skavlem stands foremost (pond 1930, but for desert enthusiasts his work with Roy Chapman Andrews in the Gobi, the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition in the American South­ west, and Beloit College in the Sahara are most memorable. The last season of the latter expedi­tion is the focus of this slim volume, based upon a symposium given in 1985. The six chapters in the volume stand alone without an editorial structure and 50 readers are on their own to synthesize the information provided. Unfortunately, the longest contribution, Kit Hinsley's revision of a previously published (Hinsley 1989 visual analysis of late 19th century archaeological images, although of interest in the grand scale of things, sticks out as being unrelated to the concern of the volume. The author or editor should have done something to make this unrelatedness less obvious.

  11. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha eMiazga-Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to nine months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4 °C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g was added to retention pond water (100 mL amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12 °C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4 °C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  12. Enhancing nitrification at low temperature with zeolite in a mining operations retention pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up to 9 months of the year. The aluminosilicate mineral zeolite was tested as an additive to retention pond water to increase rates of ammonium removal at 4°C. Water samples were collected across the length of the retention pond monthly over a year. The structure of the microbial community (bacteria, archaea, and eukarya), as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, was more stable during cold months than during July-September, when there was a marked phytoplankton bloom. Of the ammonia-oxidizing community, only bacterial amoA genes were consistently detected. Zeolite (10 g) was added to retention pond water (100 mL) amended with 5 mM ammonium and incubated at 12°C to encourage development of a nitrifying biofilm. The biofilm community was composed of different amoA phylotypes from those identified in gene clone libraries of native water samples. Zeolite biofilm was added to fresh water samples collected at different times of the year, resulting in a significant increase in laboratory measurements of potential nitrification activity at 4°C. A significant positive correlation between the amount of zeolite biofilm and potential nitrification activity was observed; rates were unaffected in incubations containing 1-20 mM ammonium. Addition of zeolite to retention ponds in cold environments could effectively increase nitrification rates year-round by concentrating active nitrifying biomass.

  13. The association of markers of oxidative-inflammatory status with malnutrition in hemodialysis patients with serum ferritin lower than 500 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD with serum ferritin lower than 500ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW, and healthy volunteers (n = 35 were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PC, high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. RESULTS: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039 and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028 where related with the patients' nutritional condition. CONCLUSION: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.

  14. Seasonality of dipteran-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Hall, MacGregor N; Polk, D Kirkland; Williams, Edward B; Ortega-Rodriguez, Celeste L; Kennedy, James H

    2018-03-12

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an aquatic contaminant that can be transferred to terrestrial predators by emergent aquatic insects. We assessed the effects of month and pond permanence on dipteran-mediated MeHg flux (calculated as emergent dipteran biomass × dipteran MeHg concentration) in 10 experimental ponds. Emergent dipterans were collected weekly from permanent ponds with bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus; n = 5) and semipermanent ponds without fish (n = 5) over a 7-mo period (February-August, 2015). We detected a significant effect of month on MeHg flux from 6 dipteran taxa and aggregate MeHg flux, with the highest MeHg flux from herbivorous/detritivorous chironomid midges and predatory midges in March; biting midges, phantom midges and herbivorous/detritivorous orthoclad midges in April; and mosquitoes in August. Aggregate dipteran-mediated MeHg flux peaked in April and then declined throughout the remainder of the summer. We did not detect a significant main effect of pond permanence or a significant month × pond permanence interaction effect on MeHg flux for any of the taxa examined in the present study or for aggregate MeHg flux. Given their ubiquity in aquatic systems and their importance in food webs at the land-water interface, dipterans are important taxa that should not be overlooked as a part of the Hg cycle. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-6. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  15. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in fecal-contaminated ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafai, S.A.; Gijzen, H.J.; Nasr, F.A.; El-Gohary, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial quality of tilapia reared in four fecal-contaminated fishponds was investigated. One of the fishponds (TDP) received treated sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 4x10 3 cfu/100 mL, and feed of fresh duckweed grown on treated sewage was used. The number of fecal coliform bacteria attached to duckweed biomass ranged between 4.1x10 2 and 1.6x10 4 cfu/g fresh weight. The second fishpond (TWP) received treated sewage, and the feed used was wheat bran. The third fishpond (FDP) received freshwater, and the feed used was the same duckweed. Pond 4 (SSP) received only settled sewage with an average fecal coliform count of 2.1x10 8 /100 mL. The average counts in the fishponds were 2.2x10 3 , 1.7x10 3 , 1.7x10 2 , and 9.4x10 3 cfu/100 mL in TDP, TWP, FDP, and SSP, respectively. FDP had a significantly (P gills>skin>liver. Poor water quality (ammonia and nitrite) in SSP resulted in statistically higher fecal coliform numbers in fish organs of about 1 log 10 than in treatments with good water quality. Pretreatment of sewage is therefore recommended

  16. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Richard J.; Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  17. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  18. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  19. The Selective Use of Hypochlorite to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algae-Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Although algae-biofuels have many advantages including high areal productivity, algae can be preyed upon by amoebas, protozoans, ciliates, and rotifers, particularly in open pond systems. Thus, these higher organisms need to be controlled. In this study, Chlorella kessleri was used as the algal culture and Brachionus calyciflorus as the source of predation. The effect of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) was tested with the goal of totally inhibiting the rotifer while causing minor inhibition to the alga. The 24-hr LC50 for B. calyciflorus in spring water was 0.198 mg Cl/L while the 24-hr LC50 for C. kessleri was 0.321 mg Cl/L. However, chlorine dissipates rapidly as the algae serves as reductant. Results showed a chlorine dosage between 0.45 to 0.6 mg Cl/L and a dosing interval of two hours created the necessary chlorine concentrations to inhibit predation while letting the algae grow; thus giving algae farmers a tool to prevent pond crashes. Water Environ. Res., 87 (2015).

  20. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-10-01

    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum α concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum β-γ concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10 4 pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables

  1. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-10-01

    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum ..cap alpha.. concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum ..beta..-..gamma.. concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10/sup 4/ pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6%). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem.

  3. Submerged Pond Sand Filter-A Novel Approach to Rural Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Mia; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Bregnhøj, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped filter opening. The filter provides treated drinking water...... to a rural Indian village. The filter has functioned with minimal maintenance for five years without being subject to the typical scraping off and changing of sand as needed in traditional slow sand filters every few months. This five-year study showed bacterial removal efficiency of 97% on average...... to 10 CFU/100 mL on average compared to shorter pumping intervals (5 min). Though the treated water did not comply with the World Health Organization standards of 0 CFU/100 mL, the filter significantly improved water quality and provided one of the best sources of drinkable water in a water...

  4. Don Quixote Pond: A Small Scale Model of Weathering and Salt Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Patel, S. N.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of Don Quixote Pond in the North Fork of Wright Valley, Antarctica, is a model for unique terrestrial calcium, chlorine, and sulfate weathering, accumulation, and distribution processes. The formation of Don Quixote Pond by simple shallow and deep groundwater contrasts more complex models for Don Juan Pond in the South Fork of Wright Valley. Our study intends to understand the formation of Don Quixote Pond as unique terrestrial processes and as a model for Ca, C1, and S weathering and distribution on Mars.

  5. Monthly and diurnal variations of limnological conditions of two ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Fazlur Rahaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on monthly and diurnal changes of limnological conditions of two ponds was conducted in the Bangladesh Agricultural University campus, Mymensingh. The research work was performed by studying the limnological parameters such as transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and plankton. Diurnal variations of physico-chemical factors were studied fortnightly at 6 hrs intervals at 6 a.m., 12 noon, 6 p.m. and 12 midnight. The amounts of transparency, dissolved oxygen and pH were higher during winter months than in summer months in both the ponds. Transparency, water temperature, total alkalinity, NO3-N and PO4-P were higher during summer months than in winter months in both the ponds. But the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during winter months than in summer months in pond 1 while in pond 2 the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during summer months than in winter months. Qualitative and quantitative monthly variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were observed in both the ponds during the study period. The highest amount of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity were recorded at 6 p.m. and the lowest amounts of those at 6 a.m. in both the ponds. The highest temperature was recorded at 12 noon and the lowest at 12 midnight. But the highest amount of free carbon dioxide was recorded at 6 a.m. and the lowest at 6 p.m. in both the ponds. All the factors showed appreciable diel variations throughout the study period, which indicate that the ponds are productive.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  7. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the 216-S-10 Pond and Ditch, Interim Change Notice 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    During 2003, the upgradient well 299-W26-7 went dry and one new groundwater monitoring well was installed downgradient (well 299-W26-14) of the 216-S-10 pond and ditch. This ICN updates the groundwater monitoring wells for the 216-S-10 pond and ditch and adds a revised well location map to the plan

  8. TestNG beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Varun

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a friendly, beginner's guide style with plenty of step-by-step instructions with appropriate examples.This book is great for developers and testers who are new to TestNg and want to learn how to use TestNG for writing their application as well as functional tests. This book assumes that you have experience in Java and OOPs concepts and have worked with certain IDE.

  9. Hydrology, water quality, and water-supply potential of ponds at Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia, November 2008-July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2010-01-01

    pumping period. At a withdrawal rate of 1,000 gal/min, available pond volume would be depleted in 13-29 days, at a rate of 500 gal/min in 24-60 days, and at a rate of 250 gal/min, in 44 to 130 days. In each case, Halstrum Pond had the largest amount of available pond volume. The water-supply potential at the golf course pond was assessed by measuring flow downstream from the pond during February-July 2009, and examining historic stormflow measurements collected during 1979-87. Streamflow during both of these periods exceeded average daily (2005-2007) golf course water use. Assuming an 8-hour daily irrigation period, the average discharge rate required to meet Golf Course water demand during peak demand months of March-May and July-October exceeds 200 gal/min, with the greatest rate of 531 gal/min during July. During February-July 2009, daily average streamflow downstream of the golf course pond exceeded 238 gal/min 90 percent of the time. Based on samples collected for chemical analysis during April 2009, water from all four ponds at Hunter Army Airfield is fresh and suitable for irrigation supply, with chloride concentrations below 12 milligrams per liter. With the exception of iron in Wilson Gate Pond, constituent concentrations are below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary and secondary drinking water maximum contaminant levels. Water in Wilson Gate Pond contained an iron concentration of 419 mg/L, which exceeds the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Although not a health hazard, when the iron concentration exceeds 300 micrograms per liter, iron staining of sidewalks and plumbing fixtures may occur. Levels of dissolved oxygen were below the Georgia Environmental Protection Divison standard of 4 milligrams per liter for waters supporting warm-water fishes at deeper depths in Oglethorpe Lake, Wilson Gate Pond, and Halstrum Pond, and in the composite sample at the golf course pond.

  10. Thermal evolutions of two kinds of melt pond with different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hong; Wilkinson, Jeremy; Moon, Woosok; Hwang, Byongjun; Granskog, Mats

    2016-04-01

    increased opacity, and under-pond ice thickness of 219 cm, whereas the salty pond had salinity of 20 psu, dark blue color, only transparent water, and under-pond ice thickness of 100 cm. Temporal evolutions of mean water temperature of the two ponds are contrasted and showed that the fresh pond had about 1degC warmer temperature than the salty pond. The existence of slush ice particles in the pond seems to be responsible for this temperature difference. Multiple scattering by slush ice particles could lead to more absorption of shortwave radiation. A comparison of vertical profiles of water temperature shows that there existed an internal maximum heating layer in the fresh pond. Possibly, this profile might indicate the the below layer unstable, which might have efficient thermal propagation to the ice surface. On the other hand, the vertical temperature profile of the salty pond had internal thermocline near the pond bottom, but so that the upper heating may not efficiently propagate downward to the ice surface.

  11. Technical manual for calculating cooling pond performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    This manual is produced in response to a growing number of requests for a technical aid to explain methods for simulating cooling pond performance. As such, it is a compilation of reports, charts and graphs developed through the years for use in analyzing situations. Section II contains a report summarizing the factors affecting cooling pond performance and lists statistical parameters used in developing performance simulations. Section III contains the graphs of simulated cooling pond performance on an hourly basis for various combinations of criteria (wind, solar, depth, air temperature and humidity) developed from the report in Section II. Section IV contains correspondence describing how to develop further data from the graphs in Section III, as well as mathematical models for the system of performance calculation. Section V contains the formulas used to simulate cooling pond performances in a cascade arrangement, such as the Fermilab Main Ring ponds. Section VI contains the calculations currently in use to evaluate the Main Ring pond performance based on current flows and Watts loadings. Section VII contains the overall site drawing of the Main Ring cooling ponds with thermal analysis and physical data

  12. A comparison between evaporation ponds and evaporation surfaces as a source of the concentrated salt brine for salt gradient maintenance at Tajoura solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Abdulghani M.; Agha, Khairy R.; Abughres, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems that negatively affect the operation of salt gradient solar ponds and influence its thermal stability is the maintenance of salt gradient profile. Evaporation pond (EP) is designed to generate the salt which lost upward salt diffusion from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond. Another attractive method is the evaporation surface facility (ES). Regions with moderate to high precipitation favor Evaporation Surface over Evaporation Ponds. Dry climates will generally favor Evaporation Ponds for the brine re-concentration. In previous studies [1-3], the authors have shown that the (EP) of Tajoura's Experimental Solar Pond (TESP) is under sized and can provide only about 30% of the salt required by a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP). The anticipated size of (EP) was estimated and presented in those studies under different design conditions, including Summer, Autumn and Spring designs, while the winter design was excluded due to the low rates of net evaporation during the winter season. In addition, the results presented were predicted for the first three years of operation. The daily variations of brine concentration in the (EP) of (TESP) and those based on different designs were predicted and discussed under different scenarios. The quantities of brine provided by the evaporation pond and that required by SGSP were predicted for both cases of surface water flushing (fresh water and sea-water) under the different design conditions as shown in Table 1. This paper investigates the differences between (EP) and (ES) both as a source for salt brine generation by evaporation. The effect of (EP) depth on the area ratio and daily variations of salt concentrations for three years of operation is shown. Results show that evaporation can be a reasonable method for salt brine generation. Reducing the depth of (EP) improves the capability of (EP) for brine re-concentration. It also increases the (EP) surface area for the same quantity of

  13. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g{sup −1} for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g{sup −1} for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g{sup −1} for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in

  14. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbyla, M.E.; Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M.; Mihelcic, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g"−"1 for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g"−"1 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g"−"1 for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in ponds may limit

  15. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  16. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  17. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics

  18. Par Pond phytoplankton in association with refilling of the pond: Final Report for sampling from February 1995 -- September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Johnson, M.A.; Cody, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the results of phytoplankton analyses from Par Pond samples collected between February 1995 and September 1996. The principal objective of the study was to determine the effect of refilling of Par Pond following repair of the dam on the phytoplankton community. Algal blooms are often responsible for fish kills and other detrimental effects in ponds and lakes, and it was postulated that decaying vegetation from formerly exposed sediments might trigger algal blooms that could result in fish kills in Par Pond following the refill. Sporadic algal blooms involving blue-green algae were detected, especially during the summer of 1996. However, the data derived from the study demonstrates that overall, the refilling effort caused no significant negative impact to the pond attributable to phytoplankton dynamics.

  19. The refreezing of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel L.; Bailey, Eleanor; Schroeder, David

    2015-02-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the surface of Arctic sea ice significantly reduces its albedo, inducing a positive feedback leading to sea ice thinning. While the role of melt ponds in enhancing the summer melt of sea ice is well known, their impact on suppressing winter freezing of sea ice has, hitherto, received less attention. Melt ponds freeze by forming an ice lid at the upper surface, which insulates them from the atmosphere and traps pond water between the underlying sea ice and the ice lid. The pond water is a store of latent heat, which is released during refreezing. Until a pond freezes completely, there can be minimal ice growth at the base of the underlying sea ice. In this work, we present a model of the refreezing of a melt pond that includes the heat and salt balances in the ice lid, trapped pond, and underlying sea ice. The model uses a two-stream radiation model to account for radiative scattering at phase boundaries. Simulations and related sensitivity studies suggest that trapped pond water may survive for over a month. We focus on the role that pond salinity has on delaying the refreezing process and retarding basal sea ice growth. We estimate that for a typical sea ice pond coverage in autumn, excluding the impact of trapped ponds in models overestimates ice growth by up to 265 million km3, an overestimate of 26%.

  20. Hans Küng: "Projekt Weltethos "

    OpenAIRE

    Altmanninger, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Bei dieser Arbeit werde ich mich vor Allem auf zwei Werke beziehen: Küng,Hans:Projekt Weltethos.Piper.München 1990. Küng,Hans;Kuschel,Karl-Josef (Hg.):Weltfrieden durch Religionsfrieden.Die unter Punkt Acht aufgeführte Stellungnahme wurde ausschließlich von mir verfasst.

  1. Percolation pond as a method of managed aquifer recharge in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raicy Mani Christy

    2017-07-17

    Jul 17, 2017 ... small pond within their farm to collect and store the rainwater. The cost of water ... world. A treated sewage recharge scheme in Salalah ... assistance of community. The benefit of ...... geochemical modelling; unpublished PhD thesis, Anna. University ... Raicy M C and Elango L 2014 An integrated approach.

  2. The Pond Is Our Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Barbara Turco

    1978-01-01

    This science teacher's laboratory is a pond within walking distance of his school that provides a stimulating environment for exploring the natural world. With simple materials students practice making careful observations, taking measurements and compiling and graphing information for their science studies. They also extend their pond experiences…

  3. Stage T1-2 prostate cancer with pretreatment PSA 10 ng/ml or less: radiotherapy or surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, Douglas; Kupelian, Patrick; Zippe, Craig; Klein, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Presently, patients with pretreatment PSA levels ≤10 ng/ml constitute the majority of cases presenting for definitive treatment. Our aim was to determine whether the type of treatment (radiotherapy versus surgery) affected biochemical failure rates in this group of patients. This study is based on 389 patients treated at a single institution. Material and Methods: The charts of all patients treated with either radiotherapy or prostatectomy alone between 1987 and 1993 were reviewed (n=811). Patients with clinical stage T1 or T2 disease, and a pretreatment PSA level (iPSA) of 10.0 or less were analyzed (n=389). Two hundred forty nine (64%) received radical prostatectomy and 140 (36%) received radiotherapy (median dose 66.6 Gy). Pretreatment patient characteristics including clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score (GS) and iPSA level were not significantly different between the radiation and surgery groups (Table 1). The patients treated with radiation were significantly older (median age 70 years vs. 64 years, p<0.05). A total of 37% of the prostatectomy patients had a positive margin. The median follow-up time was 33 months; 1458 follow-up PSA levels were available for analysis. Biochemical failure was defined as a rise in PSA level of 1.0 ng/ml above the nadir PSA level in radiotherapy cases, or any value above 0.2 ng/ml in the prostatectomy cases. Results: The overall 5 year actuarial biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate was 70%. The 5-year bRFS rates for prostatectomy and radiotherapy were identical (70%) (Fig.1). The significant factors affecting bRFS rates were iPSA level (≤4 vs. 4-10 ng/ml) and Gleason score (≤6 vs. ≥7) (Table 2). The 5-year bRFS rates of patients with iPSA ≤4 vs. iPSA 4-10 ng/ml were 92% vs. 61% respectively, p<0.01. The 5-year clinical relapse free survival was 93%. All clinical failures were preceded by biochemical failure. Patients with positive surgical margins did significantly worse than those with negative

  4. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  5. Climate-simulated raceway pond culturing: quantifying the maximum achievable annual biomass productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in the contiguous USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Chavis, A.; Edmundson, S.; Rye, D.; Hobbs, S.; Sun, N.; Wigmosta, M.

    2017-09-13

    Chlorella sorokiniana (DOE 1412) emerged as one of the most promising microalgae strains from the NAABB consortium project, with a remarkable doubling time under optimal conditions of 2.57 hr-1. However, its maximum achievable annual biomass productivity in outdoor ponds in the contiguous United States remained unknown. In order to address this knowledge gap, this alga was cultured in indoor LED-lighted and temperature-controlled raceways in nutrient replete freshwater (BG-11) medium at pH 7 under conditions simulating the daily sunlight intensity and water temperature fluctuations during three seasons in Southern Florida, an optimal outdoor pond culture location for this organism identified by biomass growth modeling. Prior strain characterization indicated that the average maximum specific growth rate (µmax) at 36 ºC declined continuously with pH, with µmax corresponding to 5.92, 5.83, 4.89, and 4.21 day-1 at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. In addition, the maximum specific growth rate declined nearly linearly with increasing salinity until no growth was observed above 35 g/L NaCl. In the climate-simulated culturing studies, the volumetric ash-free dry weight-based biomass productivities during the linear growth phase were 57, 69, and 97 mg/L-day for 30-year average light and temperature simulations for January (winter), March (spring), and July (summer), respectively, which corresponds to average areal productivities of 11.6, 14.1, and 19.9 g/m2-day at a constant pond depth of 20.5 cm. The photosynthetic efficiencies (PAR) in the three climate-simulated pond culturing experiments ranged from 4.1 to 5.1%. The annual biomass productivity was estimated as ca. 15 g/m2-day, nearly double the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2015 State of Technology annual cultivation productivity of 8.5 g/m2-day, but this is still significantly below the projected 2022 target of ca. 25 g/m2-day (U.S. DOE, 2016) for economic microalgal biofuel production, indicating the need for

  6. Design and Application of a Solar Mobile Pond Aquaculture Water Quality-Regulation Machine Based in Bream Pond Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingguo; Xu, Hao; Ma, Zhuojun; Zhang, Yongjun; Tian, Changfeng; Cheng, Guofeng; Zou, Haisheng; Lu, Shimin; Liu, Shijing; Tang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Bream pond aquaculture plays a very important role in China's aquaculture industry and is the main source of aquatic products. To regulate and control pond water quality and sediment, a movable solar pond aquaculture water quality regulation machine (SMWM) was designed and used. This machine is solar-powered and moves on water, and its primary components are a solar power supply device, a sediment lifting device, a mechanism for walking on the water's surface and a control system. The solar power supply device provides power for the machine, and the water walking mechanism drives the machine's motion on the water. The sediment lifting device orbits the main section of the machine and affects a large area of the pond. Tests of the machine's mechanical properties revealed that the minimum illumination necessary for the SMWM to function is 13,000 Lx and that its stable speed on the water is 0.02-0.03 m/s. For an illumination of 13,000-52,500 Lx, the sediment lifting device runs at 0.13-0.35 m/s, and its water delivery capacity is 110-208 m(3)/h. The sediment lifting device is able to fold away, and the angle of the suction chamber can be adjusted, making the machine work well in ponds at different water depths from 0.5 m to 2 m. The optimal distance from the sediment lifting device to the bottom of the pond is 10-15 cm. In addition, adjusting the length of the connecting rod and the direction of the traction rope allows the SMWM to work in a pond water area greater than 80%. The analysis of water quality in Wuchang bream (Parabramis pekinensis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) culture ponds using the SMWM resulted in decreased NH3(+)-N and available phosphorus concentrations and increased TP concentrations. The TN content and the amount of available phosphorus in the sediment were reduced. In addition, the fish production showed that the SMWM enhanced the yields of Wuchang bream and silver carp by more than 30% and 24%, respectively. These results

  7. Infrared Spectra of Novel NgBeSO2 Complexes (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in Low Temperature Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjie; Liu, Xing; Xu, Bing; Xing, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-03

    The novel noble-gas complexes NgBeSO 2 (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) have been prepared in the laser-evaporated beryllium atom reactions with SO 2 in low-temperature matrixes. Doped with heavier noble gas, the guest (Ar, Kr, Xe) atom can substitute neon to form more stable complex. Infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are used to confirm the band assignment. The dissociation energies are calculated at 0.9, 4.0, 4.7, and 6.0 kcal/mol for NeBeSO 2 , ArBeSO 2 , KrBeSO 2 , and XeBeSO 2 , respectively, at the CCSD(T) level. Quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the Ng-Be bonds in NgBeSO 2 could be formed by the combination of electron-donation and ion-induced dipole interactions. The Wiberg bond index (WBI) values of Ng-Be bonds and LOL (localized orbital locator) profile indicate that the Ng-Be bond exhibits a gradual increase in covalent character along Ne to Xe.

  8. Internal loading of phosphorus in a sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland: effect of a phytoplankton crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J; Mortimer, Robert J G; Krom, Michael D; Jarvie, Helen P; Williams, Richard J; Spraggs, Rachael E; Stratford, Charlie J

    2011-05-01

    Sedimentation ponds are widely believed to act as a primary removal process for phosphorus (P) in nutrient treatment wetlands. High frequency in-situ P, ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and dissolved oxygen measurements, alongside occasional water quality measurements, assessed changes in nutrient concentrations and productivity in the sedimentation pond of a treatment wetland between March and June. Diffusive equilibrium in thin films (DET) probes were used to measure in-situ nutrient and chemistry pore-water profiles. Diffusive fluxes across the sediment-water interface were calculated from the pore-water profiles, and dissolved oxygen was used to calculate rates of primary productivity and respiration. The sedimentation pond was a net sink for total P (TP), soluble reactive P (SRP) and NH(4)(+) in March, but became subject to a net internal loading of TP, SRP and NH(4)(+) in May, with SRP concentrations increasing by up to 41μM (1300μl(-1)). Reductions in chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations also occurred at this time. The sediment changed from a small net sink of SRP in March (average diffusive flux: -8.2μmolm(-2)day(-1)) to a net source of SRP in June (average diffusive flux: +1324μmolm(-2)day(-1)). A diurnal pattern in water column P concentrations, with maxima in the early hours of the morning, and minima in the afternoon, occurred during May. The diurnal pattern and release of SRP from the sediment were attributed to microbial degradation of diatom biomass, causing reduction of the dissolved oxygen concentration and leading to redox-dependent release of P from the sediment. In June, 2.7mol-Pday(-1) were removed by photosynthesis and 23mol-Pday(-1) were supplied by respiration in the lake volume. SRP was also released through microbial respiration within the water column, including the decomposition of algal matter. It is imperative that consideration to internal recycling is given when maintaining sedimentation ponds, and before the installation of new

  9. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  10. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  11. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa) and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, I; Djordjevic, D; Bojanic, N; Babic, U; Soldatovic, I

    2017-01-01

    To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA) and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI) in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA) and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7). New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI), represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  12. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  14. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  15. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  16. 100-D Ponds groundwater quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The 100-D Ponds facility is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The pH of groundwater in a downgradient well is statistically different than local background, triggering an assessment of groundwater contamination under 40 CFR 265.93. Results of a similar assessment, conducted in 1993, show that the elevated pH is caused by the presence of alkaline ash sediments beneath the ponds, which are not part of the RCRA unit. The 100-D Ponds should remain in indicator evaluation monitoring

  17. ANL-W 779 pond seepage test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    The ANL-W 779 sanitary wastewater treatment ponds are located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), north of the Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) site A seepage test was performed for two Argonne National Laboratory -- West (ANL-W) sanitary wastewater treatment ponds, Facility 779. Seepage rates were measured to determine if the ponds are a wastewater land application facility. The common industry standard for wastewater land application facilities is a field-measured seepage rate of one quarter inch per day or greater

  18. Metal removal from tailings ponds water using indigenous micro-algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, H.; Ulrich, A.; Liu, Y. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Each barrel of oil produced by oil sands produce 1.25 m{sup 3} of tailings. The tailings are collected in ponds located at mining sites. The tailing pond water (TPW) must be reclaimed and released into the environment. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of removing metals from tailings pond water that used indigenous micro-algae. The in situ experimental method used Parachlorella kessliri to treat 2 ponds. The TPW was enriched with low and high concentrations of nutrients. Dry cell biomass analyses were then conducted, and the pH of the resulting samples was compared. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis methods were used to determine the initial metal concentrations in the raw TPWs. The study showed that the micro-algae remove significantly more metals when high levels of nutrients are used. tabs., figs.

  19. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  20. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Germana P.; Souza, Neyliane C. de; Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Santos, André B. dos

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L1 , respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L1 , respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens

  1. Site-specific health and safety plan 100-D Pond remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 100-D Ponds are located north of the northern perimeter fence of the 100-D Area. The ponds were excavated in a preexisting basin that had been used for disposal of coal ash. There are two ponds, one used as a settling pond and the other a percolation pond. Liquid effluent from the 100-D process sewers was discharged to the ponds from 1977 through 1987; after 1987 the ponds received backwash and rinsate from the 100-D water treatment facilities. All discharges to the ponds ceased in June 1994, and the ponds were allowed to dry up

  2. Aquaplaning : Development of a Risk Pond Model from Road Surface Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Nygårdhs, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Aquaplaning accidents are relatively rare, but could have fatal effects. The task of this master’s thesis is to use data from the Laser Road Surface Tester to detect road sections with risk of aquaplaning. A three-dimensional model based on data from road surface measurements is created using MATLAB (version 6.1). From this general geometrical model of the road, a pond model is produced from which the theoretical risk ponds are detected. A risk pond indication table is fur-ther created. The...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Exchange in Small Arctic Thaw Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurion, I.; Bégin, P. N.; Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic lakes and ponds can represent up to one quarter of the land surface in permafrost landscapes, particularly in lowland tundra landscapes characterized by ice wedge organic polygons. Thaw ponds can be defined as the aquatic ecosystems associated to thawing of organic soils, either resulting from active layer processes and located above low-center peat polygons (hereafter low-center polygonal or LCP ponds), or resulting from thermokarst slumping above melting ice wedges linked to the accelerated degradation of permafrost (hereafter ice-wedge trough or IWT ponds). These ponds can merge together forming larger water bodies, but with relatively stable shores (hereafter merged polygonal or MPG ponds), and with limnological characteristics similar to LCP ponds. These aquatic systems are very small and shallow, and present a different physical structure than the larger thermokarst lakes, generated after years of development and land subsidence. In a glacier valley on Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, thermokarst and kettle lakes together represent 29% of the aquatic area, with a thermal profile resembling those of more standard arctic lakes (mixed epilimnion). The IWT ponds (44% of the area) are stratified for a large fraction of the summer despite their shallowness, while LCP and MPG ponds (27% of the area) show a more homogeneous water column. This will affect gas exchange in these diverse aquatic systems, in addition to their unique microbiota and organic carbon lability that control the production and consumption rates of greenhouse gases. The stratification in IWT ponds generates hypoxic conditions at the bottom, and together with the larger availability of organic carbon, stimulates methanogenesis and limits the mitigating action of methanotrophs. Overall, thaw ponds are largely supersaturated in methane, with IWT ponds dominating the emissions in this landscape (92% of total aquatic emissions estimated for the same valley), and they present large variations in

  4. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  5. Valuing Multiple Benefits, and the Public Perception of SUDS Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jarvie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the public perceive and value ponds is fundamental to appreciate the synergy between Sustainable urban Drainage (SUDS ponds and the multiple benefits they provide. This paper investigates this, through the application of a structured postal and online survey, for a case study area of Edinburgh, in the UK. It compares man-made ponds (including SUDS, and ponds with natural origins. The results from Whole Life Cost show that the benefits (based on Contingent Valuation exceed the CAPEX and OPEX costs for three of five artificial ponds studied. Benefits from natural (reference ponds exceed the replacement costs for a pond with the same surface area/catchment. This paper highlights the importance of monetising the multiple benefits from ponds.

  6. Long-term changes in pond permanence, size, and salinity in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands: The role of groundwater-pond interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBaugh, James W.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Mushet, David M.; Neff, Brian; Nelson, Richard D.; Euliss, Ned H.

    2018-01-01

    Study RegionCottonwood Lake area wetlands, North Dakota, U.S.A.Study FocusFluctuations in pond permanence, size, and salinity are key features of prairie-pothole wetlands that provide a variety of wetland habitats for waterfowl in the northern prairie of North America. Observation of water-level and salinity fluctuations in a semi-permanent wetland pond over a 20-year period, included periods when the wetland occasionally was dry, as well as wetter years when the pond depth and surface extent doubled while volume increased 10 times.New hydrological insights for the study regionCompared to all other measured budget components, groundwater flow into the pond often contributed the least water (8–28 percent) but the largest amount (>90 percent) of specific solutes to the water and solute budgets of the pond. In drier years flow from the pond into groundwater represented > 10 percent of water loss, and in 1992 was approximately equal to evapotranspiration loss. Also during the drier years, export of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate by flow from the pond to groundwater was substantial compared with previous or subsequent years, a process that would have been undetected if groundwater flux had been calculated as a net value. Independent quantification of water and solute gains and losses were essential to understand controls on water-level and salinity fluctuations in the pond in response to variable climate conditions.

  7. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  8. Musculoskeletal disorder survey for pond workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, A.; Partiwi, S. G.; Dewi, H. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Mucsuloskeletal disorder will affect worker performance and become serious injury when ignored, so that workers cannot work normally. Therefore, an effective strategy plan is needed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorder. A pond worker is profession with high risk of physical complain. Four main activities are ponds preparation, seed distribution, pond maintenance, and harvesting. The methods employed in this current musculoskeletal disorder survey are questionnaire and interview. The result from 73 questionnaires shown that most of pond workers were working for 7 days a week. Prevalence physical complain are on neck, shoulders, upper back, lower back, and knees. The level of perceived complaint is moderate pain. However, most of them do not contact therapists or physicians. Therefore it is necessary to improve the working methods to be able to reduce physical complains due to musculoskeletal disorder.

  9. Prévalence et facteurs associés à la surcharge pondérale chez les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30% des adolescentes et près de 10% des garçons sont soit en surpoids, soit obèses. (McQuaide, 2008). Des études ont estimé la prévalence de la surcharge pondérale chez les adolescents mexicains à 19,8% et chez les adolescents égyptiens à 12.1%. Les facteurs de risque étaient l'âge, le niveau d'instruction,.

  10. Temporal Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea biodiversity during cultivation of an alkaliphilic algae, Chlorella vulgaris, in an outdoor raceway pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisza Ann Szeremy Bell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal biofuels and valuable co-products are being produced in both open and closed cultivation systems. Growing algae in open pond systems may be a more economical alternative, but this approach allows environmental microorganisms to colonize the pond and potentially infect or outcompete the algal crop. In this study, we monitored the microbial community of an outdoor, open raceway pond inoculated with a high lipid-producing alkaliphilic alga, Chlorella vulgaris BA050. The strain C. vulgaris BA050 was previously isolated from Soap Lake, Washington, a system characterized by a high pH (approximately 9.8. An outdoor raceway pond (200L was inoculated with C. vulgaris and monitored for ten days and then the culture was transferred to a 2,000L raceway pond and cultivated for an additional six days. Community DNA samples were collected over the 16-day period in conjunction with water chemistry analyses and cell counts. Universal primers for the SSU rRNA gene sequences for Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea were used for barcoded pyrosequence determination. The environmental parameters that most closely correlated with C. vulgaris abundance were pH and phosphate. Community analyses indicated that the pond system remained dominated by the Chlorella population (93% of eukaryotic sequences, but was also colonized by other microorganisms. Bacterial sequence diversity increased over time while archaeal sequence diversity declined over the same time period. Using SparCC co-occurrence network analysis, a positive correlation was observed between C. vulgaris and Pseudomonas sp. throughout the experiment, which may suggest a symbiotic relationship between the two organisms. The putative relationship coupled with high pH may have contributed to the success of C. vulgaris. The characterization of the microbial community dynamics of an alkaliphilic open pond system provides significant insight into open pond systems that could be used to control photoautotrophic

  11. A case study for biogas generation from covered anaerobic ponds treating abattoir wastewater: Investigation of pond performance and potential biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Bernadette K.; Hamawand, Ihsan; Harris, Peter; Baillie, Craig; Yusaf, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report on the performance of a novel covered anaerobic pond system. • Potential biogas production was estimated using BioWin modelling software. • Ponds maintained stable operation; however, accumulation of crust was an issue. • Modelling indicated that biogas yield can be influenced by decomposition efficiency. • Configuration and operation of ponds can also impact potential biogas production. - Abstract: Covered anaerobic ponds offer significant advantages to the red meat processing industry by capturing methane rich gas as a fuel source for bioenergy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). This paper presents the results of a novel-designed anaerobic pond system at an Australian abattoir in relation to pond performance and potential biogas production. Key findings in assessing the effectiveness of the system revealed that the covered ponds are capable of efficient wastewater decomposition and biogas production. The primary issue with the covered ponds at the abattoir was the build-up of fat/crust that prevented the accurate measurement of biogas and effective use of the cover. In the absence of field biogas data the novel application of the computer modelling software BioWin® was carried out to simulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates and subsequent biogas yield. The unique parameter used to fit field data was the fraction of the inlet COD due to a superficial crust which did not follow anaerobic digestion. Field data effluent COD removal rates were matched to simulated rates predicted by BioWin when measured influent COD was reduced to 30%. Biogas modelling results suggest significant variation in the economic benefit of biogas energy, with the quantity of biogas potentially varying tenfold (from 328 m 3 /d to 3284 m 3 /d) depending on site factors such as pond efficiency, pond configuration and operational practices

  12. Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

  13. NG2 proteoglycan increases mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jing; Wang Yang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Liu Jianshe; Wang Yumei; Zhang Chun; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lang, Florian; Feng Yuxi

    2007-01-01

    As a membrane-spanning protein, NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan interacts with molecules on both sides of plasma membrane. The present study explored the role of NG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the normal kidneys, NG2 was observed predominantly in glomerular mesangium, Bowman's capsule and interstitial vessels. Both mRNA and protein expression in kidneys was significantly higher in strepozotocin-induced diabetic rats than that in normal rats. In the cultured rat mesangial cell line HBZY-1, overexpression of NG2 promoted mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as type VI collagen and laminin. Furthermore, target knockdown of NG2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and ECM formation. The observations suggest that NG2 is up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. It actively participates in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of mesangial cells and deposition of ECM

  14. Aerial radiological surveys of Steed Pond, Savannah River Site: Dates of surveys, 1984--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.; Jobst, J.E.

    1993-09-01

    From June 1984 to August 1985, three aerial radiological surveys were conducted over Steed Pond at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In addition, Steed Pond was included in larger-area surveys of the Savannah River Site in subsequent years. The surveys were conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada, for the US Department of Energy. Airborne measurements were obtained for both natural and man-made gamma radiation over Steed Pond and surrounding areas. The first survey was conducted when the pond was filled to normal capacity for the time of the year. On September 1, 1984, the Steed Pond dam spillway failed causing the pond to drain. The four subsequent surveys were conducted with the pond drained. The second survey and the third were conducted to study silt deposits exposed by the drop in water level after the spillway's opening. Steed Pond data from the February 1987 and April 1989 Savannah River Site surveys have been included to bring this study up to date

  15. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  16. A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

    2007-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies.

  17. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  18. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  19. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  20. Groundwater modeling for the long-term safety assessment of uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium tailings ponds contain naturally occurring long lived radionuclides such as 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th and 226 Ra as sources which are the parents of a very long radionuclide decay chain. Uranium tailings ponds by the virtue of the longevity of its contents may pose as a long-term radiological hazard if not designed and monitored properly. The principal radiation risks from uranium tailings are gamma radiation: windblown radioactive dust dispersion; and radon gas and its progenies. Uranium tailings ponds are also a major source of surface and groundwater contamination due to leaching of radioactive and other toxic elements. In many countries, the tailings ponds are designed to control the radiological hazards for up to 1000 years, to the extent achievable, and in any case for at least 200 years. Stringent regulations stipulations exist worldwide for the safe design, operation and closure of uranium tailings ponds. The long- term radiological impact assessment of uranium tailings ponds, hence, is an extremely important exercise in uranium mining industry. The simulations conducted for uranium over a period of 1000 years indicate that contaminant fronts from the source with a paste permeability of 1x10 -4 m/day would migrate a probable distance of less than 50 m. The maximum computed distance for this case is less than 300 m. Indian studies show that the total annual effective dose to members of the public at 1.0 km from the centre of the tailings pond is trivial up to a period of 4000 y. The estimated dose is 0.01 mSv/y after 10,000 years and it is 10 times lower than 0.1 mSv/y, which is considered as a safe dose limit for drinking water pathway. (author)

  1. N Güngör

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. N Güngör. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2004 pp 317-322 Surfactants. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions · E Günıster S İşçı A Alemdar N Güngör · More Details ...

  2. Description of work for 216-U-Pond cone penetrometer demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    This description of work details the Proposed field activities associated with Cone Penetrometer (CPT) work at the 216-U-10 Pond (U-10 Pond) in the 200 West Area and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. The U-10 Pond was constructed in 1944 to receive low-level liquid effluent from the various chemical reprocessing facilities within the 200 West Area. The U-10 Pond covered 30 acres and received approximately 4.3 x 10 10 gal of contaminated liquid. Sampling conducted in 1980 indicated that the most significant radionuclides were 90 Sr, 137 Cs, plutonium, and uranium (DOE-RL 1993). The pond was deactivated and stabilized in 1985 with clean fill dirt. The thickness of the stabilization cover is variable across the former pond and ranges between 2 ft near the pond margins and delta area to 8 feet in the deepest section of the pond. The purpose of this work is to establish the extent of contamination beneath the U-10 pond

  3. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  4. Level-Ice Melt Ponds in the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    terms obtained using the Bitz and Lips- comb (1999) thermodynamic model. The thickness distribution ( Thorndike et al., 1975) employs 5 ice thickness...D.L., 2004. A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice. J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002361. Thorndike , A.S., Rothrock

  5. The laboratory environmental algae pond simulator (LEAPS) photobioreactor: Validation using outdoor pond cultures of Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Williams, P.; Edmundson, S.; Chen, P.; Kruk, R.; Cullinan, V.; Crowe, B.; Lundquist, T.

    2017-09-01

    A bench-scale photobioreactor system, termed Laboratory Environmental Algae Pond Simulator (LEAPS), was designed and constructed to simulate outdoor pond cultivation for a wide range of geographical locations and seasons. The LEAPS consists of six well-mixed glass column photobioreactors sparged with CO2-enriched air to maintain a set-point pH, illuminated from above by a programmable multicolor LED lighting (0 to 2,500 µmol/m2-sec), and submerged in a temperature controlled water-bath (-2 °C to >60 °C). Measured incident light intensities and water temperatures deviated from the respective light and temperature set-points on average only 2.3% and 0.9%, demonstrating accurate simulation of light and temperature conditions measured in outdoor ponds. In order to determine whether microalgae strains cultured in the LEAPS exhibit the same linear phase biomass productivity as in outdoor ponds, Chlorella sorokiniana and Nannochloropsis salina were cultured in the LEAPS bioreactors using light and temperature scripts measured previously in the respective outdoor pond studies. For Chlorella sorokiniana, the summer season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was 6.6% and 11.3% lower than in the respective outdoor ponds in Rimrock, Arizona, and Delhi, California; however, these differences were not statistically significant. For Nannochloropsis salina, the winter season biomass productivity in the LEAPS was statistically significantly higher (15.2%) during the 27 day experimental period than in the respective outdoor ponds in Tucson, Arizona. However, when considering only the first 14 days, the LEAPS biomass productivity was only 9.2% higher than in the outdoor ponds, a difference shown to be not statistically significant. Potential reasons for the positive or negative divergence in LEAPS performance, relative to outdoor ponds, are discussed. To demonstrate the utility of the LEAPS in predicting productivity, two other strains – Scenedesmus obliquus and Stichococcus minor

  6. The western pond turtle: Habitat and history. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.C.

    1994-08-01

    The western pond turtle is known from many areas of Oregon. The majority of sightings and other records occur in the major drainages of the Klamath, Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette and Columbia River systems. A brief overview is presented of the evolution of the Willamette-Puget Sound hydrographic basin. A synopsis is also presented of the natural history of the western pond turtle, as well as, the status of this turtle in the Willamette drainage basin. The reproductive ecology and molecular genetics of the western pond turtle are discussed. Aquatic movements and overwintering of the western pond turtle are evaluated. The effect of introduced turtle species on the status of the western pond turtle was investigated in a central California Pond. Experiments were performed to determine if this turtle could be translocated as a mitigation strategy

  7. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in two wet retention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Laila C.; Vollertsen, Jes; Blecken, Godecke-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Metal accumulation in stormwater ponds may contaminate the inhabiting fauna, thus jeopardizing their ecosystem servicing function. We evaluated bioaccumulation of metals in natural fauna and caged mussel indicator organisms in two wet retention ponds. Mussel cages were distributed throughout...... the ponds to detect bioaccumulation gradients and obtain a time-integrated measure of metal bioavailability. We further investigated if sediment metal concentrations correlate with those in the fauna and mussels. Metal concentrations in the fauna tended to be higher in the ponds than in a reference lake......, but statistical significance was only shown for Cu. Positive correlations were found for some metals in fauna and sediment. Sediment metal concentrations in one pond decreased from inlet to outlet while no gradients were observed in the mussels in either pond. These findings indicate that metal accumulation...

  8. Solar pond design for Arabian Gulf conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassab, M.A.; Tag, I.A.; Jassim, I.A.; Al-Juburi, F.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Collection and storage of solar energy in salt gradient solar ponds under conditions of high ambient and ground temperatures and all year-round sunny weather are investigated theoretically. A transient model based on measured local environmental conditions is developed to predict solar transmission, temperature distribution and salt distribution inside the pond for any day of the year. In the model the effects of heat dissipation into the ground, bottom reflection, pond dimensions, load extraction and variation of the pond's physical properties with temperature and concentration are investigated. The generated non-linear coupled system of heat and salt concentration equations for the composite media, considered to have isothermal boundary conditions, is solved numerically using the implicit finite-difference scheme.

  9. Cooling pond fog studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    The Fog Excess Water Index (FEWI) method of fog prediction has been verified by the use of data obtained at the Dresden cooling pond during 1976 and 1977 and by a reanalysis of observations made in conjunction with a study of cooling pond simulators during 1974. For applications in which the method is applied to measurements or estimates of bulk water temperature, a critical value of about 0.7 mb appears to be most appropriate. The present analyses confirm the earlier finding that wind speed plays little part in determining the susceptibility for fog generation

  10. Long-term changes in pond permanence, size, and salinity in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands: The role of groundwater-pond interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. LaBaugh

    2018-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the study region: Compared to all other measured budget components, groundwater flow into the pond often contributed the least water (8–28 percent but the largest amount (>90 percent of specific solutes to the water and solute budgets of the pond. In drier years flow from the pond into groundwater represented > 10 percent of water loss, and in 1992 was approximately equal to evapotranspiration loss. Also during the drier years, export of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate by flow from the pond to groundwater was substantial compared with previous or subsequent years, a process that would have been undetected if groundwater flux had been calculated as a net value. Independent quantification of water and solute gains and losses were essential to understand controls on water-level and salinity fluctuations in the pond in response to variable climate conditions.

  11. Developing Ecological Models on Carbon and Nitrogen in Secondary Facultative Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte-Reyes Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological models formulated for TOC, CO2, NH4+, NO3- and NTK, based in literature reviewed and field work were obtained monitoring three facultative secondary stabilization ponds, FSSP, pilots: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-meshed pond, BMP. Models were sensitive to flow inlet, solar radiation, pH and oxygen content; the sensitive parameters in Carbon Model were KCOT Ba, umax Ba, umax Al, K1OX, VAl, R1DCH4, YBh. The sensitive parameters in the Nitrogen model were KCOT Ba, umax Ba, umax Al, VAl, KOPH, KOPA, r4An. The test t–paired showed a good simulating of Carbon model refers to TOC in FSSP; on the other side, the Nitrogen model showed a good simulating of NH4+. Different topological models modify ecosystem ecology forcing different transformation pathways of Nitrogen; equal transformations of the Carbon BMP topology could be achieved using lower volumes, however, a calibration for a new model would be required. Carbon and Nitrogen models developed could be coupled to hydrodynamics models for better modeling of FSSP.

  12. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from fly ash pond by Azolla caroliniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2012-08-01

    Abundance of naturally growing Azolla caroliniana (water fern) on the surface of metal enriched fly ash (FA) pond reflects its toxitolerant characteristics. Results indicate the efficiency of A. caroliniana for phytoremediation of FA pond because of its higher bioconcentration factor. The metal concentration ranged from 175 to 538 and 86 to 753mgkg(-1) in roots and fronds, respectively. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of all metals in root and frond ranged from 1.7 to18.6 and 1.8 to 11.0, respectively, which were greater than one and indicates the metal accumulation potential of A. caroliniana. Translocation factor (TF) ranged from 0.37 to 1.4 for various heavy metals. The field result proved that A. caroliniana is a potential accumulator for the examined heavy metals and can be used for phytoremediation of FA pond. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applicability of the direct injection liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analytical approach to the sub-ngL-1 determination of perfluoro-alkyl acids in waste, surface, ground and drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, Lorenzo; Renai, Lapo; Rossini, Daniele; Ancillotti, Claudia; Falai, Alida; Fibbi, Donatella; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan; Orlandini, Serena; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of a direct injection UHPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of several perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a wide range of water matrices was investigated. The method is based on the direct injection of 100µL of centrifuged water sample, without any other sample treatment. Very good method detection limits (0.014-0.44ngL -1 ) and excellent intra and inter-day precision (RSD% values in the range 1.8-4.4% and 2.7-5.7%, respectively) were achieved, with a total analysis time of 20min per sample. A high number of samples - i.e. 8 drinking waters (DW), 12 ground waters (GW), 13 surface waters (SW), 8 influents and 11 effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) were processed and the extent of matrix effect (ME) was calculated, highlighting the strong prevalence of |ME| 50% was occasionally observed only for perfluorooctanesulphonic and perfluorodecanoic acids. Linear discriminant analysis highlighted the great contribution of the sample origin (i.e. DW, GW, SW, WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) to the ME. Partial least square regression (PLS) and leave-one-out cross-validation were performed in order to interpret and predict the signal suppression or enhancement phenomena as a function of physicochemical parameters of water samples (i.e. conductivity, hardness and chemical oxygen demand) and background chromatographic area. The PLS approach resulted only in an approximate screening, due to the low prediction power of the PLS models. However, for most analytes in most samples, the fitted and cross-validated values were such as to correctly distinguish between | ME | higher than 20% or below this limit. PFAAs in the aforementioned water samples were quantified by means of the standard addition method, highlighting their occurrence mainly in WWTP influents and effluents, at concentrations as high as one hundred of µgL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, M.; Jordanov, M.; Denev, J.; Markov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

  15. Perched Lava Pond Complex on South Rift of Axial Volcano Revealed in AUV Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    An extraordinary lava pond complex is located on Axial Volcano's distal south rift. It was discovered in EM300 multibeam bathymetry collected in 1998, and explored and sampled with ROVs Tiburon in 2005 and Doc Ricketts in 2013. It was surveyed with the MBARI Mapping AUV D. Allan B. in 2011, in a complicated mission first flying above the levees at constant depth, then skimming ~5 m over the levees at a different constant depth to survey the floors, then twice switching to constant altitude mode to map outside the ponds. The AUV navigation was adjusted using the MB-System tool mbnavadjust so that bathymetric features match in overlapping and crossing swaths. The ~1-m resolution AUV bathymetry reveals extremely rough terrain, where low-resolution EM300 data had averaged acoustic returns and obscured details of walls, floors, a breach and surrounding flows, and gives context to the ROV observations and samples. The 6 x 1.5 km pond complex has 4 large and several smaller drained ponds with rims 67 to 106 m above the floors. The combined volume before draining was 0.56 km3. The ponds overflowed to build lobate-flow levees with elongate pillows draping outer flanks, then drained, leaving lava veneer on vertical inner walls. Levee rim depths vary by only 10 m and are deeper around the southern ponds. Deep collapse-pits in the levees suggest porosity of pond walls. The eastern levee of the northeastern pond breached, draining the interconnected ponds, and fed thick, rapidly-emplaced, sheet-flows along the complex's east side. These flows travelled at least 5.5 km down-rift and have 19-33 m deep drained ponds. They extended up-rift as well, forming a 10 x 2.5 km ponded flow with level 'bathtub rings' as high as 35 m above the floor marking that flow's high-stand. Despite the breach, at least 0.066 km3 of the molten interior of the large ponds also drained back down the eruptive fissures, as the pond floors are deeper than the sill and sea floor outside the complex. Tumulus

  16. The evaporation from ponds in the French Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AL DOMANY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research shows the results of a study about evaporation in five ponds in the Midwest of France. To realize this study we used climate data from the meteorological station of the Limoges-Bellegarde airport and the data of a weather station installed by us near one of the ponds. We used eight different methods to calculate the evaporation rate and we modified the Penman-Monteith method by replacing the air temperature by water temperature. To understand the role of ponds in water loss through evaporation, we proposed a hypothesis that says : if the pond did not exist, what results would we get? Based on this hypothesis we calculated the potential evapotranspiration rate taking into account the percentage of interception by vegetation. In conclusion, this study indicates that the ponds in the French Midwest present a gain of water

  17. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  18. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  19. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  20. Heavy metals, PAHs and toxicity in stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Tove; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of 6 different heavy metals and total Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in stormwater runoff and in the pond water of two Danish wet detention ponds. The pond water samples were analyzed for toxic effects, using the algae Selenastrum capricornutum as a test...... organism. Stormwater and pond water from a catchment with light industry showed high levels of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper. The pond water showed high toxic effects and copper were found to be the main toxicant. Additionally, a large part of the copper was suspected to be complex bound......, reducing the potential toxicity of the metal. Another catchment (residential) produced stormwater and pond water with moderate concentration of heavy metals. The pond water occasionally showed toxic effects but no correlation between heavy metals and toxicity was identified. PAHs concentrations were...

  1. High serum dihydrotestosterone examined by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS as a predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia or Gleason score 6 cancer in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y; Uemura, H; Suzuki, K; Shibata, Y; Honma, S; Harada, M; Kubota, Y

    2017-03-01

    There has been no consensus on the role of serum androgen concentrations in prostate cancer detection in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL. In this study, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in blood were examined by a newly developed method using ultrasensitive liquid chromatography with two serially linked mass spectrometers (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the correlation between serum androgen levels and Gleason scores at biopsy. We analyzed data of 157 men with a total prostate-specific antigen range of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial systematic prostate needle biopsy for suspected prostate cancer between April 2000 and July 2003. Peripheral blood testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. Blood levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were compared with pathological findings by multivariate analyses. Median values of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume measured by ultrasound were 5.7 ng/mL and 31.4 cm 3 , respectively. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 97 patients (61.8%), and prostate cancer was diagnosed in 60 (38.2%) patients, including 31 (19.7%) patients with a Gleason score of 6 and 29 (18.5%) patients with a Gleason score of 7-10. Median values of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in blood were 3798.7 and 371.7 pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong correlation between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In multivariate analysis, age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were significant predictors of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were 0.67, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively . We confirmed that high dihydrotestosterone blood levels can predict benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL

  2. Simple Rules Govern the Patterns of Arctic Sea Ice Melt Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Predrag; Cael, B. B.; Silber, Mary; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change, amplified in the far north, has led to rapid sea ice decline in recent years. In the summer, melt ponds form on the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly lowering the ice reflectivity (albedo) and thereby accelerating ice melt. Pond geometry controls the details of this crucial feedback; however, a reliable model of pond geometry does not currently exist. Here we show that a simple model of voids surrounding randomly sized and placed overlapping circles reproduces the essential features of pond patterns. The only two model parameters, characteristic circle radius and coverage fraction, are chosen by comparing, between the model and the aerial photographs of the ponds, two correlation functions which determine the typical pond size and their connectedness. Using these parameters, the void model robustly reproduces the ponds' area-perimeter and area-abundance relationships over more than 6 orders of magnitude. By analyzing the correlation functions of ponds on several dates, we also find that the pond scale and the connectedness are surprisingly constant across different years and ice types. Moreover, we find that ponds resemble percolation clusters near the percolation threshold. These results demonstrate that the geometry and abundance of Arctic melt ponds can be simply described, which can be exploited in future models of Arctic melt ponds that would improve predictions of the response of sea ice to Arctic warming.

  3. Simple Rules Govern the Patterns of Arctic Sea Ice Melt Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Predrag; Cael, B B; Silber, Mary; Abbot, Dorian S

    2018-04-06

    Climate change, amplified in the far north, has led to rapid sea ice decline in recent years. In the summer, melt ponds form on the surface of Arctic sea ice, significantly lowering the ice reflectivity (albedo) and thereby accelerating ice melt. Pond geometry controls the details of this crucial feedback; however, a reliable model of pond geometry does not currently exist. Here we show that a simple model of voids surrounding randomly sized and placed overlapping circles reproduces the essential features of pond patterns. The only two model parameters, characteristic circle radius and coverage fraction, are chosen by comparing, between the model and the aerial photographs of the ponds, two correlation functions which determine the typical pond size and their connectedness. Using these parameters, the void model robustly reproduces the ponds' area-perimeter and area-abundance relationships over more than 6 orders of magnitude. By analyzing the correlation functions of ponds on several dates, we also find that the pond scale and the connectedness are surprisingly constant across different years and ice types. Moreover, we find that ponds resemble percolation clusters near the percolation threshold. These results demonstrate that the geometry and abundance of Arctic melt ponds can be simply described, which can be exploited in future models of Arctic melt ponds that would improve predictions of the response of sea ice to Arctic warming.

  4. Vanishing Ponds and Regional Water Resources in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuei-An Liou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan has a Subtropic to Tropical climate, but its precipitation varies widely in response to seasonal effects and weather events such as Typhoon and Meiyu systems. Precipitation must be held back in reservoirs to provide and regulate sufficient water supply. Balancing the irregular precipitation and increasing water demands generates tremendous pressure on water resources management for the water stored in the Shihmen Reservoir, which is the major unitary water supply system in the Greater Taoyuan Area. Such pressure will be significantly enlarged due to the huge 17 billion USD Taoyuan Aerotropolis Project. In earlier days many small artificial ponds (a common terminology in this article, including irrigation ponds, fishery ponds and others, were built to cope with water shortages in Taoyuan County. These small storage ponds provided a solution that resolved seasonal precipitation shortages. Unfortunately, these ponds have been vanishing one after another one due to regional industrialization and urbanization in recent decades and less than 40% of them still remain today. There is great urgency and importance to investigating the link between vanishing ponds and water resources management. Remote sensing technology was used in this study to monitor the environmental consequences in the Taoyuan area by conducting multi-temporal analysis on the changes in water bodies, i.e., ponds. SPOT satellite images taken in 1993, 2003, and 2010 were utilized to analyze and assess the importance of small-scale ponds as water conservation facilities. It was found that, during the seventeen years from 1993 - 2010, the number of irrigation ponds decreased by 35.94%. These ponds can reduce the burden on the major reservoir and increase the water recycling rate if they are properly conserved. They can also improve rainfall interception and surface detention capabilities, and provide another planning advantage for regional water management.

  5. Submerged Pond Sand Filter—A Novel Approach to Rural Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Øhlenschlæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped filter opening. The filter provides treated drinking water to a rural Indian village. The filter has functioned with minimal maintenance for five years without being subject to the typical scraping off and changing of sand as needed in traditional slow sand filters every few months. This five-year study showed bacterial removal efficiency of 97% on average with a level of faecal coliforms of 2 ± 2 colony forming units (CFU/100 mL measured in the treated water. Turbidity was visibly removed during treatment. When water was retrieved from the filter through a manual pump for long consistent time intervals (60 min, faecal coliform counts increased from four to 10 CFU/100 mL on average compared to shorter pumping intervals (5 min. Though the treated water did not comply with the World Health Organization standards of 0 CFU/100 mL, the filter significantly improved water quality and provided one of the best sources of drinkable water in a water-depleted area, where only surface water was available. Furthermore, it is a sustainable treatment method due to low maintenance requirements.

  6. The association of markers of oxidative-inflammatory status with malnutrition in hemodialysis patients with serum ferritin lower than 500 ng/mL Associação dos marcadores do estado oxidativo e inflamatório com a desnutrição em pacientes hemodialisados com ferritina menor do que 500 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gonçalves de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enhanced inflammatory-oxidative status is well established in chronic kidney disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative- inflammatory status and iron indices in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD with serum ferritin lower than 500ng/mL, and to correlate them with nutritional status. METHOD: In a cross-sectional survey 35 HD patients (23 with normal nutritional status, 12 with Protein-Energy-Wasting syndrome, PEW, and healthy volunteers (n = 35 were studied. Serum concentration of iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation, malondialdehyde (MDA, protein carbonyl (PC, high-sensitive serum C -reactive protein (hs-CRP and blood counts were determined. The nutritional status was determined by anthropometric and biochemical criteria. RESULTS: HD patients showed low values of hemoglobin and higher values of ferritin, MDA and PC when compared with healthy volunteers. HD subjects with PEW had higher values of PC and hs-PCR as compared to HD patients with normal nutritional status. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the independent variables PC (Wald Statistic 4.25, p = 0.039 and hs-CRP (Wald Statistic 4.83, p = 0.028 where related with the patients' nutritional condition. CONCLUSION: In HD patients with serum ferritin below 500 ng/mL was observed one association of the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with poor nutritional status independently of serum ferritin, gender and age.INTRODUÇÃO: Na doença renal crônica, a presença de um estado inflamatório-oxidativo aumentado está bem estabelecida. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o estado oxidativo e inflamatório e o perfil do ferro em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise crônica de manutenção, com ferritina menor do que 500 ng/mL, e correlacioná-los com o estado nutricional. MÉTODO: Em estudo transversal, em 35 pacientes sob hemodiálise (23 com estado nutricional normal, 12 com desnutri

  7. HRE-Pond Cryogenic Barrier Technology Demonstration: Pre- and Post-Barrier Hydrologic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in east Tennessee. The pond received radioactive wastes from 1957 to 1962, and was subsequently drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by an unnamed stream that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the stream to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the stream, it was hypothesized that the HRE Pond has been a source of contamination to the creek. The HRE-Pond was chosen as the site of a cryogenic barrier demonstration to evaluate this technology as a means for rapid, temporary isolation of contaminants in the type of subsurface environment that exists on the ORR. The cryogenic barrier is created by the circulation of liquid CO 2 through a system of thermoprobes installed in boreholes which are backfilled with sand. The probes cool the subsurface, creating a vertical ice wall by freezing adjacent groundwater, effectively surrounding the pond on four sides. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the pond prior to, during, and after the cryogenic barrier emplacement. The objectives were (1) to provide a hydrologic baseline for post-banner performance assessment, (2) to confirm that the pond is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments, (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the pond, and (4) to measure changes in hydrologic conditions after barrier emplacement in order to assess the barrier performance. Because relatively little information about the subsurface hydrology and the actual configuration of the pond existed, data from multiple sources was required to reconstruct this complex system

  8. Analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Zn) concentration in sediment of Blanakan fish ponds, Subang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriawan, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Pin, T. G.

    2017-07-01

    Blanakan fish ponds receive water resource from Kali Malang and Blanakan rivers. Industrial and domestic activities along the river can cause pollution, especially heavy metals. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element that needed by an organism, while Lead (Pb) is a nonessential element that is not needed. Discharge of waste water from industries and anthropogenic activities continuously not only pollute the water but also the sediment and biota live on it. This research was aimed to know the heavy metals content in the sediment of Blanakan fish ponds. Sediment samples were taken on July and August 2016 at three locations. Heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) Shimadzu 6300. The result of Lead (Pb) measurement showed that Fish Pond 1 had higher average concentration compared Fish Pond 2 and Fish Pond 3 which was 0.55 ppm. Standard for Lead (Pb) in sediment according to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008) is 31 ppm. Based on Zinc (Zn) measurement, it was known that average of Zinc (Zn) concentration also higher on Fish Pond 1 compared to Fish Pond 2 and 3 which was 1.93 ppm. According to Ontario Sediment Standards (2008), a standard for Zinc (Zn) in sediment is 120 ppm. This indicated that heavy metals in the sediment of fish ponds were below standards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there was no significant difference of heavy metals content among fish ponds.

  9. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  10. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Paper Mill Pond Dam (CT 00621), Connecticut River Basin, Vernon, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    HYDROLOGIC AND HYDRAULIC COMPUTATIONS E INFORMATION AS CONTAINED IN THE NATIONAL INVENTORY OF DAMS ,v ’walL.it, AM I OVERVIEV \\ PHOTO Iv 390 L-( ibb~ ~5~4 N...AS-A144 539 NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR INSPEGTION 0F NON-FEDERAL DAMS / PAPER MIL POND DAM (.(U CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM A S MA NEW ENGLANA DIV MAR...CATALOG NUMBER CT 00621A 4 TITLE (amdSubtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD’COVERED Paper Mill Pond Dam INSPECTION REPORT NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR INSPECTION

  11. The bioavailability of the transuranic elements 237Pu and 241Am for the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L., and their behaviour in selected natural surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiels, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to characterise the bioavailability of 237 Pu and 241 Am for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis L. in selected surface waters. The uptake, distribution and retention patterns were studied through the contamination route water-snail. The effects of a number of parameters, such as seasonal variation, water type (pH, conductivity, ionic composition) and presence of food, on the bioavailability of the transuranics were evaluated. Finally, an assessment was made concerning the chemical speciation of plutonium and americium in the selected freshwaters

  12. Experimental and comparative study of the effect of paraffin oil and covering for solar ponds without saline water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyridonos, A V; Anagnostatos, G S; Novakovic, M M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a superficial layer of paraffin or a plastic covering on the thermal storage efficiency of three kinds of non-saline solar pond has been investigated. Four small scale ponds were used for experimental measurements. These were: (1) a reference pond; (2) a pond divided horizontally into compartments separated by plastic sheets; (3) a pond with a superficial layer of paraffin and (4) a pond filled with hollow plastic cubes. Comparisons were made between these four ponds with and without plastic coverings, and with a layer of paraffin in addition on ponds 2 and 4. The rise in mean temperature of each pond during a number of heating cycles has been studied. A difference in mean temperature of the order of 10 to 20/sup 0/C was observed in each case between the beginning and end of the heating period and the temperature at the bottom of the pond after heating was in the range 30 to 50/sup 0/C. The results for these experimental ponds may be of use in the choice of full-size shallow ponds and may also give important indications for ponds of much greater depth.

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill I, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document refers to data concerning the Environmental Restoration Program implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. Topics discussed include: Remediation plans for the burial grounds, sanitary landfill I, oil retention ponds, S-3 ponds, and the boneyard/burnyard at Y-12. This document also contains information about the environmental policies regulating the remediation

  14. Observations of the transmittance in two solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Bryant, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    A NaCl salt gradient solar pond has been in continuous operation at the University of New Mexico since the fall of 1975; a smaller pond, using KNO/sub 3/ to produce the salinity gradient, was commissioned in the fall of 1981. The distribution of absorbed radiation in the ponds is of key importance in the determination of their efficiencies for collecting and storing solar energy. The absorption coefficient of light in an aqueous solution is very dependent upon wavelength; the spectral distribution of sunlight shifts toward the blue and the amount of solar energy absorbed per unit length of path declines with depth of penetration. The presence of suspended solids and bioforms further complicate the transmittance of sun light through the pond, specially since this contamination tends to vary strongly with depth. Because of its importance to the phytoplankton population , considerable work has been done by oceanographers on the absorption and scattering of light for different wavelengths. However, in a solar pond the big question is the amount of energy reaching the lower convective layer (storage). Several attempts have been made to measure the transmittance in solar ponds, mainly NaCl but the problem is to find a temperature-insensitive submersible pyranometer. Convenient formulas have been offered for the attenuation of solar radiation in pond water by considering it to be divided into spectral bands, or by fitting simple analytical functions, or specifying the extintion coefficient. (For the first method, it is necessary to know the absorption and scattering of light for different lambda.) In this paper some measurements of transmittance in the UNM ponds, are presented thereby exhibiting a simple procedure which may be of interest to others in this field.

  15. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation

  16. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation.

  17. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    .4 µGy/hr; birds - 6.3 µGy/hr; mammals - 15.1 µGy/hr; reptilians - 10.3 µGy/hr, with the recommended maximum allowable limit of 40 µGy/hr. The conservative risk coefficient ranged from 0.51 for birds to 1.82 for amphibians. In spite of a high contamination level of the shoreline areas, the current total doses received by the animals do not reach the recommended maximum allowable doses. However, drainage of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is likely to increase the dose rates as follows: amphibians - 94.5, birds - 95.2, mammals - 284.0, reptilians - 847.0 µGy/hr, which will significantly exceed the maximum allowable values. These predictions are conservative and prior to making the final decision on the fate of the ChNPP Cooling Pond, a detailed radio-ecological assessment of its drainage will have to be performed.

  18. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Wei; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Zhao, Yuli; Li, Xing-Fang

    2013-05-07

    We report here the characterization of twelve halobenzoquinones (HBQs) using electrospray ionization (ESI) high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The high resolution negative ESI spectra of the twelve HBQs formed two parent ions, [M + H(+) + 2e(-)], and the radical M(-•). The intensities of these two parent ions are dependent on their chemical structures and on instrumental parameters such as the source temperature and flow rate. The characteristic ions of the HBQs were used to develop an ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. At the UPLC flow rate (400 μL/min) and under the optimized ESI conditions, eleven HBQs showed the stable and abundant transitions [M + H(+) + 2e(-)] → X(-) (X(-) representing Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-)), while dibromo-dimethyl-benzoquinone (DBDMBQ) showed only the transition of M(-•) → Br(-). The UPLC efficiently separates all HBQs including some HBQ isomers, while the MS/MS offers exquisite limits of detection (LODs) at subng/mL levels for all HBQs except DBDMBQ. Combined with solid phase extraction (SPE), the method LOD is down to ng/L. The results from analysis of authentic samples demonstrated that the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method is reliable, fast, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of the twelve HBQs in drinking water.

  19. Status of some soil nutrients of disease affected and non-diseases in semi-intensive shrimp ponds at Cox's Bazar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, I.A.; Osman, K. T.; Ahmed, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the nutrient status of some ponds soils, considering the importance of bottom soils on the productivity and impact of Brackish water semi-intensive shrimp ponds. The study indicated the soils fairly rich in total N, available Ca and Na. p H , EC, organic matter, total N, available Ca, Na, P, S, due to ponds were highly significant statistically (P 1 >h 3 >h 2 . Available P in the fallow ponds was slightly less than the healthy ponds but much higher than the diseases ponds. Quite reverse the sequence (h 2 >h 3 >h 1 ) was found in regard to the variation in available S content of soils within the Health classes. The diseased pond soils generally had available S in amounts almost 100 μg/g more than the healthy ponds. The observation indicated that along with other environmental factor higher Sulfur and Phosphorus content of the soil might be responsible for the outbreak of disease.(author)

  20. Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

    2013-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

  1. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349.

  2. Identification and characterization of bacteria in a selenium-contaminated hypersaline evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M P; Amini, A; Dojka, M A; Pickering, I J; Dawson, S C; Pace, N R; Terry , N

    2001-09-01

    Solar evaporation ponds are commonly used to reduce the volume of seleniferous agricultural drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif. These hypersaline ponds pose an environmental health hazard because they are heavily contaminated with selenium (Se), mainly in the form of selenate. Se in the ponds may be removed by microbial Se volatilization, a bioremediation process whereby toxic, bioavailable selenate is converted to relatively nontoxic dimethylselenide gas. In order to identify microbes that may be used for Se bioremediation, a 16S ribosomal DNA phylogenetic analysis of an aerobic hypersaline pond in the San Joaquin Valley showed that a previously unaffiliated group of uncultured bacteria (belonging to the order Cytophagales) was dominant, followed by a group of cultured gamma-Proteobacteria which was closely related to Halomonas species. Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of selenate-treated bacterial isolates showed that they accumulated a mixture of predominantly selenate and a selenomethionine-like species, consistent with the idea that selenate was assimilated via the S assimilation pathway. One of these bacterial isolates (Halomonas-like strain MPD-51) was the best candidate for the bioremediation of hypersaline evaporation ponds contaminated with high Se concentrations because it tolerated 2 M selenate and 32.5% NaCl, grew rapidly in media containing selenate, and accumulated and volatilized Se at high rates (1.65 microg of Se g of protein(-1) x h(-1)), compared to other cultured bacterial isolates.

  3. First description of underwater acoustic diversity in three temperate ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Desjonquères

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has produced an increased ecological interest in sonic environments, or soundscapes. However, despite this rise in interest and technological improvements that allow for long-term acoustic surveys in various environments, some habitats’ soundscapes remain to be explored. Ponds, and more generally freshwater habitats, are one of these acoustically unexplored environments. Here we undertook the first long term acoustic monitoring of three temperate ponds in France. By aural and visual inspection of a selection of recordings, we identified 48 different sound types, and according to the rarefaction curves we calculated, more sound types are likely present in one of the three ponds. The richness of sound types varied significantly across ponds. Surprisingly, there was no pond-to-pond daily consistency of sound type richness variation; each pond had its own daily patterns of activity. We also explored the possibility of using six acoustic diversity indices to conduct rapid biodiversity assessments in temperate ponds. We found that all indices were sensitive to the background noise as estimated through correlations with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, we determined that the AR index could be a good candidate to measure acoustic diversities using partial correlations with the SNR as a control variable. Yet, research is still required to automatically compute the SNR in order to apply this index on a large data set of recordings. The results showed that these three temperate ponds host a high level of acoustic diversity in which the soundscapes were variable not only between but also within the ponds. The sources producing this diversity of sounds and the drivers of difference in daily song type richness variation both require further investigation. Such research would yield insights into the biodiversity and ecology of temperate ponds.

  4. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir

    2015-03-19

    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  5. Recovery of aquatic insect-mediated methylmercury flux from ponds following drying disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Greenhill, Frank M; Kennedy, James H; Courville, Ashlyn E; Gober, Charlie A A; Lossau, Luke O

    2017-08-01

    Small ponds exist across a permanence gradient, and pond permanence is hypothesized to be a primary determinant of insect community structure and insect-mediated methylmercury (MeHg) flux from ponds to the surrounding terrestrial landscape. The present study describes the first experiment examining the recovery of insect-mediated MeHg flux following a drying disturbance that converted permanent ponds with insectivorous fish to semipermanent ponds without fish. Floating emergence traps were used to collect emergent insects for 10 wk in the spring and summer from 5 ponds with fish (permanent) and 5 ponds that were drained to remove fish, dried, and refilled with water (semipermanent). During the 73-d period after semipermanent ponds were refilled, total MeHg flux from semipermanent ponds was not significantly different than total MeHg flux from permanent ponds, indicating that insect-mediated MeHg flux had rapidly recovered in semipermanent ponds following the drying disturbance. Methylmercury fluxes from dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) and phantom midges (Diptera: Chaoboridae) were significantly greater from newly refilled semipermanent ponds than permanent ponds, but the MeHg fluxes from the other 8 emergent insect taxa did not differ between treatments. The present study demonstrates the impact of drying disturbance and the effect of community structure on the cross-system transport of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1986-1990. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Suppression of invasive topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva by native pike Esox lucius in ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Vanhove, Tom; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J

    2015-01-01

    1. Asian topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has been recognized as a highly invasive cyprinid fish species in Europe that can present risk to native fish communities. 2. The present study aimed to investigate whether a native piscivorous fish, pike Esox lucius, is able to reduce the establishment success and invasiveness of topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva in shallow ponds. We performed a large scale, replicated whole-pond experiment in which ponds were spontaneously colonized by to...

  7. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures -82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) -- which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  8. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures 82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) - which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  9. Thermal Desalination using MEMS and Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Walton, J. C.; Hein, H.

    2002-08-01

    MEMS (multi-effect, multi-stage) flash desalination (distillation) driven by thermal energy derived from a salinity-gradient solar pond is investigated in this study for the purpose of improving the thermodynamic efficiency and economics of this technology. Three major tasks are performed: (1) a MEMS unit is tested under various operating conditions at the El Paso Solar Pond site; (2) the operation and maintenance procedures of the salinity-gradient solar pond coupled with the MEMS operation is studied; and (3) previous test data on a 24-stage, falling-film flash distillation unit (known as the Spinflash) is analyzed and compared with the performance of the MEMS unit. The data and information obtained from this investigation is applicable to a variety of thermal desalination processes using other solar options and/or waste heat.

  10. Investigation of turbidity effect on exergetic performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiz, Ayhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Karakilcik, Mehmet; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive experimental work on a turbidity of the solar pond. • Percentage transmission evaluation of the turbid and clean salty water of the zones. • Exergy analysis of the inner zones for turbid and clean salty water. • Turbidity effect on exergy efficiencies of the solar pond. • The thermal performance assessment by comparing the exergetic efficiencies of the solar pond. - Abstract: The present paper undertakes a study on the exergetic performance assessment of a solar pond and experimental investigation of turbidity effect on the system performance. There are various types of solar energy applications including solar ponds. One of significant parameters to consider in the assessment of solar pond performance is turbidity which is caused by dirty over time (e.g., insects, leaf, dust and wind bringing parts fall down). Thus, the turbidity in the salty water decreases solar energy transmission through the zones. In this study, the samples are taken from the three zones of the solar pond and analyzed using a spectrometer for three months. The transmission aspects of the solar pond are investigated under calm and turbidity currents to help distinguish the efficiencies. Furthermore, the maximum exergy efficiencies are found to be 28.40% for the calm case and 22.27% with turbidity effects for the month of August, respectively. As a result, it is confirmed that the solar pond performance is greatly affected by the turbidity effect

  11. Indirect manifestation of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (L. predation on pond fish stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kortan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage to fisheries caused by cormorant predation pressure consists of losses due to direct predation and subsequent indirect losses elicited by cormorant feeding activities resulting in fish wounding and stress. Healed wounds reduce the commercial value of afflicted fish and stress may impact fish body and health condition. Fulton´s condition coefficient (FCC was calculated for wounded and healthy two-year old carp originating from five South Moravian (Czech Republic fishponds. Significant (P = 0.0011 differences in FCC (mean ± s.d., were found between non-wounded (1.48 ± 0.11, n = 19 and wounded mirror common carp, Cyprinus carpio (1.33 ± 0.14, n = 19. However no differences (P > 0.05 were recorded in scaly common carp between non-wounded (FCC 1.41 ± 0.25, n = 33 and wounded (FCC 1.46 ± 0.47, n = 33 fish of the same age and size category. A computer assisted image analysis was applied to describe the extent of such injuries. In the case of two-year old mirror, scaly and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, signs of serious injuries (necroses were recorded on 1.93, 0.89 and 1.61% of body surface, respectively. Fish with deep wounds and scars, often accompanied with progressive necroses, were subject to parasitological examination. The percentage of wounded fish from total fish harvested was evaluated as ranging between < 1 and 47.4% in five ponds under study.

  12. Organic matter decomposition in simulated aquaculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Beristain, B.

    2005-01-01

    Different kinds of organic and inorganic compounds (e.g. formulated food, manures, fertilizers) are added to aquaculture ponds to increase fish production. However, a large part of these inputs are not utilized by the fish and are decomposed inside the pond. The microbiological decomposition of the

  13. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g(-1) level using LA-ICP-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g(-1), 0.14 ng g(-1), 0.08 ng g(-1), 0.01 ng g(-1) and 0.06 ng g(-1) for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples.

  14. Culture modes and financial evaluation of two oleaginous microalgae for biodiesel production in desert area with open raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Hu, Chunxiang

    2016-10-01

    Cultivation modes of autotrophic microalgae for biodiesel production utilizing open raceway pond were analyzed in this study. Five before screened good microalgae were tested their lipid productivity and biodiesel quality again in outdoor 1000L ORP. Then, Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 were selected due to their stronger environmental adaptability, higher lipid productivity and better biodiesel properties. Further scale up cultivation for two species with batch and semi-continuous culture was conducted. In 40,000L ORP, higher lipid productivity (5.15 versus 4.06gm(-2)d(-1) for Chlorella sp. L1, 5.35 versus 3.00gm(-2)d(-1) for M. dybowskii Y2) was achieved in semi-continuous mode. Moreover, the financial costs of 14.18$gal(-1) and 13.31$gal(-1) for crude biodiesel in two microalgae with semi-continuous mode were more economically feasible for commercial production on large scale outdoors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simple intervention to reduce mosquito breeding in waste stabilisation ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Mukhtar, Muhammad; van der Hoek, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) are the preferred method for treatment of urban wastewater in low-income countries but, especially in arid regions, the pond systems can be important breeding sites for mosquitoes of medical importance. In a WSP system in Faisalabad, Pakistan, we assessed the impact...... of simple environmental interventions on mosquito occurrence and abundance. Reducing the amount of floating matter in the ponds, eliminating emergent vegetation and repairing cracks in the cement structure reduced the number of mosquito-positive samples in the intervention ponds to almost zero, whereas...... the control ponds had a significant number of positive samples. This suggests that a combination of simple low-cost interventions is a feasible environmental management strategy for vector control in WSP systems that are located in areas where medically important mosquitoes may breed in the shallow ponds....

  16. A simple model for the evolution of melt pond coverage on permeable Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Predrag; Abbot, Dorian

    2017-05-01

    As the melt season progresses, sea ice in the Arctic often becomes permeable enough to allow for nearly complete drainage of meltwater that has collected on the ice surface. Melt ponds that remain after drainage are hydraulically connected to the ocean and correspond to regions of sea ice whose surface is below sea level. We present a simple model for the evolution of melt pond coverage on such permeable sea ice floes in which we allow for spatially varying ice melt rates and assume the whole floe is in hydrostatic balance. The model is represented by two simple ordinary differential equations, where the rate of change of pond coverage depends on the pond coverage. All the physical parameters of the system are summarized by four strengths that control the relative importance of the terms in the equations. The model both fits observations and allows us to understand the behavior of melt ponds in a way that is often not possible with more complex models. Examples of insights we can gain from the model are that (1) the pond growth rate is more sensitive to changes in bare sea ice albedo than changes in pond albedo, (2) ponds grow slower on smoother ice, and (3) ponds respond strongest to freeboard sinking on first-year ice and sidewall melting on multiyear ice. We also show that under a global warming scenario, pond coverage would increase, decreasing the overall ice albedo and leading to ice thinning that is likely comparable to thinning due to direct forcing. Since melt pond coverage is one of the key parameters controlling the albedo of sea ice, understanding the mechanisms that control the distribution of pond coverage will help improve large-scale model parameterizations and sea ice forecasts in a warming climate.

  17. Mercury Cycling in Salt Marsh Pond Ecosystems: Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Gonneea, M. E.; Lamborg, C. H.; Kroeger, K. D.; Swarr, G.; Vadman, K. J.; Baldwin, S.; Brooks, T. W.; Green, A.

    2014-12-01

    We are measuring total mercury (HgT) and monomethylmercury (CH3Hg+ or MMHg) in pore water, surface water, and sediment cores from two salt marsh pond systems on the south shore of Cape Cod, MA to characterize the distribution of mercury species and to identify features that influence mercury speciation and transport. Sage Lot Pond is relatively undisturbed and has low nitrogen loading (12 kg ha-1 y-1). It is part of the Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Reserve and is surrounded by undeveloped wooded uplands. In contrast, Great Pond is highly impacted. Nitrogen loading to the site is elevated (600 kg ha-1 y-1) and the marsh is adjacent to a large residential area. In both systems, a 1 to 2 m organic-rich peat layer overlies the permeable sand aquifer. Groundwater in this region is typically oxic, where pore water within salt marsh peat is suboxic to anoxic. We hypothesize that redox gradients at the transition from the root zone to peat and at the peat-sand interface may provide habitat for MMHg-producing anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results from a 2-m nearshore depth profile at Sage Lot Pond indicate HgT in groundwater within the sand aquifer occurred primarily in the > 0.2 μm fraction, with unfiltered concentrations exceeding 100 pM. Filtered (fraction of filtered HgT in peat pore water. Although MMHg in both groundwater and pore water remained around 1 pM throughout our depth profile, we observed an increase in sediment MMHg (0.3 to 1.6 μg/kg) at the peat-sand interface. MMHg comprised ~50% of the HgT concentration in pore water suggesting mercury in the salt marsh peat is biologically available.

  18. Effect of a bentonite/soil mixture as a barrier for uranium ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings need safe management as they contain long-lived uranium and its daughters. Chemical treatment applied on these tailings to neutralize the acid solution and to stabilize the remaining radioactive elements. Then they are stored in ponds. These ponds are used for the accumulation of the solids and evaporation of the liquids. Sometimes the liquid returned to the plant for reuse. These applications are used to isolate the tailings from the environment. The purpose of this laboratory test is; initially to determine the effectiveness of bentonite/soil mixture as a barrier for uranium ponds. In this study, two experimental ponds equipped; with different two barriers in laboratory. Dimension of this container is; 120 cm in length, 100 cm in width and 100cm in depth. Sampling pipes were placed at different places of the container. First pond includes ordinary soil; second pond includes soil/bentonite mixture. Uranium mill tailing ponds were placed at the surfaces of these two systems. Uranium solution was prepared by using natural uranium ore. The solution was put into these ponds. These test carried out more than for 10 months. Passed solution was collected by sampling pipes and recorded. Amounts of passed solution were determined according to the location of discharge pipes. At the last stage of these tests, sampling from the different parts o the system has been carried out by small holes, which were opened from the surface by special sampling device. By this way, migration information about the upper parts of the sampling pipes has been received. Behaviour of uranium radionuclides and the effectiveness of the bentonite/soil mixture were experimentally determined. Bentonite/soil mixture layer has better ability to restrain the migration of uranium radionuclides. The performance of the ponds at the natural soil can be improved simply by mixing with bentonite during construction. Bentonite/soil mixture includes 5% bentonite, 95% ordinary soil in weight

  19. Comparison of ovarian maturation and spawning after unilateral eyestalk ablation of wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, W.; Yang, Q.; Ma, Z.; Jiang, S.; Qiu, L.; Huang, J.; Zhou, F.; Qin, J.G.

    2015-07-01

    The present study compares the efficiency of ovarian maturation and spawning success between wild-caught and pond-reared Penaeus monodon females after unilateral eyestalk ablation. The earliest spawning time after eyestalk ablation was 5.9 days in wild-caught females, which is significantly shorter than the spawning time in pond-reared females (10.5 days). Both wild-caught and pond-reared females repeatedly spawned after eyestalk ablation. On average, each wild-caught female spawned 2.94 times while each pond-reared female spawned only 1.09 times. The spawning induction rate, egg hatching rate, and the number of eggs per spawning were significantly greater in wild-caught females than in pond-reared females. However, the egg size was not significantly different between wild-caught and pond-reared females. Four shrimp sizes (60, 80, 100 and 120 (± 1.0) g) were tested in this study and body weight significantly affected ovarian induction in pond-reared females but not in wild-caught females. Within the same body-weight class, the egg number per spawn in wild-caught females was significantly greater than that in pond-reared females. The egg production per spawn of the pond-reared females in the 120-g size group was two times higher than that in the pond-reared females in the 80-g size group. In conclusion, the fecundity of wild-caught P. monodon females is significantly higher than that of pond-reared P. monodon females. In breeding pond-reared P. monodon, the recommended minimum body weight of females is over 80 g, and the desirable body weight is over 100 g. (Author)

  20. Nitrate pollution of groundwater around a sewage stabilization pond, Kerala India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Shahul Hameed, A.; Velayudhan, K.T.; Jacob, S.; Mathew, M.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the influence of the sewage stabilisation pont of the Calicut Medical College on the quality of water in the open dug wells which are situated in and around the stabilisation pond. The study revealed that domestic wells are becoming increasingly polluted with nitrate in spite of heavy rainfall in the region. The level of nitrate in the observation wells was found to be vary widely during different seasons: from 1.1 to 49.8, 0.7 to 19.5 and from 2.1 to 38.3 mg/l during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively. One well had nitrate exceeding the maximum permissible limit specified for drinking water by Bureau of Indian Standards. The problem is more pronounced in summer when the level of nitrate is observed to be on the higher side. (author)

  1. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  2. Identifying Farm Pond Habitat Suitability for the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus: A Conservation-Perspective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien Lai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a habitat-suitability assessment model for Gallinula chloropus, or the Common Moorhen, to be applied to the selection of the most suitable farm pond for habitat conservation in Chiayi County, Taiwan. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was employed to evaluate habitat selection factors and calculate the weights of these factors. The results showed that the eight crucial factors, by importance, in descending order, were (1 area ratio of farmlands within 200 m of the farm pond; (2 pond area; (3 pond perimeter; (4 aquatic plant coverage of the pond surface; (5 drought period; (6 coverage of high and low shrubs around the pond bank; (7 bank type; and (8 water-surface-to-bank distance. Subsequently, field evaluations of 75 farm ponds in Chiayi County were performed. The results indicated that 15 farm ponds had highly-suitable habitats and were inhabited by unusually high numbers of Common Moorhens; these habitats were most in need of conservation. A total of two farm ponds were found to require habitat-environment improvements, and Common Moorhens with typical reproductive capacity could be appropriately introduced into 22 farm ponds to restore the ecosystem of the species. Additionally, the habitat suitability and number of Common Moorhens in 36 farm ponds were lower than average; these ponds could be used for agricultural irrigation, detention basins, or for recreational use by community residents. Finally, the total habitat suitability scores and occurrence of Common Moorhens in each farm pond were used to verify the accuracy of the habitat-suitability assessment model for the Common Moorhen. The overall accuracy was 0.8, and the Kappa value was 0.60, which indicates that the model established in this study exhibited high credibility. To sum up, this is an applicable framework not only to assess the habitat suitability of farm ponds for Common Moorhens, but also to determine whether a particular location may

  3. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  5. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  6. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  7. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  8. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  9. Morphology-dependent water budgets and nutrient fluxes in arctic thaw ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joshua C.; Gurney, Kirsty; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Thaw ponds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska are productive ecosystems, providing habitat and food resources for many fish and bird species. Permafrost in this region creates unique pond morphologies: deep troughs, shallow low-centred polygons (LCPs) and larger coalescent ponds. By monitoring seasonal trends in pond volume and chemistry, we evaluated whether pond morphology and size affect water temperature and desiccation, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fluxes. Evaporation was the largest early-summer water flux in all pond types. LCPs dried quickly and displayed high early-summer nutrient concentrations and losses. Troughs consistently received solute-rich subsurface inflows, which accounted for 12 to 42 per cent of their volume and may explain higher P in the troughs. N to P ratios increased and ammonium concentrations decreased with pond volume, suggesting that P and inorganic N availability may limit ecosystem productivity in older, larger ponds. Arctic summer temperatures will likely increase in the future, which may accelerate mid-summer desiccation. Given their morphology, troughs may remain wet, become warmer and derive greater nutrient loads from their thawing banks. Overall, seasonal- to decadal-scale warming may increase ecosystem productivity in troughs relative to other Arctic Coastal Plain ponds

  10. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS IN REMOVAL OF LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE SALFONATE (LAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed. M. Abdel-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergents contain synthetic or organic surface active agents called surfactants, which are derived from petroleum product precursors. They have the common property of lowering the surface tensions of water thus allowing dirt or grease adhered to various articles to be washed off. Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS is a most commonly used anionic surfactant. Discharge of raw or treated wastewater containing this chemical substance into the environment causes major public health and enviromental problems. In this study, samples were taken from raw wastewater and effluents of treatment ponds of Elzaraby waste stabilization ponds over a period of one year. The treated effluent is either discharged into surface waters or re-used in agricultural irrigation. The samples were analyzed according to the standard methods. The results obtained from the samples taken in different seasons showed that the highest overall removal efficiency of LAS was achieved in summer season (77%, and the least efficiency was observed in Winter season (55%, while the maximum overall efficiency of BOD5 was in summer (88% and minimum efficiency was (73% in winter season. The Dissolved oxygen concentrations along the pond series (DO ranged from 0.18 to 4.8 mg/l.

  13. Preliminary results of sedimentation study in SMART, Kg. Berembang holding pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Andy Dominic; Wan Zakaria Wan Md Tahir; Lakam Mejus; Juhari Mohd Yusuf; Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Mod Omar Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Spatial variations of the sediment bulk density profile in the Storm water Management And Road Tunnel (SMART) holding pond were measured at every 20 metre intervals along six cross section lines with a total of 72 sampling points using a Cs-137 nuclear backscatter probe. The bulk density profile at each sampling points were vertically measured at every 2 inches increment in an upward direction. The thickness of the deposited sediment varies spatially with a gradual increase towards the centre of the holding pond. The highest sediment deposition areas are located near the baffle walls, the centre and the south east corner of the holding pond. The maximum thickness of the deposited sediment adjacent to the baffle walls is 22 inch and at both the centre and south east area are 18 inch. The sediment bulk density profile varies from 1,010 kg.m -3 to 1,400 kg.m -3 . Spatial density variations are in correlation with the active and inactive zone in the pond area. The potential of sediment deposition and consolidation process is higher in the inactive zone compare to the active zone, therefore the bulk density value the inactive zone is much higher. (author)

  14. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  15. Continuous Hydrologic and Water Quality Monitoring of Vernal Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Odette; Gall, Heather E; Chandler, Joseph W; Harper, Jeremy; Taylor, Malcolm

    2017-11-13

    Vernal ponds, also referred to as vernal pools, provide critical ecosystem services and habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. However, they are vulnerable parts of the landscapes that are often poorly understood and understudied. Land use and management practices, as well as climate change are thought to be a contribution to the global amphibian decline. However, more research is needed to understand the extent of these impacts. Here, we present methodology for characterizing a vernal pond's morphology and detail a monitoring station that can be used to collect water quantity and quality data over the duration of a vernal pond's hydroperiod. We provide methodology for how to conduct field surveys to characterize the morphology and develop stage-storage curves for a vernal pond. Additionally, we provide methodology for monitoring the water level, temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity of water in a vernal pond, as well as monitoring rainfall data. This information can be used to better quantify the ecosystem services that vernal ponds provide and the impacts of anthropogenic activities on their ability to provide these services.

  16. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...

  17. Pond dynamics and supraglacial-englacial connectivity on debris-covered Lirung Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Evan S.; Steiner, Jakob; Willis, Ian; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Chesnokova, Anna; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The hydrological systems of heavily-downwasted debris-covered glaciers differ from clean-ice glaciers due to the hummocky surface and debris mantle of such glaciers, leading to a relatively limited understanding of drainage pathways. Supraglacial ponds represent sinks within the discontinuous supraglacial drainage system, and have been documented to sporadically drain englacially. To assess pond dynamics, pond water level measurements were made on Lirung Glacier during May and October of 2013 and 2014. The four field seasons coincided with aerial, satellite, and terrestrial orthomosaic images and digital elevation models, which provided snapshots of the ponds and their surroundings. We analysed the glacier's closed surface catchments to identify surface drainage pathways and englacial drainage points, and compared this to field observations of surface discahrge. The ponded area was higher in the pre-monsoon than post-monsoon, with individual ponds filling and draining seasonally associated with the surface exposure of englacial conduit segments. We recorded four pond drainage events, all of which occurred gradually (duration of weeks), observed diurnal fluctuations indicative of varying supply and discharge, and we documented instances of interaction between distant ponds. The DEM drainage analysis identified numerous sinks >3m across the glacier surface, few of which exhibited ponds (23%), while the field survey highlighted surface discharge only explicable via englacial routes. Taken together our observations provide evidence for widespread supraglacial-englacial connectivity for meltwater drainage paths. Results suggest that progressive englacial conduit collapse events, themselves likely driven by supraglacial pond drainage, enable the glacier surface to evolve into a configuration following relict englacial conduit systems. Within this system, ponds form in depressions of reduced drainage efficiency and link the supraglacial and englacial drainage networks.

  18. FROM PONDS TO MAN-MADE SEAS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gorshkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

  19. Geochemistry of the Upper Parana River floodplain. Study of the Garcas Pond and Patos Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelo Bevilacqua Remor; Silvio Cesar Sampaio; Marcio Antonio Vilas Boas; Ralpho Rinaldo dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal evolution of the supply of chemical elements to the Upper Parana River floodplain and identify trends in the geochemistry of its drainage basin. The primary factor that regulates the supply of chemical elements of the Upper Parana River floodplain is the flood pulse, which can be magnified by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Garcas Pond is affected by agriculture, urbanization, discharge of industrial effluents and hydroelectric power production activities. Patos Pond is affected by sugarcane burning, gold mining, agriculture and urbanization. (author)

  20. Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sova; Das, T K; Avila, C; Cabello, V; Castillo, F; Sarkar, D; Lahiri, Susmita; Jana, B B

    2012-04-01

    The incidence pattern of cadmium tolerance and antibiotics resistance by Escherichia coli was examined periodically from the samples of water, sludge and intestine of fish raised in waste stabilization ponds in a sewage treatment plant. Samples of water and sludge were collected from all the selected ponds and were monitored for total counts of fecal coliform (FC), total coliform (TC) and the population of Escherichia coli, which was also obtained from the intestine of fishes. Total counts of both FC and TC as well as counts of E. coli were markedly reduced from the facultative pond to the last maturation pond. Tolerance limit to cadmium by E. coli tended to decline as the distance of the sewage effluent from the source increased; the effective lethal concentration of cadmium ranged from 0.1 mM in split chamber to 0.05 mM in first maturation pond. E. coli isolated from water, sludge and fish gut were sensitive to seven out of ten antibiotics tested. It appears that holistic functions mediated through the mutualistic growth of micro algae and heterotrophic bacteria in the waste stabilization ponds were responsible for the promotion of water quality and significant reduction of coliform along the sewage effluent gradient.

  1. Poorly known microbial taxa dominate the microbiome of permafrost thaw ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzbacher, Christian; Nilsson, R Henrik; Rautio, Milla; Peura, Sari

    2017-08-01

    In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla. Our results on permafrost thaw ponds lead to a revised perception of the thaw pond ecosystem and their microbes, with potential implications for carbon and nutrient cycling in this increasingly important class of freshwaters.

  2. Tetracycline removal during wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godos, Ignacio de; Muñoz, Raúl; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tetracycline removal was most likely caused by photodegradation and biosorption. ► Tetracycline presence was linked to biomass deflocculation and poor settleability. ► Deflocculation did not impact treatment efficiency. ► Deflocculation may hamper biomass recover during full-scale treatment. - Abstract: With the hypothesis that light supply can impact the removal of veterinary antibiotics during livestock wastewater treatment in high rate algal ponds (HRAPs), this study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms of tetracycline removal in these systems. For this purpose, two HRAPs were fed with synthetic wastewater for 46 days before tetracycline was added at 2 mg L1 to the influent of one of the reactors (Te-HRAP). From day 62, dissolved tetracycline removal stabilized around 69 ± 1% in the Te-HRAP and evidence from batch assays suggests that this removal was mainly caused by photodegradation and biosorption. Tetracycline addition was followed by the deflocculation of the Te-HRAP biomass but had otherwise no apparent impact on the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biomass productivity. The results from the batch assays also suggested that the light-shading and/or pollutant-sequestrating effects of the biomass limited tetracycline removal in the pond. For the first time, these results demonstrate that the shallow geometry of HRAPs is advantageous to support the photodegradation of antibiotics during wastewater biological treatment but that the presence of these pollutants could hamper biomass recovery. These findings have significant implications for algal-based environmental biotechnologies and must be confirmed under field conditions.

  3. Laboratory simulation of water-resources conservation by means of the layout of a series of ponds along a streambank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Hung, Chao-Chi

    The purpose of this research is to describe a water-storage method that is more reliable than reservoirs, and to study the efficacy of interception and storage of surface runoff in ponds. In this method, a series of ponds is laid out along a streambank so that interception of surface runoff can be increased and more water can be stored in the wet season for use in the dry season. The simulated results show that the structure of a pond, vegetation and the extent of land development, topographic slope, and the degree to which a pond penetrates an aquifer affect the efficacy of interception and storage of surface runoff in ponds. Résumé Le but de ce travail est de décrire une méthode de stockage d'eau qui soit plus sure que les réservoirs, et d'étudier l'efficacité de l'interception et du stockage d'eau de ruissellement dans des bassins. Dans cette méthode, une série de bassins est disposée le long d'une berge de rivière de façon à ce que l'interception de l'écoulement de surface puisse être accrue et que plus d'eau puisse être stockée pendant la saison humide pour être utilisée en saison sèche. Les résultats de la simulation montrent que l'efficacité de l'interception et du stockage du ruissellement dans les bassins sont déterminés par la structure du bassin, la végétation et l'importance du développement agricole, la pente des versants et le degré de pénétration du bassin dans la nappe. Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un método de almacenamiento de agua que ofrece mayor garantía que los embalses, así como estudiar la eficacia de la intercepción y almacenamiento de la escorrentía superficial en pequeñas lagunas artificiales. Este método consiste en crear una serie de lagunas a lo largo de las riberas de un torrente, de manera que intercepción de la escorrentía superficial se pueda incrementar y se almacene más agua en la época húmeda para su utilización en la época seca. Los resultados simulados muestran

  4. Yang Pagbul’lók-bul’lok: Varyasyon ng Wikang Mandaya sa Ilang Munisipalidad ng Davao Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymund M. Pasion

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out the lexical, phonological, and morphological variations of the Mandaya language in the municipalities of Manay, Caraga, Baganga and Cateel in the province of Davao Oriental. This research was conducted to meet the following objectives: (1 To present the terminologies used in the four municipalities based on the Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices of Mandaya in cultural farming, hunting, fishing and animal husbandry. (2 To identify the variations in the Mandaya language based on lexicon, phonology and morphology. (3 To show the distinct linguistic feature in the Mandaya language that is different from Filipino language based on lexicon, phonology and morphology. Qualitative design, descriptive and indigenous methods were used in gathering and analyzing the data. Purposive combination and snow-ball sampling were utilized in choosing the informants. It was found out in the study that there was a variation of the Mandaya language in the four municipalities. In the lexical aspect, there were three evident categories: the different in form; the slightly similar in form; and the same in form but different in pronunciation. While in the phonological aspect, it also showed three variations; the phoneme /h/; the phoneme /ᵊ/ (swa; and the glide l or /l−l/. On the other hand, in the morphological aspect, the researcher observed two things: the affix and morphological phenomena occurring in the words in different dialects in Mandaya. In general, the occurrence of variations in lexical, phonological and morphological aspects in the Mandaya language was inevitable, and this was caused by the three factors: the linguistics, sociolinguistics and psychological.

  5. Surface and subsurface soils at the Pond B dam: July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Pond B, 685-13G, is an inactive reactor cooling impoundment built in 1961 on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Between 1961 and 1964, Pond B received R-Reactor cooling water discharges that were contaminated with 137 Cs, 90 Sr and plutonium. Though the pond has not been used since 1964, radionuclides from the contaminated cooling water remain in the water and in the surface sediments of the pond. The current proposal to fix and repair the Pond B dam structure includes installing a new drain system and monitoring equipment. The dam will be reinforced with additional previous material on the downstream face of the dam. The objectives of this report are to describe the sampling methodology used during the July 1998 sampling event at the downstream face of the Pond B dam and in Pond B, present the results of the sampling event, and compare, where possible, these results to related risk-based standards

  6. Aquatic biodiversity in sedimentation ponds receiving road runoff - What are the key drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Brittain, John E; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Thygesen, Helene; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Rauch, Sebastien; Meland, Sondre

    2018-01-01

    Recently, increased attention has been paid to biodiversity conservation provided by blue-green solutions such as engineered ponds that are primarily established for water treatment and flood control. However, little research has been done to analyse the factors that affect biodiversity in such ponds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity, mainly macroinvertebrate communities, in road sedimentation ponds in order to provide a foundation for recommendations on aquatic biodiversity conservation. Multivariate statistical methods, including unconstrained and constrained analysis, were applied to examine the relationships between organisms and the water quality as well as physical factors (including plant cover). Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that the most important variables governing the variation in the biological community composition were pond size, average annual daily traffic, metals, chloride, distance to the closest pond from study pond, dissolved oxygen, hydrocarbons, and phosphorus. The presence of most taxa was positively correlated with pond size and negatively correlated with metals. Small ponds with high pollutant loadings were associated with a low diversity and dominated by a few pollution tolerant taxa such as oligochaetes. A comprehensive understanding of impacts of various environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity is important to effectively promote and conserve aquatic biodiversity in such sedimentation ponds. Our results indicate that road sedimentation ponds should be designed large enough, because large ponds are likely to provide a more heterogeneous habitat and thus contain a species rich fauna. In addition, larger ponds seem to be less contaminated due to dilution compared to smaller ponds, thereby maintaining a higher biodiversity. Finally, creating some additional ponds in the vicinity of the sedimentation ponds in areas with few water bodies would increase the

  7. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, B.; Verbyla, D.; McGuire, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Alaska has experienced a warming climate with longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration, and permafrost warming. Research from the Seward Peninsula and Kenai Peninsula has demonstrated a substantial landscape-level trend in the reduction of surface water and number of closed-basin ponds. We investigated whether this drying trend occurred at nine other regions throughout Alaska. One study region was from the Arctic Coastal Plain where depp permafrost occurs continuously across the landscape. The other eight study regions were from the boreal forest regions where discontinuous permafrost occurs. Mean annual precipitation across the study regions ranged from 100 to over 700 min yr-1. We used remotely sensed imagery from the 1950s to 2002 to inventory over 10,000 closed-basin ponds from at least three periods from this time span. We found a reduction in the area and number of shallow, closed-basin ponds for all boreal regions. In contrast, the Arctic Coastal Plain region had negligible change in the area of closed-basin ponds. Since the 1950s, surface water area of closed-basin ponds included in this analysis decreased by 31 to 4 percent, and the total number of closed-basin ponds surveyed within each study region decreased from 54 to 5 percent. There was a significant increasing trend in annual mean temperature and potential evapotranspiration since the 1950s for all study regions. There was no significant trend in annual precipitation during the same period. The regional trend of shrinking ponds may be due to increased drainage as permafrost warms, or increased evapotranspiration during a warmer and extended growing season. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. A mathematical procedure to estimate solar absorptance of shallow water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongbo; Tang Runsheng; Li Zhimin; Zhong Hao

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a mathematical procedure is developed for estimating solar absorption of shallow water ponds with different pond floor based on the fact that the solar radiation trapped inside the water layer undergoes multiplicative reflection and absorption and on that the solar absorption of water is selective. Theoretical model indicates that the solar absorption of a water pond is related to the reflectivity of the pond floor, the solar spectrum and the water depth. To validate the mathematical model, a concrete water pond measuring 3 x 3 x 0.24 m was constructed. Experimental results indicate that solar reflectivity calculated based on the mathematical model proposed in this work were in good agreement with those measured. For water ponds with a water-permeable floor, such as concrete floor, theoretical calculations of the solar absorptance of a water pond should be done based on the reflectivity of full wet floor, whereas for water ponds with a non-water-permeable floor, theoretical calculations should be done based on the fact that solar reflection on the floor is neither perfect specular reflection nor prefect isotropic diffuse reflection. Results of numerical calculation show that theoretical calculations of solar absorption of a water pond by dividing solar spectrum into six bands were pretty agreement with those by dividing solar spectrum into 20 bands.

  9. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  10. bacteriologie de l'otite moyenne suppuree chronique de l'enfant au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Ainsi le rôle pathogène de staphylococcus aureus est prépondérant dans les otites moyennes suppurées chroniques de l'enfant dans notre unité. Mots-clés : bactériologie - otite moyenne suppurée chronique - enfant. Introduction: L'otite moyenne suppurée chronique est une affection fréquente chez l'enfant.

  11. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the 137 Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 ± 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 ± 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual 137 Cs concentration was 25 μCi/m 2 for the exposed sediment and 50 μCi/m 2 for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from 137 Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was 60 Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for 137 Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and 137 Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations (μCi/m 2 /cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the μCi/m 2 /cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it

  12. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g{sup -1} level using LA-ICP-IDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Heumann, Klaus G. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Mainz (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g{sup -1}, 0.14 ng g{sup -1}, 0.08 ng g{sup -1}, 0.01 ng g{sup -1} and 0.06 ng g{sup -1} for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples. (orig.)

  13. An Explanation for the Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Fractal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, P.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice melts during the summer, pools of melt water form on its surface. This decreases the ice's albedo, which signifcantly impacts its subsequent evolution. Understanding this process is essential for buiding accurate sea ice models in GCMs and using them to forecast future changes in sea ice. A feature of melt ponds that helps determine their impact on ice albedo is that they often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs taken during the SHEBA mission, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. While ice is impermeable, the maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, the maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of the boundary of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. Previously, this length scale has been associated with the typical size of snow dunes created on the ice surface during winter. We provide an alternative explanation by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness. Finally, we provide some remarks on how to observationally distinguish between the two ideas for what

  14. Avifauna of waste ponds ERDA Hanford Reservation, Benton County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.

    1975-06-01

    The presence of small ponds on the Hanford 200 Area plateau provides attractive habitats for birds. During a 29-month period, 126 bird species were observed utilizing these ponds, their associated vegetation, and air space. Waterfowls are the important agents of dispersal of radionuclides from waste ponds based on food habits, abundance, migratory habits, and importance as food in the diet of people. Abundance, long residence time, and food habits identify the American coot as the single most important species to be considered in the biological dispersal of radionuclides from waste ponds. (U.S.)

  15. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1975-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a study initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 241 Am in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving Pu processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of Pu and Am was investigated. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrators of Pu transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for Pu and Am in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system []Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly, larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of Pu and Am which are lower than those of the sediments, thus, Pu and Am seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. (CH)

  16. Estimation of Melt Ponds over Arctic Sea Ice using MODIS Surface Reflectance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Melt ponds over Arctic sea ice is one of the main factors affecting variability of surface albedo, increasing absorption of solar radiation and further melting of snow and ice. In recent years, a large number of melt ponds have been observed during the melt season in Arctic. Moreover, some studies have suggested that late spring to mid summer melt ponds information promises to improve the prediction skill of seasonal Arctic sea ice minimum. In the study, we extract the melt pond fraction over Arctic sea ice since 2000 using three bands MODIS weekly surface reflectance data by considering the difference of spectral reflectance in ponds, ice and open water. The preliminary comparison shows our derived Arctic-wide melt ponds are in good agreement with that derived by the University of Hamburg, especially at the pond distribution. We analyze seasonal evolution, interannual variability and trend of the melt ponds, as well as the changes of onset and re-freezing. The melt pond fraction shows an asymmetrical growth and decay pattern. The observed melt ponds fraction is almost within 25% in early May and increases rapidly in June and July with a high fraction of more than 40% in the east of Greenland and Beaufort Sea. A significant increasing trend in the melt pond fraction is observed for the period of 2000-2017. The relationship between melt pond fraction and sea ice extent will be also discussed. Key Words: melt ponds, sea ice, Arctic

  17. The Prostate Health Index in predicting initial prostate biopsy outcomes in Asian men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 4-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C F; Chiu, Peter K F; Lam, N Y; Lam, H C; Lee, Kim W M; Hou, Simon S M

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the role of the Prostate Health Index (phi) in prostate cancer (PCa) detection in patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4-10 ng/mL receiving their first prostatic biopsy in an Asian population. This was a retrospective study of archived serum samples from patients enlisted in our tissue bank. Patients over 50 years old, with PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL, a negative digital rectal examination, and received their first prostatic biopsy between April 2008 and April 2013, were recruited. The serum sample collected before biopsy was retrieved for the measurement of various PSA derivatives and the phi value was calculated for each patient. The performance of these parameters in predicting the prostatic biopsy results was assessed. Two hundred and thirty consecutive patients, with 21 (9.13 %) diagnosed with PCa, were recruited for this study. Statistically significant differences between PCa patients and non-PCa patients were found for total PSA, PSA density, [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), free-to-total PSA ratio (%fPSA), p2PSA-to-free PSA ratio (%p2PSA), and phi. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, PSA density, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and phi were 0.547, 0.634, 0.654, 0.768, and 0.781, respectively. The phi was the best predictor of the prostatic biopsies results. At a sensitivity of 90 %, the use of the phi could have avoided unnecessary biopsies in 104 (45.2 %) patients. Use of the phi could improve the accuracy of PCa detection in patients with an elevated PSA level and thus avoid unnecessary prostatic biopsies.

  18. The Path from VLITE to ngLOBO: A Roadmap for Evolving a Low Frequency Commensal System from the JVLA to the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy; Giacintucci, Simona; Helmboldt, Joseph; Ray, Paul S.; Peters, Wendy; Polisensky, Emil; hicks, Brian C.; Brisken, Walter; hyman, Scott D.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew T.; Taylor, Gregory; Dowell, Jayce; Schinzel, Frank K.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, ) is a commensal observing system on the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The separate optical path of the prime-focus sub-GHz dipole feeds and the Cassegrain-focus GHz feeds provided an opportunity to expand the simultaneous frequency operation of the VLA through joint observations across both systems. 16 VLA antennas are outfitted with dedicated samplers and use spare fibers to transport the 320-384 MHz band to the VLITE CPU-based correlator. Initial goals included exploring the scientific potential of a commensal low frequency system for ionospheric remote sensing, astrophysics and transients. VLITE operates at nearly 70% wall time with roughly 6200 hours of VLA time recorded each year.Several papers at this meeting review VLITE science and early results. Here we consider how the project could evolve in the future. Over the next 10 years, a straightforward evolutionary path calls for an expansion of VLITE to all 27 VLA antennas and to the maximum available low band receiver bandwidth (224-480 MHz). The GPU-based correlator for this LOw Band Observatory (LOBO) would also incorporate lower frequency signals from the new VLA 74 MHz system, including from VLA dishes (60-80 MHz) and standalone Long Wavelength Array (LWA) aperture array stations (20-80 MHz).In the longer term, we look towards leveraging the vast infrastructure of the ngVLA to include a commensal low frequency capability, called ngLOBO. As described in our community white paper (Taylor et al. 2018; arXiv:1708.00090), ngLOBO has three primary scientific missions: (1) Radio Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (Radio-LSST): one naturally wide beam, commensal with ngVLA, will conduct a continuous synoptic survey of large swaths of the sky for both slow and fast transients; (2) This same commensal beam will provide complementary low frequency images of all ngVLA targets when such data enhances their value. (3) Independent beams from the ng

  19. Distribution of transuranic elements in a freshwater pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the past two years a unique study has been initiated on the Hanford Reservation concerning the ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater environment. This study involves a waste pond which has been receiving occasional low-level plutonium processing wastes for about 30 years. The pond has a sufficiently established ecosystem to provide an excellent location for limnological characterization. In addition, the ecological distribution of plutonium and americium is being investigated. The purpose of this work is to explain plutonium and americium concentrations at specific ecological sites, important export routes out of the pond, and potential pathways to man. The pond is also highly enriched with nutrients, thus supporting a high level of algal and macrophyte production. Seston (30 percent diatoms) appears to be the principal concentrator of transuranics in the pond system. The major sink for plutonium and americium in this system is the sediments. Organic floc, overlaying the pond sediments, is also a major concentrator of transuranics in this system. Aside from the seston and floc, no other ecological components of the pond appear to have concentrations significantly greater than those of the sediment. Dragonfly larvae, watercress, and snails show concentrations which approximate those of the sediments but nearly all other food web components have levels of plutonium and americium which are lower than those of the sediments. Thus, plutonium and americium seem to be relatively immobile in the aquatic ecosystem. However, the role of algae as a potential mechanism for the long-range ecological transport of plutonium and americium will receive additional attention

  20. Linkage and mapping analyses of the no glue egg gene Ng in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, no glue egg is mainly controlled by Ng (No glue) gene, which is located on the 12th chromosome. Owning to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the Ng gene based on the simple sequence repeats ...

  1. INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY OF POND ECOSYSTEMS BY FERTILIZING THEM WITH DISTILLER'S GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tson’

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study fish culture parameters of young-of-the-year carp in the conditions of industrial fish-growing ponds when applying experimental repeated fertilization with distiller’s grain. Methodology. The study was conducted in industrial fish-growing ponds. The wastes of alcohol industry – the distiller’s grain as organic fertilizer was gradually introduced into ponds at following amounts: first application – 1,0 t/ha, second application in 10 days – 0,5 t/ha, third application in 12 days – 0,5 t/ha. The control ponds were fertilized with humus (2 t/ha. Young-of-the-year carp (Cyprinus carpio were grown in monoculture at stocking density of 30 000 fish/ha. In addition, 100 kg/ha of lime were applied during the culture season in the experiment and control. Fertilization with humus and application of lime in ponds, hydrochemical studies, sampling and processing of hydrobiological samples, fish culturing and statistical studies were carried out according to standard methods. Findings. Gradual fertilizing with distiller’s grain (to the total 2 t/ha gave the possibility to create favorable hydrochemical and hydrobiological regimes. An average daily growth in the experimental fish groups of 0,44 ± 0,09 g/day that was similar to in the control (0,45 ± 0,11 g/day with positive significant correlation between them (r = 0,97; p <0,001 was achieved. The performed measures gave a possibility to obtain fish productivity in the experimental variant 10.7% more than in the control. An economic effect of 14.3% cost reduction for fertilizing ponds was achieved. Originality. For the first time we presented the results of fish culture and biological parameters of young-of-the-year carp in industrial ponds when applying 3-time fertilization with distiller’s grain. Practical Value. The obtained results are the basis for the broad use of non-traditional organic fertilizer – distiller’s grain in industrial ponds, when growing young

  2. Laboratory study on metal attenuation capacity of fine grained soil near ash pond site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Somnath; Sarkar, Sujoy; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-10-01

    Waste settling tanks of earthen containment nature are common in India for disposal of solid waste in slurry form. For a large pond system, e.g. ash slurry disposal tank of coal base thermal power plant, leachate generation and its migration pose a serious problem. A natural attenuation of controlling the migratory leachate is to use locally available clay material as lining system due to the adsorption properties of soil for reducing some metallic ions. The present investigation was carried out to explore the Ni2+ and Cr6+ removal capacity of surrounding soil of the ash pond site of Super Thermal Power Plant in West Bengal, India through some laboratory scale and field studies. The soil and water samples collected from the site showed the existence of Ni2+ and Cr6+ in excess to permissible limit. A two-dimensional adsorption behaviour of these pollutants through soil was assessed. The results showed that more than 80% of nickel and 72% of chromium were found to be sorbed by the soil corresponding to initial concentrations of two ions, i.e. 1.366 mg/L and 0.76 mg/L respectively. The batch adsorption data are tested Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and found reasonably fit. Breakthrough adsorption study uptake also showed a good adsorption capacity of the soil. The experimental results found to fit well with the existing two dimensional (2D) mathematical models as proposed by Fetter (1999).

  3. Neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, L.E.; Makarov, S.A.; Pronman, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Problem of metal tritium target lifetime increase and neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators is studied. Possibility on neutron flux stabilization using the mass analyzer for low-angle (4 deg and 41 deg) mass separation of a beam in thre components, which fall on a target simultaneously, is confirmed experimentally. Basic generator parameters are: accelerating voltage of 150 kV, total beam current on a target of 1.5 mA, beam current density of 0.3-1.6 mA/cm 2 , beam diameter of 8 mm. The initial neutron flux on the targets of 0.73 mg/cm 2 thick constituted 1.1x10 11 ssup(-1). The neutron flux monitoring was accomplished from recoil proton recording by a plastic scintillator. Flux decrease by more than 5% served as a signel for measuring mass analyzer magnetic field providing beam displacement on a target and restoration of the given flux. The NG-150 generator neutron flux stabilization was attained during 2h

  4. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste tailing pond in Kowary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waclawek, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The town of Kowary was the centre of uranium mining activities in Poland. The headquarters of the uranium mining company ZPR-1 (Zaklady Przemyslowe R-1) were located there, as it was the only uranium processing plant in Poland. Mining in Uranium in Poland ceased in 1963, but processing of low-grade dumps was continued in Kowary until 1972. As a result of these processing activities, a significant volume of wastes was produced and the tailings pond in Kowary was constructed to accommodate these wastes. The tailings pond covers an area of 1,3 ha. It is a hydrotechnical construction closed on three sides by a dam, which has been modified a number of times over the years. It is now 300 m long (the sum of the three sides)m with a maximum height of 12 m, and is at the limits of the geotechnical stability. As a result of the uranium processing activities, the tailings pond was filled with about 2,5 x 10 5 t of disposed fine-grained gneisses and schists containing about 4,5 t of uranium and about 440 GBq of radium (from processing of uranium ores). A prompt remedial action in this case is particularly necessary because the tailings pond is located in a steep mountainous valley where the local climate involves rapid summer rains with heavy erosion. The nearest buildings in the town of Kowary are located literally at the foot of the 12 m high dam and private gardens extend onto the dam slope. The urgency has recently been demonstrated during the flood of summer 1997 when the base of the dam eroded. In the early seventies, Wroclaw University of Technology (WUT) received, by a governmental decision, ownership of both the area and the facilities of the former uranium mining company ZPR-1. Subsequently, the company Hydromet, Ltd., owned by WUT, has continued to use the existing chemical plant for the various experimental processes of rare (radioactive) metals, chemical production and galvanic processes. As a result, 30 t of mixed heavy metals and 300 t of the remnants from the

  5. Discussion on the source survey method in a natural evaporation pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaoshu; Fan Chengrong; Fu Yunshan

    2014-01-01

    A natural evaporation pond intended to be decommissioned. The survey of the pond focused on investigating radioactive contamination distribution and estimating the total amount of deposits in the pond, in order to provide support for subsequent decommissioning activities. Based on the source survey in the pond, this paper introduced how to implement radiation measurements and sampling (such as water and sediment) in the water. The movable work platform was built on the pond to facilitate sampling and measurement. In addition, a sludge sampler had been designed so as to accurately determine the amount of sampling and its depth. This paper also described the distribution of sampling points. (authors)

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning of the BORAX-V leach pond. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the BORAX-V leach pond located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The leach pond became radioactively contaminated from the periodic discharge of low-level liquid waste during operation of the Boiling Water Reactor Experiments (BORAX) from 1954 to 1964. This report describes work performed to accomplish the D and D objectives of stabilizing the leach pond and preventing the spread of contamination. D and D of the BORAX-V leach pond consisted to backfilling the pond with clean soil, grading and seeding the area, and erecting a permanent marker to identify very low-level subsurface contamination

  7. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  8. City-gas development in China. An NG perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, James W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Supply of piped gas in China has a long history but development was slow until the 21st century. The growing demand for cleaner fuel in the past ten years has encouraged domestic exploration and production of natural gas (NG) and the construction of long-haul pipelines linking upstream western regions of the country to downstream city-gas consumers in the eastern coastal areas. However, demand for NG in the cities is increasing so fast that recent winters have seen severe supply difficulties. This led to a government directive which set constraints on the domestic NG supplies and discouragement to gas power and petrochemical projects, and eventually to the Chinese government's willingness to accept the higher prices commanded by the international NG market. Nevertheless, the over demand situation has created a dominant market position for upstream NG producers and long-haul pipeline operators favouring their forward integration into downstream city-gas markets. Accordingly, pressures are building that may yet result in substantial pricing and regulatory reform in the city-gas industry. (author)

  9. Relationship of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 Level with Onset and Severity in Normotensive Pregnancy and Severe Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Johannes Wantania

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia still becomes a major problem in pregnancies. Various evidences showed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is very important in pregnancy. This study aims to understand the relationship of heme oxygenase-1 level with onset and severity in normotensive pregnancy and severe preeclampsia. Methods: This is a cross sectional analytic comparative study, the subjects consisted of 26 patients with normotensive pregnancies and 26 patients with severe preeclampsia. Blood samples from women with < 34 / ≥ 34 weeks’ normotensive pregnancies and women with severe preeclampsia were taken. HO-1 ELISA kit used to quantitate heme oxygenase-1 level in samples. Results: The level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women < 34 weeks lower than severe preeclampsia pregnant women < 34 weeks (3.28 ± 0.46 ng/mL vs 4.20 ± 0.64 ng/mL, p=0.003, respectively. The median level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women ≥ 34 weeks was 2.96 (2.41–4.39 ng/mL, while severe preeclampsia pregnant women ≥ 34 weeks was 3.52 (2.88–5.43 ng/mL, (p=0.040. The median level of heme oxygenase-1 in normotensive pregnant women was 3.04 (2.41–4.39 ng/mL, while severe preeclampsia pregnant women was 3.68 (2.88–5.67 ng/mL, (p=0.001. Conclusions: There is correlation between the incidence of severe preeclampsia with heme oxygenase-1 level in < 34 and ≥ 34 weeks of pregnancy. There is a significant difference between the level of heme oxygenase-1 in pregnant women with severe preeclampsia and in women with normotensive pregnancy. 

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in stormwater detention pond sediments in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John E; Crawford, Kevin D; Garner, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the sediments of stormwater detention ponds in coastal South Carolina. Levels of the sum of PAH analytes were significantly higher in the sediments of commercial ponds compared to that of reference, golf course, low-density residential, and high-density residential ponds. Isomer ratio analysis suggested that the predominant source of PAHs were pyrogenic; however, many ponds had a PAH signature consistent with mixed uncombusted and combusted PAH sources. PAH levels in these sediments could be modeled using both pond drainage area and pond surface area. These results demonstrate that the sediment from most commercial ponds, and a few residential and golf course ponds, were moderately contaminated with PAHs. PAH levels in these contaminated ponds exceeded between 42% and 75% of the ecological screening values for individual PAH analytes established by US EPA Region IV, suggesting that they may pose a toxicological risk to wildlife.

  11. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR POND PERFORMANCE IN KARABUK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAYMAK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy, one of the alternative energy sources, can be economically and cheaply and efficiently collected with solar ponds. In this study, varying concentrations of sodium carbonate dilution in the solar pond in terms of heat storage performance has been examined. Experiment apparatus has been located Zonguldak Karaelmas University Karabük Technical Education Faculty. Five experiments with different density levels have been done and the changes in the temperature and density have been presented graphically within the solar pond. The experiments show that the temperature difference between the bottom and top level of solar pond is max. 21 °C and the highest temperature in lower convective zone (LCZ has been measured as 49 °C.

  13. Prediction of local effects of proposed cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.

    1978-01-01

    A Fog Excess Water (FEW) Index has been shown to provide a good measure of the likelihood for steam fog to occur at specific cooling pond installations. The FEW Index is derived from the assumption that the surface boundary layer over a cooling pond will be strongly convective, and that highly efficient vertical transport mechanisms will result in a thorough mixing of air saturated at surface temperature with ambient air aloft. Available data support this assumption. An extension of this approach can be used to derive a simple indicator for use in predicting the formation of rime ice in the immediate downwind environs of a cooling pond. In this case, it is supposed that rime ice will be deposited whenever steam fog and sub-freezing surface temperatures are predicted. This provides a convenient method for interpreting pre-existing meteorological information in order to assess possible icing effects while in the early design stages of the planning process. However, it remains necessary to derive accurate predictions of the cooling pond water surface temperature. Once a suitable and proven procedure for this purpose has been demonstrated, it is then a simple matter to employ the FEW Index in evaluations of the relative merits of alternative cooling pond designs, with the purpose of minimizing overall environmental impact

  14. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  15. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  16. Plankton biomass in secondary ponds treating piggery waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Barthel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the plankton biomass found in a piggery waste treatment system, composed of a high rate algal pond (HRAP, two maturation ponds (MP1, MP2 (System A and a water hyacinth pond (WHP (System B. The ponds were disposed in series and the study was performed for 32 weeks. The physicochemical variables monitored were: pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, soluble chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen compounds and total phosphorus. The plankton biomass was identified at genus level and the ecology index was calculated so as to describe its development in the ponds. Results showed lower specific richness, which was associated to the mono-specific Chlorella sp population. The protozoa density was conversely proportional to the green algae density. The higher species diversity occurred in the WHP and MP2. The green algae presented high relative density (>97 %. The Jaccard index reached 100% if Chlorella sp and sometimes diatoms were found in the system's inlet and outlet. The productivity of algal biomass was lower than 10 gTSS/m²/d in the maturation ponds, which was maintained in the HRAP. The green algae coefficient of variation (CV varied from 0 to 1.5 in the HRAP and WHP, but was constant at 0.9 to the 10th week in MP1 and around 0.5 during all the experimental period for MP2. For the chlorophyll a, this coefficient varied in all the ponds.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biomassa do plâncton encontrado em um sistema de tratamento de dejetos suínos, formado por uma série de lagoas. Foram monitoradas 1 lagoa de alta taxa (LAT, 2 lagoas de maturação (LM1, LM2 (sistema A e 1 lagoa de aguapés (LAG (sistema B, durante 32 semanas, por meio de variáveis físico-químicas tais como pH, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, demanda química de oxigênio, compostos nitrogenados e fósforo total. Igualmente, foram feitas identificações da biomassa planctônica, a nível de gênero, e calculados índices ecológicos que

  17. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  18. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  19. In-situ Measured Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake Rates of Melt Pond Algae in the Western Arctic Ocean, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Jung; Kim, Kwanwoo; Lee, Jae Hyung; Ahn, So Hyun; Joo, Houng-Min; Jeong, Jin Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2018-03-01

    Although the areal coverage of melt pond in the Arctic Ocean has recently increased, very few biological researches have been conducted. The objectives in this study were to ascertain the uptake rates of carbon and nitrogen in various melt ponds and to understand the major controlling factors for the rates. We obtained 22 melt pond samples at ice camp 1 (146.17°W, 77.38°N) and 11 melt pond samples at ice camp 2 (169.79°W, 76.52°N). The major nutrient concentrations varied largely among melt ponds at the ice camps 1 and 2. The chl-a concentrations averaged from the melt ponds at camps 1 and 2 were 0.02-0.56 mg chl-a m-3 (0.12 ± 0.12 mg chl-a m-3) and 0.08-0.30 mg chl-a m-3 (0.16 ± 0.08 mg chl-a m-3), respectively. The hourly carbon uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.080 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.025 ± 0.024 mg C m-3 h-1) and 0.022-0.210 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.077 ± 0.006 mg C m-3 h-1), respectively. In comparison, the nitrogen uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.030 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.011 ± 0.010 mg N m-3 h-1) and 0.002-0.022 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.010 ± 0.006 mg N m-3 h-1), respectively. The values obtained in this study are significantly lower than those reported previously. A large portion of algal biomass trapped in the new forming surface ice in melt ponds appears to be one of the main potential reasons for the lower chl-a concentration and subsequently lower carbon and nitrogen uptake rates revealed in this study. A long-term monitoring program on melt ponds is needed to understand the response of the Arctic marine ecosystem to ongoing environmental changes.

  20. 58. "Berlinale" lõppmäng / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  1. Measuring urinary N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (IPMA3) as a potential biomarker of isoprene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K Udeni; Bailey, T Liz; Patel, Dhrusti; Wang, Liqun; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-10-19

    Isoprene, the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene, is identified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Isoprene is ubiquitous in the environment with numerous natural and anthropogenic sources. Tobacco smoke is the main exogenous source of isoprene exposure in indoor environments. Among smoke constituents, isoprene is thought to contribute significantly to cancer risk; however, no selective urinary biomarkers of isoprene exposure have been identified for humans. In this manuscript, we measured the minor isoprene metabolite IPMA1 (mixture of N-acetyl-S-(1-[hydroxymethyl]-2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine), and we identified IPMA3 (N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine) as a major isoprene metabolite and novel isoprene exposure biomarker for humans. Urinary isoprene metabolites were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quad tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MSMS). The detection rates of IPMA1 and IPMA3 are <20% and 82%, respectively. The selectivity and abundance of IPMA3 make it a useful urinary biomarker of isoprene exposure. The limit of detection of IPMA3 in urine was 0.5 ng mL -1 . IPMA3 was stable under different storage temperatures and following ten freeze-thaw cycles. The average recovery of urine spiked with IPMA3 at three different levels was 99%. IPMA3 was measured in urine samples received from 75 anonymous subjects; the median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) IPMA3 level in smokers was 36.2 (18.2, 56.8) ng mL -1 and non-smokers 2.31 (2.31, 4.38) ng mL -1 . Application of this method to large population studies will help to characterize isoprene exposure and assess potential health impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Innovative wetland reclamation design case studies : the Suncor fen and pond 1 marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C.A. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Price, J.; Rezanezhad, F. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Rochefort, L.; Graf, M. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Russell, B. [BGC Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Suncor Energy Inc. is an energy company strategically focused in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region. The company has more than 40 years of experience in pioneering commercial development. This presentation discussed reclamation requirements for Suncor Energy. Reclamation objectives that were addressed in this presentation included operating approvals, biodiversity and meeting stakeholder expectations. Several photographs of reclaimed forest areas were shown along with 5 freshwater wetland types and wetland values. Two innovative wetland reclamation design case studies were also presented, described and illustrated, with particular reference to the Suncor fen and pond 1 marsh. It was concluded that future work will involve finalizing site investigation and designs, as well as construction, vegetation, and monitoring. figs.

  3. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  4. Validation Hydrodynamic Models of Three Topological Models of Secondary Facultative Ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte-Reyes Alxander

    2014-01-01

    A methodology was developed to analyze boundary conditions, the size of the mesh and the turbulence of a mathematical model of CFD, which could explain hydrodynamic behavior on facultative stabilization ponds, FSP, built to pilot scale: conventional pond, CP, baffled pond, BP, and baffled-mesh pond, BMP. Models dispersion studies were performed in field for validation, taking samples into and out of the FSP, the information was used to carry out CFD model simulations of the three topologies. ...

  5. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Kettle-hole ponds in southeastern Massachusetts are in good hydraulic connection to an extensive coastal aquifer system that includes the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system on the mainland and aquifers underlying Cape Cod. The ponds receive water from, and contribute water to, the underlying glacial aquifer; ponds also receive water from precipitation and lose water to evaporation from the pond surface. Some ponds are connected to surface-water drainage systems and receive water from or contribute water to streams or adjacent wetlands. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection currently (2011) is developing Total Maximum Daily Loads of phosphorus for the freshwater ponds in the region to maintain the health of pond ecosystems; the amounts and sources of water fluxes into and out of the ponds are important factors in determining the amount of phosphorus that can be assimilated into a pond. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey used groundwater-flow models of the coastal aquifer system to estimate hydrologic budgets-including inflows and outflows from the aquifer system and adjacent streams and wetlands, and recharge from precipitation-for 425 ponds in southeastern Massachusetts.

  6. A Closer Look on Spatiotemporal Variations of Dissolved Oxygen in Waste Stabilization Ponds Using Mixed Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved oxygen is an essential controlling factor in the performance of facultative and maturation ponds since both take many advantages of algal photosynthetic oxygenation. The rate of this photosynthesis strongly depends on the time during the day and the location in a pond system, whose roles have been overlooked in previous guidelines of pond operation and maintenance (O&M. To elucidate these influences, a linear mixed effect model (LMM was built on the data collected from three intensive sampling campaigns in a waste stabilization pond in Cuenca, Ecuador. Within two parallel lines of facultative and maturation ponds, nine locations were sampled at two depths in each pond. In general, the output of the mixed model indicated high spatial autocorrelations of data and wide spatiotemporal variations of the oxygen level among and within the ponds. Particularly, different ponds showed different patterns of oxygen dynamics, which were associated with many factors including flow behavior, sludge accumulation, algal distribution, influent fluctuation, and pond function. Moreover, a substantial temporal change in the oxygen level between day and night, from zero to above 20 mg O2·L−1, was observed. Algal photosynthetic activity appeared to be the main reason for these variations in the model, as it was facilitated by intensive solar radiation at high altitude. Since these diurnal and spatial patterns can supply a large amount of useful information on pond performance, insightful recommendations on dissolved oxygen (DO monitoring and regulations were delivered. More importantly, as a mixed model showed high predictive performance, i.e., high goodness-of-fit (R2 of 0.94, low values of mean absolute error, we recommended this advanced statistical technique as an effective tool for dealing with high autocorrelation of data in pond systems.

  7. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  8. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  9. Functional roles of CSPG4/NG2 in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Nuor S M; Azfer, Asim; Worrell, Harrison; Salter, Donald M

    2016-04-01

    CSPG4/NG2 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein with limited distribution in adult tissues including articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible roles of CSPG4/NG2 in chondrosarcomas and to establish whether this molecule may have potential for targeted therapy. Stable knock-down of CSPG4/NG2 in the JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line by shRNA resulted in decreased cell proliferation and migration as well as a decrease in gene expression of the MMP (matrix metalloproteinase) 3 protease and ADAMTS4 (aggrecanase). Chondrosarcoma cells in which CSPG4/NG2 was knocked down were more sensitive to doxorubicin than wild-type cells. The results indicate that CSPG4/NG2 has roles in regulating chondrosarcoma cell function in relation to growth, spread and resistance to chemotherapy and that anti-CSPG4/NG2 therapies may have potential in the treatment of surgically unresectable chondrosarcoma. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  10. Determination of Summertime VOC Emission Rates from Produced Water Ponds in the Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. S.; Woods, C.; Lyman, S.

    2013-12-01

    The observance of excess ozone concentrations in Utah's Uintah Basin over past several years has prompted several investigations into the extent and causes of the elevated ozone. Among these is the assessment of potential emissions of reactive VOCs. Evaporation ponds, used a remediation technique for treatment of contaminated production and other waters, are one potential source of significant VOC emissions and is estimated that there are around 160 such ponds within the Uintah Basin's oil and gas production areas. In June 2012 VOC emission rates for several reactive VOCs were derived for an evaporation facility consisting of a small inlet pond (≈0.03 acres) and two larger, serial ponds (≈4.3 acres each). The emission rates were determined over three sampling periods using an inverse modeling approach. Under this methodology, ambient VOC concentrations are determined at several downwind locations through whole-air collection into SUMMA canisters, followed by GC/MS quantification and compared with predicted concentrations using an EPA-approved dispersion model, AERMOD. The presumed emission rates used within the model were then adjusted until the modeled concentrations approach the observed concentrations. The derived emission rates for the individual VOCs were on the order of 10-3 g/s/m2 from the inlet pond and 10-6 g/s/m2 from the larger ponds. The emissions from the 1st pond in series after the inlet pond were about 3-4x the emissions from the 2nd pond. These combined emission rates are about an order of magnitude those reported for a single study in Colorado (Thoma, 2009). It should be noted, however, that the variability about each of the VOC emission rates was significant (often ×100% at the 95% confidence interval). Extrapolating these emission rates to the estimated total areas of all the evaporation ponds within Basin resulted in calculated Basin-wide VOC emissions 292,835 tons/yr. However, Bar-Ilan et al. (2009) estimated 2012 VOC oil and gas related

  11. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  12. Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical modeling of dissolved oxygen in fish ponds. WJS Mwegoha, ME Kaseva, SMM Sabai. Abstract. A mathematical model was developed to predict the effects of wind speed, light, pH, Temperature, dissolved carbon dioxide and chemical oxygen demand (COD) on Dissolved Oxygen (DO) in fish ponds. The effects ...

  13. Valuating Ecosystem Services of Urban Ponds - case study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Nina

    2016-04-01

    A climate risk assessment for the city of Barisal was carried out by a consultancy firm, financed by KfW Development Bank of Germany. Due to high dependencies on natural capital of people in developing countries they are facing high vulnerability when it comes to changes of the asset category 'natural capital' (here: urban ponds), whether due to the exposition on climate (change) related impacts, implemented measures or land use change. With a closer view on the city's assets, the question remained open to the author 1) Under current conditions, what is the demand for ecosystem services (ES) 2) What is the value of the benefits and the how much is the contribution to the city's welfare? 3) What are the future changes in the demand for ES? And what are the future changes on the supply side (pressures and threats to the ecosystem)? Methodology: The City of Barisal in Bangladesh has a calculated number of around 10.000 urban rain-fed ponds,representing 6.5% of the city area, which represents a huge natural water supply and gives the city its characteristic face. In August 2015 a user survey was conducted in the city of Barisal, in every ward (administrative unit), to determine the demand for ecosystem services related to urban ponds, evaluating over 600 ponds. The findings will present the huge variation of provisioning ecosystem services and an important regulating service, related to economic and domestic use, in a spatial resolution. It will be shown, how the importance of ES changes, by changing the unit of analysis (families or ponds or the city) and the importance for the livelihood of pond owners and users. A relationship between pond area(m2) and number of users was detected, also the role of compensation payments for the pond owners by the users. It will be shown how natural capital, privately and publicly owned,contributes in an important way in buffering unequal distribution of societies resources in the short- and long-run. However society's demand for ES

  14. Determination of the algal growth-limiting nutrients in strip mine ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucknavage, M.J.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Using both a test organism, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and natural phytoplankton, the Printz Algal Assay Bottle Test was used to determine the algal growth limiting nutrients in two strip mine ponds. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron were investigated, singly and in combination, as possible limiting nutrients. A synthetic chelator, Na 2 EDTA, was also used in the assay to test for the presence of metal toxicants and/or trace metal limitation. Because bacteria have a major influence on water chemistry, a separate assay incorporating the natural bacteria population was performed. In both ponds, assay results using test alga indicate phosphorus to be the primary limiting nutrient and nitrogen as a secondary factor. The presence of EDTA in combination with phosphate containing treatment promoted a higher algal concentration in both ponds. Iron was determined to be a secondary limiting nutrient in only one of the ponds. Natural phytoplankton of the two ponds responded in a similar manner to nutrient increases. Only one pond had the same results produced by both assays. Nutrient availability was influenced by the presence of bacteria in one pond but not in the other

  15. THERMAL AND OXYGEN CONDITIONS IN CARP PONDS DURING THE SUMMER PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśnios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presents changes of oxygen indices in carp ponds during the summer season. The basis of the research were regular water tests conducted in two ponds: Mydlniki II intended for carp farming in the second year of fish production cycle and Bocian used for carp farming in the third (final year of breeding. The temperature of pond water in July and August was optimal for development and farming of cyprinid fish and ranged from 16.6 to 30.5 °C. The lowest value of oxygen dissolved in water (6.4 mg·dm-3 was registered in Mydlniki II pond and was higher than the oxygen optimum for carp (5 mg·dm-3. Oxygen saturation in water of fish ponds exceeded the optimum upper limit value (168% on a few dates, however, it posed no lethal threat for fish. In August in Bocian pond oxygen saturation fell within the range of optimal values, creating better conditions for fish development. In the secondary pond (Mydlniki II it was found that oxygen saturation in water on 12 dates was lower than the low optimal value (96%.

  16. Trends and habitat associations of waterbirds using the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; Strong, Cheryl; Krause, John; Wang, Yiwei; Takekawa, John Y.

    2018-04-02

    Executive SummaryThe aim of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (hereinafter “Project”) is to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds to tidal marsh in San Francisco Bay (SFB). However, hundreds of thousands of waterbirds use these ponds over winter and during fall and spring migration. To ensure that existing waterbird populations are supported while tidal marsh is restored in the Project area, managers plan to enhance the habitat suitability of ponds by adding islands and berms to change pond topography, manipulating water salinity and depth, and selecting appropriate ponds to maintain for birds. To help inform these actions, we used 13 years of monthly (October–April) bird abundance data from Project ponds to (1) assess trends in waterbird abundance since the inception of the Project, and (2) evaluate which pond habitat characteristics were associated with highest abundances of different avian guilds and species. For comparison, we also evaluated waterbird abundance trends in active salt production ponds using 10 years of monthly survey data.We assessed bird guild and species abundance trends through time, and created separate trend curves for Project and salt production ponds using data from every pond that was counted in a year. We divided abundance data into three seasons—fall (October–November), winter (December–February), and spring (March–April). We used the resulting curves to assess which periods had the highest bird abundance and to identify increasing or decreasing trends for each guild and species.

  17. Tidal day organic and inorganic material flux of ponds in the Liberty Island freshwater tidal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Peggy W; Mayr, Shawn; Liu, Leji; Tang, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The loss of inorganic and organic material export and habitat produced by freshwater tidal wetlands is hypothesized to be an important contributing factor to the long-term decline in fishery production in San Francisco Estuary. However, due to the absence of freshwater tidal wetlands in the estuary, there is little information on the export of inorganic and organic carbon, nutrient or phytoplankton community biomass and the associated mechanisms. A single-day study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of two small vegetated ponds and one large open-water pond to the inorganic and organic material flux within the freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island in San Francisco Estuary. The study consisted of an intensive tidal day (25.5 h) sampling program that measured the flux of inorganic and organic material at three ponds using continuous monitoring of flow, chlorophyll a, turbidity and salt combined with discrete measurements of phytoplankton community carbon, total and dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration at 1.5 h intervals. Vegetated ponds had greater material concentrations than the open water pond and, despite their small area, contributed up to 81% of the organic and 61% of the inorganic material flux of the wetland. Exchange between ponds was important to wetland flux. The small vegetated pond in the interior of the wetland contributed as much as 72-87% of the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a and 10% of the diatom flux of the wetland. Export of inorganic and organic material from the small vegetated ponds was facilitated by small-scale topography and tidal asymmetry that produced a 40% greater material export on ebb tide. The small vegetated ponds contrasted with the large open water pond, which imported 29-96% of the inorganic and 4-81% of the organic material into the wetland from the adjacent river. This study identified small vegetated ponds as an important source of inorganic and organic material to the wetland and the

  18. Portfolio giver støtte og sammenhæng i sygeplejeuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Helle; Hjorth, Anne Charlotte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    Portfolio er et pædagogisk redskab, som kan styrke den enkelte studerendes læring og støtte og give sammenhæng i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen. På baggrund af et udviklingsprojekt bidrager artiklen med konkrete anbefalinger til både undervisere og kliniske vejledere, der kan fremme brugen af portfolio....... I stedet for at se portfolio som en mappe, hvor der samles dokumenter, er det afgørende at holde fokus på de studerendes læreproces og refleksion, og studieredskabet kræver opmærksomhed fra undervisere og vejledere, hvis det skal anvendes af studerende. For både studerende og kliniske vejledere er...... forståelse for metoden det, der gør, at portfolio giver mening....

  19. Experimental and modelling of Arthrospira platensis cultivation in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Amal, J C; Savithri, S; Haridas, Ajith

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the growth of Arthrospira platensis was studied in an open raceway pond. Furthermore, dynamic model for algae growth and CFD modelling of hydrodynamics in open raceway pond were developed. The dynamic behaviour of the algal system was developed by solving mass balance equations of various components, considering light intensity and gas-liquid mass transfer. A CFD modelling of the hydrodynamics of open raceway pond was developed by solving mass and momentum balance equations of the liquid medium. The prediction of algae concentration from the dynamic model was compared with the experimental data. The hydrodynamic behaviour of the open raceway pond was compared with the literature data for model validation. The model predictions match the experimental findings. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic behaviour and residence time distribution in our small raceway pond were predicted. These models can serve as a tool to assess the pond performance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resurgent beaver ponds in the northeastern United States: implications for greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Julia G; Addy, Kelly; Welsh, Molly K; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Beaver ponds, a wetland type of increasing density in the northeastern United States, vary spatially and temporally, creating high uncertainty in their impact to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We used floating static gas chambers to assess diffusive fluxes of methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) from the air-water interface of three beaver ponds (0.05-8 ha) in Rhode Island from fall 2012 to summer 2013. Gas flux was based on linear changes of gas concentrations in chambers over 1 h. Our results show that these beaver ponds generated considerable CH and CO emissions. Methane flux (18-556 mg m d) showed no significant seasonal differences, but the shallowest pond generated significantly higher CH flux than the other ponds. Carbon dioxide flux (0.5-22.0 g m d) was not significantly different between sites, but it was significantly higher in the fall, possibly due to the degradation of fresh leaves. Nitrous oxide flux was low (0-2.4 mg m d). Overall, CH and CO comprised most of the global warming potential, 61 and 38%, respectively. The shallowness of the beaver ponds may have limited the time needed for CH oxidation to CO before CH escaped to the atmosphere. Beaver dams also increase the aerial extent of hydric soils, which may transform riparian areas from upland GHG sinks to wetland GHG sources thereby changing the net global warming potential. Further studies tracking the pattern and conditions of beaver pond creation and abandonment will be essential to understanding their role as GHG sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Assessment of waste stabilization ponds (WSP) efficiency on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This stage is essential for polishing water and nutrient as well as pathogen removal. There is need of frequent awareness campaign to a community for the reuse of wastewater for agriculture and its possible impacts. Ponds should be modified and addition of maturation ponds constructed. Further studies are required for ...

  2. Little Fish in a Big Pond--Time to Get Schooled!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    One technique used by many who fish is to catch a fish in a creek or pond and then release it in a different pond. This satisfies the desire for sport, and it also serves to stock a pond that may need replenishment. Of course this restocking can be a traumatic experience for the new fish. To survive in the new environment, the fish must find its…

  3. REVIEW: A GRAMMAR OF GUÌQIÓNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse P. Gates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiāng Lì. 2015. A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan. Leiden: Brill. xiv + 452 pp. ISBN 9789004292093 (hardback 213USD - E-ISBN 9789004293045 (electronic 217USD. Jiang Li's A Grammar of Guìqióng (henceforth, AGG is a revision of her PhD dissertation at the University of Berne under the supervision of George Van Driem. It is a most welcome contribution to our understanding of this under-described language. The primary dialects of Guiqiong described in AGG are spoken in Changma Village of Maibeng Township and Qianxi Village of Qianxi Township, both in Kangding County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Some praiseworthy aspects of AGG include a plethora of examples sentences; a total of about 1500 example sentences are in the book. Included in the list of abbreviations are the linguistic forms from Guiqiong. The inclusion of photographs of the Guiqiong people and their geographic setting adds interest and appeal to the book. Appendix 1 (321-347 contains six texts of "sayings, stories, and recollections." This review is divided into sections similar to the divisions that the chapters of AGG provide: Introduction to AGG, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Errata, and Conclusion. Comments on AGG's chapter on pragmatics will be incorporated into the section on syntax since AGG's chapter on pragmatics is very short. Back-matter will also be briefly overviewed in the syntax section. ...

  4. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  5. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  6. EFFICIENCY OF CONCOMITANT APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND CULTURED INVERTEBRATES FOR INCREASING FISH PRODUCTIVITY IN NURSERY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the fisheries and biological indicators of young-of-the-year carp when applying fertilizer in ponds, introducing stock cultures of Daphnia magna (Straus and feeding of young-of-the-year with cultured zooplankton organisms and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures for enhancing the provision of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds. Methodology. Stock culture of Daphnia magna was added into experimental ponds, 65 kg/ha of zooplankton, which were cultured in a pond-cultivator and cages installed in experimental ponds were used for feeding young-of-the-years in July and August. For study of nutrition and growth of young-of-the-year carp, samples were taken during regular control fish seining. Parameters of young-of-the-year carp growing and economic efficiency of measures aimed at increasing the supply of young-of-the-year carp with natural feeds were determined. Findings. Average seasonal zooplankton biomass in experimental ponds was 3,9 – 4,8 times higher than the biomass in the control pond. Natural food in the stomach content of carps from experimental ponds in June was 64,7 – 71,3 %, in July it decreased to 48.0 %, in August ― to 15,0 – 2,0 %. Natural food part in young-of-the-year diet in June was 9,3 %, in July ― 20,6 – 2,1%, in August ― 1,1 – 0,4 %. Fish productivity in experimental ponds was higher by 35,2 – 4,5% than that in the control pond. Expenditure of grain feeds for the growth of young-of-the-year carp in the control pond was 3,2 units, in the experiment it was 12,5 – 15,6 % lower. Profit from growing young-of-the-year carp in experimental ponds was 2,9 – 3,7 times higher than in the control and was 3955,2 – 5153,0 UAH/ha. Profitability of growing young-of-the-year with the use of intensification measures was 2,6 – 3,2 times higher than that in the control pond. Originality. For the first time we studied fisheries and biological indicators when growing young-of-the-year carp with

  7. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  8. Use of cooling ponds and hydraulic turbines to save SRP energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A substantial amount of energy can be saved by using cooling ponds to supply C and K reactors with cooling water. Hydraulic turbines between the reactor and the cooling pond can recover some of the power used to pump cooling water to the reactors. Cooling ponds would also reduce effluent temperature in the swamps adjacent to the Savannah River. Cooling ponds are evaluated in this memorandum

  9. Pond Dynamics and Supraglacial-Englacial Connectivity on Debris-Covered Lirung Glacier, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S. Miles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological systems of heavily-downwasted debris-covered glaciers differ from those of clean-ice glaciers due to the hummocky surface and debris mantle of such glaciers, leading to a relatively limited understanding of drainage pathways. Supraglacial ponds represent sinks within the discontinuous supraglacial drainage system, and occasionally drain englacially. To assess pond dynamics, we made pond water level measurements on Lirung Glacier, Nepal, during May and October of 2013 and 2014. Simultaneously, aerial, satellite, and terrestrial orthoimages and digital elevation models were obtained, providing snapshots of the ponds and their surroundings. We performed a DEM-based analysis of the glacier's closed surface catchments to identify surface drainage pathways and englacial drainage points, and compared this to field observations of surface and near-surface water flow. The total ponded area was higher in the pre-monsoon than post-monsoon, with individual ponds filling and draining seasonally associated with the surface exposure of englacial conduit segments. We recorded four pond drainage events, all of which occurred gradually (duration of weeks, observed diurnal fluctuations indicative of varying water supply and outflow discharge, and we documented instances of interaction between distant ponds. The DEM drainage analysis identified numerous sinks >3 m in depth across the glacier surface, few of which exhibited ponds (23%, while the field survey highlighted instances of surface water only explicable via englacial routes. Taken together, our observations provide evidence for widespread supraglacial-englacial connectivity of meltwater drainage paths. Results suggest that successive englacial conduit collapse events, themselves likely driven by supraglacial pond drainage, cause the glacier surface drainage system to evolve into a configuration following relict englacial conduit systems. Within this system, ponds form in depressions of

  10. Using nanofluids in enhancing the performance of a novel two-layer solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimr, Moh'd A.; Al-Dafaie, Ameer Mohammed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    A novel two-layer nanofluid solar pond is introduced. A mathematical model that describes the thermal performance of the pond has been developed and solved. The upper layer of the pond is made of mineral oil and the lower layer is made of nanofluid. Nanofluid is known to be an excellent solar radiation absorber, and this has been tested and verified using the mathematical model. Using nanofluid will increase the extinction coefficient of the lower layer and consequently will improve the thermal efficiency and the storage capacity of the pond. The effects of other parameters have been also investigated. - Highlights: • A novel two-layer solar pond is discussed. • Nanofluid as thermal energy storage is used in this pond. • A mathematical model is developed to predict the performance of the pond. • The mathematical model is solved using Green's function. • The pond is simulated for different values of governing parameter

  11. Influence of P-Reactor operation on the aquatic ecology of Par Pond: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Tilly, L.J.

    1985-02-01

    Par Pond is a 1012 hectare reservoir that was constructed in 1958 to provide cooling water for Savannah River nuclear reactors. The purpose of this report is to summarize all known studies on the Par Pond system and point out demonstrable or probable effects that can be correlated with reactor operations. Reactor operation effects the Par Pond ecosystem through: (1) pumping, (2) thermal alteration, and (3) the addition of Savannah River makeup water. The influence of each of these factors is discussed. 108 references, 24 figures, 34 tables. (MF)

  12. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of C/N ratio and substrate addition on natural food communities in freshwater prawn monoculture ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Azim, M.E.; Islam, M.A.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn

  14. Fate of Pyrethroids in Farmland Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, B. B.; Sørensen, P. B.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively. The measur......Pyrethroids constitute a group of widely used insecticides, which are toxic to aquatic organisms. This report presents the results from a 2-year study of the fate of pyrethroids in ponds, i.e. their distribution in the water column, the sediment and the surface microlayer respectively...

  15. Kakaibang Halimuyak: Iba't Ibang Imahe ng Pangangapital sa Balintawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariah Amour C. Miranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginagalugad ng sanaysay na ito ang isang pangunahing lugar na nadaraanan mula Norte patungong Maynila—ang Balintawak. Nagsisilbing manibela ng pagsusuri ang kontemporaneong pananaw sa lunan bilang pugad ng mga anyong may magkakasalungat na kahulugan. Binibigyang-pansin ng sanaysay ang iba't ibang imahe ng pagbebenta na matatagpuan sa Balintawak: ang billboard ng kumpanyang Bench na siyang pinakamalaki, ang mismong palengke, at ang mga lakong paninda sa tabing-kalsada. Sa pamamagitan nito, maipapakita ng sanaysay kung paano madadalumat ang Balintawak bilang isang panlipunang texto na sumasalamin sa mga magkakaibang pangangapital sa naturang lunan. This essay explores the space of Balintawak—a focal point of urban travel from northern Luzon to Manila. Using the contemporary view on space as a site of structures with contradictory meanings, the study seeks to understand how various images of market activities in Balintawak create meaningful representations. These images include the gigantic billboard of Bench, the central market itself, and flea markets in the area. The essay shows how Balintawak as a social text serves as a trading center of different forms of capital.

  16. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  17. Effect of pond water depth on snail populations and fish-borne zoonotic trematode transmission in juvenile giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) aquaculture nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thien, P. C.; Madsen, Henry; Nga, H. T. N.

    2015-01-01

    . Here we report results from a cross-sectional study to look at the association between pond depth and infection with FZT in giant gourami nursery ponds. Density of intermediate host snails was positively associated with pond depth (count ratio associated with a 1m increase in pond depth was 10.4 (95% C...

  18. Relation on phitoplankton community with Litopenaeus vannamei productivity in biocrete pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTManagement of phytoplankton is generally conducted by controlling the concentration of organic matter, fertilization and water exchange.  Organic materials are from uneaten feed and excretion of shrimp.  By using post facto method it was found four class of phytoplankton in biocrete pond at one cycle rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Population at early rearing period was dominated by Bacillariophyceae (50.4%; 13 species and Cyanophyceae (42.41%; 1 species, followed by Dynophyceae (6.2%; 5 species and Chlorophyceae (1.3%; 1 species.  Increment in phytoplankton density was followed by increment in chlorophyll-a and oxygen from photosynthesis, and productivity was 2132 kg/pond.Keywords: phytoplankton, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, biocrete pond ABSTRAKPengelolaan fitoplankton umumnya dilakukan dengan mengoptimalkan bahan organik serta pemupukan dan pergantian air. Bahan organik berasal dari pakan buatan yang tidak terkonsumsi (sisa pakan dan ekskresi dari udang. Dengan menggunakan metode post facto selama satu siklus pemeliharaan udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei pada tambak biocrete diperoleh empat kelas fitoplankton. Dominasi Bacillariophyceae (50,4%; 13 jenis, Cyanophyceae (42,41%; 1 jenis terjadi pada awal pemeliharaan yang diiukuti oleh Dynophyceae (6,2%; 5 jenis dan Chlorophyceae (1,3%; 1 jenis. Peningkatan kelimpahan fitoplankton secara keseluruhan diikuti oleh peningkatan kandungan klorofil-a dan oksigen hasil fotosintesis total sehingga produktifitasnya mencapai 2132 kg/petakKata kunci: fitoplankton, udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, tambak biocrete

  19. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  20. Study on method and mechanism of deep well circulation for the growth control of Microcystis in aquaculture pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haibing; Sun, Feng; Wu, Jun; Zhou, Yue; Yan, Qi; Ren, Ao; Xu, Hu

    2017-06-01

    In order to control the growth of Microcystis in aquaculture ponds and reduce its adverse effect on water quality and aquaculture, a production-scale experiment of deep well circulation treatment was carried out in an aquaculture pond with water surface area of 63,000 m 2 and water depth of 1.6-2.0 m. Compared with the control pond, the experiment pond had better water quality as indicated by 64.2% reduction in chlorophyll a, and 81.1% reduction in algal cells. The chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentration were reduced by 55.1%, 57.5%, and 50.8%, respectively. The treatment efficiency is mainly due to the growth control of Microcystis (i.e. cell reduction of 96.4%). The gas vesicles collapsing because of the water pressure was suggested to be the mechanism for Microcystis suppression by the deep well circulation treatment. The Microcystis lost its buoyancy after gas vesicles collapsed and it settled to the bottom of the aquaculture pond. As a result, the algae reproduction was suppressed because algae could only grow in the area with enough sunlight (i.e. water depth less than 1 m).

  1. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    analyses of translational landslides should attempt to incorporate irregular basal surface topography. Additional implications for moving landslides where basal topography controls surface morphology include the following: dateable sediments or organic material from basal layers of stationary ponds will yield ages that are younger than the date of landslide initiation, and it is probable that other landslide surface features such as faults, streams, springs and sinks are also controlled by basal topography. The longitudinal topographic profile indicated that the upper part of the Slumgullion landslide was depleted at a mean vertical lowering rate of 5.6 cm/yr between 1939 and 2000, while the toe advanced at an average rate of 1.5 m/yr during the same period. Therefore, during this 61-year period, neither the depletion of material at the head of the landslide nor continued growth of the landslide toe has decreased the overall movement rate of the landslide. Continued depletion of the upper part of the landslide, and growth of the toe, should eventually result in stabilization of the landslide. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Capturing temporal and spatial variability in the chemistry of shallow permafrost ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Matthew Q.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Petrone, Richard M.; Fishback, LeeAnn

    2017-12-01

    Across the circumpolar north, the fate of small freshwater ponds and lakes (mediated by processes within ponds. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding hydrologically driven chemodynamics in permafrost ponds on multiple scales (seasonal and event scale).

  3. IND UCTION OF SPAW NING IN THE TR OPICAL WALKING CATFISH (C la rias b atr ac hus BY CONTROLLI NG WATER L EVEL AND T EMPERAT URE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZAIRIN JR.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out t o confirm the rol e of water level and w ater temperature i n indu cing t he s pawning o f tr opical walking catfi sh . Ma ture mal es an d females reared un de r 23 - 2 5 °C, were paired and in duced to spa wn by cont rolling w ater level and w ater temperature. Decr easi ng water level and returni ng it to its original level r esulted i n a low spawni ng r ate (l es s t han 6. 7 % at 23 °C . Decreasing water level with simultaneous increase in water temperature, followed by returning the respective levels to their originals gave high spa wning rates ( 41.7 — 50 %; whereas the s ame treatment but without a ny water temperature decrea sed when t he wate r le vel was return ed t o t he initial level, gave a lo w spawning rate (16 .7 %. In creasin g water level only, fail ed to ind uce spa wning . A high spawning rate was obtained also when changes in water level were ca rried out under high t emperature of 28 °C. No fish spawned in the ab sence of the environmental stimulation. From the results, i t is confirmed that water le vel and t emperature play important r oles i n i nducin g spaw ning of tropical walki ng catfish. Changes i n water t emperature probably increas e the sensitivity of fish to th e change in water level. Prolo nged exposure to high water tem perature c ould also improve the sensitivity of fish.

  4. Heat transfer in melt ponds with convection and radiative heating: observationally-inspired modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A.; Langton, T.; Rees Jones, D. W.; Moon, W.; Kim, J. H.; Wilkinson, J.

    2016-12-01

    Melt ponds have key impacts on the evolution of Arctic sea ice and summer ice melt. Small changes to the energy budget can have significant consequences, with a net heat-flux perturbation of only a few Watts per square metre sufficient to explain the thinning of sea ice over recent decades. Whilst parameterisations of melt-pond thermodynamics often assume that pond temperatures remain close to the freezing point, recent in-situ observations show more complex thermal structure with significant diurnal and synoptic variability. We here consider the energy budget of melt ponds and explore the role of internal convective heat transfer in determining the thermal structure within the pond in relatively calm conditions with low winds. We quantify the energy fluxes and temperature variability using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of convective turbulence within a melt pond, driven by internal radiative heating and surface fluxes. Our results show that the convective flow dynamics are modulated by changes to the incoming radiative flux and sensible heat flux at the pond surface. The evolving pond surface temperature controls the outgoing longwave emissions from the pond. Hence the convective flow modifies the net energy balance of a melt pond, modulating the relative fractions of the incoming heat flux that is re-emitted to the atmosphere or transferred downward into the sea ice to drive melt.

  5. Inventory of vegetation and benthos in newly laid and natural ponds in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qvarfordt, Susanne; Wallin, Anders; Borgiel, Micke

    2013-01-01

    SKB plans to build a repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The repository is planned to be built in Forsmark and constitutes installations above and below ground. The building and operation of the construction will involve activities that might affect the nature in the area. The impact means, among other things, that a small water body, which today is a reproduction site for the red listed pool frog (Rana lessonae), will disappear. The lost locality for the pool frog has been compensated by creating four new ponds in the Forsmark area. This study is part of the follow-up of these new habitats. The aim is to describe the plant and animal communities in the ponds, and follow the succession, i.e. the development of the habitats. The study also includes two natural ponds that will serve as reference objects. The survey of vegetation and invertebrate fauna in the ponds was conducted in October 2012. The results show that the new ponds had low coverage of submersed vegetation and the species composition in the plant communities differed between the ponds. The reference ponds also had different plant communities, both in terms of species composition and coverage. This indicates that the species composition of the plant communities in the new ponds will likely depend on physical factors specific to the respective pond, but that higher vegetation coverage can be expected over time in all new ponds. The reference ponds had similar animal communities that differed from the animal communities in the new ponds. The similar species composition in the reference ponds, despite the variety of plant communities, suggests that similar animal communities are likely to develop in the new ponds, even if the plant communities continues to be different. Water chemical sampling has also been conducted in the ponds during 2012. A comparison of the inorganic environment (with regard to analysed ions) showed that the reference ponds had relatively similar ion compositions with little

  6. Insight into the risk of replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Ao, Dong; Ji, Jiayuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Yu-You; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Guo, Hongbing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-02-15

    Increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) for replenishing urban landscape ponds has aroused public concern about the water quality. Three ponds replenished with RW in three cities in China were chosen to investigate 22 indexes of water quality in five categories. This was achieved by comparing three pairs of ponds in the three different cities, where one pond in each pair was replenished with RW and the other with surface water (SW). The nutrients condition, heavy metal concentration and ecotoxicity did not differ significantly between RW- and SW-replenished ponds. By contrast, significant differences were observed in algal growth and pathogen risk. RW ponds presented a Cyanophyta-Chlorophyta-Bacillariophyta type with high algal diversity while SW ponds presented a Cyanophyta type with low diversity. Regrowth of bacterial pathogens and especially survival of viral pathogens in RW, was the main driver behind the higher risk for RW ponds compared with SW ones. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the algal growth and pathogen risk. With continued RW replenishment, non-dominant algal species subjected to decrease while dominant species were enhanced resulting in the biomass increasing but diversity declining, and the risk posed by viral pathogens might become greater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Egg production and hatching success of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida, Acartiidae) in two hypersaline ponds of a Tunisian Solar Saltern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Rebai, Rayda Kobbi; Ali, Mohammad; Subrahmanyam, M. N. V.; Belmonte, Genuario; Ayadi, Habib

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive traits of Paracartia grani [percentage of spawning females, egg production rate (EPR), and hatching success (HS)] were investigated for the first time at high salinities (39-121 psu) to examine the impact of such a particular situation. The study was done in two hypersaline ponds [A1 (39-46 psu) and C31 (70-121 psu)] in Sfax Solar Saltern, central-eastern coast of Tunisia. These ponds also differed in terms of the composition and concentrations of nutritional parameters. The EPR differed significantly between the ponds (ANOVA, F = 29.45, p eggs female- 1 day- 1 (7 December 2009) and 14 ± 1 eggs female- 1 day- 1 (19 January 2010) with an average of 13.3 ± 0.44 eggs female- 1 day- 1. HS after 48 h of incubation were significantly higher than those after 24 h. The mean values of HS after 48 h were 42.72 ± 2.58% at pond A1 and 41.67 ± 3.92% at pond C31. The two peaks of HS (after 48 h) were observed at 15 °C in pond A1 (21 December 2009, 45.18% nauplii eggs- 1) and in C31 (4 January 2010, 48.78%) at the same temperature. This study confirms that a broad salinity tolerance allows P. grani to settle itself in environments, which are normally hostile to the development of other Acartiidae.

  8. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  9. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments.

  10. Concentrated Brine Treatment using New Energy in Coal Mine Evaporation Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Li, Jingfeng

    2017-12-01

    Recently, more and more coal mine water is being advanced treated and reused in China. The concentrated brine that results from advanced treatment methods can only be evaporated in an evaporation pond. Because of limited treatment capabilities and winter freezing, evaporation ponds often overflow, causing environment contamination. In this paper, based on analysis of brine water quality and economic-technical feasibility, we present a suitable treatment method for brine in evaporation ponds as electrodialysis using solar energy. In addition, we propose a new system to treat brine in coal mine evaporation ponds, which is powered by solar and wind. The operating efficiency of this treatment system proposed in this paper can meet the concentrated brine treatment demands in most coal mines in western mining areas of China and it places the photovoltaic power generation plates on the surface of the evaporation pond on a fixed floating island, which reduces any risk associated with land acquisition. This system can enhance brine treatment efficiency, requires a reduced evaporation pond area, increases the utilization of coal mine water, and minimizes the risk of environment contamination.

  11. 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch characterization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Duncan, D.W.; Graham, M.J.; Hall, M.D.; Hall, V.W.; Landeen, D.S.; Leitz, J.G.; Mitchell, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    The chemical, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has generated large volumes of radioactive liquid effluents. The majority of these effluents have been used strictly for cooling or other supportive functions and have been discharged to ditches and ponds. The 216-U-10 Pond and 216-Z-19 Ditch are two such disposal facilities. These facilities are components of an integrated system of ditches, ponds, and overflow facilities collectively referred to as the U-Pond disposal system. The U-Pond system has been used since 1943 and has received a large variety of radioisotopes from several sources. This study covered tho major aspects of the environment, including wind resuspension, biological uptake and transport, geologic distribution in surface and subsurface sediments, and ground-water impacts. The long-term use of U-Pond and the Z-19 Ditch has resulted in the localized accumulation of transuranic and fission product inventories as a result of sorption and filtration of particulates onto the uppermost sediments

  12. Preface: conservation of european ponds-current knowledge and future needs

    OpenAIRE

    Miracle, Rosa; Oertli, Beat; Céréghino, Régis; Hull, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Ponds are common elements of the landscape with an important role in the global processes of biosphere and biodiversity preservation. Recent research indicates that ecological characteristics of ponds are different from other inland water systems, but scientific knowledge is still insufficient and poor compared to lakes and rivers. Therefore, whilst indicators and conservation tools have been developed for most aquatic systems, there is also a gap between existing basic information on pond ec...

  13. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  14. Top-down control of invertebrates by Ninespine Stickleback in Arctic ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Kane, William J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their widespread presence in northern-latitude ecosystems, the ecological role of Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius is not well understood. Ninespine Stickleback can occupy both top and intermediate trophic levels in freshwater ecosystems, so their role in food webs as a predator on invertebrates and as a forage fish for upper level consumers probably is substantial. We introduced Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds to elucidate their potential effects as a predator on invertebrate communities in Arctic lentic freshwaters. We hypothesized that Ninespine Stickleback would affect freshwater invertebrate communities in a top-down manner. We predicted that the addition of Ninespine Sticklebacks to fishless ponds would: 1) reduce invertebrate taxonomic richness, 2) decrease overall invertebrate abundance, 3) reduce invertebrate biomass, and 4) decrease average invertebrate body size. We tested our hypothesis at 2 locations by adding Ninespine Stickleback to isolated ponds and compared invertebrate communities over time between fish-addition and fishless control ponds. Ninespine Sticklebacks exerted strong top-down pressure on invertebrate communities mainly by changing invertebrate taxonomic richness and biomass and, to a lesser extent, abundance and average invertebrate size. Our results supported the hypothesis that Ninespine Stickleback may help shape lentic food webs in the Arctic.

  15. Pathophysiology of NG2-glia:a ‘Chicken and Egg’ scenario of altered neurotransmission and disruption of NG2-glial cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Andrea Domenico; De La Rocha, Irene Chacon; Neville, Rebekah; Butt, Arthur Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Classically, the central nervous system (CNS) was considered to contain neurons and three main types of glial cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Now, it has been clearly established that NG2-glia are a fourth glial cell type that are defined by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (Cspg4). NG2-glia are also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and express the alpha receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfra) as well as other oligod...

  16. Biological removal of algae in an integrated pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of oxidation ponds in series with a biological trickling filter is described. It was known that this arrangement was incapable of reducing effectively the levels of algae present in the pond liquid even though nitrification was effected...

  17. Gamma emitting radionuclides of the Test Reactor Area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides. The potential hazards to man and the environment were considered through the biological export of radioactive materials from the ponds. Both biotic and abiotic pond compartments were sampled. Fall and winter biomass estimates showed that benthic periphyton comprised 52%, macrophytes and littoral vegetation 35%, and seston 10% of the total for all biotic compartments. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) for fall and winter are presented for Cr-51, Co-60, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-137, Ba-140, and Ce-141. Concentrations and CFs ranged over seven orders of magnitude for the various nuclides and compartments. Seston and zooplankton had the highest concentrations followed by periphyton, sediment, macrophytes, littoral plants, willow, and filtered water. Arthropods had variable concentrations and CFs. Significant seasonal differences were observed for concentrations and CFs in seston, macrophytes, and littoral vegetation. A compartmental inventory of total gamma emitting activity accounted for 254 Ci (9.25 TBq) of the 731 Ci (24.8 TBq) estimated to remain in the ponds at the time of sampling. Filtered water and surface sediments contained 99% of the total radioactivity, while periphyton and seston had most of the remaining 1%. An estimate of the avian export rate of radioactivity from the TRA ponds showed that potentially harvestable mourning doves had the lowest rate with 0.02 μCi/y. External tissues of migratory waterfowl were found to contribute 90% of the total exported activity for all birds. The total avian export rate was estimated to be 1350 μCi/y during 1975

  18. Assesing the effect of an olive mill wastewater evaporation pond in Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'habou, Rakia; Zairi, Moncef; Kallel, Amjed; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Ben Dhia, Hamed

    2009-08-01

    Olive oil is a typical and valuable agro-industrial product in Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia, olive mill wastewaters (OMW) reach an amount of about 1,000,000 t year-1 and constitute a serious organic pollution risk because of the high chemical oxygen demand values and the presence of phytotoxic and antibacterial polyphenols. OMW have been generally stored in pond sites to be eliminated by natural evaporation or valorised by spreading on cultivated soils or by composting. Many researches on the interactions of OMW with soils at laboratory scale (columns) have been reported, but less attention have been paid to the effect of OMW on soils at field scale. The aim of this work is to investigate an area used for >15 years as an uncontrolled OMW pond site. The transformations of soil properties and groundwater occurring during OMW storage were characterised by the pH, phenolic contents, electrical conductivity (EC), moisture content and organic contents. The soil samples were taken from two borings and compared to those of a control one located near the pond site. Groundwater samples were taken on the accessible and nearest water wells to the evaporation ponds. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site support the infiltration of OMW near the evaporation ponds. This infiltration has reached a depth of 6 m at a distance of almost 50 m laterally. The results show that the OMW infiltration in the subsoil has affected the pH, EC, organic content, phenolic compounds and the moisture.

  19. Thaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huissteden, Ko; Heijmans, Monique; Dean, Josh; Meisel, Ove; Goovaerts, Arne; Parmentier, Frans-Jan; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Kononov, Alexander; Maximov, Trofim; Borges, Alberto; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Arctic climate change induces drastic changes in permafrost surface wetness. As a result of thawing ground ice bodies, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds are formed. Alternatively, ongoing thaw may enhance drainage as a result of increased interconnectedness of thawing ice wedge troughs, as inferred from a model study (Liljedahl et al., 2016, Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2674). However, a recent review highlighted the limited predictability of consequences of thawing permafrost on hydrology (Walvoord and Kurylyk, 2016, Vadose Zone J., DOI:10.2136/vzj2016.01.0010). Overall, these changes in tundra wetness modify carbon cycling in the Arctic and in particular the emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, providing a possibly positive feedback on climate change. Here we present the results of a combined remote sensing, geomorphological, vegetation and biogechemical study of thaw ponds in Arctic Siberian tundra, at Kytalyk research station near Chokurdakh, Indigirka lowlands. The station is located in an area dominated by Pleistocene ice-rich 'yedoma' sediments and drained thaw lake bottoms of Holocene age. The development of three types of ponds in the Kytalyk area (polygon centre ponds, ice wedge troughs and thaw ponds) has been traced with high resolution satellite and aerial imagery. The remote sensing data show net areal expansion of all types of ponds. Next to formation of new ponds, local vegetation change from dry vegetation types to wet, sedge-dominated vegetation is common. Thawing ice wedges and thaw ponds show an increase in area and number at most studied locations. In particular the area of polygon centre ponds increased strongly between 2010 and 2015, but this is highly sensitive to antecedent precipitation conditions. Despite a nearly 60% increase of the area of thawing ice wedge troughs, there is no evidence of decreasing water surfaces by increasing drainage through connected ice wedge troughs. The number of thaw ponds shows an equilibrium

  20. PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF GERAI POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dimache

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gerai Pond is one of the last natural wetlands along the Danube, being connected to natural flooding regime of the Danube and is situated at the confluence of the Danube River, between Gârcov and Islaz localities, in Olt County. Aquatic vegetation characteristic is a favorable habitat for two species of conservation concern that nest along the Danube: red duck and pygmy cormorant. During 1961-1970, Gerai Pond has changed radically due to impoundment and draining under the program of drainage and flood meadow regulate of the Danube. These works of land reclamation for decreasing surface lakes and wetlands and water stagnation period, had reduced the breeding areas of the two species mentioned above. Ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond project was conducted by Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest in collaboration with E.P.A. Olt and W.W.F.-Romania. The project was based on a hydrological study (which included a component related to flooding for the area analyzed, study in which were highlighted the areas which have water access to and from the Pond, surfaces and volumes of water corresponding to different rates, the optimal level of water for restoration of the nesting area. Based on this study were identified the areas of artificial feed-water discharge to and from the Danube. This paper presents the possible solutions for ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond, identified in the project.

  1. Trophic structure and avian communities across a salinity gradient in evaporation ponds of the San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Athearn, N.D.; Saiki, M.K.; Duffy, W.D.; Kleinschmidt, S.; Shellenbarger, G.G.; Jannusch, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial salt evaporation ponds comprise a large proportion of baylands adjacent to the San Francisco Bay, a highly urbanized estuary. In the past two centuries, more than 79% of the historic tidal wetlands in this estuary have been lost. Resource management agencies have acquired more than 10 000 ha of commercial salt ponds with plans to undertake one of the largest wetland restoration projects in North America. However, these plans have created debate about the ecological importance of salt ponds for migratory bird communities in western North America. Salt ponds are unique mesohaline (5–18 g l−1) to hyperhaline (> 40 g l−1) wetlands, but little is known of their ecological structure or value. Thus, we studied decommissioned salt ponds in the North Bay of the San Francisco Bay estuary from January 1999 through November 2001. We measured water quality parameters (salinity, DO, pH, temperature), nutrient concentrations, primary productivity, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds across a range of salinities from 24 to 264 g l−1. Our studies documented how unique limnological characteristics of salt ponds were related to nutrient levels, primary productivity rates, invertebrate biomass and taxa richness, prey fish, and avian predator numbers. Salt ponds were shown to have unique trophic and physical attributes that supported large numbers of migratory birds. Therefore, managers should carefully weigh the benefits of increasing habitat for native tidal marsh species with the costs of losing these unique hypersaline systems.

  2. Visibility from roads predict the distribution of invasive fishes in agricultural ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizuka, Toshikazu; Akasaka, Munemitsu; Kadoya, Taku; Takamura, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    Propagule pressure and habitat characteristics are important factors used to predict the distribution of invasive alien species. For species exhibiting strong propagule pressure because of human-mediated introduction of species, indicators of introduction potential must represent the behavioral characteristics of humans. This study examined 64 agricultural ponds to assess the visibility of ponds from surrounding roads and its value as a surrogate of propagule pressure to explain the presence and absence of two invasive fish species. A three-dimensional viewshed analysis using a geographic information system quantified the visual exposure of respective ponds to humans. Binary classification trees were developed as a function of their visibility from roads, as well as five environmental factors: river density, connectivity with upstream dam reservoirs, pond area, chlorophyll a concentration, and pond drainage. Traditional indicators of human-mediated introduction (road density and proportion of urban land-use area) were alternatively included for comparison instead of visual exposure. The presence of Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) was predicted by the ponds' higher visibility from roads and pond connection with upstream dam reservoirs. Results suggest that fish stocking into ponds and their dispersal from upstream sources facilitated species establishment. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) distribution was constrained by chlorophyll a concentration, suggesting their lower adaptability to various environments than that of Bluegill. Based on misclassifications from classification trees for Bluegill, pond visual exposure to roads showed greater predictive capability than traditional indicators of human-mediated introduction. Pond visibility is an effective predictor of invasive species distribution. Its wider use might improve management and mitigate further invasion. The visual exposure of recipient ecosystems to humans is important for many invasive species that

  3. ngVLA Cryogenic Subsystem Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al; Urbain, Denis; Grammer, Wes; Durand, S.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA’s success over 35 years of operations stems in part from dramatically upgraded components over the years. The time has come to build a new array to lead the radio astronomical science into its next 40 years. To accomplish that, a next generation VLA (ngVLA) is envisioned to have 214 antennas with diameters of 18m. The core of the array will be centered at the current VLA location, but the arms will extend out to 1000km.The VLA cryogenic subsystem equipment and technology have remained virtually unchanged since the early 1980s. While adequate for a 27-antenna array, scaling the current system for an array of 214 antennas would be prohibitively expensive in terms of operating cost and maintenance. The overall goal is to limit operating cost to within three times the current level, despite having 8 times the number of antennas. To help realize this goal, broadband receivers and compact feeds will be utilized to reduce both the size and number of cryostats required. The current baseline front end concept calls for just two moderately-sized cryostats for the entire 1.2-116 GHz frequency range, as opposed to 8 in the VLA.For the ngVLA cryogenics, our objective is a well-optimized and efficient system that uses state-of-the-art technology to minimize per-antenna power consumption and maximize reliability. Application of modern technologies, such as variable-speed operation for the scroll compressors and cryocooler motor drives, allow the cooling capacity of the system to be dynamically matched to thermal loading in each cryostat. Significantly, power savings may be realized while the maintenance interval of the cryocoolers is also extended.Finally, a receiver designed to minimize thermal loading can produce savings directly translating to lower operating cost when variable-speed drives are used. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) on radiation shields and improved IR filters on feed windows can significantly reduce heat loading.Measurements done on existing cryogenic

  4. C/N-controlled periphyton-based freshwater prawn farming system: a sustainable approach to increase pond productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Three technologies showed to improve productivity and sustainability of pond production: (1) C/N ratio control, (2) providing substrates for periphyton development, and (3) fish driven re-suspension. The novelty of this PhD research is to combine these technologies, with the goal to raise pond

  5. Accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Henry Ogbuagu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels, index of accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria during the wet season of 2012. Water (WC and sediment samples (SD were collected from six sampling points, with WC 1-WC 3 and SD 1-SD 3 located within a derelict mine pond and WC 4-WC 6 and SD 4-SD 6 located within an actively mined pond. The pH was determined in situ and levels of heavy metals measured with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The student’s t-test, index of geoaccumulation (Igeo, accumulation factor (AF and pond recovery capacity (PRC were computed for the ponds. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in mean levels of the heavy metals in sediments (sig. t=0.029 at P Zn (4.932> Cu (4.743 > Mn (4.326 > Pb (3.214 > Ni (2.483 > Cd (1.649, AF was Zn (1.513 > Cd (1.179 > Fe (1.082 > Ni (1.048 > Mn (1.042 > Cu (1.032 > Pb (0.987 and PRC was Zn (33.891 > Cd (15.165 > Fe (7.604 > Ni (4.608 > Mn (4.047 > Cu (3.052 > Pb (-1.373. Active mining led to extreme contamination of the ponds with Fe, strong to extreme contaminations with Cu, Zn and Mn, strong contamination with Pb, moderate to strong contamination with Ni and moderate contamination with Cd. However, Pb showed deficit recovery capacity and this could portend unfavourable ecological consequences on resident biota and raises public health concerns among resource dependants of the river. Strict enforcement of regulations on in-stream sand mining should be applied.

  6. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport......This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges....... Measurements of water and pollutant transport are carried out in different highway systems. A geometrically well-defined test pond is established, wherein the deposition of particulate matter can be measured. The result from the test pond is transferred to real detention ponds in which the three...

  7. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fauna from wet detention ponds for stormwater runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater detention ponds remove pollutants e.g. heavy metals and nutrients from stormwater runoff. These pollutants accumulate in the pond sediment and thereby become available for bioaccumulation in fauna living in the ponds. In this study the bioaccumulation was investigated by fauna samples...... from 5 wet detention ponds for analyses of heavy metal contents. Five rural shallow lakes were included in the study to survey the natural occurrence of heavy metals in water-dwelling fauna. Heavy metal concentrations in water-dwelling fauna were generally found higher in wet detention ponds compared...

  8. Alterações no líquido sinovial do joelho de cães com osteoartrite induzida pelo modelo Pond e Nuki Synovial fluid changes in the dog knee with osteoarthritis induced by Pond and Nuki model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Biasi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as alterações do líquido sinovial do joelho de 19 cães submetidos à desmotomia unilateral do cruzado cranial, baseado no modelo experimental de Pond & Nuki, colhido e analisado aos 30 dias de pós-operatório. Cinco animais foram analisados novamente aos 90 dias de pós-operatório. As características analisadas foram volume, cor, aspecto, densidade, pH, proteínas, fibrinogênio, coágulo de mucina, contagem de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial de células nucleadas. O líquido sinovial apresentou padrão inflamatório que persistiu durante todo o período de observação, com efusão articular. Houve aumento na contagem de células nucleadas e na concentração de fibrinogênio aos 90 dias. A qualidade da precipitação da mucina apresentou melhora aos 90 dias quando comparada à de 30 dias, porém ainda marcadamente anormal. Foi possível concluir que até 90 dias de pós-operatório no modelo utilizado o fluído sinovial apresenta características inflamatórias e não degenerativas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in knee synovial fluid of 19 dogs with experimentally-induced cranial cruciate ligament rupture, based on Pond & Nuki model. Synovial fluid was achieved and analyzed at 30 days postoperative time. Five animals had further synovial fluid evaluation at 90 days postoperatively. The characteristics observed were color, turbidity, density, pH, protein, fibrinogen, mucin clot, cell count and citology. The synovial fluid exhibited an inflammatory pattern during the postoperative observation time and joint effusion was observed. An increased number of nucleated cells and increased fibrinogen concentration were observed at 90 days when compared to 30 days after desmotomy. Although severely abnormal, an improvement of the mucin clot was observed at 90 days. It can be concluded that synovial fluid in this experimental model, showed inflammatory and no degenerative changes until 90 days

  9. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  10. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  11. Review and evaluation of information on the thermal performance of ultimate heat sinks: spray ponds and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.L.

    1975-09-01

    A report is presented which identifies and evaluates available information and data useful in validating and improving existing models for the thermal performance of ultimate heat sinks. Included are discussions of the thermal elements of cooling ponds and spray ponds, the available information and data pertinent to the problem, and the requirements and needs for further research and performance data. An outline is presented of the necessary elements required for a performance test of an ultimate heat sink before the system is thermally approved. (auth)

  12. Analysis of changes in farm pond network connectivity in the peri-urban landscape of the Taoyuan area, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Li; Lee, Ying-Chieh; Budd, William W; Yang, Min-Chia

    2012-04-01

    The farm pond system for irrigation is the most prominent feature in the Taoyuan area, Taiwan, giving the region a unique landscape and hydrological character. Although this area had more than 3,290 ponds in the 1970s, fewer than 1,800 now remain. This study analyzes changes in irrigation farm ponds and the canal network landscape in the Taoyuan area. The spatial and temporal changes to ponds and the canal network on the Taoyuan plain were examined graphically for each spatial unit (2,765 m × 2,525 m) using aerial photographs for 1979 and 2005. Landscape metrics were calculated to analyze landscape change associated with increased urbanization. Landscape indices of connectivity and circuitry were utilized to describe changes in the configuration of ponds and canal networks. The total length of canals and total number of ponds in the study area decreased significantly during 1979-2005. The average values of connectivity indices (γ- and α-index) also decreased during 1979-2005, reflecting degradation of canal networks due to urban sprawl. A multivariate technique was applied to portion the study area into three zones according to changes to land cover, ponds, and canal networks. The effects of urban sprawl on the spatial pattern of ponds and canal networks are discussed.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix nanocomposite for enantioselective electrochemical sensing of D- and L-aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Srivastava, Amrita; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2013-10-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix (titanium dioxide nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotubes) nanocomposite was developed for the modification of pencil graphite electrode as an enantioselective sensing probe for aspartic acid isomers, prevalent at ultra trace level in aqueous and real samples. The nanocomposite having many shape complementary cavities was synthesized adopting surface initiated-activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. The proposed sensor has high stability, nanocomposite uniformity, good reproducibility, and enhanced electrocatalytic activity to respond oxidative peak current of L-aspartic acid quantitatively by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, without any cross-reactivity in real samples. Under the optimized operating conditions, the L-aspartic acid imprinted modified electrode showed a wide linear response for L-aspartic acid within the concentration range 9.98-532.72 ng mL(-1), with the minimum detection limit of 1.73-1.79 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) in aqueous and real samples. Almost similar stringent limit (1.79 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with cerebrospinal fluid which is typical for the primitive diagnosis of neurological disorders, caused by an acute depletion of L-aspartic acid biomarker, in clinical settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An innovative attached-growth biological system for purification of pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Jing-Song; Chen, Chien-Min; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2010-03-01

    This study applied the non-woven material from used diaper as the carrier for bio-film process to purify the recycled water from a landscape pond at the Tainan City Municipal Culture Center (TCMCC), Taiwan. An on-site system was installed and the experiment was accomplished through three stages in 192 days with different time periods of 70 days, 63 days, and 59 days, respectively. The results showed that the non-woven media is functional for SS removal. The average SS removal of stages 1, 2, and 3 were 91%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. The highest SCOD removal efficiency of 90% occurred at stage 3. A significant color improvement of the pond water was achieved through this non-woven bio-carrier treatment system. Whole system can be without any maintenance for 139 days. The result indicated that the non-woven medium system was with a great potential in treating and recycling the pond water with stable operation and satisfactory removal performance. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria in shrimp ponds with varying mercury levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Mukkata

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the diversity of purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB and to investigate the effect of Hg concentrations in shrimp ponds on PNSB diversity. Amplification of the pufM gene was detected in 13 and 10 samples of water and sediment collected from 16 shrimp ponds in Southern Thailand. In addition to PNSB, other anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB were also observed; purple sulfur bacteria (PSB and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB although most of them could not be identified. Among identified groups; AAPB, PSB and PNSB in the samples of water and sediment were 25.71, 11.43 and 8.57%; and 27.78, 11.11 and 22.22%, respectively. In both sample types, Roseobacter denitrificans (AAPB was the most dominant species followed by Halorhodospira halophila (PSB. In addition two genera, observed most frequently in the sediment samples were a group of PNSB (Rhodovulum kholense, Rhodospirillum centenum and Rhodobium marinum. The UPGMA dendrograms showed 7 and 6 clustered groups in the water and sediment samples, respectively. There was no relationship between the clustered groups and the total Hg (HgT concentrations in the water and sediment samples used (<0.002–0.03 μg/L and 35.40–391.60 μg/kg dry weight for studying the biodiversity. It can be concluded that there was no effect of the various Hg levels on the diversity of detected APB species; particularly the PNSB in the shrimp ponds.

  16. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  17. Groundwater monitoring plan for the Hanford Site 216-B-3 pond RCRA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    The 216-B-3 pond system was a series of ponds for disposal of liquid effluent from past Hanford production facilities. In operation since 1945, the B Pond system has been a RCRA facility since 1986, with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim-status groundwater monitoring in place since 1988. In 1994, discharges were diverted from the main pond, where the greatest potential for contamination was thought to reside, to the 3C expansion pond. In 1997, all discharges to the pond system were discontinued. In 1990, the B Pond system was elevated from detection groundwater monitoring to an assessment-level status because total organic halogens and total organic carbon were found to exceed critical means in two wells. Subsequent groundwater quality assessment failed to find any specific hazardous waste contaminant that could have accounted for the exceedances, which were largely isolated in occurrence. Thus, it was recommended that the facility be returned to detection-level monitoring

  18. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  19. Understanding the NG2 glial scar after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R Hackett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury, NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes. Whether NG2 cells also have a role in other astrocyte functions, such as preventing the spread of infiltrating leukocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines, is not yet known. Thus, NG2 cells are not only important for remyelination after spinal cord injury, but are also a major component of the glial scar with functions that overlap with astrocytes in this region. In this review, we describe the signaling pathways important for the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 cells, as well as the role of NG2 cells in scar formation and tissue repair.

  20. Biological export of radioactive materials from a leaching pond in SE Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, Jere B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioecological investigation was conducted to quantify biological export of radioactive materials from a test reactor area leaching pond located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site in southeast Idaho. An estimated 42,000 Ci have been discharged to the pond since 1952. Approximately 35 gamma emitting radionuclides are detectable in unfiltered water. Biomass estimates and mean radionuclide concentrations were determined for major pond compartments. A radionuclide inventory of the pond ecosystem was constructed listing totals for radioactivity present in each compartment. Mean concentrations of predominant radionuclides and population census data were used to estimate biologically exported materials. Particular attention was paid to migrant waterfowl, a resident population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), and nesting shore birds. Whole body gamma spectra indicated 15 or more detectable fission and activation products associated with swallows and shore birds, and 20 or more for waterfowl. Concentration factors relative to filtered pond water were also calculated. Finally, biologically exported radioactive materials were compared with total amounts present in the pond. (author)

  1. Remediation of an oily leachate pond in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2005-12-01

    Until recent years, waste oil and oil-contaminated waters commonly ended up in landfills. At some dump sites, ponds of oily liquids and leachate were formed. To remediate such ponds, an interdisciplinary approach is now required, keeping costs at an affordable level, particularly in countries with changing economies. From 1974 to 1993, liquid oily wastes taken to the Laguja landfill, in Estonia, were disposed of in a pond with a surface area of 9800 m2. It was estimated that the pond contained 4500-6000 m3 of oily water and 3500 m3 of oil-containing bottom sediments. This study aimed at developing an environmentally sound and cost-effective method for remediation of the oily liquids, leachate and contaminated underlying sediment material, to meet the existing legal demands. It was concluded that treatment of contaminated water is well established and the procedures carried out to meet the regulatory demands achieved satisfactory results. However, regarding treatment of sediments it was concluded that legal and technological aspects, as well as monitoring procedures are not fully established and are usually underestimated. Laboratory investigations can provide valuable information in decision-making, and contribute to effective full-scale remediation planning.

  2. ¹¹¹In-DOTA-Annexin V for imaging of apoptosis during HSV1-tk/GCV prodrug activation gene therapy in mice with NG4TL4 sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Apoptosis has been suggested as a cytocidal mechanism of the HSV1-tk-expressing cells when exposed to ganciclovir (GCV). This study evaluated the efficacy of (111)In-labeled Annexin V for monitoring tumor responses during prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and GCV. Annexin V was conjugated to DOTA using N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) and 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDC), labeled with (111)In-InCl3 and purified using size exclusion chromatography to give (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V conjugate. The radiochemical yield and the radiochemical purity of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V were 74±12% and 98±3%, respectively (n=10). (111)In-DOTA-BSA was prepared similarly. An in vitro study to demonstrate the apoptosis of NG4TL4-STK cells after GCV treatment has been performed. Mice bearing NG4TL4-STK and NG4TL4-WT tumors were treated with GCV (10 mg/kg daily) by i.p. injection for 7 consecutive days. Before and during the GCV treatment, biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging were performed at 2h post injection of the radiotracers. The uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V in treated cells (13.41±1.30%) was 4.1 times higher than that in untreated cells (3.21±0.37%). The GCV-induced cell apoptosis in NG4TL4-STK tumor resulted in a significantly increasing accumulation of (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V (1.92±0.32%ID/g at day 0, 4.79±0.86%ID/g at day 2, 4.56±0.58%ID/g at day 4) was observed, but not for that of (111)In-DOTA-BSA. During consecutive GCV treatment, scintigraphic imaging with (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V revealed high uptake in NG4TL4-STK tumor compared with that in NG4TL4-WT tumor. However, no specific (111)In-DOTA-BSA accumulation in NG4TL4-STK and NG4TL4-WT tumors was observed throughout the course of GCV treatment. This study demonstrated that (111)In-DOTA-Annexin V can be used for monitoring tumor cell apoptosis during prodrug activation gene therapy with HSV1-tk and GCV for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic, Heat and Mass Transfer and Stability in a Salt Gradient Solar Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ben Moussa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer and stability in a salt gradient solar pond has been numerically studied by means of computational fluid dynamics in transient regime. The body of the simulated pond is an enclosure of height H and length L wherein an artificial salinity gradient is created in order to suppress convective motions induced by solar radiation absorption and to stabilize the solar pond during the period of operation. Here we show the distribution of velocity, temperature and salt concentration fields during energy collection and storage in a solar pond filled with water and constituted by three different salinity zones. The bottom of the pond is blackened and the free-surface is subjected to heat losses by convection, evaporation and radiation while the vertical walls are adiabatic and impermeable. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, thermal energy and mass transfer are discretized by finite–volume method in transient regime. Velocity vector fields show the presence of thin convective cells in the upper convective zone (UCZ and large convective cells in the lower convective zone (LCZ. This study shows the importance of buoyancy ratio in the decrease of temperature in the UCZ and in the preservation of high temperature in the LCZ. It shows also the importance of the thickness of Non-Convective Zone (NCZ in the reduction of the upwards heat losses.

  4. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Feltham, D.L.; Taylor, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds...

  5. An integrated microalgal growth model and its application to optimize the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under the nutrient level of domestic secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Li, Xin; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Li, Feng-Min

    2013-09-01

    Microalgal growth is the key to the coupled system of wastewater treatment and microalgal biomass production. In this study, Monod model, Droop model and Steele model were incorporated to obtain an integrated growth model describing the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and light intensity on the growth rate of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. The model parameters were obtained via fitting experimental data to these classical models. Furthermore, the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under nutrient level of secondary effluent was analyzed based on the integrated model, predicting a maximal microalgal biomass production rate about 20 g m(-2) d(-1). In order to optimize the biomass production of open pond the microalgal biomass concentration, light intensity on the surface of open pond, total depth of culture medium and hydraulic retention time should be 500 g m(-3), 16,000 lx, 0.2 m and 5.2 d in the conditions of this study, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  7. The effect of light:dark cycles of medium frequency on photosynthesis by Chlorella vulgaris and the implications for waste stabilisation pond design and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, I A J; Fallowfield, H J

    2003-01-01

    The effect of light/dark (L:D) cycle times on the recovery from photoinhibition of green micro-alga Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP211/11c) and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (CCAP1479/5) was investigated using an irradiated, temperature controlled oxygen electrode. The onset of photoinhibition in both organisms occurred at irradiances > 300 micromol m(-2)s(-1) at temperatures >15 degrees C. Light/dark cycle times were controlled independently using a relay timer and shutter placed between the quartz iodide light source and the oxygen electrode chamber. Oxygen evolution decreased rapidly when cells were continuously irradiated at 300, 500 and 750 micromol m(-2)s(-1). However, Chlorella cells irradiated at 300, 500 and 750 micromol m(-2)s(-1)on a L:D cycle of 60s:20s, 30s:60s and 60s: 120s respectively, maintained a constant rate of oxygen evolution over a 24 h incubation period. Exposure time to a given incident irradiance rather than the total light dose received appeared to determine the effect of light/dark cycle times on photosynthesis. A relationship was established between L:D ratio required to maintain constant oxygen production and incident photon flux density. The results suggest that the adverse effects of high irradiances on algae near the surface of a stratified waste stabilisation pond might be ameliorated by controlled mixing of algal cells through the depth of the pond.

  8. Preliminary study of the relationship between surface and bulk water temperatures at the Dresden cooling pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesely, M.L.; Hicks, B.B.; Hess, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    Successful application of bulk aerodynamic formulae to determine the vertical sensible and latent heat fluxes above a cooling lake requires accurate estimates of water surface temperature. Because of the heat loss at the surface and partial insulation by the poorly-mixed outer skin of water in contact with the air-water interface, the surface temperature is usually 0.1 to 2.0 C less than the temperature at a depth greater than 1 cm. For engineering applications requiring estimates of the total heat dissipation capacity of a particular cooling lake, the bulk temperature of the entire mixed layer of subsurface water is more important than the surface temperature. Therefore, in order to simulate the thermal performance of a cooling pond, both the surface temperature and the bulk temperature should be estimated. In the case of cooling ponds, the total heat transfer through the uppermost layer is extremely large and the water beneath the surface is strongly mixed by circulation currents within the pond. The purpose of this report is to describe the magnitude of the temperature difference across the surface skin at the Dresden nuclear power plant cooling pond and to relate this difference to variables used in modeling the thermal performance of cooling ponds

  9. Simultaneous removal of chlorothalonil and nitrate by Bacillus cereus strain NS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yiqiang; Lu Jianhang; Wu Laosheng; Chang, Andrew; Frankenberger, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Elevated NO 3 - and chlorothalonil (CTN) have been found in production nursery recycling ponds. Bacillus cereus strain NS1 isolated from nursery recycling pond sediment was assessed for its ability to reduce NO 3 - and degrade CTN in a mineral medium. The results showed that the efficiency of NO 3 - reduction and CTN degradation by B. cereus strain NS1 were related to the nature of organic carbon sources added to the medium. In the medium amended with 100 mg/L yeast extract, 86% of NO 3 - (100 mg/L) and 99% of CTN (78 μg/L) were simultaneously removed by B. cereus strain NS1 during the first day of the experiment. It took 6 days for the removal of 82-93% of NO 3 - and 87-91% of CTN in the media containing glucose and acetate. B. cereus strain NS1 needed organic carbon as energy sources and electron donors to respire NO 3 - , and simultaneously degrade CTN. These results suggest that B. cereus strain NS1 may have great potential to remediate NO 3 - and CTN contaminated water in nursery recycling ponds

  10. Preliminary Antenna Concept for the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, James; Selina, Robert; Grammer, Wes; McKinnon, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    The preliminary concept for a Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) calls for an interferometric array having an effective collecting area and spatial resolution that are both 10 times better than that of the current VLA and operating over a frequency range of 1.2-116 GHz. Given the large number of antennas needed to meet the collecting area goal, the ngVLA antenna concept must strike a balance between competing science requirements and the programmatic targets for the array’s life cycle cost.Antenna diameters currently under consideration for the ngVLA are in the range of 12-25 m, with a nominal 18-m diameter aperture used for the conceptual design. Currently, the optimization for operations and construction cost suggests that a smaller number of larger apertures is preferable.The surface accuracy goal for the antennas is 185 µm rms (λ/16 @ 100 GHz) for the primary and subreflector combined under optimal environmental conditions. The subreflector will be optimized for performance above 10 GHz, with some degradation in aperture efficiency accepted at lower frequencies.For high dynamic range imaging, particularly at the low end of the ngVLA’s frequency range, the optimum optical configuration is likely an offset geometry. An unblocked aperture will minimize scattering, spillover, and sidelobe pickup. Both performance and maintenance requirements favor a receiver feedarm on the low side of the reflector.High pointing accuracy will also be necessary to provide the imaging dynamic range required of the system. With an unblocked aperture, variations in the antenna gain pattern are expected to be dominated by pointing errors. Preliminary requirements are for an absolute pointing accuracy of 40” RMS, with referenced pointing of 3” RMS (FWHM/10 at 10 GHz and 120 GHz, respectively, for an 18-m diameter dish).The antenna mount is expected to be a typical altitude-azimuth design. Both pedestal bearing and rail-based azimuth drives are under consideration. If fast

  11. L'enclouage centromédullaire dans les fractures complexes de