WorldWideScience

Sample records for newly sequenced anopheles

  1. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

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    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  2. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Peng, Heng; Ma, Ya-Jun

    2017-10-02

    Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector of Plasmodium vivax and Brugia malayi in most regions of China. In addition, its phylogenetic relationship with the cryptic species of the Hyrcanus Group is complex and remains unresolved. Mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers for phylogenetic studies of mosquito species complexes, of which mitochondrial genome data of An. sinensis is not available. An. sinensis samples was collected from Shandong, China, and identified by molecular marker. Genomic DNA was extracted, followed by the Illumina sequencing. Two complete mitochondrial genomes were assembled and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. gambiae as reference. The mitochondrial genomes sequences of the 28 known Anopheles species were aligned and reconstructed phylogenetic tree by Maximum Likelihood (ML) method. The length of complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis was 15,076 bp and 15,138 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and an AT-rich control region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the J strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the N strand. The bootstrap value was set as 1000 in ML analyses. The topologies restored phylogenetic affinity within subfamily Anophelinae. The ML tree showed four major clades, corresponding to the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia of the genus Anopheles. The complete mitochondrial genomes of An. sinensis were obtained. The number, order and transcription direction of An. sinensis mitochondrial genes were the same as in other species of family Culicidae.

  3. Identification of field caught Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis by TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping

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    Bayoh Nabie M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis from field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. is often necessary in basic and applied research, and in operational control programmes. The currently accepted method involves use of standard polymerase chain reaction amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA from the 3' 28S to 5' intergenic spacer region of the genome, and visual confirmation of amplicons of predicted size on agarose gels, after electrophoresis. This report describes development and evaluation of an automated, quantitative PCR method based upon TaqMan™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Methods Standard PCR, and TaqMan SNP genotyping with newly designed primers and fluorophore-labeled probes hybridizing to sequences of complementary rDNA specific for either An. gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis, were conducted in three experiments involving field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from western Kenya, and defined laboratory strains. DNA extraction was from a single leg, sonicated for five minutes in buffer in wells of 96-well PCR plates. Results TaqMan SNP genotyping showed a reaction success rate, sensitivity, and species specificity comparable to that of standard PCR. In an extensive field study, only 29 of 3,041 (0.95% were determined to be hybrids by TaqMan (i.e., having rDNA sequences from both species, however, all but one were An. arabiensis by standard PCR, suggesting an acceptably low (ca. 1% error rate for TaqMan genotyping in mistakenly identifying species hybrids. Conclusion TaqMan SNP genotyping proved to be a sensitive and rapid method for identification of An. gambiae s.l. and An. arabiensis, with a high success rate, specific results, and congruence with the standard PCR method.

  4. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae, forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam

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    Yasunami Michio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1 the geographic distribution, which is potentially

  5. Partial mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest the existence of a cryptic species within the Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae), forest malaria vectors, in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kohei Takenaka; Nguyen, Ngoc Thi Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thi Huong; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Yasunami, Michio; Nguyen, Manh Duc; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-04-30

    During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A) among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1) the geographic distribution, which is potentially spreading along the Vietnam, China, Laos, and Myanmar borders

  6. Resurrection of Anopheles goeldii from synonymy with Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera, Culicidae and a new record for Anopheles dunhami in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Daniéla C Calado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 rDNA and partial sequences of the cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI mtDNA and white gene nDNA were obtained from specimens of Anopheles nuneztovari A collected in Macapá (state of Amapá, Óbidos, Prainha and Almeirim (state of Pará, Itacoatiara and Parintins (state of Amazonas, Brazil, and compared with previously published sequences of A. nuneztovari s.l. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses performed using either COI or combined ITS2, COI and white gene sequences suggest that An. nuneztovari B/C is distinct from specimens obtained in the Amazonas/Solimões River basin. Anopheles goeldii, currently in synonymy with An. nuneztovari, was described from individuals collected in Belterra (= Fordlândia in the Tapajós River, state of Pará, Southern Amazonas River. Morphological comparisons of the characteristics of the male genitalia indicated that An. nuneztovari A and An. goeldii are similar but distinct from An. nuneztovariB/C by the apex of the aedeagus. In considering the results of the phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons, An. goeldii is resurrected from synonymy with An. nuneztovari. Additionally, Anopheles dunhamiis reported for the first time in Parintins. This species can be distinguished from An. goeldiiby characters of the male genitalia and molecular data.

  7. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...

  8. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

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    Brittany L. Dodson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  9. Distinct population structure for co-occurring Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus in Amazonian Brazil

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    Sascha Naomi McKeon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus, larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. A comparison with Anopheles goeldii was utilised to determine whether high genetic diversity was unique to An. triannulatus. Student t test and analysis of variance found no differences in habitat characteristics between the species. Analysis of population structure of An. triannulatus and An. goeldii revealed distinct demographic histories in a largely overlapping geographic range. Cytochrome oxidase I sequence parsimony networks found geographic clustering for both species; however nuclear marker networks depicted An. triannulatus with a more complex history of fragmentation, secondary contact and recent divergence. Evidence of Pleistocene expansions suggests both species are more likely to be genetically structured by geographic and ecological barriers than demography. We hypothesise that niche partitioning is a driving force for diversity, particularly in An. triannulatus.

  10. De novo transcriptome sequencing and sequence analysis of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles sinensis is the major malaria vector in China and Southeast Asia. Vector control is one of the most effective measures to prevent malaria transmission. However, there is little transcriptome information available for the malaria vector. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset for functional genomics analysis by large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Methods To provide a more comprehensive and complete transcriptome of An. sinensis, eggs, larvae, pupae, male adults and female adults RNA were pooled together for cDNA preparation, sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into unigenes. These unigenes were then analyzed in their genome mapping, functional annotation, homology, codon usage bias and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Results Approximately 51.6 million clean reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 38,504 unigenes with an average length of 571 bp, an N50 of 711 bp, and an average GC content 51.26%. Among them, 98.4% of unigenes could be mapped onto the reference genome, and 69% of unigenes could be annotated with known biological functions. Homology analysis identified certain numbers of An. sinensis unigenes that showed homology or being putative 1:1 orthologues with genomes of other Dipteran species. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 1,904 SSRs were detected, which will provide effective molecular markers for the population genetics of this species. Conclusions Our data and analysis provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource and characteristics currently available for An. sinensis, and will facilitate genetic, genomic studies, and further vector control of An. sinensis. PMID:25000941

  11. Morphology of the larvae, male genitalia and DNA sequences of Anopheles (Kerteszia pholidotus (Diptera: Culicidae from Colombia

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    Jesús Eduardo Escovar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, Anopheles (Kerteszia lepidotus has been considered a mosquito species that is involved in the transmission of malaria in Colombia, after having been incriminated as such with epidemiological evidence from a malaria outbreak in Cunday-Villarrica, Tolima. Subsequent morphological analyses of females captured in the same place and at the time of the outbreak showed that the species responsible for the transmission was not An. lepidotus, but rather Anopheles pholidotus. However, the associated morphological stages and DNA sequences of An. pholidotus from the foci of Cunday-Villarrica had not been analysed. Using samples that were caught recently from the outbreak region, the purpose of this study was to provide updated and additional information by analysing the morphology of female mosquitoes, the genitalia of male mosquitoes and fourth instar larvae of An. pholidotus, which was confirmed with DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase I and rDNA internal transcribed spacer. A total of 1,596 adult females were collected in addition to 37 larval collections in bromeliads. Furthermore, 141 adult females, which were captured from the same area in the years 1981-1982, were analysed morphologically. Ninety-five DNA sequences were analysed for this study. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that the species present in this region corresponds to An. pholidotus. Given the absence of An. lepidotus, even in recent years, we consider that the species of mosquitoes that was previously incriminated as the malaria vector during the outbreak was indeed An. pholidotus, thus ending the controversy.

  12. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  13. Molecular comparison of topotypic specimens confirms Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey (Diptera: Culicidae in the Colombian Amazon

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    Freddy Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.

  14. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

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    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Baber, Ibrahima; Diallo, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  15. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

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    Nicholas C Manoukis

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  16. HUBUNGAN ANOPHELES BARBIROSTRIS DENGAN MALARIA

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    Krisna Iryani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a disease caused by intercellular obligate protozoa genus of Plasmodium which is a parasite carried by female Anopheles mosquito. One of them is Anopheles barbirostris. Research in several places already proved that Anopheles barbirostris acts as a vector of malaria. One case that occurred in Cineam district, Tasikmalaya regency showed that Anopheles barbirostris is suspected as vector of malaria. This is proven through a research on the relationship between Anopheles barbirostris with malaria. Data was taken from the larvae and adult mosquitoes captured around Cineam village, Tasikmalaya. The observation was done in the open field and laboratory. Data and identification by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that the population of Anopheles barbirostris was always a dominant population compared to another Anopheles species. Because of the breeding ponds and the resting places were around the village, it is suspected that they mainly bit humans. The result of the observation in laboratory showed the life cycle of Anopheles barbirostris are around 20-27 days, and the longevity of 20 days. Morphological identification of Anopheles barbirostris by pictorial key for female Anopheles showed that there is no any significant difference. This research showed that Anopheles barbirostris was suspected as vector of malaria in Cineam village, Tasikmalaya.

  17. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, František; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, Helge; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and Anopheles daciae (49.6%). In Slovakia, only An. messeae (52.1%) and An. daciae (47.9%) were detected. In this study, An. daciae was documented for the first time in the two countries where it represented a markedly higher proportion of maculipennis complex species (with an overall prevalence almost reaching 50%) in comparison to previous reports from Germany, Romania and Poland. The determination of the differential distribution of maculipennis complex species will contribute to assessing risks of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria or dirofilariasis.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  19. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae in Colombia and Ecuador through molecular and morphological correlation with topotypic material

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    Ranulfo González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. calderoni, a species which has never previously been reported in Colombia. Although discontinuity of the postsubcostal pale spots on the costa (C and first radial (R1 wing veins is purportedly diagnostic for An. calderoni, the degree of overlap of the distal postsubcostal spot on C and R1 were variable in Colombian specimens (0.003-0.024. In addition, in 98.2% of larvae, seta 1-X was located off the saddle and seta 3-C had 4-7 branches in 86.7% of specimens examined. Correlation of DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer and mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI barcodes (658 bp of the COI gene generated from Colombian progeny material and wild-caught mosquitoes from Ecuador with those from the Peruvian type series of An. calderoni confirmed new country records. DNA barcodes generated for the closely related taxa, An. malefactor and An. punctimacula are also presented for the first time. Examination of museum specimens at the University of the Valle, Colombia, revealed the presence of An. calderoni in inland localities across Colombia and at elevations up to 1113 m.

  20. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-07-03

    Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population.

  1. Molecular variation and distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Bahramali, Golnaz

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 28S-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 28S-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

  2. Highly evolvable malaria vectors : The genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neafsey, D. E.; Waterhouse, R. M.; Abai, M. R.; Aganezov, S. S.; Alekseyev, M. A.; Allen, J. E.; Amon, J.; Arca, B.; Arensburger, P.; Artemov, G.; Assour, L. A.; Basseri, H.; Berlin, A.; Birren, B. W.; Blandin, S. A.; Brockman, A. I.; Burkot, T. R.; Burt, A.; Chan, C. S.; Chauve, C.; Chiu, J. C.; Christensen, M.; Costantini, C.; Davidson, V. L. M.; Deligianni, E.; Dottorini, T.; Dritsou, V.; Gabriel, S. B.; Guelbeogo, W. M.; Hall, A. B.; Han, M. V.; Hlaing, T.; Hughes, D. S. T.; Jenkins, A. M.; Jiang, X.; Jungreis, I.; Kakani, E. G.; Kamali, M.; Kemppainen, P.; Kennedy, R. C.; Kirmitzoglou, I. K.; Koekemoer, L. L.; Laban, N.; Langridge, N.; Lawniczak, M. K. N.; Lirakis, M.; Lobo, N. F.; Lowy, E.; Maccallum, R. M.; Mao, C.; Maslen, G.; Mbogo, C.; Mccarthy, J.; Michel, K.; Mitchell, S. N.; Moore, W.; Murphy, K. A.; Naumenko, A. N.; Nolan, T.; Novoa, E. M.; O'loughlin, S.; Oringanje, C.; Oshaghi, M. A.; Pakpour, N.; Papathanos, P. A.; Peery, A. N.; Povelones, M.; Prakash, A.; Price, D. P.; Rajaraman, A.; Reimer, L. J.; Rinker, D. C.; Rokas, A.; Russell, T. L.; Sagnon, N.; Sharakhova, M. V.; Shea, T.; Simao, F. A.; Simard, F.; Slotman, M. A.; Somboon, P.; Stegniy, V.; Struchiner, C. J.; Thomas, G. W. C.; Tojo, M.; Topalis, P.; Tubio, J. M. C.; Unger, M. F.; Vontas, J.; Walton, C.; Wilding, C. S.; Willis, J. H.; Wu, Y.-c.; Yan, G.; Zdobnov, E. M.; Zhou, X.; Catteruccia, F.; Christophides, G. K.; Collins, F. H.; Cornman, R. S.; Crisanti, A.; Donnelly, M. J.; Emrich, S. J.; Fontaine, M. C.; Gelbart, W.; Hahn, M. W.; Hansen, I. A.; Howell, P. I.; Kafatos, F. C.; Kellis, M.; Lawson, D.; Louis, C.; Luckhart, S.; Muskavitch, M. A. T.; Ribeiro, J. M.; Riehle, M. A.; Sharakhov, I. V.; Tu, Z.; Zwiebel, L. J.; Besansky, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16

  3. Statistical approaches to use a model organism for regulatory sequences annotation of newly sequenced species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    Full Text Available A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms.

  4. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. Results A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Conclusion Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population. PMID:24993022

  5. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles marajoara (Diptera: Culicidae susceptibility to pyrethroids in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of Anopheles darlingi Root (1926 and Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (1942 to pyrethroids used by the National Malaria Control Program in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes from Amapá, Brazilian Amazon, were assessed for resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin. Insecticide-impregnated bottles were used as suggested by the CDC/Atlanta. RESULTS: Diagnostic dose for Anopheles darlingi was 12.5µg/bottle during 30 min of exposure. Concentrations for Anopheles marajoara were 20µg/bottle of cypermethrin and deltamethrin and 12.5µg/bottle of alpha-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS : No resistance was recorded for Anopheles darlingi , but Anopheles marajoara requires attention.

  6. Genetic evidence for malaria vectors of the Anopheles sundaicus complex in Sri Lanka with morphological characteristics attributed to Anopheles subpictus species B

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    Jude Pavillupillai J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread malaria vector in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A - D. Mosquitoes morphologically identified as belonging to the Subpictus complex were collected from different locations near the east coast of Sri Lanka, and specific ribosomal DNA sequences determined to validate their taxonomic status. Methods Anopheles subpictus s.l. larvae and blood-fed adults were collected from different locations in the Eastern province and their sibling species status was determined based on published morphological characteristics. DNA sequences of the D3 domain of 28 S ribosomal DNA (rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer -2 (ITS-2 of mosquitoes morphologically identified as An. subpictus sibling species A, B, C and D were determined. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on D3 domain of rDNA resulted in two clades: one clade with mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus species A, C, D and some mosquitoes identified as species B, and another clade with a majority of mosquitoes identified as species B with D3 sequences that were identical to Anopheles sundaicus cytotype D. Analysis of ITS-2 sequences confirmed a close relationship between a majority of mosquitoes identified as An. subpictus B with members of the An. sundaicus complex and others identified as An. subpictus B with An. subpictus s.l. Conclusions The study suggests that published morphological characteristics are not specific enough to identify some members of the Subpictus complex, particularly species B. The sequences of the ITS-2 and D3 domain of rDNA suggest that a majority that were identified morphologically as An. subpictus species B in the east coast of Sri Lanka, and some identified elsewhere in SE Asia as An. subpictus s.l., are in fact members of the Sundaicus complex based on genetic similarity to An. sundaicus s.l. In view of the well-known ability of An. sundaicus s.l. to breed in brackish and fresh water and

  7. Viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups in the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Bunyaviridae) do not encode an NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Maizan; McLees, Angela; Elliott, Richard M

    2009-08-01

    Viruses in the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, have a genome comprising three segments (called L, M, and S) of negative-sense RNA. Serological studies have classified the >170 named virus isolates into 18 serogroups, with a few additional as yet ungrouped viruses. Until now, molecular studies and full-length S-segment nucleotide sequences were available for representatives of eight serogroups; in all cases, the S segment encodes two proteins, N (nucleocapsid) and NSs (nonstructural), in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that are translated from the same mRNA. The NSs proteins of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) and California serogroup viruses have been shown to play a role in inhibiting host cell mRNA and protein synthesis, thereby preventing induction of interferon (IFN). We have determined full-length sequences of the S segments of representative viruses in the Anopheles A, Anopheles B, and Tete serogroups, and we report here that these viruses do not show evidence of having an NSs ORF. In addition, these viruses have rather longer N proteins than those in the other serogroups. Most of the naturally occurring viruses that lack the NSs protein behaved like a recombinant BUNV with the NSs gene deleted in that they failed to prevent induction of IFN-beta mRNA. However, Tacaiuma virus (TCMV) in the Anopheles A serogroup inhibited IFN induction in a manner similar to that of wild-type BUNV, suggesting that TCMV has evolved an alternative mechanism, not involving a typical NSs protein, to antagonize the host innate immune response.

  8. Molecular identification of a myosuppressin receptor from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöller, Susanne; Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The insect myosuppressins (X1DVX2HX3FLRFamide) are neuropeptides that generally block insect muscle activities. We have used the genomic sequence information from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Genome Project to clone a G protein-coupled receptor that was closely related to the two...... previously cloned and characterized myosuppressin receptors from Drosophila [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 9808]. The mosquito receptor cDNA was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and was found to be activated by low concentrations of Anopheles myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide; EC50, 1.6 x 10...... identification of a mosquito neuropeptide receptor....

  9. Identification of Spiroplasma insolitum symbionts in Anopheles gambiae [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Chepkemoi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insect symbionts have the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases by their hosts. The advancement of a symbiont-based transmission blocking strategy for malaria requires the identification and study of Anopheles symbionts. Methods: High throughput 16S amplicon sequencing was used to profile the bacteria associated with Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and identify potential symbionts. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR with specific primers were subsequently used to monitor symbiont prevalence in field populations, as well as symbiont transmission patterns. Results: We report the discovery of the bacterial symbiont, Spiroplasma, in Anopheles gambiae in Kenya. We determine that geographically dispersed Anopheles gambiae populations in Kenya are infected with Spiroplasma at low prevalence levels. Molecular phylogenetics indicates that this Anopheles gambiae associated Spiroplasma is a member of the insolitum clade. We demonstrate that this symbiont is stably maternally transmitted across at least two generations and does not significantly affect the fecundity or egg to adult survival of its host. Conclusions: In diverse insect species, Spiroplasma has been found to render their host resistant to infection by pathogens. The identification of a maternally transmitted strain of Spiroplasma in Anopheles gambiae may therefore open new lines of investigation for the development of symbiont-based strategies for blocking malaria transmission.

  10. Susceptibility of female Anopheles mosquito to pyrethroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of insecticides resistance status in a natural population of Anopheles vectors is a vital tool for malaria control intervention strategy against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, which is the main malaria vector in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility status of the female Anopheles ...

  11. Comparison of transmission parameters between Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in two ecologically different localities of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frédéric; Aliaga, Claudia; Tejerina, Rosenka; Torrez, Libia

    2013-08-13

    Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis is a recognized malaria vector in the slopes of the Andes of Bolivia. There, other species might be involved in malaria transmission and one candidate could be Anopheles argyritarsis. Although it is generally admitted that this species is not a malaria vector in the neotropical region, its potential role in transmission is still controversial and this situation has to be cleared, at least for Bolivia. Comparing the vectorial efficiency of An. pseudopunctipennis with that of An. argyritarsis could solve the question. The two species were sampled throughout Bolivia to estimate their degree of co-existence in their distribution range. Vectorial efficiencies of the two species were compared in two ecologically different localities where the species were sympatric by analysing their vectorial capacities and components (i e, human biting rates, human biting index, survival, durations of the gonotrophic cycle and extrinsic cycle), and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR). Mosquitoes were sampled monthly during more than one year in the two localities. A monthly sample consisted in hourly captures in four houses (inside and outside) in each locality, during four consecutive nights. Climatic variables (temperature, humidity, potential evapo-transpiration and precipitations) were recorded to better understand variability in the entomological parameters. Relationships were analysed using multivariate methods. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis are "altitude" species, sharing the same geographical distribution range in the Andes of Bolivia. No Plasmodium parasite was identified in An. argyritarsis and estimates of the vectorial capacity indicated that it is not a malaria vector in the two studied localities, unlike An. pseudopunctipennis which showed positive EIRs. This latter species, although not a very good malaria vector, exhibited better life traits values and better behavioural characteristics in favour of

  12. G protein-coupled receptors in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine A; Fox, A Nicole; Pitts, R Jason; Kent, Lauren B; Tan, Perciliz L; Chrystal, Mathew A; Cravchik, Anibal; Collins, Frank H; Robertson, Hugh M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2002-10-04

    We used bioinformatic approaches to identify a total of 276 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the Anopheles gambiae genome. These include GPCRs that are likely to play roles in pathways affecting almost every aspect of the mosquito's life cycle. Seventy-nine candidate odorant receptors were characterized for tissue expression and, along with 76 putative gustatory receptors, for their molecular evolution relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Examples of lineage-specific gene expansions were observed as well as a single instance of unusually high sequence conservation.

  13. Novel peptide marker corresponding to salivary protein gSG6 potentially identifies exposure to Anopheles bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Poinsignon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve malaria control, and under the aegis of WHO recommendations, many efforts are being devoted to developing new tools for identifying geographic areas with high risk of parasite transmission. Evaluation of the human antibody response to arthropod salivary proteins could be an epidemiological indicator of exposure to vector bites, and therefore to risk of pathogen transmission. In the case of malaria, which is transmitted only by anopheline mosquitoes, maximal specificity could be achieved through identification of immunogenic proteins specific to the Anopheles genus. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the IgG response to the Anopheles gambiae gSG6 protein, from its recombinant form to derived synthetic peptides, could be an immunological marker of exposure specific to Anopheles gambiae bites.Specific IgG antibodies to recombinant gSG6 protein were observed in children living in a Senegalese area exposed to malaria. With the objective of optimizing Anopheles specificity and reproducibility, we designed five gSG6-based peptide sequences using a bioinformatic approach, taking into consideration i their potential antigenic properties and ii the absence of cross-reactivity with protein sequences of other arthropods/organisms. The specific anti-peptide IgG antibody response was evaluated in exposed children. The five gSG6 peptides showed differing antigenic properties, with gSG6-P1 and gSG6-P2 exhibiting the highest antigenicity. However, a significant increase in the specific IgG response during the rainy season and a positive association between the IgG level and the level of exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites was significant only for gSG6-P1.This step-by-step approach suggests that gSG6-P1 could be an optimal candidate marker for evaluating exposure to Anopheles gambiae bites. This marker could be employed as a geographic indicator, like remote sensing techniques, for mapping the risk of malaria. It could

  14. Habitat Perkembangbiakan Spesifik Anopheles sp Di Tambang Emas Kura-Kura Banian (Perubahan Perilaku Anopheles sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liestiana Indriyati, SKM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of Health Research 2010, showed that malaria was an infectious disease that the sixth cause of death cause of the sixth of death in Indonesia. Kotabaru is a malaria endemic district, especially in Puskesmas Banian, Annual Parasite Incidence 241.19 in 2014 where the cases of malaria with occurring in illegal gold mines on the slopes of Banian Mountain. It’s needed to know the factors that affect the existence of malaria in these locations. This research was observational study doing by cross-sectional study and analyzed by descriptively. Research conducted at the Gold Mine Banian Buluh Kuning village, Sungai Durian subdistric, Kotabaru district, South Kalimantan Province in February and March, 2015. The activities were catching larva and adult mosquitoes, environmental and mosquito breeding habitats observation and Mass Blood Survey. It was found Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles leucosphyrus with very low densities in area with the number of malaria cases by 22.99%. It was found divers breeding habitats of Anopheles sp on a former gold wash, former drum and former plastic containers. This indicated a behavioral change of Anopheles breeding places because previous to this the Anopheles breed in puddles on the ground or direct contact with the ground.

  15. Mitochondrial genomes of Anopheles arabiensis, An.gambiae and An.coluzzii show no clear species division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the complete mitochondrial sequences of 70 individual field collected mosquito specimens from throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. We generated this dataset to identify species specific markers for the following Anopheles species and chromosomal forms: An.arabiensis, An.coluzzii (The Forest...

  16. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the water samples was carried out in the Nigerian ... Key words: Malaria, Anopheles mosquitoes, breeding habitat, physico-chemical properties. ... Anopheles mosquito has been found to breed in.

  17. Demasculinization of the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome

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    Magnusson Kalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of organisms sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed between autosomes and the shared sex chromosome X (or Z. Studies on Anopheles gambiae have produced conflicting results regarding the underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X chromosome and it is unclear to what extent sexual antagonism, dosage compensation or X-inactivation in the male germline, the evolutionary forces that have been suggested to affect the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes, are operational in Anopheles. Results We performed a meta-analysis of sex-biased gene expression in Anopheles gambiae which provides evidence for a general underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X-chromosome that increased in significance with the observed degree of sex-bias. A phylogenomic comparison between Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus also indicates that the Anopheles X chromosome strongly disfavours the evolutionary conservation of male-biased expression and that novel male-biased genes are more likely to arise on autosomes. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that transgenes situated on the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome are transcriptionally silenced in the male germline. Conclusion The data presented here support the hypothesis that the observed demasculinization of the Anopheles X chromosome is driven by X-chromosome inactivation in the male germline and by sexual antagonism. The demasculinization appears to be the consequence of a loss of male-biased expression, rather than a failure in the establishment or the extinction of male-biased genes.

  18. Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against Anopheles gambiae complex in Bagamoyo, coastal Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Temu, Emmanuel A.; Minjas, Japhet N.; Matsumoto, Osamu; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Metofluthrin is a newly synthesized pyrethroid possessing high knockdown and lethal activity against mosquitoes. Studies of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips have been performed with dengue vectors. This study reports the efficacy of the new prototypes of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae complex, in the Kongo villages of Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. The study, using 20 houses, half intervention, half control, was conducted for ...

  19. morphological identification of malaria vectors within anopheles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Africa among the human population. Determination of risk of malaria transmission requires quick and accurate methods of identification of Anopheles mosquitoes especially when targeting vector control. (Maxwell, et al., 2003). Anopheles mosquito transmits malaria. The most important vectors of malaria are members of.

  20. Analysis of microRNA profile of Anopheles sinensis by deep sequencing and bioinformatic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhou, Shuisen; Wang, Jingwen; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-12

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs widely identified in many mosquitoes. They are reported to play important roles in development, differentiation and innate immunity. However, miRNAs in Anopheles sinensis, one of the Chinese malaria mosquitoes, remain largely unknown. We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of An. sinensis using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. Meanwhile, we applied a bioinformatic approach to identify potential miRNAs in An. sinensis. The identified miRNA profiles were compared and analyzed by two approaches. The selected miRNAs from the sequencing result and the bioinformatic approach were confirmed with qRT-PCR. Moreover, target prediction, GO annotation and pathway analysis were carried out to understand the role of miRNAs in An. sinensis. We identified 49 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs by next-generation high-throughput sequencing technology. In contrast, 43 miRNAs were predicted by the bioinformatic approach, of which two were assigned as novel. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiles by two approaches showed that 21 miRNAs were shared between them. Twelve novel miRNAs did not match any known miRNAs of any organism, indicating that they are possibly species-specific. Forty miRNAs were found in many mosquito species, indicating that these miRNAs are evolutionally conserved and may have critical roles in the process of life. Both the selected known and novel miRNAs (asi-miR-281, asi-miR-184, asi-miR-14, asi-miR-nov5, asi-miR-nov4, asi-miR-9383, and asi-miR-2a) could be detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the sequenced sample, and the expression patterns of these miRNAs measured by qRT-PCR were in concordance with the original miRNA sequencing data. The predicted targets for the known and the novel miRNAs covered many important biological roles and pathways indicating the diversity of miRNA functions. We also found 21 conserved miRNAs and eight counterparts of target immune pathway genes in An. sinensis

  1. Genetic analyses of ribosomal loci of Anopheles minimus species from north east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Topno, R; Chowdhury, P; Baishya, M; Prakash, A; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mahanta, J

    2013-09-01

    Anopheles minimus is one of the major vectors for transmission of malaria disease in north eastern (NE) region of India. The minimus species complex of Minimus subgroup of Myzomyia series of anophelines were studied in malaria affected states--Assam and Arunachal Pradesh (AP) of NE India. Ribosomal DNA markers--second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and third domain (D3) of 28S gene were used to characterize An. minimus species. Sequence homogeneity was observed in D3 sequences of An.minimus specimens throughout both the states. However, a transversion in ITS2 sequence of single specimen collected from Assam-Meghalaya border areas illustrates possibility of intra population polymorphism in ITS2 sequence within the geographical region.

  2. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  3. BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semuel Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKMalaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Provinsi Papua dengan angka Annual Parasite Incidence (API padatahun 2011 sebesar 58 per 1000 penduduk dan Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI sebesar 169 per 1000 penduduk. Vektormalaria Papua dilaporkan Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus dan An. koliensis. Tiga spesies tersebut aktif menggigit padamalam hari (nokturnal, antropofilik dengan karakteristik tempat perkembangbiakan, aktifitas menggigit, dan tempatistirahat dilaporkan spesifik setiap spesies. Kajian ini untuk melihat beberapa aspek bionomi (tempat perkembangbiakan,aktifitas menggigit, dan tempat istirahat. Larva An. farauti memiliki habitat di daerah pantai, perairan payau (memilikitoleransi terhadap salinitas 4,6%, irigasi buatan atau alami. Nyamuk dewasa An. farauti betina bersifat nokturnal,eksofagik, eksofilik, dan antropofilik. Larva An. koliensis tidak ditemukan di perairan payau, banyak ditemukan di hutanrawa, hutan sagu, kolam semi permanen atau permanen yang dangkal dan terpapar sinar matahari langsung. Nyamukdewasa An. koliensis bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (78% menggigit manusia, eksofagik, eksofilik sedangkan larva An.punctulatus tidak ditemukan di air payau, tetapi ditemukan pada kolam dengan air jernih atau keruh dengan vegetasi atautanpa vegetasi air. Larva An. punctulatus juga ditemukan di hutan sagu dan hutan rawa dengan paparan sinar mataharilangsung. Nyamuk dewasa An. punctulatus bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (98% menggigit manusia, eksofagik, endofilik.Data dasar mengenai perilaku nyamuk Anopheles (bionomi sangat diperlukan dalam mengembangkan pola intervensi dankontrol vektor yang lebih efektif dan efisien.Kata kunci: vektor malaria, An. punctulatus group, bionomi, PapuaABSTRACTMalaria is a major health problem in Papua province with Annual Parasite Incidence (API was reported 58/1000population in 2011, and the Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was 169/1000 population. The malaria vector in Papua wereAnopheles

  4. First record of Anopheles stephensi in Sri Lanka: a potential challenge for prevention of malaria reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayan Dharmasiri, A G; Perera, A Yashan; Harishchandra, Jeevanie; Herath, Hemantha; Aravindan, Kandasamy; Jayasooriya, H T R; Ranawaka, Gaya R; Hewavitharane, Mihirini

    2017-08-10

    The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country. Adult mosquito collections were done through indoor and outdoor resting collections, animal and human biting collections and emergence traps. Potential mosquito breeding sites were investigated through larval surveys. The larvae and adults of An. stephensi were initially identified using morphological keys, and subsequently confirmed by sequencing the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. This is the first report of the presence of An. stephensi in the island of Mannar in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Anopheles stephensi (36.65%) was the most abundant anopheline species in the larval habitats in Mannar. It was found breeding together with An. culicifacies (20.7%), An. subpictus (13.5%) and An. varuna (28.13%). Anopheles stephensi was found to be abundantly breeding in built wells used for domestic purposes. Adult females of An. stephensi were observed in emergence trap collections (93.9%), human landing catches all night (79.2%), pyrethrum spray sheet collections (38.6%), outdoor collections (8.3%), donkey-baited trap collections (14.3), and cattle-baited net trap collections (0.7%). Sri Lanka was certified as malaria-free by the WHO in September 2016, however, this new finding may pose a serious challenge to the efforts of the Ministry of Health to prevent the re-introduction of malaria transmission in the country, considering the role that An. stephensi could play in urban and high

  5. Qualitative Study Of Anopheles Species In Konduga Lake Area Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation on Anopheles species in Konduga lake area, Borno State of Nigeria, was carried out to identify various Anopheles species prevalent in the area and to determine their relative population densities. Six Anopheles species were recorded, namely, A. gambiae, A. funestus, A. ziemanni, A. squamosus, ...

  6. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

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    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  7. Long non-coding RNA discovery across the genus anopheles reveals conserved secondary structures within and beyond the Gambiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adam M; Waterhouse, Robert M; Muskavitch, Marc A T

    2015-04-23

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as mRNA-like transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that lack significant protein-coding potential, and many of them constitute scaffolds for ribonucleoprotein complexes with critical roles in epigenetic regulation. Various lncRNAs have been implicated in the modulation of chromatin structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and regulation of genomic stability in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this study is to identify the lncRNA landscape in the malaria vector An. gambiae and assess the evolutionary conservation of lncRNAs and their secondary structures across the Anopheles genus. Using deep RNA sequencing of multiple Anopheles gambiae life stages, we have identified 2,949 lncRNAs and more than 300 previously unannotated putative protein-coding genes. The lncRNAs exhibit differential expression profiles across life stages and adult genders. We find that across the genus Anopheles, lncRNAs display much lower sequence conservation than protein-coding genes. Additionally, we find that lncRNA secondary structure is highly conserved within the Gambiae complex, but diverges rapidly across the rest of the genus Anopheles. This study offers one of the first lncRNA secondary structure analyses in vector insects. Our description of lncRNAs in An. gambiae offers the most comprehensive genome-wide insights to date into lncRNAs in this vector mosquito, and defines a set of potential targets for the development of vector-based interventions that may further curb the human malaria burden in disease-endemic countries.

  8. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  9. Characterization of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and insecticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is endemic in Ghana as in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to characterize Anopheles gambiae s.l. and determine pyrethroid resistance profiles relative to physicochemical properties of breeding habitats in Accra, Ghana. Eight aquatic habitats containing Anopheles larvae were ...

  10. Household-level and surrounding peri-domestic environmental characteristics associated with malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus along an urban-rural continuum in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Nicole F; Kadangwe, Chifundo; Mzilahowa, Themba; Bauleni, Andy; Mathanga, Don P; Duster, Chifundo; Walker, Edward D; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-06-08

    Malaria is increasing in some recently urbanized areas that historically were considered lower risk. Understanding what drives urban transmission is hampered by inconsistencies in how "urban" contexts are defined. A dichotomized "urban-rural" approach, based on political boundaries may misclassify environments or fail to capture local drivers of risk. Small-scale agriculture in urban or peri-urban settings has been shown to be a major risk determinant. Household-level Anopheles abundance patterns in and around Malawi's commercial capital of Blantyre (~ 1.9 M pop.) were analysed. Clusters (N = 64) of five houses each located at 2.5 km intervals along eight transects radiating out from Blantyre city centre were sampled during rainy and dry seasons of 2015 and 2016. Mosquito densities were measured inside houses using aspirators to sample resting mosquitoes, and un-baited CDC light traps to sample host seeking mosquitoes. Of 38,895 mosquitoes captured, 91% were female and 87% were Culex spp. Anopheles females (N = 5058) were primarily captured in light traps (97%). Anopheles abundance was greater during rainy seasons. Anopheles funestus was more abundant than Anopheles arabiensis, but both were found on all transects, and had similar associations with environmental risk factors. Anopheles funestus and An. arabiensis females significantly increased with distance from the urban centre, but this trend was not consistent across all transects. Presence of small-scale agriculture was predictive of greater Anopheles spp. abundance, even after controlling for urbanicity, number of nets per person, number of under-5-year olds, years of education, and season. This study revealed how small-scale agriculture along a rural-to-urban transition was associated with An. arabiensis and An. funestus indoor abundances, and that indoor Anopheles density can be high within Blantyre city limits, particularly where agriculture is present. Typical rural areas with lower house

  11. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

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    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  12. Microbial Pre-exposure and Vectorial Competence of Anopheles Mosquitoes

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    Constentin Dieme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles female mosquitoes can transmit Plasmodium, the malaria parasite. During their aquatic life, wild Anopheles mosquito larvae are exposed to a huge diversity of microbes present in their breeding sites. Later, adult females often take successive blood meals that might also carry different micro-organisms, including parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Therefore, prior to Plasmodium ingestion, the mosquito biology could be modulated at different life stages by a suite of microbes present in larval breeding sites, as well as in the adult environment. In this article, we highlight several naturally relevant scenarios of Anopheles microbial pre-exposure that we assume might impact mosquito vectorial competence for the malaria parasite: (i larval microbial exposures; (ii protist co-infections; (iii virus co-infections; and (iv pathogenic bacteria co-infections. In addition, significant behavioral changes in African Anopheles vectors have been associated with increasing insecticide resistance. We discuss how these ethological modifications may also increase the repertoire of microbes to which mosquitoes could be exposed, and that might also influence their vectorial competence. Studying Plasmodium–Anopheles interactions in natural microbial environments would efficiently contribute to refining the transmission risks.

  13. Structural divergence of chromosomes between malaria vectors Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles sinensis

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    Jiangtao Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles sinensis are two major malaria vectors in China and Southeast Asia. They are dramatically different in terms of geographical distribution, host preference, resting habitats, and other traits associated with ecological adaptation and malaria transmission. Both species belong to the Anopheles hyrcanus group, but the extent of genetic differences between them is not well understood. To provide an effective way to differentiate between species and to find useful markers for population genetics studies, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis of these two malaria vectors. Results Presented here is a standard cytogenetic map for An. lesteri, and a comparative analysis of chromosome structure and gene order between An. lesteri and An. sinensis. Our results demonstrate that much of the gene order on chromosomes X and 2 was reshuffled between the two species. However, the banding pattern and the gene order on chromosome 3 appeared to be conserved. We also found two new polymorphic inversions, 2Lc and 3Rb, in An. lesteri, and we mapped the breakpoints of these two inversions on polytene chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the extent of structural divergence of chromosomes between An. lesteri and An. sinensis, and provide a new taxonomic cytogenetic tool to distinguish between these two species. Polymorphic inversions of An. lesteri could serve as markers for studies of the population structure and ecological adaptations of this major malaria vector.

  14. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  15. Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

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    Lucas A Freitas

    Full Text Available The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma. Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

  16. Laboratory studies on the olfactory behaviour of Anopheles quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pates, H.V.; Takken, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The host preference of Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), the zoophilic member of the malaria mosquito complex Anopheles gambiae Giles, was investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. Naïve female mosquitoes were exposed to CO2, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, and skin emanations from

  17. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  18. Distribution of the species of the Anopheles gambiae complex and first evidence of Anopheles merus as a malaria vector in Madagascar

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    Le Goff Gilbert

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are amongst the best malaria vectors in the world, but their vectorial capacities vary between species and populations. A large-scale sampling of An. gambiae sensu lato was carried out in various bioclimatic domains of Madagascar. Local abundance of an unexpected member of this complex raised questions regarding its role in malaria transmission. Methods Sampling took place at 38 sites and 2,067 females were collected. Species assessment was performed using a PCR targeting a sequence in the IGS of the rDNA. Analysis focused on the relative prevalence of the species per site, bioclimatic domain and altitude. Infectivity of Anopheles merus was assessed using an ELISA to detect the presence of malarial circumsporozoite protein in the head-thorax. Results Three species were identified: An. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and An. merus. The distribution of each species is mainly a function of bioclimatic domains and, to a lesser extent, altitude. An. arabiensis is present in all bioclimatic domains with highest prevalence in sub-humid, dry and sub-arid domains. An. gambiae has its highest prevalence in the humid domain, is in the minority in dry areas, rare in sub-humid and absent in sub-arid domains. An. merus is restricted to the coastal fringe in the south and west; it was in the majority in one southern village. The majority of sites were sympatric for at least two of the species (21/38 and two sites harboured all three species. The role of An. merus as malaria vector was confirmed in the case of two human-biting females, which were ELISA-positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusion Despite the huge environmental (mainly man-made changes in Madagascar, the distribution of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis appears unchanged for the past 35 years. The distribution of An. merus is wider than was previously known, and its effectiveness as a malaria vector has been shown for the first time; this

  19. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10) have been implicated in isolated micro/anophthalmia, but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. A specifically conserved SOX2/OTX2-mediated RAX expression regulatory sequence has recently been identified. We postulated that mutations in this sequence could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus we performed molecular screening of this regulatory element in patients suffering from micro/anophthalmia. Fifty-one patients suffering from nonsyndromic microphthalmia (n = 40) or anophthalmia (n = 11) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of the RAX regulatory sequence was performed by direct sequencing for these patients. No mutations were identified in the highly conserved RAX regulatory sequence in any of the 51 patients. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence do not represent a frequent cause of nonsyndromic micro/anophthalmia.

  20. Inference of the oxidative stress network in Anopheles stephensi upon Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Nandal, Umesh Kumar; Adak, Tridibes; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of Anopheles midgut is a critical step for malaria transmission; the parasite numbers drop drastically and practically reach a minimum during the parasite's whole life cycle. At this stage, the parasite as well as the vector undergoes immense oxidative stress. Thereafter, the vector undergoes oxidative stress at different time points as the parasite invades its tissues during the parasite development. The present study was undertaken to reconstruct the network of differentially expressed genes involved in oxidative stress in Anopheles stephensi during Plasmodium development and maturation in the midgut. Using high throughput next generation sequencing methods, we generated the transcriptome of the An. stephensi midgut during Plasmodium vinckei petteri oocyst invasion of the midgut epithelium. Further, we utilized large datasets available on public domain on Anopheles during Plasmodium ookinete invasion and Drosophila datasets and arrived upon clusters of genes that may play a role in oxidative stress. Finally, we used support vector machines for the functional prediction of the un-annotated genes of An. stephensi. Integrating the results from all the different data analyses, we identified a total of 516 genes that were involved in oxidative stress in An. stephensi during Plasmodium development. The significantly regulated genes were further extracted from this gene cluster and used to infer an oxidative stress network of An. stephensi. Using system biology approaches, we have been able to ascertain the role of several putative genes in An. stephensi with respect to oxidative stress. Further experimental validations of these genes are underway.

  1. BEBERAPA ASPEK PERILAKU NYAMUK Anopheles barbirostris DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TENGAH TAHUN 2011

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    Monika Noshirma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some aspects of Anopheles barbirostris behavior in Central Sumba Regency was conducted in July– October in District Umbu Ratu Nggai (Village Padira Tana which represents in mountain ecology and the district of Mamboro (Manu Wollu Village representing the coastal ecology. Both villages are selected to have high malaria cases during the past year. The objective of the study is to determine Some aspect of Anopheles barbirostris behavior in Central Sumba Regency. The result showed that the characteristics of  breeding habitats of Anopheles barbirostris in the padira tana village is in fields (both in use, not use or ready for planting and in kobakan. in Manu Wolu Village the breeding habitats are in former ponds, puddles an kobakan. The bitting activity of Anopheles barbirostris the in Padira Tana Village highest in July (MBR = 0.08 outside the house,  while in Manu Wolu Village bite out of the house in July and October (MBR = 0.04. in the Padira Tana Village and Manu Wollu village the Anopheles barbirostris is most prevalent in the cage with peak hours 11.00 pm to 04.00 am. Keyword: some aspect of vector behavior, Anopheles barbirostris Abstrak Studi beberapa aspek perilaku vektor malaria Anopheles barbirostris di Kabupaten Sumba Tengah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli – Oktober di 2 Kecamatan yaitu Kecamatan Umbu Ratu (Desa Padira Tana yang mewakili ekologi pegunungan dan Kecamatan Mamboro (Desa Manu Wolu yang mewakili ekologi pantai. Kedua desa yang dipilih mempunyai kasus malaria tinggi selama satu tahun terakhir. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui beberapa aspek perilaku vektor Anopheles barbirostris di Kabupaten Sumba Tengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik habitat perkembangbiakan Anopheles barbirostris di desa Padira Tana adalah sawah (baik yang terpakai, tidak dipakai maupun siap tanam dan di kobakan. Sedangkan di desa Manu Wolu ditemukan di bekas kolam, kubangan dan kobakan.    Kepadatan nyamuk An

  2. Reflections on the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, transgenic mosquitoes and the prospect for controlling malaria and other vector borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2003-09-01

    The completion of the Anopheles gambiae Giles genome sequencing project is a milestone toward developing more effective strategies in reducing the impact of malaria and other vector borne diseases. The successes in developing transgenic approaches using mosquitoes have provided another essential new tool for further progress in basic vector genetics and the goal of disease control. The use of transgenic approaches to develop refractory mosquitoes is also possible. The ability to use genome sequence to identify genes, and transgenic approaches to construct refractory mosquitoes, has provided the opportunity that with the future development of an appropriate genetic drive system, refractory transgenes can be released into vector populations leading to nontransmitting mosquitoes. An. gambiae populations incapable of transmitting malaria. This compelling strategy will be very difficult to achieve and will require a broad substantial research program for success. The fundamental information that is required on genome structure, gene function and environmental effects on genetic expression are largely unknown. The ability to predict gene effects on phenotype is rudimentary, particularly in natural populations. As a result, the release of a refractory transgene into natural mosquito populations is imprecise and there is little ability to predict unintended consequences. The new genetic tools at hand provide opportunities to address an array of important issues, many of which can have immediate impact on the effectiveness of a host of strategies to control vector borne disease. Transgenic release approaches represent only one strategy that should be pursued. A balanced research program is required.

  3. Sebaran Nyamuk Anopheles pada Topografi Wilayah yang Berbeda di Provinsi Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Taviv

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penularan penyakit tular vektor seperti malaria dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor. Salah satu faktor yangtelah diketahui memiliki asosiasi dengan malaria adalah topograf wilayah yang erat hubungannya denganpola penularan. Berdasarkan tempat atau lokasi terhadap penyakit yang ditularkan oleh vektor makaperlu diperhatikan pembagian zoogeografi dimana jenis-jenis nyamuk di setiap lokasi akan dipengaruhifaktor-faktor lingkungan di setiap daerah yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenisAnopheles serta habitat perkembangbiakannya pada dua wilayah dengan topograf yang berbeda diProvinsi Jambi. Kegiatan yang dilakukan adalah penangkapan nyamuk dewasa dengan metode humanlanding collection dan survei habitat perkembangbiakan Anopheles. Penangkapan nyamuk dilakukanselama 12 jam dimulai dari jam 18.00 WIB hingga jam 06.00 WIB. Larva Anopheles yang berhasilditangkap selanjutnya dibawa ke laboratorium dan dipelihara hingga dewasa dan selanjutnya diidentifiasijenisnya. Hasil penangkapan nyamuk Anopheles di Desa Nipah Panjang Kabupaten Tanjung JabungTimur (dataran rendah adalah An. separatus, An. sinensis, An. tesselatus dan An. letifer. Anophelesletifer memiliki angka tertinggi untuk nilai kekerapan 3,33, kelimpahan nisbi 40, dominansi 133,33 danMan Bitting Rate (MBR 0,07. Penangkapan nyamuk Anopheles di Desa Teluk Rendak KabupatenSarolangun (dataran tinggi meliputi An. nigerrimus, An. annularis, An. letifer, An. maculatus dan An.barbumbrosus. Anopheles nigerrimus memiliki angka tertinggi untuk nilai kekerapan 21,67, kelimpahannisbi 60,98, dominansi 1321,14 dan MBR 0,63.

  4. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chun; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Chen, Chen-Fu; Chen, Yung-Chen; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2008-06-09

    The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%), dogs (20%), pig (10%), and non-chicken avian (10%). Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of insecticides for Anopheles at night, as well as residual spray inside

  6. Ecology of Anopheles spp. in Central Lombok Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majematang Mading

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water in a stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varuna Iyengar, were investigated during August-September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oya watershed.......5% of 151 samples analysed were mosquito-positive. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among physico-chemical parameters, An. culicifacies (the major malaria vector in the country) was positively related only to temperature, and An. varuna (a secondary malaria vector) to calcium...

  8. (AIT) AGAINST ANOPHELES GAMBIAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    These extracts were tested for repellence against Anopheles gambiae using the human-bait technique ... Synthetic chemicals and insecticides used for control of vectors are causing ... basil, for use as topical repellents against both diurnal and nocturnal .... The physical properties of Euphorbia balsamifera. (Table 1) reveal ...

  9. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474-475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  10. Detection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Rift Valley fever virus from Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani, Anopheles (Anopheles) squamosus, and Culex (Culex) antennatus of the Haute Matsiatra region, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovonjato, Jocelyn; Olive, Marie-Marie; Tantely, Luciano Michael; Andrianaivolambo, Lala; Tata, Etienne; Razainirina, Josette; Jeanmaire, Elisabeth; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Elissa, Nohal

    2011-06-01

    Following veterinary alerts of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the districts of Fianarantsoa I and II in November 2008 and in the district of Ambalavao in April 2009, entomological and virological investigations were carried out to identify the mosquito species that could act as RVF virus (RVFV) vectors in the region. A total of 12,785 adult mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 21 species were collected. After identification, mosquitoes were pooled by species, sex, and female status (fed or unfed) and then stored at -80°C. Of 319 pools of unfed monospecific female mosquito tested by real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction, RVFV was detected in 1 pool of Anopheles coustani, 5 pools of An. squamosus, and 2 pools of Culex antennatus mosquitoes. The virus was isolated in mosquito cell lines from two of the five Real Time-RT-polymerase chain reaction (real time-RT-PCR) positive pools of An. squamosus mosquitoes. From the eight RVFV strains detected, partial S, M, and L genome segments sequences were obtained. The phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that the strains circulating in mosquitoes were genetically close to those that circulated in livestock and humans during RVF outbreaks in 2008 and 2009. This study, therefore, provides strong evidence that An. squamosus, An. coustani, and Cx. antennatus could play a role as vectors of the RVFV during the disease outbreaks in 2008-2009. Bioecological, genetic, and RVF transmission studies on these three mosquito species are needed to address this question and thus improve prevention and control of future RVF outbreaks in Madagascar, where these species are present.

  11. The bionomics of Anopheles merus (Diptera: Culicidae along the Kenyan coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyab Pamela C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles merus, a sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex occurs along the East African coast but its biology and role in malaria transmission in this region is poorly understood. We evaluated the blood feeding pattern and the role of this species in malaria transmission in Malindi district, Coastal Kenya. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors by CDC light traps and Pyrethrum Spray Catch and outdoors by CDC light traps. Anopheles females were identified to species by morphological characteristics and sibling species of An. gambiae complex distinguished by rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Screening for host blood meal sources and presence or absence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite proteins was achieved by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA. Results Anopheles merus comprised 77.8% of the 387 Anopheles gambiae s.l adults that were collected. Other sibling species of Anopheles gambiae s.l identified in the study site included An. arabiensis(3.6%, and An. gambiae s.s. (8%. The human blood index for An. merus was 0.12, while the sporozoite rate was 0.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that An. merus can play a minor role in malaria transmission along the Kenyan Coast and should be a target for vector control which in turn could be applied in designing and implementing mosquito control programmes targeting marsh-breeding mosquitoes; with the ultimate goal being to reduce the transmission of malaria associated with these vectors.

  12. Rapid evolution of female-biased genes among four species of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Francesco; Windbichler, Nikolai; Waterhouse, Robert M; Cagnetti, Alessia; D'Amato, Rocco; Persampieri, Tania; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Nolan, Tony; Papathanos, Philippos Aris

    2017-09-01

    Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. We find that, in these mosquitoes, in contrast to what has been found in many other organisms, female-biased genes are more rapidly evolving in sequence, expression, and genic turnover than male-biased genes. Our results suggest that this atypical pattern may be due to the combination of sex-specific life history challenges encountered by females, such as blood feeding. Furthermore, female propensity to mate only once in nature in male swarms likely diminishes sexual selection of post-reproductive traits related to sperm competition among males. We also develop a comparative framework to systematically explore tissue- and sex-specific splicing to document its conservation throughout the genus and identify a set of candidate genes for future functional analyses of sex-specific isoform usage. Finally, our data reveal that the deficit of male-biased genes on the X Chromosomes in Anopheles is a conserved feature in this genus and can be directly attributed to chromosome-wide transcriptional regulation that de-masculinizes the X in male reproductive tissues. © 2017 Papa et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Abundance, composition and natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes from two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Montoya; Priscila Bascuñán; Julián Rodríguez-Zabala; Margarita M. Correa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In Colombia there are three Anopheles species implicated in malaria transmission as primary vectors; however, the local role of some Anopheles species must still be defined. Objective: To determine the abundance, composition and natural infection rates for Anopheles mosquitoes with Plasmodium spp. in two malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. Materials and methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using the human-landing catches and while resting in livestock corrals in n...

  14. First record of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and its possible role in the resurgence of malaria in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Khaireh, Bouh A

    2014-11-01

    Anopheles stephensi is an important vector of urban malaria in India and the Persian Gulf area. Its previously known geographical range includes southern Asia and the Arab Peninsula. For the first time, we report A. stephensi from the African continent, based on collections made in Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, where this species' occurrence was linked to an unusual urban outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with 1228 cases reported from February to May 2013, and a second, more severe epidemic that emerged in November 2013 and resulted in 2017 reported malaria cases between January and February 2014. Anopheles stephensi was initially identified using morphological identification keys, followed by sequencing of the Barcode cytochrome c-oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Positive tests for P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen in two of six female A. stephensi trapped in homes of malaria patients in March 2013 are evidence that autochthonous urban malaria transmission by A. stephensi has occurred. Concurrent with the second malaria outbreak, P. falciparum-positive A. stephensi females were detected in Djibouti City starting in November 2013. In sub-Saharan Africa, newly present A. stephensi may pose a significant future health threat because of this species' high susceptibility to P. falciparum infection and its tolerance of urban habitats. This may lead to increased malaria outbreaks in African cities. Rapid interruption of the urban malaria transmission cycle, based on integrated vector surveillance and control programs aimed at the complete eradication of A. stephensi from the African continent, is strongly recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yung-Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WHO declared Taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. Therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of Anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies. Methods During a two-year survey, mosquitoes were collected in houses and their surrounding areas and at the bank of larval habitats by backpack aspirators in 17 villages in rural areas of southern and eastern Taiwan for 1 hr. On the same day, blacklight traps were hung downward overnight. Blood-fed mosquito samples were analysed by PCR. Results Of the 195 total households surveyed by backpack aspirators, no Anopheles adults were collected inside the houses, while a single Anopheles minimus and a single Anopheles maculatus were collected outside of the houses. On the same day, 23 An. minimus, two An. maculatus, two Anopheles ludlowae, two Anopheles sinensis, and one Anopheles tessellatus were collected along the bank of larval habitats. In blacklight traps hung outside of the houses in the villages, 69 An. minimus, 62 An. ludlowae, 31 An. sinensis, and 19 An. maculatus were collected. In larval habitats, 98 An. ludlowae, 64 An. minimus, 49 An. sinensis, and 14 An. maculatus were collected. Of a total of 10 blood-fed samples, An. minimus fed on four animals including bovine (60%, dogs (20%, pig (10%, and non-chicken avian (10%. Conclusion Anopheles minimus, an opportunist feeder in Taiwan, was not collected inside the houses, but was found outside of the houses in villages and surrounding larval habitats. Therefore, an outdoor transmission of malaria is likely to occur and, thus, the bed nets, which are favoured for controlling the late biting of An. minimus, should be a very efficient and effective method for those local residents who sleep outdoors. Additionally, space spray of

  16. Molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, Victor A; Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Prosser, Sean W J; Weland, Chris; Westcott, David G; Fooks, Anthony R; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-08-15

    Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (An. maculipennis s.l.), identify the vertebrate hosts of field-caught blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. , and to test for the presence of myxoma virus (Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus) in specimens found to have fed on the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Blood-fed An. maculipennis s.l. were collected from resting sites at Elmley Nature Reserve, Kent, between June and September 2013. Hosts that An. maculipennis s.l. had fed on were determined by a PCR-sequencing approach based on the partial amplification of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Mosquitoes were then identified to species by sequencing a region of the internal transcribed spacer-2. DNA extracts from all mosquitoes identified as having fed on rabbits were subsequently screened using PCR for the presence of myxoma virus. A total of 94 blood-fed Anopheles maculipennis s.l. were collected, of which 43 (46%) provided positive blood-meal identification results. Thirty-six of these specimens were identified as Anopheles atroparvus, which had fed on rabbit (n = 33, 92%) and cattle (n = 3, 8%). Seven mosquitoes were identified as Anopheles messeae, which had fed on cattle (n = 6, 86%) and dog (n = 1, 14%). Of the 33 An. atroparvus that contained rabbit blood, nine (27%) were positive for myxoma virus. Results demonstrate that a single DNA extract from a blood-fed mosquito can be successfully used for molecular identification of members of the An. maculipennis complex, blood

  17. Anopheles Vectors in Mainland China While Approaching Malaria Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaosen; Guo, Shaohua; Feng, Xinyu; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Zhou, Shuisen; Manguin, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    China is approaching malaria elimination; however, well-documented information on malaria vectors is still missing, which could hinder the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and WHO certification. This review summarizes the nationwide distribution of malaria vectors, their bionomic characteristics, control measures, and related studies. After several years of effort, the area of distribution of the principal malaria vectors was reduced, in particular for Anopheles lesteri (synonym: An. anthropophagus) and Anopheles dirus s.l., which nearly disappeared from their former endemic regions. Anopheles sinensis is becoming the predominant species in southwestern China. The bionomic characteristics of these species have changed, and resistance to insecticides was reported. There is a need to update surveillance tools and investigate the role of secondary vectors in malaria transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles Fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Naddaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran.Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phy­logenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P model of neighbor-join­ing method.Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individ­uals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%.Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  19. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  20. BIONOMIK VEKTOR MALARIA NYAMUK Anopheles sundaicus dan Anopheles letifer DI KECAMATAN BELAKANG PADANG , BATAM, KEPULAUAN RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Shinta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria continues to be a public health problem in the malaria endemic areas in Indonesia and often cause an outbreak. Batam municipality is the priority for development area in the Riau island Province, nevertheless malaria is still a public health problem. The national government and district office government have been committed to have a program for eliminating malaria at Batam area in year 2015. One of the malaria control program is the vector control measure. The failure of vector control is partly due to a lack of understanding of vector behavior in its epidemiological setting. The understanding of  malaria vector species and its behavior will be useful to plan the vector control intervention.  The study of bio-ecology of malaria vector is very important factor to  understand its behavior and to formulate the vector control strtegy in Batam area. This study was carried out at Belakang Padang, Batam in 2008 using breeding habitat survey of Anopheles spp, measuring the pH, salinity and observation of breeding characteristics, mapping of breeding sites distribution using GPS and human landing collection inside as well as outside houses and ELISA for circumsporozoite.  The results of the study revealed that, in the Belakang padang areas were found five natural breeding habitat of Anopheles spp. e.i: marshy areas, marshy with mangrove tree in the peripher, creek, mud-hole and water reservoir (water dam. Larvae of  An. letifer and An sundaicus were found relatively higher number in the marshy areas, with characteristis of pH: 5-7,5,  temperature 28-330C and salinity was 0-28 ‰.  Only one species of anopheline An. sundaicus  was found in the adult stage in Belakang Padang area, though An. letifer was found only in the larva stage.  The biting activities of An. sundaicus throughout the night both indoors and outdoors, though the biting peak occured at 02.00-03.00 am.  Both  An sundaicus and An. letifer at  Belakang Padang

  1. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huho, B.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Killeen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods - Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified

  2. BIONOMIK NYAMUK MANSONIA DAN ANOPHELES DI DESA KARYA MAKMUR, KABUPATEN OKU TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelza Supranelfy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is still become the health problem in Indonesia, the disease almost found inthe entire area with fairly high level endemicity. Karya Makmur Village, Madang Suku III District, EastOgan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatera Province in 2007 has micofilariae rate of 1,05% based fromblood survey. The aims of the research is to identify vector and the breeding habitat. This research has beenconducted in Karya Makmur Village from May to November 2011. This type of research is noninterventionstudy with spot survey research design. Mosquitoes collection using human landing andresting collection methods, while mosquito larvae were collected from breeding sites. This research found14 species of Mansonia and Anopheles were collected and the species were Mansonia uniformis, Ma.annulata, Ma. indiana, Ma. dives, Ma. bonneae, Ma. annulifera, Anopheles nigerrimus , An. annularis, An.maculatus, An. letifer, An. vagus, An. barbumbrosus, An. barbirostris and An. tesselatus. Mansoniauniformis and Anopheles nigerrimus was confirmed as filariasis vector but none containing microfilariae.Breeding habitat of Anopheles have water temperature 280C — 300C and pH 7 with vegetation (grass andEichhornia crassipes / water hyacinth and predator (Oreochromis niloticus / nile tilapia and Aplocheiluspanchax / fish head lead. Thus the community are expected to behave positively, especially avoidmosquito bites and manipulate the environment that potentially as mosquito larvae breeding habitat.Keywords: Mansonia, Anopheles, filariasis, Karya Makmur Village AbstrakFilariasis limfatik masih merupakan masalah kesehatandi Indonesia, penyebaran penyakit ini hampirdi seluruh wilayah dan dibeberapa daerah dengan tingkatendemic yang cukup tinggi. Desa Karya Makmur, Kecamatan Madang SukuIII, Kabupaten Ogan KomeringUlu Timur, Propinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tahun2007, mikrofilariarate sebesar1,05% berdasarkansurvey darah jari. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui

  3. Factors influencing the spatial distribution of Anopheles larvae in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Kadarkarai, Murugan; Kumar, Shobana; Pari, Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan, Nataraj; Vincent, C Thomas; Barnard, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Malaria causes extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and results in significant economic losses in India. The distribution of immature malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes was studied in 17 villages in Coimbatore District as a prelude to the development and implementation of vector control strategies that are intended to reduce the risk of human exposure to potentially infectious mosquitoes. Eight Anopheles species were recorded. The most numerous species were Anopheles vagus, Anopheles subpictus, and Anopheles hyrcanus. The location of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each village was evaluated for correlation with selected demographic, biologic, and land use parameters using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We found the number of mosquito development sites in a village and the density of larvae in such sites to be positively correlated with human population density but not the surface area (km(2)) of the village. The number of mosquito development sites and the density of larvae in each site were not correlated. Data from this study are being used to construct a GIS-based mapping system that will enable the location of aquatic habitats with Anopheles larvae in the Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India as target sites for the application of vector control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic signal from rearrangements in 18 Anopheles species by joint scaffolding extant and ancestral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Yoann; Duchemin, Wandrille; Tannier, Eric; Chauve, Cedric; Bérard, Sèverine

    2018-05-09

    Genomes rearrangements carry valuable information for phylogenetic inference or the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of adaptation. However, the detection of genome rearrangements is often hampered by current deficiencies in data and methods: Genomes obtained from short sequence reads have generally very fragmented assemblies, and comparing multiple gene orders generally leads to computationally intractable algorithmic questions. We present a computational method, ADSEQ, which, by combining ancestral gene order reconstruction, comparative scaffolding and de novo scaffolding methods, overcomes these two caveats. ADSEQ provides simultaneously improved assemblies and ancestral genomes, with statistical supports on all local features. Compared to previous comparative methods, it runs in polynomial time, it samples solutions in a probabilistic space, and it can handle a significantly larger gene complement from the considered extant genomes, with complex histories including gene duplications and losses. We use ADSEQ to provide improved assemblies and a genome history made of duplications, losses, gene translocations, rearrangements, of 18 complete Anopheles genomes, including several important malaria vectors. We also provide additional support for a differentiated mode of evolution of the sex chromosome and of the autosomes in these mosquito genomes. We demonstrate the method's ability to improve extant assemblies accurately through a procedure simulating realistic assembly fragmentation. We study a debated issue regarding the phylogeny of the Gambiae complex group of Anopheles genomes in the light of the evolution of chromosomal rearrangements, suggesting that the phylogenetic signal they carry can differ from the phylogenetic signal carried by gene sequences, more prone to introgression.

  5. Hybrid sterility in crosses between two Brazilian sibling species of the Anopheles albitarsis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoura, Nathalia Giglio; Araki, Alejandra Saori; Van Der Maas Azevedo, Renata; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2014-12-04

    Complexes of cryptic species are common in several taxa and this is also the case in the Anopheles genus, a group including all known human malaria vectors. The Anopheles albitarsis complex comprises at least nine cryptic species, some of which are implicated as vectors of human malaria. Several different types of data have been generated for this species complex such as cytogenetics, alloenzymes, morphological and feeding behavioral, hybridization experiments, RAPD-PCR and RFLP and mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Studies focused on its postzygotic isolation are still somewhat rare in the literature despite their importance to understand the speciation process and the level of gene flow potentially occurring among the different sibling species. Hybridization experiments between Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara, as well as backcrosses between hybrids and Anopheles albitarsis s.s., were performed using the induced mating technique. Results were compared to intraspecific crosses. Larva-to-adult viability and sex ratio were also assessed. Male hybrids show very low insemination rates and nearly complete sterility, apparently due to abnormalities in their reproductive organs. Evidence of partial sterility among the hybrid females was also observed. Our data indicated that Anopheles albitarsis s.s. and Anopheles marajoara show a high level of postzygotic isolation with a strong hybrid male sterility. This result is consistent with the Haldane's rule which states that in interspecific crosses the heterogametic sex is the first to be affected. However, the fact that the females are not completely sterile raises the possibility of introgression between these two siblings species.

  6. Molecular characterization of calreticulin from Anopheles stephensi midgut cells and functional assay of the recombinant calreticulin with Plasmodium berghei ookinetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani Dizaji, Nahid; Basseri, Hamid Reza; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Heidari, Mansour

    2014-10-25

    Transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target the antigens on the midgut epithelium of Anopheles mosquitoes are among the promising tools for the elimination of the malaria parasite. Characterization and analysis of effective antigens is the first step to design TBVs. Calreticulin (CRT), a lectin-like protein, from Anopheles albimanus midgut, has shown antigenic features, suggesting a promising and novel TBV target. CRT is a highly conserved protein with similar features in vertebrates and invertebrates including anopheline. We cloned the full-length crt gene from malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (AsCrt) and explored the interaction of recombinant AsCrt protein, expressed in a prokaryotic system (pGEX-6p-1), with surface proteins of Plasmodium berghei ookinetes by immunofluorescence assay. The cellular localization of AsCrt was determined using the baculovirus expression system. Sequence analysis of the whole cDNA of AsCrt revealed that AsCrt contains an ORF of 1221 bp. The amino acid sequence of AsCrt protein obtained in this study showed 64% homology with similar protein in human. The AsCrt shares the most common features of CRTs from other species. This gene encodes a 406 amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 46 kDa, which contains a predicted 16 amino-acid signal peptides, conserved cysteine residues, a proline-rich region, and highly acidic C-terminal domain with endoplasmic reticulum retrieval sequence HDEL. The production of GST-AsCrt recombinant protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis using an antibody against the GST protein. The FITC-labeled GST-AsCrt exhibited a significant interaction with P. berghei ookinete surface proteins. Purified recombinant GST-AsCrt, labeled with FITC, displayed specific binding to the surface of P. berghei ookinetes in comparison with control. Moreover, the expression of AsCrt in baculovirus expression system indicated that AsCrt was localized on the surface of Sf9 cells. Our results suggest that AsCrt could

  7. Development of a DNA-Based Method for Distinguishing the Malaria Vectors, Anopheles gambiae From Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    our preliminary studies hybridization with the Droso- phila actin probe required such low stringency conditions that the signal to noise ratio made...Balabacensis complex of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Genetica 57:81-86. (14) Mahon RJ and PM Miethke. 1982. Anopheles farauti No. 3, a hitherto un

  8. Paridade de Anopheles cruzii em Floresta Ombrófila Densa no Sul do Brasil Anopheles cruzii parity in dense rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Caroline Dalla Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a paridade e desenvolvimento ovariano da espécie Anopheles cruzii, durante os períodos estacionais. MÉTODOS: As capturas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, no período matutino, de abril/2004 a abril/2005, no Parque Estadual do Palmito, município de Paranaguá litoral do Estado do Paraná. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados usando a técnica pouso homem. As dissecções foram feitas utilizando-se a técnica de Detinova e de Polovodova e a avaliação do desenvolvimento folicular, segundo os critérios de Christophers e Mer. RESULTADOS: Foram dissecadas 208 fêmeas de Anopheles cruzii. A maioria das fêmeas dissecadas nas estações eram nulíparas. Sendo que 14,4% eram nulíparas com folículo além do estádio II de Christophers & Mer, o que evidencia o exercício da hematofagia previamente à primeira oviposição. Observou-se que as populações de Anopheles cruzii são constituídas de indivíduos jovens, talvez em razão da alta mortalidade de fêmeas paridas. CONCLUSÕES: A provável discordância gonotrófica das fêmeas dissecadas é importante do ponto de vista epidemiológico, considerando que a fêmea pode procurar mais de um hospedeiro para completar a maturação dos seus ovos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the parity and ovarian development of Anopheles cruzii species during the seasons. METHODS: Collections were carried out fortnightly in the morning in the Palmito State Park in the municipality of Paranaguá, Southern Brazil, between April 2004 and April 2005. Adult mosquitoes were captured using human landing rate. Dissections were performed using Detinova's and Polovodova's methods and follicular development was assessed following Christophers and Mer's criteria. RESULTS: A total of 208 specimens of Anopheles cruzii were dissected. Most females dissected were nulliparous in the seasons; 14.4% of them were found to be nulliparous above Christophers and Mer's stage II, which shows previous blood meal prior to the

  9. Rickettsia Species in African Anopheles Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Pages, Frédéric; Ndiath, Mamadou O.; Ratmanov, Pavel; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background There is higher rate of R. felis infection among febrile patients than in healthy people in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the rainy season. Mosquitoes possess a high vectorial capacity and, because of their abundance and aggressiveness, likely play a role in rickettsial epidemiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative and traditional PCR assays specific for Rickettsia genes detected rickettsial DNA in 13 of 848 (1.5%) Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, and Senegal. R. felis was detected in one An. gambiae molecular form S mosquito collected from Kahin, Côte d’Ivoire (1/77, 1.3%). Additionally, a new Rickettsia genotype was detected in five An. gambiae molecular form S mosquitoes collected from Côte d’Ivoire (5/77, 6.5%) and one mosquito from Libreville, Gabon (1/88, 1.1%), as well as six An. melas (6/67, 9%) mosquitoes collected from Port Gentil, Gabon. A sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, ompA and sca4 genes indicated that this new Rickettsia sp. is closely related to R. felis. No rickettsial DNA was detected from An. funestus, An. arabiensis, or An. gambiae molecular form M mosquitoes. Additionally, a BLAST analysis of the gltA sequence from the new Rickettsia sp. resulted in a 99.71% sequence similarity to a species (JQ674485) previously detected in a blood sample of a Senegalese patient with a fever from the Bandafassi village, Kedougou region. Conclusion R. felis was detected for the first time in An. gambiae molecular form S, which represents the major African malaria vector. The discovery of R. felis, as well as a new Rickettsia species, in mosquitoes raises new issues with respect to African rickettsial epidemiology that need to be investigated, such as bacterial isolation, the degree of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, the animal reservoirs, and human pathogenicity. PMID:23118963

  10. Seasonal abundance and blood feeding activity of Anopheles minimus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Bangs, Michael J; Aum-Aung, Boonserm

    2003-11-01

    Anopheline mosquito larvae and adults were sampled at Ban Pu Teuy, Tri-Yok District, Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand, from January 2000 to December 2001. Over the period of 2 yr, Anopheles minimus sensu lato was the most commonly collected species, followed by Anopheles swadiwongporni and Anopheles dirus sensu lato; all three species are important vectors of malaria in Thailand. Attempted blood feeding by An. minimus occurred throughout the night, with two distinct feeding peaks: strong activity immediately after sunset (1800-2100 hours), followed by a second, less pronounced, rise before sunrise (0300-0600 hours). Anopheles minimus were more abundant during the wet season compared with the dry and hot seasons, although nocturnal adult feeding patterns were similar. Anopheles minimus fed readily on humans inside and outside of houses, showing a slight preference for exophagy. The human-biting peak of An. minimus in our study area differed from other localities sampled in Thailand, indicating the possible existence of site-specific populations of An. minimus exhibiting different host-seeking behavior. These results underscore the importance of conducting site-specific studies to accurately determine vector larval habitats and adult activity patterns and linking their importance in malaria transmission in a given area.

  11. Molecular Taxonomy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi (Diptera: Culicidae) and Malaria Epidemiology in Southern Amazonian Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon; Bickersmith, Sara A.; Knoll, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan Francisco; Rivera, Esteban; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Anopheline specimens were collected in 2011 by human landing catch, Shannon and CDC traps from the malaria endemic localities of Santa Rosa and San Pedro in Madre de Dios Department, Peru. Most specimens were either Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi B or An. (Nys.) rangeli, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2) and, for selected individuals, ITS2 sequences. A few specimens from Lupuna, Loreto Department, northern Amazonian Peru, were also identified as An. benarrochi B. A statistical parsimony network using ITS2 sequences confirmed that all Peruvian An. benarrochi B analyzed were identical to those in GenBank from Putumayo, southern Colombia. Sequences of the mtDNA COI BOLD region of specimens from all three Peruvian localities were connected using a statistical parsimony network, although there were multiple mutation steps between northern and southern Peruvian sequences. A Bayesian inference of concatenated Peruvian sequences of ITS2+COI detected a single clade with very high support for all An. benarrochi B except one individual from Lupuna that was excluded. No samples were positive for Plasmodium by CytB-PCR. PMID:23243107

  12. Comparative Studies on the Stenogamous and Eurygamous Behavior of Eight Anopheles Species of the Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae in Thailand

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    Adulsak Wijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.

  13. Brachiola gambiae sp n. the microsporidian parasite of Anopheles gambiae and A-melas in Liberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2004), s. 73-80 ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Anopheles gambiae * Anopheles melas * Brachiola gambiae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2004

  14. Blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh

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    Bashar Kabirul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are crucial for incriminating malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the host preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in Bangladesh. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the hematophagic tendencies of the anophelines inhabiting a malaria-endemic area of Bangladesh. Methods Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using light traps (LTs, pyrethrum spray (PS, and human bait (HB from a malaria-endemic village (Kumari, Bandarban, Bangladesh during the peak months of malaria transmission (August-September. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed to identify the host blood meals of Anopheles mosquitoes. Results In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71% was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67% and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%. All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094, 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784, whereas, six by PS (n = 549 and four species by HB (n = 29. Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%, followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64% and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%. Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63 and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24 showed strong relative preferences (Bi for humans among all hosts (human, bovine, goats/sheep, and others. Anopheles annularis, An. maculatus s.l. Theobald, and An. pallidus Theobald exhibited opportunistic blood-feeding behavior, in that they fed on either humans or animals, depending on whichever was

  15. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

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    Tu Zhijian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200 within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands" of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D and X (i.e. S200 X6.1 chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS-sequences

  16. Radiation induced reciprocal translocations and inversions in anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, P.E.; Seawright, J.A.; Benedict, M.Q.; Narang, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations and inversions were induced in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann by irradiation of males with X rays. A total of 1669 sperm were assayed, and 175 new aberrations were identified as follows: 102 reciprocal translocations (67 autosomal and 35 sex-linked), 45 pericentric inversions, and 28 paracentric inversions. Eleven of the translocations were nearly whole-arm interchanges, and these were selected for the construction of 'capture systems' for compound chromosomes. Two double-heterozygous translocation strains and four homozygous translocation strains were established. Anopheles albimanus females were irradiated, and a pseudolinkage scheme involving mutant markers was employed to identify reciprocal translocations. The irradiation of females was very inefficient; only one translocation was recovered from 1080 ova tested

  17. Molecular identification of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-09-28

    Sep 28, 2016 ... responsible for the transmission. The knowledge of which form, Anopheles coluzzii, A. .... National Council for Science and Technology and Health Research ..... Styer ML, Carey RJ, Wang JL, Scott TW (2007). Mosquitoes Do.

  18. Systematic notes on Anopheles Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae species in the state of Amapá, Brazil

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    Eduardo S Bergo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldón and An. goeldii Rozeboom and Gabaldón based on the male genitalia traits is discussed. An. goeldii is in the synonymy of An. nuneztovari, however, characters of the aedeagus of male genitalia distinguish both species. We hypothesize that An. goeldii may be a valid species, however, further studies using molecular characters, especially ITS2 rDNA sequences will be necessary to elucidate the taxonomic status of the species. An. konderi Galvão and Damasceno and An. forattinii Wilkerson and Sallum are registered for the first time in the state of Amapá.

  19. Distribution and infectivity of anopheles mosquitoes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Nigeria, despite serious efforts to lessen its adverse impact. A malaria survey was conducted to determine the distribution and infectivity rate of Anopheles species, and asymptomatic malaria infections in Gboko. Mosquitoes were collected at selected sites, using ...

  20. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Transposable elements in the Anopheles funestus transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Medina, Rita D; Carareto, Claudia M A; Struchiner, Cláudio J; Ribeiro, José M C

    2017-06-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are present in most of the eukaryotic genomes and their impact on genome evolution is increasingly recognized. Although there is extensive information on the TEs present in several eukaryotic genomes, less is known about the expression of these elements at the transcriptome level. Here we present a detailed analysis regarding the expression of TEs in Anopheles funestus, the second most important vector of human malaria in Africa. Several transcriptionally active TE families belonging both to Class I and II were identified and characterized. Interestingly, we have identified a full-length putative active element (including the presence of full length TIRs in the genomic sequence) belonging to the hAT superfamily, which presents active members in other insect genomes. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of transposable elements in A. funestus transcriptome. Our results reveal that TEs are abundant and diverse in the mosquito and that most of the TE families found in the genome are represented in the mosquito transcriptome, a fact that could indicate activity of these elements.The vast diversity of TEs expressed in A. funestus suggests that there is ongoing amplification of several families in this organism.

  2. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  3. Comparison of a newly developed binary typing with ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing methods for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing

    2018-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Population Structure of the Primary Malaria Vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, Using Isozyme, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and Morphologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    401 16 to Jan E. Conn for the ITS2 sequencing, by Consejo National de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (MPS-RPIV-130032-9), and the Pan... Investigaciones , Escuela de Malariologia y Saneamiento Ambiental, Maracay, Venezuela Abstract. A genetic and morphologic survey of Anopheles darlingi...0086. Yasmin Rubio-Palis, Division de Investigaciones , Escuela de Malariologia y Saneamiento Ambiental Dr. Arnold0 Ga- baldon, Apartado 2073

  5. FAUNA DAN TEMPAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN POTENSIAL NYAMUK Anopheles spp DI KECAMATAN MAYONG, KABUPATEN JEPARA, JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat di beberapa daerah pedesaan di Jawa Tengah. Usaha pemberantasan malaria telah dilakukan oleh program baik secara kimiawi maupun hayati, guna memutuskan rantai penularan. Penelitian fauna dan tempat perindukan potensial nyamuk Anopheles telah dilakukan di Desa Buaran, Kecamatan Mayong I, Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah. Penangkapan nyamuk dengan umpan orang dilakukan di dalam dan di luar rumah pada malam hari dari pukul 18.00-24.00 yang masing-masing dilakukan oleh dua orang kolektor. Penangkapan nyamuk yang istirahat di dalam dan luar rumah (vegetasi pada pagi hari dilakukan pukul 06.00-08.00, yang dilakukan satu bulan 4 kali penangkapan selama 6 bulan. Pengambilan larva dan pupa dilakukan dari pukul 06.00-08.00 pagi di tempat genangan air dan sawah serta tempat yang potensial diduga sebagai perindukan Anopheles. Hasil penangkapan selama 6 bulan, diperoleh 1248 ekor nyamuk Anopheles yang terdiri dari 6 spesies yaitu: An. aconitus 442 ekor (35,42%, An. annularis 69 ekor (5,53% , An. barbirostris 30 ekor (2,4%, An. maculatus 2 ekor (0,16%, An. tesselatus 5 ekor (0,40% dan An. vagus 700 ekor (56,09%. Populasi aconitus ditemukan dari penangkapan di luar rumah, pada bulan Juli (56,40%, Agustus (42,80% dan Oktober (39,50% sedangkan pada bulan Mei (52,9%, Juni (44% dan September (50,40% dari penangkapan di kandang sapi. Pengambilan larva dan pupa Anopheles dilakukan di tempat habitat seperti sawah yang pada bulan Aguslus terbanyak ditemukan sebesar 85 (1.70, di sungai ditemukan hanya 4 (0.08 serta di genangan air bekas telapak kaki/kobokan ditemukan sebesar 6 (0.12. Ternyata tempat perindukan yang potensial larva Anopheles pada musim kemarau, ditemukan pada sungai yang ditanami kangkung oleh masyarakat selempat. Kata kunci: Fauna, tempat perindukan, Anopheles, vector

  6. Insecticide resistance of Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qian; Li, Yiji; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Ning; Chang, Xuelian; Li, Chunyuan; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-03

    Malaria is one of the most important public health problems in Southeast Asia, including Hainan Island, China. Vector control is the main malaria control measure, and insecticide resistance is a major concern for the effectiveness of chemical insecticide control programs. The objective of this study is to determine the resistance status of the main malaria vector species to pyrethroids and other insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for indoor residual sprays. The larvae and pupae of Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled from multiple sites in Hainan Island, and five sites yielded sufficient mosquitoes for insecticide susceptibility bioassays. Bioassays of female adult mosquitoes three days after emergence were conducted in the two most abundant species, Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus, using three insecticides (0.05% deltamethrin, 4% DDT, and 5% malathion) and following the WHO standard tube assay procedure. P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were measured. Mutations at the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene and the ace-1 gene were detected by DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis, respectively. An. sinensis and An. vagus were the predominant Anopheles mosquito species. An. sinensis was found to be resistant to DDT and deltamethrin. An. vagus was susceptible to deltamethrin but resistant to DDT and malathion. Low kdr mutation (L1014F) frequency (P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activities were detected in deltamethrin-resistant An. sinensis, and significantly higher P450 monooxygenase, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities were found in malathion-resistant An. vagus mosquitoes. Multiple insecticide resistance was found in An. sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China. Cost-effective integrated vector control programs that go beyond synthetic insecticides are urgently needed.

  7. Larvicidal effects of Jatropha curcas L. against Anopheles arabiensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Key words: Malaria vector control, Anopheles arabiensis, Botanical larvicides J. curcas. 1. ... The white latex serves as a disinfectant in mouth .... distilled water to serve as a negative control solution for larvicidal bioassays involving test.

  8. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV in mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan K. Barik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae, the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae.

  9. Factors influencing infection and transmission of Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Tapan K; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Rasgon, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae densovirus (AgDNV) is a potential microbial agent for paratransgenesis and gene transduction in An. gambiae , the major vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the interaction between AgDNV and An. gambiae is critical for using AgDNV in a basic and applied manner for Anopheles gene manipulation. Here, we tested the effects of mosquito age, sex, blood feeding status, and potential for horizontal transmission using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter AgDNV system. Neither mosquito age at infection nor feeding regime affected viral titers. Female mosquitoes were more permissive to viral infection than males. Despite low viral titers, infected males were able to venereally transmit virus to females during mating, where the virus was localized with the transferred sperm in the spermathecae. These findings will be useful for designing AgDNV-based strategies to manipulate Anopheles gambiae .

  10. Molecular characterization of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, S R; Oshaghi, M A; Vatandoost, H; Assmar, M

    2003-05-01

    A species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to identify the species composition of the Anopheles fluviatilis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. All the amplified DNA samples from specimens collected from different areas yielded a fragment of 450 bp size, a PCR product corresponding to that of the species denoted as Y. The sequence data from 21 ITS2 [second internal transcribed spacer] regions were compared with those publicly available in the GenBank database and confirmed that the specimens were 100% identical to species Y of India. Species Y is presumably the same as species T that has no role in transmission of malaria in India, whereas An. fluviatilis is known as a secondary vector of malaria in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  11. The physicochemical and environmental factors affecting the distribution of Anopheles merus along the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipyab, Pamela C; Khaemba, Battan M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Mbogo, Charles M

    2015-04-11

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex are the main transmitters of malaria. Anopheles merus is a member of the complex found along the Kenyan coast because it breeds in saline waters. An entomological study was conducted in Garithe Malindi District, to investigate the physicochemical and environmental factors affecting the distribution of An. merus. Field and laboratory studies were used to investigate the breeding habitats of the subspecies. Mosquito larvae were sampled using standard dipping technique from small pockets of pools, ponds, hoof prints, road drain, wells and mangrove swamps found in Garithe. All 3(rd) and 4(th) instars of Anopheles larvae sampled were identified microscopically into species. A representative of Anopheles gambiae complex was then identified to specific sibling species using r-DNA PCR technique. The habitats were characterized based on temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, pH, size, distance to nearest house, canopy coverage, surface debris, presence of algae, emergent plants, turbidity and habitat types. A total of 159 morphologically identified late stage instar Anopheles gambiae s.l larvae were selected for r-DNA analysis by PCR. Out of these, 60.4% (n = 96) were Anopheles merus, 8.8% (n = 14) were Anopheles arabiensis, 18.2% (n = 29) were Anopheles gambiae s.s and 12.6% (n = 20) were unknown. Using paired t-test (t (121) = -3.331, P = 0.001) a significantly high proportion of An. merus was observed in all habitats compared to An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s. s. In habitat characterization, Pearson's correlation analysis test showed different parameters being associated with the occurrence of An. merus larvae in the different habitats sampled. Six out of the 55 correlation coefficients (10.9%) were statistically significant, suggesting non-random association between some pairs of variables. Those that had a significantly high positive correlation with An. merus

  12. Una nueva técnica para el estudio microscópico de los huevos de Anopheles Una nueva técnica para el estudio microscópico de los huevos de Anopheles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorno-Mesa Ernesto

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method is described for dissection and mounting of the exochorion of Anopheles eggs, for microscopic study, which has advantages over previous methods. The possible taxocomic importance of the morphology of the micropyle, clearly seen by this method, is noted. Se describe una técnica original para el estudio microscópico de los huevos de Anopheles, fundamentada en la disección del exocorion, indicando las grandes ventajas que tiene. Se anota la importancia taxonómica que pueda tener la morfología del micrópilo. / Abstract. A new method is described for dissection and mounting of the exochorion of Anopheles eggs, for microscopic study, which has advantages over previous methods. The possible taxocomic importance of the morphology of the micropyle, clearly seen by this method, is noted.

  13. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

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    John C Morgan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved.A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG.This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread than previously assumed and therefore this should be taken

  14. Genome mapping and characterization of the Anopheles gambiae heterochromatin

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    Sharakhova Maria V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterochromatin plays an important role in chromosome function and gene regulation. Despite the availability of polytene chromosomes and genome sequence, the heterochromatin of the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae has not been mapped and characterized. Results To determine the extent of heterochromatin within the An. gambiae genome, genes were physically mapped to the euchromatin-heterochromatin transition zone of polytene chromosomes. The study found that a minimum of 232 genes reside in 16.6 Mb of mapped heterochromatin. Gene ontology analysis revealed that heterochromatin is enriched in genes with DNA-binding and regulatory activities. Immunostaining of the An. gambiae chromosomes with antibodies against Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 and the nuclear envelope protein lamin Dm0 identified the major invariable sites of the proteins' localization in all regions of pericentric heterochromatin, diffuse intercalary heterochromatin, and euchromatic region 9C of the 2R arm, but not in the compact intercalary heterochromatin. To better understand the molecular differences among chromatin types, novel Bayesian statistical models were developed to analyze genome features. The study found that heterochromatin and euchromatin differ in gene density and the coverage of retroelements and segmental duplications. The pericentric heterochromatin had the highest coverage of retroelements and tandem repeats, while intercalary heterochromatin was enriched with segmental duplications. We also provide evidence that the diffuse intercalary heterochromatin has a higher coverage of DNA transposable elements, minisatellites, and satellites than does the compact intercalary heterochromatin. The investigation of 42-Mb assembly of unmapped genomic scaffolds showed that it has molecular characteristics similar to cytologically mapped heterochromatin. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Anopheles polytene chromosomes

  15. Larvicidal activity of six Nigerian plant species against Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of extracts from six Nigerian plant species (Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Piper guineense, Nicotianat abacum, Erythrophleum suaveoleus, Jatropha curcas and Petiveria alliacea) against laboratory-bred Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti larvae. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides ...

  16. Wild Anopheles funestus mosquito genotypes are permissive for infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei.

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    Jiannong Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites undergo complex developmental transitions within the mosquito vector. A commonly used laboratory model for studies of mosquito-malaria interaction is the rodent parasite, P. berghei. Anopheles funestus is a major malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa but has received less attention than the sympatric species, Anopheles gambiae. The imminent completion of the A. funestus genome sequence will provide currently lacking molecular tools to describe malaria parasite interactions in this mosquito, but previous reports suggested that A. funestus is not permissive for P. berghei development.An A. funestus population was generated in the laboratory by capturing female wild mosquitoes in Mali, allowing them to oviposit, and rearing the eggs to adults. These F1 progeny of wild mosquitoes were allowed to feed on mice infected with a fluorescent P. berghei strain. Fluorescence microscopy was used to track parasite development inside the mosquito, salivary gland sporozoites were tested for infectivity to mice, and parasite development in A. funestus was compared to A. gambiae.P. berghei oocysts were detectable on A. funestus midguts by 7 days post-infection. By 18-20 days post-infection, sporozoites had invaded the median and distal lateral lobes of the salivary glands, and hemocoel sporozoites were observed in the hemolymph. Mosquitoes were capable of infecting mice via bite, demonstrating that A. funestus supports the complete life cycle of P. berghei. In a random sample of wild mosquito genotypes, A. funestus prevalence of infection and the characteristics of parasite development were similar to that observed in A. gambiae-P. berghei infections.The data presented in this study establish an experimental laboratory model for Plasmodium infection of A. funestus, an important vector of human malaria. Studying A. funestus-Plasmodium interactions is now feasible in a laboratory setting. This information lays the groundwork for exploitation of the

  17. The invasive shrub Prosopis juliflora enhances the malaria parasite transmission capacity of Anopheles mosquitoes: a habitat manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Gunter C; Junnila, Amy; Traore, Mohamad M; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Sissoko, Fatoumata; Dembele, Seydou M; Schlein, Yosef; Arheart, Kristopher L; Revay, Edita E; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Witt, Arne; Beier, John C

    2017-07-05

    A neglected aspect of alien invasive plant species is their influence on mosquito vector ecology and malaria transmission. Invasive plants that are highly attractive to Anopheles mosquitoes provide them with sugar that is critical to their survival. The effect on Anopheles mosquito populations was examined through a habitat manipulation experiment that removed the flowering branches of highly attractive Prosopis juliflora from selected villages in Mali, West Africa. Nine villages in the Bandiagara district of Mali were selected, six with flowering Prosopis juliflora, and three without. CDC-UV light traps were used to monitor their Anopheles spp. vector populations, and recorded their species composition, population size, age structure, and sugar feeding status. After 8 days, all of the flowering branches were removed from three villages and trap catches were analysed again. Villages where flowering branches of the invasive shrub Prosopis juliflora were removed experienced a threefold drop in the older more dangerous Anopheles females. Population density dropped by 69.4% and the species composition shifted from being a mix of three species of the Anopheles gambiae complex to one dominated by Anopheles coluzzii. The proportion of sugar fed females dropped from 73 to 15% and males from 77 to 10%. This study demonstrates how an invasive plant shrub promotes the malaria parasite transmission capacity of African malaria vector mosquitoes. Proper management of invasive plants could potentially reduce mosquito populations and malaria transmission.

  18. Susceptibility Status of The Malaria Vector Anopheles Arabiensis To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increasing insecticide resistancein the major anopheline vectors remain the main obstacle for malaria control programmes in African countries including Sudan. Objectives: To assess the susceptibility status of Anopheles arabiensis the malaria vector to different classes of insecticides in Khartoum State.

  19. Composition of Anopheles Species Collected from Selected Malarious Areas of Afghanistan and Iran

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    Helen Hoosh-Deghati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chaba­har County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anophe­les composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Ba­dakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifa­cies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in col­lected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vec­tor intervention strategies.

  20. Systematic studies on Anopheles galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane from the subgenus Nysssorhynchus blanchard (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Anice Mureb Sallum

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles galvaoi, a member of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, is redescribed based on morphological characters of the adults male and female, fourth-instar larva and pupa. Female, male genitalia, larval and pupal stages are illustrated. Data about medical importance, bionomics, and distribution are given based on literature records. Adult female of An. galvaoi can be easily misidentified as An. benarrochi Gabaldón and An. aquasalis Curry. A few characters are indicated for identifying female and immatures of An. galvaoi. Phylogenetic relationships among An. galvaoi and six other species of the Oswaldoi Subgroup are estimated using COII mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. Lectotype of An. galvaoi, an adult female from Rio Branco, State of Acre, is invalidated.

  1. Sperm quantity and size variation in un-irradiated and irradiated males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles mosquitoes are important candidates for genetic control strategies. However, little is known about sperm quality and quantity as determinants of male reproductive success. In this study, sperm quantity and length variation were assessed in testes of un-irradiated and irradiated Anopheles

  2. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum: a new species in the albitarsis complex (Diptera: culicidae Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum: uma nova espécie no complexo albitarsis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum sp. n. is described from specimens collected in Guajará-Mirim, Rondônia state and Rio Branco, Acre state, Brazil, on human and animal baits, inside dwellings and from the progenies of engorged females. A detailed description of the shape of egg, external appearance of adult female and male, genitalias, female cibarial armature and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva show that it can be distinguished from Anopheles albitarsis from the type-locality and other areas by the paler general external appearance of the adult, the posterolateral tufts of scales, on the female abdominal terga and the branching of the outer anterior clypeal seta (3-C of the fourth instar larva (as shown in illustrations. If species can also be distinguished from An. albitarsis from the type locality by the allele frequencies at 11 enzymic loci as represented by Nei's Genetic Distance.Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus deaneorum sp. n. é descrito a partir de exemplares coletados em capturas comparativas no intradomicílio e no peridomicílio usando isca humana e animal e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas, em Guarajá-Mirim, Rondônia e Rio Branco, Acre. A descrição detalhada do ovo, dos adultos fêmea e macho, inclusive cibário da fêmea, genitália, quetotaxia da pupa e da larva e seu perfil isoenzimático, mostram que esse mosquito pode ser distinguido do Anopheles albitarsis na fase adulta pelo aspecto geral mais claro, pela presença de tufos laterais de escamas escuras somente a partir do quarto ou quinto tergitos abdominais, enquanto em albitarsis começam no terceiro e, na fase larvária, pela ramificação das cerdas clipeais anteriores externas, que em albitarsis são aciculadas (como mostram as ilustrações, bem como pelo padrão isoenzimático.

  3. Filling the gap 115 years after Ronald Ross: the distribution of the Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s from Freetown and Monrovia, West Africa.

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    Dziedzom K de Souza

    Full Text Available It was in Freetown, Sierra Leone, that the malaria mosquito Anopheles coastalis, now known as Anopheles gambiae, was first discovered as the vector of malaria, in 1899. That discovery led to a pioneering vector research in Sierra Leone and neighbouring Liberia, where mosquito species were extensively characterized. Unfortunately, the decade long civil conflicts of the 1990s, in both countries, resulted in a stagnation of the once vibrant research on disease vectors. This paper attempts to fill in some of the gaps on what is now known of the distribution of the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex, and especially the An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s, formerly known as the An. gambiae molecular M and S forms respectively, in the cities of Freetown and Monrovia.

  4. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Anopheles dirus TEP1 and NOS during Plasmodium berghei infection, using three reference genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W.K. Liew

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR has been an integral part of characterizing the immunity of Anopheles mosquitoes towards Plasmodium invasion. Two anti-Plasmodium factors of Anopheles, thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1 and nitric oxide synthase (NOS, play a role in the refractoriness of Anopheles towards Plasmodium infection and are generally expressed during infection. However, these are less studied in Anopheles dirus, a dominant malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, most studies used a single reference gene for normalization during gene expression analysis without proper validation. This may lead to erroneous quantification of expression levels. Therefore, the present study characterized and investigated the expression profiles of TEP1 and NOS of Anopheles dirus during P. berghei infection. Prior to that, the elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1, actin 1 (Act and ribosomal protein S7 (S7 genes were validated for their suitability as a set of reference genes. TEP1 and NOS expressions in An. dirus were found to be significantly induced after P. berghei infection.

  5. CAZymes Analysis Toolkit (CAT): web service for searching and analyzing carbohydrate-active enzymes in a newly sequenced organism using CAZy database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung H; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Syed, Mustafa H; Leuze, Michael R; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2010-12-01

    The Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme (CAZy) database provides a rich set of manually annotated enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds. Despite rich and invaluable information stored in the database, software tools utilizing this information for annotation of newly sequenced genomes by CAZy families are limited. We have employed two annotation approaches to fill the gap between manually curated high-quality protein sequences collected in the CAZy database and the growing number of other protein sequences produced by genome or metagenome sequencing projects. The first approach is based on a similarity search against the entire nonredundant sequences of the CAZy database. The second approach performs annotation using links or correspondences between the CAZy families and protein family domains. The links were discovered using the association rule learning algorithm applied to sequences from the CAZy database. The approaches complement each other and in combination achieved high specificity and sensitivity when cross-evaluated with the manually curated genomes of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and Saccharophagus degradans 2-40. The capability of the proposed framework to predict the function of unknown protein domains and of hypothetical proteins in the genome of Neurospora crassa is demonstrated. The framework is implemented as a Web service, the CAZymes Analysis Toolkit, and is available at http://cricket.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cat.cgi.

  6. Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam, India.

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    Sunil Dhiman

    Full Text Available During the recent past, development of DDT resistance and reduction to pyrethroid susceptibility among the malaria vectors has posed a serious challenge in many Southeast Asian countries including India. Current study presents the insecticide susceptibility and knock-down data of field collected Anopheles annularis sensu lato and An. vagus mosquito species from endemic areas of Assam in northeast India. Anopheles annularis s.l. and An. vagus adult females were collected from four randomly selected sentinel sites in Orang primary health centre (OPHC and Balipara primary health centre (BPHC areas, and used for testing susceptibility to DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. After insecticide susceptibility tests, mosquitoes were subjected to VectorTest™ assay kits to detect the presence of malaria sporozoite in the mosquitoes. An. annularis s.l. was completely susceptible to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion in both the study areas. An. vagus was highly susceptible to deltamethrin in both the areas, but exhibited reduced susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in BPHC. Both the species were resistant to DDT and showed very high KDT50 and KDT99 values for DDT. Probit model used to calculate the KDT50 and KDT99 values did not display normal distribution of percent knock-down with time for malathion in both the mosquito species in OPHC (p<0.05 and An. vagus in BPHC (χ2 = 25.3; p = 0.0, and also for deltamethrin to An. vagus in BPHC area (χ2 = 15.4; p = 0.004. Minimum infection rate (MIR of Plasmodium sporozoite for An. vagus was 0.56 in OPHC and 0.13 in BPHC, while for An. annularis MIR was found to be 0.22 in OPHC. Resistance management strategies should be identified to delay the expansion of resistance. Testing of field caught Anopheles vectors from different endemic areas for the presence of malaria sporozoite may be useful to ensure their role in malaria transmission.

  7. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Devojit K; Prakash, Anil; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Bhattacharyya, Dibya R; Mohapatra, Pradumnya K; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Das, Kanika; Singh, Sweta; Sarma, Nilanju P; Ahmed, Gias U; Walton, Catherine; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2012-03-20

    Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further

  8. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

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    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  9. Species\\' identification of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indoor and outdoor bites' collections of gravid Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes were made with plastic aspirator from residential areas within Jimeta-Yola metropolis for three years (between March and May; August and October 2003 to 2005). They were identified using standard morphological keys and polymerase chain ...

  10. Enkapsulasi B. bassiana menggunakan maizena dan daya infeksinya terhadap larva Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Encapsulation formulae of mycoinsecticide have to be able to maintain fungus viability and pathogenicity. This mycoinsecticide was developed as an alternative way to control mosquito borne disease. The aim of this study was to encapsulate Beauveria bassiana as viable storage and have the capability to kill larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. and Culex sp. Mosquito larvae obtained from laboratory reared at health research laboratory; Loka Litbang P2B2 Ciamis. The treatments made in this study were the formu-lation of cornstarch and controls for comparison. This study showed potential formulation of cornstarch encapsulation as a biolarvacidal. Cornstarch formulations proven to be succeed in maintaining fungus viability, however, the pathogenicity of the microcapsule still not effective to kill Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Keywords: encapsulation, Beauveria bassiana, Ae.aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex sp. Abstrak. Pembuatan formula bioinsektisida yang optimal sebagai salah satu alternatif untuk pengen-dalian nyamuk vektor perlu di kembangkan. Sediaan mikoinsektisida yang dibuat harus dapat memper-tahankan viabilitas jamur B. bassiana sehingga masih efektif pada saat penggunaannya. Salah satu cara yang digunakan untuk menjaga kestabilan sediaan mikoinsektisida yang berdampak langsung pada via-bilitas jamur adalah dengan menerapkan metode enkapsulasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-hasilkan sediaan mikokapsul dari Beauvaria bassiana melalui proses enkapsulasi menggunakan maizena yang memiliki kapabilitas tinggi sebagai penyimpan B. bassiana dan efektif dalam membunuh larva dan telur Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp. dan Culex sp. Semua larva uji berasal dari insektarium laboratorium penelitian kesehatan Loka litbang P2B2 Ciamis. Pembuatan enkapsulasi dimulai dengan kultur dan pema-nenan B. bassiana, uji viabilitas, proses enkapsulasi serta uji larvasida di laboratorium. Uji dilakukan dengan satu perlakuan dan satu kontrol untuk

  11. Genomic, Physiologic, and Symbiotic Characterization of Serratia marcescens Strains Isolated from the Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

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    Shicheng Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Serratia marcescens, originally isolated from the gut lumen of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, established persistent infection at high rates in adult A. stephensi whether fed to larvae or in the sugar meal to adults. By contrast, the congener S. fonticola originating from Aedes triseriatus had lower infection in A. stephensi, suggesting co-adaptation of Serratia strains in different species of host mosquitoes. Coinfection at high infection rate in adult A. stephensi resulted after feeding S. marcescens and Elizabethkingia anophelis in the sugar meal, but when fed together to larvae, infection rates with E. anophelis were much higher than were S. marcescens in adult A. stephensi, suggesting a suppression effect of coinfection across life stages. A primary isolate of S. marcescens was resistant to all tested antibiotics, showed high survival in the mosquito gut, and produced alpha-hemolysins which contributed to lysis of erythrocytes ingested with the blood meal. Genomes of two primary isolates from A. stephensi, designated S. marcescens ano1 and ano2, were sequenced and compared to other Serratia symbionts associated with insects, nematodes and plants. Serratia marcescens ano1 and ano2 had predicted virulence factors possibly involved in attacking parasites and/or causing opportunistic infection in mosquito hosts. S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 possessed multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including production of bacteriocins and multi-antibiotic resistance determinants. These genes contributing to potential anti-malaria activity including serralysins, hemolysins and chitinases are only found in some Serratia species. It is interesting that genome sequences in S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 are distinctly different from those in Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2 which were isolated from Anopheles gambiae. Compared to Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2, S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 have more rRNAs and many important

  12. Genomic, Physiologic, and Symbiotic Characterization of Serratia marcescens Strains Isolated from the Mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shicheng; Blom, Jochen; Walker, Edward D

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Serratia marcescens , originally isolated from the gut lumen of adult female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, established persistent infection at high rates in adult A. stephensi whether fed to larvae or in the sugar meal to adults. By contrast, the congener S. fonticola originating from Aedes triseriatus had lower infection in A. stephensi , suggesting co-adaptation of Serratia strains in different species of host mosquitoes. Coinfection at high infection rate in adult A. stephensi resulted after feeding S. marcescens and Elizabethkingia anophelis in the sugar meal, but when fed together to larvae, infection rates with E. anophelis were much higher than were S. marcescens in adult A. stephensi , suggesting a suppression effect of coinfection across life stages. A primary isolate of S. marcescens was resistant to all tested antibiotics, showed high survival in the mosquito gut, and produced alpha-hemolysins which contributed to lysis of erythrocytes ingested with the blood meal. Genomes of two primary isolates from A. stephensi , designated S. marcescens ano1 and ano2, were sequenced and compared to other Serratia symbionts associated with insects, nematodes and plants. Serratia marcescens ano1 and ano2 had predicted virulence factors possibly involved in attacking parasites and/or causing opportunistic infection in mosquito hosts. S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 possessed multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including production of bacteriocins and multi-antibiotic resistance determinants. These genes contributing to potential anti-malaria activity including serralysins, hemolysins and chitinases are only found in some Serratia species. It is interesting that genome sequences in S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 are distinctly different from those in Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2 which were isolated from Anopheles gambiae . Compared to Serratia sp. Ag1 and Ag2, S. marcescens ano1 and ano2 have more rRNAs and many important genes involved in

  13. Biological activities of four essential oils against Anopheles gambiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control of malaria is still a challenge partly due to mosquito's resistance to current available insecticides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellent activities of Lantana camara, Hyptis suaveolens, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum canum essential oils against Anopheles gambiae s.l. ...

  14. Dispersal Range of Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng City, China by Mark-Release-Recapture Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuhong; Ren, Dongsheng; Zheng, Canjun; Wu, Haixia; Yang, Shuran; Liu, Jingli; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Huazhong; Li, Qun; Yang, Weizhong; Chu, Cordia

    2012-01-01

    Background Studying the dispersal range of Anopheles sinensis is of major importance for understanding the transition from malaria control to elimination. However, no data are available regarding the dispersal range of An. sinensis in China. The aim of the present study was to study the dispersal range of An. sinensis and provide the scientific basis for the development of effective control measures for malaria elimination in China. Methodology/Principal Findings Mark-Release-Recapture (MRR) experiments were conducted with 3000 adult wild An. sinensis in 2010 and 3000 newly emerged wild An. sinensis in 2011 in two villages of Yongcheng City in Henan Province. Marked An. sinensis were recaptured daily for ten successive days using light traps. The overall recapture rates were 0.83% (95% CI, 0.50%∼1.16%) in 2010 and 1.33% (95% CI, 0.92%∼1.74%) in 2011. There was no significant difference in the recapture rates of wild An. sinensis and newly emerged An. sinensis. The majority of An. sinensis were captured due east at study site I compared with most in the west at study site II. Eighty percent and 90% of the marked An. sinensis were recaptured within a radius of 100 m from the release point in study site I and II, respectively, with a maximum dispersal range of 400 m within the period of this study. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that local An. sinensis may have limited dispersal ranges. Therefore, control efforts should target breeding and resting sites in proximity of the villages. PMID:23226489

  15. Pupal habitat productivity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a rural village in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuku, Francis M; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Vulule, John M; Kamau, Luna; Walker, Edward D; Kabiru, Ephantus; Hawley, William A

    2006-01-01

    The productivity of larval habitats of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae for pupae (the stage preceding adult metamorphosis) is poorly known, yet adult emergence from habitats is the primary determinant of vector density. To assess it, we used absolute sampling methods in four studies involving daily sampling for 25 days in 6 habitat types in a village in western Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. comprised 82.5% of emergent adults and Anopheles arabiensis the remainder. Pupal production occurred from a subset of habitats, primarily soil burrow pits, and was discontinuous in time, even when larvae occupied all habitats continuously. Habitat stability was positively associated with pupal productivity. In a dry season, pupal productivity was distributed between burrow pits and pools in streambeds. Overall, these data support the notion that source reduction measures against recognizably productive habitats would be a useful component of an integrated management program for An. gambiae in villages.

  16. Cannibalism and predation among larvae of the Anopheles gambiae complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2003-01-01

    Among the aquatic developmental stages of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae), both inter- and intra-specific interactions influence the resulting densities of adult mosquito populations. For three members of the complex, An. arabiensis Patton, An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) and An.

  17. Malaria case in Madagascar, probable implication of a new vector, Anopheles coustani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomichene, Thiery N J J; Tata, Etienne; Boyer, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Indoor spraying of insecticides and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets are key strategies for national malaria vector control in the central highlands of Madagascar. During the year 2013, malaria outbreaks were reported by the National Malaria Control Programme in the highlands, including the district of Ankazobe. Entomological trapping was carried out in April and May 2013 and in March 2014, using human landing catches, collection of mosquitoes resting in stables and in houses by oral aspirators, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps. Detection of Plasmodium in mosquitoes was carried out on head and thorax of anopheline females by ELISA, CSP and PCR (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium ovale). Human biting rate (HBR), sporozoite index and entomological infection rate (EIR) were calculated for Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles mascarensis, and Anopheles coustani. In Ankazobe district, the presence of malaria vectors such as An. funestus, An. arabiensis and An. mascarensis was confirmed, and a new and abundant potential vector, An. coustani was detected. Indeed, one individual of An. funestus and two An. coustani were detected positive with P. falciparum while one An. mascarensis and four An. coustani were positive with P. vivax. For An. coustani, in March 2014, the EIR varied from 0.01 infectious bites/person/month (ipm) outdoors to 0.11 ipm indoors. For An. funestus, in April 2013, the EIR was 0.13 ipm. The highest HBR value was observed for An. coustani, 86.13 ipm outdoors. The highest sporozoite rate was also for An. coustani, 9.5 % of An. coustani caught in stable was sporozoite positive. The implication of An. coustani in malaria transmission was not previously mentioned in Madagascar. Its very high abundance and the detection of Plasmodium coupled with an opportunistic feeding behaviour in villages with malaria cases supports its role in malaria transmission in Madagascar.

  18. Systematics and Population Level Analysis of Anopheles darlingi

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    Conn JE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phylogenetic analysis of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus (Danoff-Burg and Conn, unpub. data using six data sets {morphological (all life stages; scanning electron micrographs of eggs; nuclear ITS2 sequences; mitochondrial COII, ND2 and ND6 sequences} revealed different topologies when each data set was analyzed separately but no heterogeneity between the data sets using the arn test. Consequently, the most accurate estimate of the phylogeny was obtained when all the data were combined. This new phylogeny supports a monophyletic Nyssorhynchus subgenus but both previously recognized sections in the subgenus (Albimanus and Argyritarsis were demonstrated to be paraphyletic relative to each other and four of the seven clades included species previously placed in both sections. One of these clades includes both Anopheles darlingi and An. albimanus, suggesting that the ability to vector malaria effectively may have originated once in this subgenus. Both a conserved (315 bp and a variable (425 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene from 15 populations of An. darlingi from Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela were used to examine the evolutionary history of this species and to test several analytical assumptions. Results demonstrated (1 parsimony analysis is equally informative compared to distance analysis using NJ; (2 clades or clusters are more strongly supported when these two regions are combined compared to either region separately; (3 evidence (in the form of remnants of older haplotype lineages for two colonization events; and (4 significant genetic divergence within the population from Peixoto de Azevedo (State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The oldest lineage includes populations from Peixoto, Boa Vista (State of Roraima and Dourado (State of São Paulo.

  19. Anopheles gambiae Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase: Catalysis, Structure, and Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor,E.; Rinaldo-Matthis, A.; Li, L.; Ghanem, M.; Hazleton, K.; Cassera, M.; Almo, S.; Schramm, V.

    2007-01-01

    The purine salvage pathway of Anopheles gambiae, a mosquito that transmits malaria, has been identified in genome searches on the basis of sequence homology with characterized enzymes. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) is a target for the development of therapeutic agents in humans and purine auxotrophs, including malarial parasites. The PNP from Anopheles gambiae (AgPNP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and compared to the PNPs from Homo sapiens (HsPNP) and Plasmodium falciparum (PfPNP). AgPNP has kcat values of 54 and 41 s-1 for 2'-deoxyinosine and inosine, its preferred substrates, and 1.0 s-1 for guanosine. However, the chemical step is fast for AgPNP at 226 s-1 for guanosine in pre-steady-state studies. 5'-Deaza-1'-aza-2'-deoxy-1'-(9-methylene)-Immucillin-H (DADMe-ImmH) is a transition-state mimic for a 2'-deoxyinosine ribocation with a fully dissociated N-ribosidic bond and is a slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitor with a dissociation constant of 3.5 pM. This is the tightest-binding inhibitor known for any PNP, with a remarkable Km/Ki* of 5.4 x 107, and is consistent with enzymatic transition state predictions of enhanced transition-state analogue binding in enzymes with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Deoxyguanosine is a weaker substrate than deoxyinosine, and DADMe-Immucillin-G is less tightly bound than DADMe-ImmH, with a dissociation constant of 23 pM for AgPNP as compared to 7 pM for HsPNP. The crystal structure of AgPNP was determined in complex with DADMe-ImmH and phosphate to a resolution of 2.2 Angstroms to reveal the differences in substrate and inhibitor specificity. The distance from the N1' cation to the phosphate O4 anion is shorter in the AgPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}PO4 complex than in HsPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmH{center_dot}SO4, offering one explanation for the stronger inhibitory effect of DADMe-ImmH for AgPNP.

  20. Human biting activity, spatial-temporal distribution and malaria vector role of Anopheles calderoni in the southwest of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Lorena I; Ahumada, Martha L; Avila, Ivonni; Herrera, Sócrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2015-06-24

    Anopheles calderoni was first recognized in Colombia in 2010 as this species had been misidentified as Anopheles punctimacula due to morphological similarities. An. calderoni is considered a malaria vector in Peru and has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum in Colombia. However, its biting behaviour, population dynamics and epidemiological importance have not been well described for Colombia. To assess the contribution of An. calderoni to malaria transmission and its human biting behaviour and spatial/temporal distribution in the southwest of Colombia, human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections were carried out in a cross-sectional, entomological study in 22 localities between 2011 and 2012, and a longitudinal study was performed in the Boca de Prieta locality in Olaya Herrera municipality between July 2012 and June 2013. All mosquitoes determined as An. calderoni were tested by ELISA to establish infection with Plasmodium spp. Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected. An. calderoni adults were collected in 14 out of 22 localities during the cross-sectional study and represented 41.3% (459 of 1,111) of the collected adult specimens. Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%). In the localities that reported the highest malaria Annual Parasite Index (>10/1,000 inhabitants) during the year of sampling, An. calderoni was the predominant species (>90% of the specimens collected). In the longitudinal study, 1,528 An. calderoni were collected by HLC with highest biting rates in February, May and June 2013, periods of high precipitation. In general, the species showed a preference to bite outdoors (p Colombia. Its observed preference for outdoor biting is a major challenge for malaria control.

  1. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  2. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Pirmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mos­quito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection.Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition.Results: The mean assessed protection time and efficacy for A. vermiculata was 2.16 and 3.16 hours respectively and the obtained ED50 and ED90 for this plant was 5.67 and 63 µl/cm2 respectively. The figured for S. hortensis was 4.16 and 5 hours respectively.  ED50 and ED90 for this plant were 5.63 and 45.75µl/cm2 respectively.Conclusion: Results of investigation showed that S. hortensis plant has an acceptable protection time, therefore, this plant could be considered as a good herbal repellent against anopheles mosquitoes.

  3. The effect of physical water quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of Anopheles mosquito larvae around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kibret

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of mosquito larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is located close to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data, derived from weekly larval collections, showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of An. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitat than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitat. The density of An. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation. There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with the water and daily minimum atmospheric temperature. Similarly at Ejersa, over the sampling period, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats. These results confirm that physical characteristics of the water bodies play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes. Suitable breeding habitat in the vicinity of the reservoir village was strongly associated with the reservoir. This is particularly

  4. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  5. RDL mutations predict multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles sinensis in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Huang, Zushi; Li, Mei; Feng, Xiangyang; Qiu, Xinghui

    2017-11-28

    Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, encoded by the RDL (Resistant to dieldrin) gene, is the important target for insecticides of widely varied structures. The use of various insecticides in agriculture and vector control has inevitably led to the development of insecticide resistance, which may reduce the control effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence and distribution frequency of the resistance related mutation(s) in An. sinensis RDL to predict resistance to both the withdrawn cyclodienes (e.g. dieldrin) and currently used insecticides, such as fipronil. Two hundred and forty adults of An. sinensis collected from nine locations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were used. Two fragments of An. sinensis RDL (AsRDL) gene, covering the putative insecticide resistance related sites, were sequenced respectively. The haplotypes of each individual were reconstructed by the PHASE2.1 software, and confirmed by clone sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was built using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Genealogical relations among different haplotypes were also analysed using Network 5.0. The coding region of AsRDL gene was 1674 bp long, encoding a protein of 557 amino acids. AsRDL had 98.0% amino acid identity to that from Anopheles funestus, and shared common structural features of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. Three resistance-related amino acid substitutions (A296S, V327I and T345S) were detected in all the nine populations of An. sinensis in Guangxi, with the 296S mutation being the most abundant (77-100%), followed by 345S (22-47%) and 327I (8-60%). 38 AsRDL haplotypes were identified from 240 individuals at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 34.8%. Genealogical analysis suggested multiple origins of the 345S mutation in AsRDL. The near fixation of the 296S mutation and the occurrence of the 327I and 345S mutations in addition to 296S

  6. Vector Competence of Anopheles kleini and Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Republic of Korea to Vivax Malaria-Infected Blood From Patients From Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubalee, Ratawan; Kim, Heung-Chul; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, Patrick W; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Takhampunya, Ratree; Davidson, Silas A; Lee, Won-Ja; Klein, Terry A

    2016-11-01

    In total, 1,300 each of Anopheles kleini Rueda and Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann sensu stricto (s.s.) females (colonized from the Republic of Korea) and Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrison (Thai strain) were allowed to feed on blood from Thai malaria patients naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax The overall oocyst infection rates for An. dirus, An. kleini, and An. sinensis s.s. were 77.4, 46.1, and 45.9%, respectively. The mean number of oocysts was significantly higher for An. dirus (82.7) compared with An. kleini (6.1) and An. sinensis s.s. (8.6), whereas the mean number of oocysts for An. kleini and An. sinensis s.s. was similar. The overall sporozoite infection rates for An. dirus, An. kleini, and An. sinensis s.s. dissected on days 14-15, 21, and 28 days post-feed were significantly higher for An. dirus (90.0%) than An. kleini (5.4%), whereas An. kleini sporozoite rates were significantly higher than An. sinensis s.s. (1,000 sporozoites) salivary gland indices were significantly higher for An. dirus (85.7%), compared with An. kleini (47.1%). Only one An. sinensis s.s. had sporozoites (+2; >10-100 sporozoites). These results indicate that An. kleini is a competent vector of vivax malaria. Although An. sinensis s.s. develops relatively high numbers of oocysts, it is considered a very poor vector of vivax malaria due to a salivary gland barrier. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. GNBP domain of Anopheles darlingi: are polymorphic inversions and gene variation related to adaptive evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, L C; Rafael, M S

    2016-02-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in humans in South America. In the Amazon basin, it lives along the banks of rivers and lakes, which responds to the annual hydrological cycle (dry season and rainy season). In these breeding sites, the larvae of this mosquito feed on decomposing organic and microorganisms, which can be pathogenic and trigger the activation of innate immune system pathways, such as proteins Gram-negative binding protein (GNBP). Such environmental changes affect the occurrence of polymorphic inversions especially at the heterozygote frequency, which confer adaptative advantage compared to homozygous inversions. We mapped the GNBP probe to the An. darlingi 2Rd inversion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), which was a good indicator of the GNBP immune response related to the chromosomal polymorphic inversions and adaptative evolution. To better understand the evolutionary relations and time of divergence of the GNBP of An. darlingi, we compared it with nine other mosquito GNBPs. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of the GNBP sequence between the species of mosquitoes demonstrated three clades. Clade I and II included the GNBPB5 sequence, and clade III the sequence of GNBPB1. Most of these sequences of GNBP analyzed were homologous with that of subfamily B, including that of An. gambiae (87 %), therefore suggesting that GNBP of An. darling belongs to subfamily B. This work helps us understand the role of inversion polymorphism in evolution of An. darlingi.

  8. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, R Graham; Nhamahanga, Eduardo; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen

    2011-02-09

    The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS) programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475) of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167), 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53) and of those identified (n = 33) 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality), less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality) and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%). Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo), strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166). One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of bendiocarb within the estate for seven years and the

  9. Vectorial status and insecticide resistance of Anopheles funestus from a sugar estate in southern Mozambique

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    Nhamahanga Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dual problems of rising insecticide resistance in the malaria vectors and increasing human malaria cases since 2001 in southern Mozambique are cause for serious concern. The selection of insecticides for use in indoor residual spraying (IRS programmes is highly dependent on the extent to which local mosquitoes are susceptible to the approved classes of insecticides. The insecticide resistance status and role in malaria transmission of Anopheles funestus was evaluated at the Maragra Sugar Estate in southern Mozambique where an IRS vector control programme has been in operation for seven years using the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb. Results No Anopheles species were captured inside the sugar estate control area. Anopheles funestus group captured outside of the estate represented 90% (n = 475 of the total collections. Of the specimens identified to species by PCR (n = 167, 95% were An. funestus s.s. One An. rivulorum was identified and seven specimens did not amplify. The Anopheles gambiae complex was less abundant (n = 53 and of those identified (n = 33 76% were An. arabiensis and 24% An. merus. Insecticide susceptibility tests showed that wild-caught and F-1 family An. funestus were resistant to deltamethrin (32.5% mortality and lambda-cyhalothrin (14.6% mortality, less so to bendiocarb (71.5% mortality and fully susceptible to both malathion and DDT (100%. Bendiocarb and pyrethroid resistance was nullified using 4% piperonyl butoxide (Pbo, strongly suggesting that both are mediated by P450 monooxygenase detoxification. ELISA tests of An. funestus for Plasmodium falciparum, gave a sporozoite rate of 6.02% (n = 166. One unidentified member of the An. gambiae complex tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. Conclusion Anopheles funestus was found to be the most abundant and principle vector of malaria in this area, with members of the An. gambiae complex being secondary vectors. Despite the continual use of

  10. ASGDB: a specialised genomic resource for interpreting Anopheles sinensis insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Meng-Xue; Huang, Yun; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Chang-Liang

    2018-01-10

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in Southeast Asia. The widespread emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito species poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control measures, particularly in China. Recently, the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of An. sinensis (China strain) has been finished. A series of insecticide-resistant studies in An. sinensis have also been reported. There is a growing need to integrate these valuable data to provide a comprehensive database for further studies on insecticide-resistant management of An. sinensis. A bioinformatics database named An. sinensis genome database (ASGDB) was built. In addition to being a searchable database of published An. sinensis genome sequences and annotation, ASGDB provides in-depth analytical platforms for further understanding of the genomic and genetic data, including visualization of genomic data, orthologous relationship analysis, GO analysis, pathway analysis, expression analysis and resistance-related gene analysis. Moreover, ASGDB provides a panoramic view of insecticide resistance studies in An. sinensis in China. In total, 551 insecticide-resistant phenotypic and genotypic reports on An. sinensis distributed in Chinese malaria-endemic areas since the mid-1980s have been collected, manually edited in the same format and integrated into OpenLayers map-based interface, which allows the international community to assess and exploit the high volume of scattered data much easier. The database has been given the URL: http://www.asgdb.org /. ASGDB was built to help users mine data from the genome sequence of An. sinensis easily and effectively, especially with its advantages in insecticide resistance surveillance and control.

  11. Molecular evidence for historical presence of knock-down resistance in Anopheles albimanus, a key malaria vector in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lol, Juan C; Castellanos, María E; Liebman, Kelly A; Lenhart, Audrey; Pennington, Pamela M; Padilla, Norma R

    2013-09-18

    Anopheles albimanus is a key malaria vector in the northern neotropics. Current vector control measures in the region are based on mass distributions of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pyrethroids. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides can be mediated by increased esterase and/or multi-function oxidase activity and/or mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. The aim of this work was to characterize the homologous kdr region of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene in An. albimanus and to conduct a preliminary retrospective analysis of field samples collected in the 1990's, coinciding with a time of intense pyrethroid application related to agricultural and public health insect control in the region. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify the homologous kdr region in a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (Sanarate) of An. albimanus. Subsequently, a more specific primer pair was used to amplify and sequence the region that contains the 1014 codon associated with pyrethroid resistance in other Anopheles spp. (L1014F, L1014S or L1014C). Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of the susceptible kdr allele in the Sanarate strain (L1014) and the presence of homozygous-resistant kdr alleles in field-collected individuals from Mexico (L1014F), Nicaragua (L1014C) and Costa Rica (L1014C). For the first time, the kdr region in An. albimanus is described. Furthermore, molecular evidence suggests the presence of kdr-type resistance in field-collected An. albimanus in Mesoamerica in the 1990s. Further research is needed to conclusively determine an association between the genotypes and resistant phenotypes, and to what extent they may compromise current vector control efforts.

  12. Screening for adulticidal bioactivity of South African plants against Anopheles arabiensis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available of Corymbia citriodora (Myrtaceae), and leaves and seeds of both Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum suave (Lamiaceae) had exhibited a signifi- cant repellent effect against Anopheles gambiae s.s and An. arabiensis during application of plant material...

  13. Molecular taxonomy provides new insights into anopheles species of the neotropical arribalzagia series.

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    Giovan F Gómez

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 sequences were used to evaluate initial identification and to investigate phylogenetic relationships of seven Anopheles morphospecies of the Arribalzagia Series from Colombia. Phylogenetic trees recovered highly supported clades for An. punctimaculas.s., An. calderoni, An. malefactor s.l., An. neomaculipalpus, An. apicimacula s.l., An. mattogrossensis and An. peryassui. This study provides the first molecular confirmation of An. malefactorfrom Colombia and discovered conflicting patterns of divergence for the molecular markers among specimens from northeast and northern Colombia suggesting the presence of two previously unrecognized Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs. Furthermore, two highly differentiated An. apicimacula MOTUs previously found in Panama were detected. Overall, the combined molecular dataset facilitated the detection of known and new Colombian evolutionary lineages, and constitutes the baseline for future research on their bionomics, ecology and potential role as malaria vectors.

  14. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Paulo Rufalco; Gil, Luis Herman Soares; Cruz, Rafael Bastos; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

    2011-06-24

    Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi.

  15. Effect of larval crowding on mating competitiveness of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'habi, K.R.; John, B.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Killeen, G.F.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The success of sterile or transgenic Anopheles for malaria control depends on their mating competitiveness within wild populations. Current evidence suggests that transgenic mosquitoes have reduced fitness. One means of compensating for this fitness deficit would be to identify

  16. Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of Anopheles larvae along the Kenyan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Mbogo, Charles M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Nzovu, Joseph G; Githure, John I; Yan, Guiyun; Minakawa, Noboru; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C

    2007-03-01

    A study was conducted to characterise larval habitats and to determine spatial heterogeneity of the Anopheles mosquito larvae. The study was conducted from May to June 1999 in nine villages along the Kenyan coast. Aquatic habitats were sampled by use of standard dipping technique. The habitats were characterised based on size, pH, distance to the nearest house, coverage of canopy, surface debris, algae and emergent plants, turbidity, substrate, and habitat type. A total of 110 aquatic habitats like stream pools (n=10); puddles (n=65); tire tracks (n=5); ponds (n=5) and swamps (n=25) were sampled in nine villages located in three districts of the Kenyan coast. A total of 7,263 Anopheles mosquito larvae were collected, 63.9% were early instars and 36.1% were late instars. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by use of microscopy yielded 90.66% (n=2377) Anopheles gambiae Complex, 0.88% (n=23) An. funestus, An. coustani 7.63% (n=200), An. rivulorum 0.42% (n=11), An. pharoensis 0.19% (n=5), An. swahilicus 0.08% (n=2), An. wilsoni 0.04% (n=1) and 0.11% (n=3) were unidentified. A subset of the An. gambiae Complex larvae identified morphologically, was further analysed using rDNA-PCR technique resulting in 68.22% (n=1290) An. gambiae s.s., 7.93% (n=150) An. arabiensis and 23.85% (n=451) An. merus. Multiple logistic regression model showed that emergent plants (p = 0.019), and floating debris (p = 0.038) were the best predictors of An. gambiae larval abundance in these habitats. Habitat type, floating debris and emergent plants were found to be the key factors determining the presence of Anopheles larvae in the habitats. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered and most productive habitat type be given a priority in the mosquito abatement programme.

  17. Laboratory evolution of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against Anopheles stephensi larvae (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rahele Veys-Behbahani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine Beauveria bassiana (B. bassiana fungus bioassay against the larval stages of Anopheles stephensi in Iran. Methods: The fungal suspension by the concentrations of 1伊1 09, 5伊1 08, 1 08, 5伊1 07 and 1伊 107 conidia per milliliter have been prepared in different volumes (2, 4 and 6 mL and each concentration were added to containers containing 25 Anopheles larva instars 1 and 2. The mortality of the dead larvae with abnormal symptoms was recorded as a result of the fungal infection after 24, 48 and 72 h. Results: Comparison between the mean mortality rate of Anopheles stephensi larva at different concentrations of B. bassiana strain Iran 429C at 2, 4 and 6 mL showed that there was no significant relation of the mean mortality rate of larvae at concentrations of 1伊109 and 5伊108, and after 48 h resulted in 100% mortality rate of the larvae populations. In addition, there is no significant differences in the amounts of lethal times (LT (LT50 and LT90 as LT90 values calculated at a concentration of 5伊108 and in volumes 2, 4 and 6 mL were 1.46, 1.36 and 1.08 d, respectively. Conclusions: B. bassiana strain Iran 429C in 2 mL of 5伊108 concentration or the concentration of a 1伊109 mL per 100 mL of water is recommended as the optimal concentration for the control of Anopheles larvae. The development of suitable formulations of entomopathogenic fungi may be a promising prospect in the mosquito control programs.

  18. Ability of TEP1 in intestinal flora to modulate natural resistance of Anopheles dirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jingru; Xu, Wenyue; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Fu Sheng

    2013-08-01

    Blocking transmission of malaria is a reliable way to control and eliminate infection. However, in-depth knowledge of the interaction between Plasmodium and mosquito is needed. Studies suggest that innate immunity is the main mechanism inhibiting development of malaria parasites in the mosquito. Recent studies have found that use of antibiotics that inhibit the mosquito gut flora can reduce the immune response of Anopheles gambiae, thereby contributing to the development of malaria parasites. In our study, we used the non susceptible model of Anopheles dirus-Plasmodium yoelii to explore the effect of Anopheles intestinal flora on the natural resistance of A. dirus to P. yoelii. We found that in mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium, the intestinal flora can regulate expression of thioester-containing protein (TEP1) via an RNAi gene-silencing approach. Our results suggest that in the absence of TEP1, the natural microbiota cannot suppress the development of P. yoelii in A. dirus. This suggests that AdTEP1 plays an important role in the resistance of A. dirus to P. yoelii. The intestinal flora may modulate the development of P. yoelii in A. dirus by regulating TEP1 expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

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    Christophe Paupy

    Full Text Available During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  20. Efficacy of bifenthrin-impregnated bednets against Anopheles funestus and pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae in North Cameroon

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    Chouaibou Mouhamadou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential to evaluate ITNs efficacy in areas with metabolic-based resistance. Methods Bifenthrin was used in this experiment because it is considered a promising candidate for bednets impregnation. Nets were treated at 50 mg/m2, a dose that has high insecticidal activity on kdr mosquitoes and at 5 mg/m2, a dose that kills 95% of susceptible mosquitoes under laboratory conditions with 3 minutes exposure. Bednets were holed to mimic physical damage. The trial was conducted in three experimental huts from Pitoa, North-Cameroon where Anopheles gambiae displays metabolic resistance and cohabits with An. funestus. Results Bifenthrin at 50 mg/m2 significantly reduced anophelines' entry rate (>80%. This was not observed at 5 mg/m2. Both treatments increased exophily in An. gambiae, and to a lesser extent in An. funestus. With bifenthrin at high dosage, over 60% reduction in blood feeding and 75–90% mortality rates were observed in both vectors. Despite presence of holes, only a single An. gambiae and two An. funestus females were collected inside the treated net, and all were found dead. The same trends were observed with low dosage bifenthrin though in most cases, no significant difference was found with the untreated control net. Conclusion Bifenthrin-impregnated bednets at 50 mg/m2 were efficient in the reduction of human-vector contact in Pitoa. Considerable personal protection was gained against An. funestus and metabolic pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae populations.

  1. Efficacy of bifenthrin-impregnated bednets against Anopheles funestus and pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae in North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaibou, Mouhamadou; Simard, Frédéric; Chandre, Fabrice; Etang, Josiane; Darriet, Frédéric; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent field studies indicated that insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) maintain their efficacy despite a high frequency of the knock-down resistance (kdr) gene in Anopheles gambiae populations. It was essential to evaluate ITNs efficacy in areas with metabolic-based resistance. Methods Bifenthrin was used in this experiment because it is considered a promising candidate for bednets impregnation. Nets were treated at 50 mg/m2, a dose that has high insecticidal activity on kdr mosquitoes and at 5 mg/m2, a dose that kills 95% of susceptible mosquitoes under laboratory conditions with 3 minutes exposure. Bednets were holed to mimic physical damage. The trial was conducted in three experimental huts from Pitoa, North-Cameroon where Anopheles gambiae displays metabolic resistance and cohabits with An. funestus. Results Bifenthrin at 50 mg/m2 significantly reduced anophelines' entry rate (>80%). This was not observed at 5 mg/m2. Both treatments increased exophily in An. gambiae, and to a lesser extent in An. funestus. With bifenthrin at high dosage, over 60% reduction in blood feeding and 75–90% mortality rates were observed in both vectors. Despite presence of holes, only a single An. gambiae and two An. funestus females were collected inside the treated net, and all were found dead. The same trends were observed with low dosage bifenthrin though in most cases, no significant difference was found with the untreated control net. Conclusion Bifenthrin-impregnated bednets at 50 mg/m2 were efficient in the reduction of human-vector contact in Pitoa. Considerable personal protection was gained against An. funestus and metabolic pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae populations. PMID:16961938

  2. Larvicidal activity of Zanthoxylum acanthopodium essential oil against the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qi; Wang, Wenxia; Zhu, Liang

    2018-05-15

    Zanthoxylum acanthopodium has insecticidal effect in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, the essential oil from the dried Zanthoxylum plant was used as a larvicidal compound against the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis. Compounds in the Zanthoxylum essential oil were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The larvicidal bioassays of the whole oil, as well as the main compounds in the oil (estragole and eucalyptol) were performed using WHO method. In total, 63 main compounds (99.32%) were found in the oils, including estragole (15.46%), eucalyptol (10.94%), β-caryophyllene (5.52%), cis-linalool oxide (3.76%), cis-limonene oxide (3.06%). A dose-dependent effect on mortality was recorded with increasing concentrations of essential oil and compounds increasing mortality of the larvae. Larvicidal bioassays revealed that 24 h LC 50 of the whole essential oil was 36.00 mg/L and LC 90 was 101.49 mg/L against An. anthropophagus, while LC 50 was 49.02 mg/L and LC 90 was 125.18 mg/L against An. sinensis. Additionally, 24 h LC 50 of estragole were 38.56 and 41.67 mg/L against An. anthropophagus and An. sinensis, respectively, while the related LC 90 were 95.90 and 107.89 mg/L. LC 50 of eucalyptol were 42.41 and 45.49 mg/L against An. anthropophagus and An. sinensis, while the related LC 90 were 114.45 and 124.95 mg/L. The essential oil of Z. acanthopodium and its several major compounds may have potential for use in the control of malaria mosquitoes.

  3. Genetics of refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, A.M.; Gemert, Geert-Jan van; Vegte-Bolmer, Marga G. van de; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1998-01-01

    We previously selected a line of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi refractory (resistant) to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro infections with P. falciparum gametocytes. This report presents data on the genetic background of refractoriness. The results of

  4. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharaj, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available through effects of hor- mone regulation with subsequent disruption of instar development of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefas- ciatus and Aedes aegypti [34]. Tiwari et al. [35] found that the essential oil obtained from seeds of Zanthoxy- lum.... Geerts S, Van Blerk K, Triest L: Effect of Ambrosia maritima on Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. J Ethnopharmacol 1994, 42:7?11. 20. Evans DA, Raj RK: Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res 1988, 88:38?41. 21...

  5. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, B. M.; Tekie, H.; McCartney, M.; Kibret, S.

    2010-08-01

    Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, plevels and the number of positive breeding habitats at Ejersa during the sampling period (r=0.605, pphysical characteristics such as water temperature, turbidity, depth and vegetation cover play an important role in the species composition, total Anopheles larval count, and the density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the vicinity. The proliferation of suitable breeding habitats around the reservoir villages is strongly associated with reservoir water level changes. This is particularly important for A. pharoensis and A. arabiensis which are important vectors of malaria in the area. Further investigation on the species diversity, physical and chemical habitat characteristics and impact of water holding capacity of the soil need to be done to generate detailed baseline data which will serve as a basis

  6. The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes under climate change: case studies from the effects of deforestation in East African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High-elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis, and O'nyong'nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area that may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall, which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. These experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. PERANAN Anopheles barbirostris VANDER WULP SEBAGAI PENULAR PENYAKIT

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    Hasan Boesri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An. barbirostris is one of mosquito of the genus Anopheles and was classified as 23-57 old days. It can be found at rice fields and swamps at an altitude of 2770 meters above sea level. The most preferred habitat is fresh water and pH 6-7. It is anthropolophilic and endophilic. This species in some areas, especially in East Nusa Tenggara role in transmitting malaria and filariasis.   Key words: An. barbirostris

  8. An Algal Diet Accelerates Larval Growth of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, N; Kohzu, A; Tayasu, I; Nakayama, T; Githeko, A; Yan, G

    2018-01-21

    The population sizes of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) increase dramatically with the onset of the rainy season in sub-Saharan Africa, but the ecological mechanisms underlying the increases are not well understood. As a first step toward to understand, we investigated the proliferation of algae, the major food of mosquito larvae, in artificial fresh water bodies exposed to sunlight for a short period, and old water bodies exposed to sunlight for a long period, and the effects thereof on the development of these anopheline larvae. We found that an epizoic green algal species of the genus Rhopalosolen (Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae) proliferated immediately after water freshly taken from a spring was placed in sunlight. This alga proliferated only briefly (for ~10 d) even if the water was repeatedly exposed to sunlight. However, various algal species were observed in water that remained under sunlight for 40 d or longer (i.e., in old water bodies). The growth performance of larvae was higher in sunlight-exposed (alga-rich) water than in shade-stored (alga-poor) water. Stable isotope analysis suggested that these two anopheline species fed on Rhopalosolen algae in fresh water bodies but hardly at all on other algae occurring in the old water bodies. We concluded that freshly formed ground water pools facilitate high production of anopheline species because of the proliferation of Rhopalosolen algae therein, and the increase in the number of such pools in the rainy season, followed by rapid increases in A. gambiae and A. arabiensis numbers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. STUDI BIOEKOLOGI NYAMUK Anopheles sundaicus DI DESA SUKARESIK KECAMATAN SIDAMULIH KABUPATEN CIAMIS

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    Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sukaresik village Sidamulih Sub-District Ciamis remains as an area with high risk malaria in West Java. Studying vector bioecology on a region is important to support vector and disease control. A spot-survey study had been conducted during September-November 2011 in order to obtain vector bioecology information in Sukaresik village, Ciamis, i.e breeding sites distribution, vector density, and longevity of Anopheles sundaicus. Potential breeding sites were plotted and its environmental variables, i.e altitude, salinity, water temperature, pH, and water level were measured. Larval collected by dipper and adult mosquitos were captured using human-landing collection which consisted of 12-h (18:00-06:00 indoor and outdoor human-landing captures. Ovary dissection was assigned to female Anopheles sundaicus to measure its longevity. Man-Biting Rate and Man-Hour Density were calculated based on WHO formula. Result shows that there were six potential breeding sites consisted of unproductive fishpool and rice field on 34-46 m asl, salinity 0-0.1‰, water temperature 28-33°C, pH 7, and water level 50-200 cm. A total of 1,012 An. sundaicus were caught during the study. Man-biting rate of An. sundaicus was 1.98 per person per night and its man-hour density was 2.98 per person per hour. Peak landing time of An. sundaicus was between 00.00-04.00; parity rate of dissected 547 female An. sundaicus was 66%; daily survival rate was 0.871; and its longevity was up to 7 days. Keywords: bioecology, vector, malaria, An. sundaicus, Ciamis Abstrak Desa Sukaresik Kecamatan Sidamulih Kabupaten Ciamis masih menjadi salah satu daerah dengan risiko malaria yang cukup tinggi di Jawa Barat. Sebagai bagian dari upaya pengendalian vektor dan  malaria, informasi bioekologi vektor malaria sangat penting untuk dipahami. Sebuah studi dengan desain spot survey telah dilakukan dilakukan di Desa Sukaresik, Kecamatan Sidamulih, Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat pada bulan

  10. Discovery of global genomic re-organization based on comparison of two newly sequenced rice mitochondrial genomes with cytoplasmic male sterility-related genes

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    Yamada Mari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genomes are known for their complexity, and there is abundant evidence demonstrating that this organelle is important for plant sexual reproduction. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is a phenomenon caused by incompatibility between the nucleus and mitochondria that has been discovered in various plant species. As the exact sequence of steps leading to CMS has not yet been revealed, efforts should be made to elucidate the factors underlying the mechanism of this important trait for crop breeding. Results Two CMS mitochondrial genomes, LD-CMS, derived from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica (434,735 bp, and CW-CMS, derived from Oryza rufipogon Griff. (559,045 bp, were newly sequenced in this study. Compared to the previously sequenced Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica mitochondrial genome, the presence of 54 out of 56 protein-encoding genes (including pseudo-genes, 22 tRNA genes (including pseudo-tRNAs, and three rRNA genes was conserved. Two other genes were not present in the CW-CMS mitochondrial genome, and one of them was present as part of the newly identified chimeric ORF, CW-orf307. At least 12 genomic recombination events were predicted between the LD-CMS mitochondrial genome and Nipponbare, and 15 between the CW-CMS genome and Nipponbare, and novel genetic structures were formed by these genomic rearrangements in the two CMS lines. At least one of the genomic rearrangements was completely unique to each CMS line and not present in 69 rice cultivars or 9 accessions of O. rufipogon. Conclusion Our results demonstrate novel mitochondrial genomic rearrangements that are unique in CMS cytoplasm, and one of the genes that is unique in the CW mitochondrial genome, CW-orf307, appeared to be the candidate most likely responsible for the CW-CMS event. Genomic rearrangements were dynamic in the CMS lines in comparison with those of rice cultivars, suggesting that 'death' and possible 'birth' processes of the

  11. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Nyssorhynchus, corn especial referencia a morfologia dos ovos. Rev. Biol. Hyg. 9:51- 60. 1938b. Observacoes sobre o ciclo evolutivo de Anopheles oswaldoi...Anofelinos do Vale do Paraiba. Nova variedade e ciclo evolutivo do Anofeles (Nyssorhynchus) osvaldoi var. ayrozai n. var. Ann. Paul. Med. Cir. 40:377

  12. Essential Oils as an Alternative to Pyrethroids' Resistance against Anopheles Species Complex Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor

    2017-09-22

    Widespread resistance of Anopheles sp. populations to pyrethroid insecticides has led to the search for sustainable alternatives in the plant kingdom. Among many botanicals, there is great interest in essential oils and their constituents. Many researchers have explored essential oils (EOs) to determine their toxicity and identify repellent molecules that are effective against Anopheles populations. Essential oils are volatile and fragrant substances with an oily consistency typically produced by plants. They contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes and terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components and aliphatic components at quite different concentrations with a significant insecticide potential, essentially as ovicidal, larvicidal, adulticidal, repellency, antifeedant, growth and reproduction inhibitors. The current review provides a summary of chemical composition of EOs, their toxicity at different developmental stages (eggs, larvae and adults), their repellent effects against Anopheles populations, for which there is little information available until now. An overview of antagonist and synergistic phenomena between secondary metabolites, the mode of action as well as microencapsulation technologies are also given in this review. Finally, the potential use of EOs as an alternative to current insecticides has been discussed.

  13. The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: An Hα study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z = 1.52

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    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimakawa, Rhythm, E-mail: koyama.yusei@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z = 1.52 (4C 65.22) based on our broadband and narrow-band (Hα) photometry with the Subaru Telescope. We find that Hα emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z ∼ 1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within r{sub c} ≲ 200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ∼1 Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

  14. Diversity and transmission competence in lymphatic filariasis vectors in West Africa, and the implications for accelerated elimination of Anopheles-transmitted filariasis

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    de Souza Dziedzom K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic Filariasis (LF is targeted for elimination by the Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF. The strategy adopted is based on the density dependent phenomenon of Facilitation, which hypothesizes that in an area where the vector species transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti are Anopheles mosquitoes, it is feasible to eliminate LF using Mass Drug Administration (MDA because of the inability of Anopheles species to transmit low-density microfilaraemia. Even though earlier studies have shown Anopheles species can exhibit the process of Facilitation in West Africa, observations point towards the process of Limitation in certain areas, in which case vector control is recommended. Studies on Anopheles species in West Africa have also shown genetic differentiation, cryptic taxa and speciation, insecticide resistance and the existence of molecular and chromosomal forms, all of which could influence the vectorial capacity of the mosquitoes and ultimately the elimination goal. This paper outlines the uniqueness of LF vectors in West Africa and the challenges it poses to the 2020 elimination goal, based on the current MDA strategies.

  15. Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ulesido, Fekadu Massebo; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-01-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of ...

  16. Factors affecting the vectorial competence of Anopheles gambiae: a question of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria transmission in Africa is without doubt governed by the existence of a group of highly efficient vectors, of which Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto is predominant. The endophilic and anthropophagic behaviours of this mosquito create an intimate association between the human reservoir

  17. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus s.s. and allied species in southern Africa

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    Choi Kwang Shik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus s.s., one of the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, belongs to a group of eleven African species that are morphologically similar at the adult stage, most of which do not transmit malaria. The population structure of An. funestus based on mitochondrial DNA data led to the description of two cryptic subdivisions, clade I widespread throughout Africa and clade II known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. In this study, we investigated five common members of the Anopheles funestus group in southern Africa in order to determine relationships within and between species. Methods A total of 155 specimens of An. funestus, An. parensis, An. vaneedeni, An. funestus-like and An. rivulorum from South Africa, Mozambique and Malawi were used for the study. The population genetic structure was assessed within and between populations using mitochondrial DNA. Results The phylogenetic trees revealed three main lineages: 1 An. rivulorum; 2 An. funestus-like clade I and An. parensis clade II; and 3 An. funestus clades I and II, An. funestus-like clade II, An. parensis clade I and An. vaneedeni clades I and II. Within An. funestus, 32 specimens from Mozambique consisted of 40.6% clade I and 59.4% clade II while all 21 individuals from Malawi were clade I. In the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, there were 37 polymorphic sites and 9 fixed different nucleotides for ND5 and 21 polymorphic sites and 6 fixed different nucleotides for COI between the two An. funestus clades. The results for COI supported the ND5 analysis. Conclusion This is the first report comparing An. funestus group species including An. funestus clades I and II and the new species An. funestus-like. Anopheles funestus clade I is separated from the rest of the members of the An. funestus subgroup and An. funestus-like is distinctly distributed from the other species in this study. However, there were two clades for An. funestus-like, An

  18. Additional selection for insecticide resistance in urban malaria vectors: DDT resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

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    Christopher M Jones

    Full Text Available In the city of Bobo-Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, Anopheles arabiensis has superseded Anopheles gambiae s.s. as the major malaria vector and the larvae are found in highly polluted habitats normally considered unsuitable for Anopheles mosquitoes. Here we show that An. gambiae s.l. adults emerging from a highly polluted site in the city centre (Dioulassoba have a high prevalence of DDT resistance (percentage mortality after exposure to diagnostic dose=65.8% in the dry season and 70.4% in the rainy season, respectively. An investigation into the mechanisms responsible found an unexpectedly high frequency of the 1014S kdr mutation (allele frequency=0.4, which is found at very low frequencies in An. arabiensis in the surrounding rural areas, and an increase in transcript levels of several detoxification genes, notably from the glutathione transferase and cytochrome P450 gene families. A number of ABC transporter genes were also expressed at elevated levels in the DDT resistant An. arabiensis. Unplanned urbanisation provides numerous breeding grounds for mosquitoes. The finding that Anopheles mosquitoes adapted to these urban breeding sites have a high prevalence of insecticide resistance has important implications for our understanding of the selective forces responsible for the rapid spread of insecticide resistant populations of malaria vectors in Africa.

  19. El doctor Moreno Pérez y el anopheles crucians

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    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1943-03-01

    Full Text Available En el año de 1933, con ocasión del conflicto del Amazonas, el doctor Ignacio Moreno·Pérez trabajó como médico de sanidad en la hoya del río Caquetá. Prosiguiendo sus estudios sobre paludismo y mosquitos transmisores a que dedicó gran parte de su meritoria vida, practicó una inspección entomológica de las cercanías de Florencia, capital de la comisaria del Caquetá, y encontró una raza en aguas salobres de Anopheles crucians. El hallazgo comunicado por él en el informe de 1934 de la comisión de paludismo del valle del Magdalena, (Estudios de Paludismo en el Valle del Magdalena, Departamento Nacional de Higiene, Sección de Sanidad Rural, Bogotá editorial de "Cromos", 1934, despertó mucho interés y fué objeto de controversias, porque conforme a los estudios de Howard, Dyar y Knab (1917, la localización del Anopheles crucians era casi hiperbórea, por encima del paralelo 25 en la América del Norte y solamente se había logrado ver además en Cuba y Jamaica.

  20. Inference of the oxidative stress network in Anopheles stephensi upon Plasmodium infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Nandal, Umesh Kumar; Adak, Tridibes; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Sunil, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of Anopheles midgut is a critical step for malaria transmission; the parasite numbers drop drastically and practically reach a minimum during the parasite's whole life cycle. At this stage, the parasite as well as the vector undergoes immense oxidative stress. Thereafter, the

  1. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  2. Anopheles culicifacies sibling species in Odisha, eastern India: First appearance of Anopheles culicifacies E and its vectorial role in malaria transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mumani; Das, Biswadeep; Patra, Aparna P; Tripathy, Hare K; Mohapatra, Namita; Kar, Santanu K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2013-07-01

    To identify the Anopheles culicifacies sibling species complex and study their vectorial role in malaria endemic regions of Odisha. Mosquitoes were collected from 6 malaria endemic districts using standard entomological collection methods. An. culicifacies sibling species were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) region of mitochondrial DNA. Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite rate and human blood fed percentage (HBF) were estimated by PCR using Pf- and human-specific primers. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to confirm the type of sibling species of An. culicifacies found in Odisha. Multiplex PCR detected An. culicifacies sibling species A, B, C, D and E in the malaria endemic regions of Odisha. An. culicifacies E was detected for the first time in Odisha, which was further confirmed by molecular phylogenetics. Highest sporozoite rate and HBF percentage were observed in An. culicifacies E in comparison with other sibling species. An. culicifacies E collected from Nawarangapur, Nuapara and Keonjhar district showed high HBF percentage and sporozoite rates. An. culicifacies B was the most abundant species, followed by An. culicifacies C and E. High sporozoite rate and HBF of An. culicifacies E indicated that it plays an important role in malaria transmission in Odisha. Appropriate control measures against An. culicifacies E at an early stage are needed to prevent further malaria transmission in Odisha. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Malaria Transmission in East-Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Krishnamoorthy, N; Vanamail, P; Mathivanan, A; Manonmani, A; Jambulingam, P

    2017-07-01

    The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

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    Read Andrew F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of Anopheles. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii. Methods Over two experiments, groups of An. stephensi were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or P. yoelii. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed. Results and conclusion Both infected and uninfected An. stephensi showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult Anopheles.

  5. Irritant and repellent responses of Anopheles harrisoni and Anopheles minimus upon exposure to bifenthrin or deltamethrin using an excito-repellency system and a live host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmee, Monthathip; Boonyuan, Wasana; Achee, Nicole L; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-03-01

    Feeding responses of Anopheles harrisoni and An. minimus were evaluated following exposure to 2 pyrethroid insecticides, bifenthrin or deltamethrin, using an excito-repellency test system in the presence and absence of live host cues. The results demonstrated that contact irritancy was the primary action of bifenthrin or deltamethrin in both mosquito species. There was no noncontact repellency effect elicited by either insecticide. Anopheles minimus showed rapid escape response with high mortality rates following direct contact with deltamethrin in the absence of a host and delayed escape responses when a host was present. Similarly, exposure of An. minimus to bifenthrin also elicited a delayed escape response in the presence of a host but with lower mortality rates. In experiments using An. harrisoni, the presence or absence of a host had no significant effect on behavioral responses to either insecticide (P > 0.05). We conclude that deltamethrin elicited stronger irritant chemical effects than bifenthrin but that behavioral responses in vector populations are dampened in the presence of an available host. This information is useful for estimating probability of pathogen transmission when using irritant chemicals in proximity to a blood-meal source.

  6. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Field evaluation of synthetic lure (3-methyl-1-butanol) when compared to non odor-baited control in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Derfus, Kristin; Andrianjafy, Mbolatiana Tovo; Wright, Patricia C; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-03-07

    Malaria is the 4(th) largest cause of mortality in Madagascar. To better understand malaria transmission dynamics, it is crucial to map the distribution of the malaria vectors, mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles. To do so, it is important to have a strong Anopheles-specific lure to ensure the maximum number of captures. Previous studies have isolated volatiles from the human skin microbiota and found the compound 3-methyl-1-butanol to be the most attractive to the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in a laboratory setting; and recommended 3-methyl-1-butanol as a compound to increase An. gambiae captures in the field. To date, this compound's ability to lure wild mosquitoes in differing land-use settings has not been tested. In this study, we evaluate the role of the synthetic compound, 3-methyl-1-butanol in combination with field produced CO(2) in attracting Anopheles mosquitoes in varying land-use sites in Madagascar. CDC miniature light traps in combination with field produced CO(2) were deployed in and around six villages near Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. To test the role of 3-methyl-1-butanol in luring Anopheles mosquitoes, two traps were set in each land-use site (village, agricultural sites, and forested habitats affiliated with each village). One was baited with the synthetic odor and the other was kept as a non-baited control. While 3-methyl-1-butanol baited traps did capture An. gambiae s.l. in this study, we did not find traps baited with synthetic 3-methyl-1-butanol to be more successful in capturing Anopheles mosquitoes, (including Anopheles gambiae s.l.) than the non odor-baited control traps in any of the land-use sites examined; however, regardless of odor bait, trapping near livestock pens resulted in the capture of significantly more Anopheles specimens. A strong synthetic lure in combination with insecticide has great potential as a mosquito control. Our findings suggest that trapping mosquitoes near livestock in malaria

  8. Aspectos ecológicos de Anopheles cruzii e Culex ribeirensis (Diptera, Culicidae da Mata Atlântica de Morretes, Paraná, Brasil Ecological aspects of Anopheles cruzii and Culex ribeirensis (Diptera, Culicidae in Atlantic Forest of Morretes, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga dos Santos-Neto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi realizado sobre mosquitos adultos de abril 1995 a março 1996 na Mata Atlântica do município de Morretes, Paraná, Brasil. A investigação foi procedida com auxílio de duas armadilhas luminosas CDC-M instaladas em estratos verticais diferentes. Os mosquitos foram capturados mensalmente durante um ano, com início às 18 horas e término às 6 horas do dia seguinte, totalizando 144 horas de trabalho de campo. Obteve-se 1.408 exemplares de mosquitos (409 na copa e 999 próximo ao solo, pertencentes a 10 gêneros e 31 espécies. Anopheles cruzii e Culex ribeirensis foram predominantes e são objetos do presente estudo. Não foi observada diferença entre as armadilhas para Anopheles cruzii. Mas Culex ribeirensis foi coletado em maior número pela CDC-M/solo. Anopheles cruzii, quanto à freqüência horária, apresentou picos nas primeiras horas da noite, depois a sua atividade decresceu progressivamente até o crepúsculo matutino, sem apresentar um pico secundário. Em referência a distribuição mensal, Anopheles cruzii foi mais freqüente nos meses de abril e maio de 1995 e março de 1996. Não houve correlação do número de exemplares com a temperatura ou precipitações pluviométricas. Culex ribeirensis apresentou maior atividade de vôo de 22h às 4h, mas não houve picos significativos. Nas coletas obtidas por mês, Culex ribeirensis teve picos em dezembro e janeiro. Houve correlação do número de espécimes deste culicíneo com a temperatura e precipitações pluviométricas. Constituem os primeiros registros para o Estado do Paraná: Ochlerotatus rhyacophilus, Culex misionensis, Culex pedroi, Culex ribeirensis e Culex zeteki.A study of adult mosquitoes was performed from April 1995 to March 1996 in the Atlantic Forest near to Morretes city, Paraná, Brazil. The research was carried out by using two CDC-M light traps installed in different vertical stratification levels. Mosquitoes were collected monthly throughout

  9. Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, Moussa B M; Keita, Chitan; Dicko, Abdourhamane; Dengela, Dereje; Coleman, Jane; Lucas, Bradford; Mihigo, Jules; Sadou, Aboubacar; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Beach, Raymond

    2015-08-22

    The impact of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), key components of the national malaria control strategy of Mali, is threatened by vector insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Mali against four classes of insecticide recommended for IRS: organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs), carbamates (CAs) and organophosphates (OPs). Characterization of resistance was done in 13 sites across southern Mali and assessed presence and distribution of physiological mechanisms that included target-site modifications: knockdown resistance (kdr) and altered acetycholinesterase (AChE), and/or metabolic mechanisms: elevated esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and monooxygenases. The World Health Organization (WHO) tube test was used to determine phenotypic resistance of An. gambiae s.l. to: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) (OC), deltamethrin (PY), lambda-cyhalothrin (PY), bendiocarb (CA), and fenitrothion (OP). Identification of sibling species and presence of the ace-1 (R) and Leu-Phe kdr, resistance-associated mutations, were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Biochemical assays were conducted to detect increased activity of GSTs, oxidases and esterases. Populations tested showed high levels of resistance to DDT in all 13 sites, as well as increased resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 12 out of 13 sites. Resistance to fenitrothion and bendiocarb was detected in 1 and 4 out of 13 sites, respectively. Anopheles coluzzii, An. gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis were identified with high allelic frequencies of kdr in all sites where each of the species were found (13, 12 and 10 sites, respectively). Relatively low allelic frequencies of ace-1 (R) were detected in four sites where this assessment was conducted. Evidence of elevated insecticide metabolism, based on oxidase

  10. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

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    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  11. The susceptibility of Anopheles lesteri to infection with Korean strain of Plasmodium vivax

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    Kim Tong-Soo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in Korea. Three species of the Hyrcanusgroup, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. However, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. The present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a Korean isolate of Plasmodium vivax. Also, An. sinensis is primarily suspected to be vector of malaria in Korea, but in Thailand, the same species is described to have less medical importance. Therefore, comparative susceptibility of Thai and Korean strains of An. sinensis with Thai strain of P. vivax may be helpful to understand whether these geographically different strains exhibit differences in their susceptibility or not. Methods The comparative susceptibility of An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus was studied by feeding laboratory-reared mosquitoes on blood from patients carrying gametocytes from Korea and Thailand. Results In experimental feeding with Korean strain of P. vivax, oocysts developed in An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus. Salivary gland sporozoites were detected only in An. lesteri and An. sinensis but not in An. pullus. Large differences were found in the number of sporozoites in the salivary glands, with An. lesteri carrying much higher densities, up to 2,105 sporozoites in a single microscope field of 750 × 560 μM, whereas a maximum of 14 sporozoites were found in any individual salivary gland of An. sinensis. Similar results were obtained from a susceptibility test of two different strains of An. sinensis to Thai isolate of P. vivax, and differences in vector susceptibility according to geographical variation were not detected. Conclusion The high sporozoite rate and sporozoite loads of An. lesteri indicate that this species is highly susceptible to infection with P. vivax

  12. Retrospective study of malaria prevalence and Anopheles genus in the area of influence of the binational Itaipu reservoir Estudo retrospectivo da prevalência de malária e do gênero Anopheles na área de influência do reservatório de Itaipu Binacional

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    Ana Lucia Falavigna-Guilherme

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of hydroelectric dams beside the human interchange in the maintenance of malarious foci and the occurrence of the Anopheles genus on the Binational Itaipu Reservoir were the main points of this retrospective study. Data were collected from existing registrations at National, State and Municipal Health Departments and literature systematic overview, from January 1984 to December 2003. The occurrence of some outbreak of malaria, mainly by Plasmodium vivax, and the prevalence of species of the Anopheles genus different from Anopheles darlingi in the region are discussed. The malaria in the left bank of Paraná River is a focal problem, which must be approached locally through health, educational and social actions to prevent the continuity of outbreaks in the area. Concomitantly, it is necessary to plan and apply effective surveillance measures in the influence area of the Itaipu Reservoir.A importância de reservatórios de hidroelétricas e do intercâmbio humano na manutenção de focos de malária e a ocorrência do gênero Anopheles no reservatório de Itaipu Binacional foram os pontos destacados neste estudo retrospectivo. Os dados foram coletados de registros existentes em órgãos municipais, estadual e nacional de saúde e por revisão sistemática da literatura, no período de janeiro de 1984 a dezembro de 2003. A ocorrência de alguns surtos de malária, principalmente por Plasmodium vivax, e a prevalência de espécies do gênero Anopheles diferentes de Anopheles darlingi na região foram discutidos. A malária na margem esquerda do rio Paraná é um problema focal que deve ser abordado localmente através de medidas voltadas à saúde, educação e área social que previnam a continuidade da ocorrência de surtos na área. Concomitantemente, é necessário planejar e aplicar medidas efetivas de vigilância epidemiológica na área de influência do reservatório de Itaipu.

  13. Investigating knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism against pyrethroids/DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Helen; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-08-09

    Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance is key to improve the surveillance and monitoring of malaria vector populations under control. In the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus, little is currently known about the role of the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. Here, we investigated the presence and contribution of knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids/DDT resistance observed in Anopheles funestus across Africa. Pyrosequencing genotyping and sequencing of the voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene did not detect the common L1014F mutation in field collected An. funestus across Africa. Amplification and cloning of the full-length of the sodium channel gene in pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes revealed evidences of alternative splicing events with three transcripts of 2092, 2061 and 2117 amino acids (93% average similarity to An. gambiae). Several amino acid changes were detected close to the domain II of the protein such as L928R, F938 W, I939S, L802S and T1008 M. However, all these mutations are found at low frequency and their role in pyrethroid resistance could not be established. The presence of the exclusive alternative splicing at exon 19 was not associated with resistance phenotype. Analysis of patterns of genetic diversity of the VGSC gene revealed a high polymorphism level of this gene across Africa with no evidence of directional selection suggesting a limited role for knockdown resistance in pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus. Patterns of genetic differentiation correlate with previous observations of the existence of barriers to gene flow Africa-wide with southern population significantly differentiated from other regions. Despite an apparent limited role of knockdown resistance in An. funestus, it is necessary to continue to monitor the contribution of the mutations detected here as increasing selection from insecticide-based interventions may change the dynamic in field populations as previously observed in other

  14. Ecology of Anopheles darlingi Root with respect to vector importance: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat, H.; Bretas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is one of the most important malaria vectors in the Americas. In this era of new tools and strategies for malaria and vector control it is essential to have knowledge on the ecology and behavior of vectors in order to evaluate appropriateness and impact of control measures. This

  15. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    2005-01-01

    -phenylindole, was used to stain larval gut contents. Quantitative estimates of different categories of food types were made by analyzing the gut contents of 95 An. culicifacies (26 second instars and 69 fourth instars) and 52 An. varuna (21 second instars and 31 fourth instars). Detritus was the most frequent......No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream...... food type, comprising >74% of the gut contents in both species. Other food types included bacteria (cocci and rods), filamentous algae, diatoms, and desmids. Overall, bacteria constituted a significantly higher proportion of the gut contents in An. culicifacies than in An varuna. Significantly more...

  16. Caracterização e relacionamento antigênico de três novos Bunyavirus no grupo Anopheles A (Bunyaviridae dos arbovirus Characterization and antigenic relationship of three new Bunyavirus in the Anopheles A serogroup (Bunyaviridae of arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Soares Travassos da Rosa

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São descritos o isolamento e a caracterização de três novos arbovirus isolados na região da Usina Hidro-Elétrica de Tucuruí (UHE-TUC. Os três novos arbovirus pertencem ao grupo Anopheles A(ANA, gênero Bunyavirus (família Bunyaviridae. Os vírus Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipé (CPE e Arumateua (ART são relacionados entre si e com o vírus Trombetas (TBT, formando dentro do grupo ANA um complexo chamado Trombetas. Os arbovirus TUC, CPE e ART foram obtidos a partir de lotes de mosquitos Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus sp capturados em Tucuruí, nas proximidades da usina hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Estado do Pará, nos meses de fevereiro, agosto e outubro de 1984, respectivamente. Até o final de 1990 os vírus TUC, CPE e ART foram isolados 12, 32 e 28 vezes respectivamente, sempre na região da UHE-TUC, exceção feita ao vírus TUC, do qual se obteve uma amostra procedente de Balbina, onde também foi construída uma hidroelétrica. Até o presente, esses vírus só foram isolados a partir de mosquitos do grupo An. (Nys. principalmente, a partir das espécies An. (Nys. nuneztovari e An. (Nys. triannulatus também consideradas vetores secundários da malária na Amazônia Brasileira. Testes sorológicos executados com soros humanos e de diversas espécies de animais silvestres foram negativos, com exceção de um soro de um carnívoro de espécie Nasua nasua que neutralizou a amostra TUC em títulos de 2.6 índice logaritmico de neutralização (ILN.The isolation and characterization of three new viruses obtained from the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam region is repeated. These three agents belong to the Anopheles A serogroup, genus Bunyavirus, Bunyaviridae. The Tucuruí (TUC, Caraipe (CPE and Arumateua (ART viruses have close relationships with each other and with Trombetas (TBT virus, an Anopheles A virus previously isolated in the Amazon Region of Brazil. These viruses form the "Trombetas complex". TUC, CPE and ART viruses were obtained from pools of

  17. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  18. Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against Anopheles gambiae complex in Bagamoyo, coastal Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Temu, Emmanuel A; Minjas, Japhet N; Matsumoto, Osamu; Iwasaki, Tomonori; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-09-01

    Metofluthrin is a newly synthesized pyrethroid possessing high knockdown and lethal activity against mosquitoes. Studies of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips have been performed with dengue vectors. This study reports the efficacy of the new prototypes of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips against malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae complex, in the Kongo villages of Bagamoyo district in coastal Tanzania. The study, using 20 houses, half intervention, half control, was conducted for a 124-day period. Pyrethrum spray sheets and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps were used to sample mosquito population indices. The mosquito density indices of the intervention houses were observed to be significantly lower than those of the control houses when pyrethrum spray sheet collection was used (F = 4.61, 1 df, P = 0.038; 98.7% reduction of total mosquito collection compared with that for the controls). These low indices were observed despite the large openings found in Bagamoyo houses, which were predicted to have a considerable negative effect on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin. Based on the present results, the pyrethrum spray sheet collection was the better of the 2 collection methods.

  19. A de novo expression profiling of Anopheles funestus, malaria vector in Africa, using 454 pyrosequencing.

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    Richard Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet there are few genomic tools available for this species compared to An. gambiae. To start to close this knowledge gap, we sequenced the An. funestus transcriptome using cDNA libraries developed from a pyrethroid resistant laboratory strain and a pyrethroid susceptible field strain from Mali.Using a pool of life stages (pupae, larvae, adults: females and males for each strain, 454 sequencing generated 375,619 reads (average length of 182 bp. De novo assembly generated 18,103 contigs with average length of 253 bp. The average depth of coverage of these contigs was 8.3. In total 20.8% of all reads were novel when compared to reference databases. The sequencing of the field strain generated 204,758 reads compared to 170,861 from the insecticide resistant laboratory strain. The contigs most differentially represented in the resistant strain belong to the P450 gene family and cuticular genes which correlates with previous studies implicating both of these gene families in pyrethroid resistance. qPCR carried out on six contigs indicates that these ESTs could be suitable for gene expression studies such as microarray. 31,000 sites were estimated to contain Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs and analysis of SNPs from 20 contigs suggested that most of these SNPs are likely to be true SNPs. Gene conservation analysis confirmed the close phylogenetic relationship between An. funestus and An. gambiae.This study represents a significant advance for the genetics and genomics of An. funestus since it provides an extensive set of both Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs and SNPs which can be readily adopted for the design of new genomic tools such as microarray or SNP platforms.

  20. Insecticide resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae from a phase II field station in Cové, southern Benin: implications for the evaluation of novel vector control products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Odjo, Abibatou; Fongnikin, Augustin; Akogbeto, Martin; Weetman, David; Rowland, Mark

    2015-11-18

    Novel indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products aimed at improving the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have to be evaluated in Phase II semi-field experimental studies against highly pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. To better understand their performance it is necessary to fully characterize the species composition, resistance status and resistance mechanisms of the vector populations in the experimental hut sites. Bioassays were performed to assess phenotypic insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population at a newly constructed experimental hut site in Cové, a rice growing area in southern Benin, being used for WHOPES Phase II evaluation of newly developed LLIN and IRS products. The efficacy of standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid LLIN and IRS products was also assessed in the experimental huts. Diagnostic genotyping techniques and microarray studies were performed to investigate the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in the Cové Anopheles gambiae population. The vector population at the Cové experimental hut site consisted of a mixture of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. with the latter occurring at lower frequencies (23 %) and only in samples collected in the dry season. There was a high prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (>90 % bioassay survival) with pyrethroid resistance intensity reaching 200-fold compared to the laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. Standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid IRS and LLIN products were ineffective in the experimental huts against this vector population (8-29 % mortality). The L1014F allele frequency was 89 %. CYP6P3, a cytochrome P450 validated as an efficient metabolizer of pyrethroids, was over-expressed. Characterizing pyrethroid resistance at Phase II field sites is crucial to the accurate interpretation of the performance of novel vector control products. The strong levels of pyrethroid resistance at the Cové experimental hut

  1. A newly constructed primer pair for the PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the flagellin (flaA) gene from isolatesof urease-negative Campylobacter lari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yokoi, Taeko; Murayama, Ohoshi; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, Johne; Matsuda, Motoo

    2005-08-01

    A newly constructed primer pair (lari-Af/lari-Ar) designed to generate a product of the flagellin (flaA) gene for urease-negative Campylobacter lari produced a PCR amplicon of about 1700 bp for 16 isolates from 7 seagulls, 5 humans, 3 food animals and one mussel in Japan and Northern Ireland. Nucleotide sequencing and alignments of the flaA amplicons from these isolates demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequences of the possible open reading frame were 564-572 amino acid residues in length with calculated molecular weights of 58,804 to 59,463. The deduced amino acid sequence similarity analysis strongly suggested that the ORF of the flaA from the 16 isolates showed 70-75% sequence similarities to those of Campylobacter jejuni isolates. The approximate Mr of the flagellin purified from some of the isolates of urease-negative C. lari was estimated to range from 59.6 to 61.8 kDa. Thus, flagellin from the isolates of urease-negative C. lari was shown for the first time to have a molecular size similar to those of C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates, but to be different from the shorter flaA and smaller flagellin of urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) isolates. Flagellins from C. lari spp., consisting of the two representative taxa of urease-negative C. lari and UPTC, thus show genotypic and phenotypic diversity.

  2. Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.

    1999-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a parasite ( Plasmodium spp.) that is transmitted between human individuals by mosquitoes, belonging to the order of insects, Diptera, family of Culicidae (mosquitoes) and genus of Anopheles (malaria

  3. The practical importance of permanent and semipermanent habitats for controlling aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes: operational observations from a rural town in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sonye, G.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2004-01-01

    Control of aquatic-stage Anopheles is one of the oldest and most historically successful interventions to prevent malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa. Consequently, the ecology of immature afrotropical Anopheles has received insufficient attention. We therefore examined the

  4. Evidence to support a conspecific nature of allopatric cytological races of Anopheles nitidus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsawatkiat, Siripan; Baimai, Visut; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Taai, Kritsana; Hempolchom, Chayanit; Srisuka, Wichai; Poolphol, Petchaboon; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2014-01-01

    Metaphase karyotype investigation on two allopatric strains of Anopheles nitidus Harrison, Scanlon, and Reid (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Thailand during 2011-2012. Five karyotypic forms, i.e., Form A (X1, Y1), Form B (X1, Y2), Form C (X2, Y3), Form D (X1, X3, Y4), and Form E (X1, X2, X3, Y5) were obtained from a total of 21 isofemale lines. Forms A, B, and C were confined to Phang Nga Province, southern Thailand, whereas Forms D and E were restricted to Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Cross-mating experiments among the five isofemale lines, which were representative of five karyotypic forms of An. nitidus, revealed genetic compatibility by providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2 generations. The results suggest that the forms are conspecific, and An. nitidus comprises five cytological races. The very low intraspecific sequence variations (average genetic distances = 0.002-0.008) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II) among the five karyotypic forms were very good supportive evidence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Presence of the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, F.; Minář, Jan; Halouzka, Jiří; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Gelbič, Ivan; Reiter, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 284-286 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Anopheles hyrcanus * mosquitoes * geographic range * Central Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.092, year: 2009

  6. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, F.; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, V.; Miterpáková, M.; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, H.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2018), s. 315-321 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anophelinae * Maculipennis complex * Anopheles daciae * Mosquitoes * Cryptic species * Vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  7. First detection of multiple knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel using three new genotyping methods in Anopheles sinensis from Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei L; Li, Chun X; Wang, Zhong M; Liu, Mei D; Dong, Yan D; Feng, Xiang Y; Wu, Zhi M; Guo, Xiao X; Xing, Dan; Zhang, Ying M; Wang, Zhong C; Zhao, Tong Y

    2012-09-01

    To investigate knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann, 1828), from Guangxi province, southwest China, a segment of a sodium channel gene was sequenced and genotyped using three new genotyping assays. Direct sequencing revealed the presence of TTG-to-TCG and TG-to-TTT mutations at allele position L1014, which led to L1014S and L1014F substitutions in a few individual and two novel substitutions of N1013S and L1014W in two DNA templates. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in the heterozygous state of L1014S and L1014F was observed in this mosquito population. In this study, the genotyping of An. sinensis using three polymerase chain reaction-based methods generated consistent results, which agreed with the results of DNA sequencing. In total, 52 mosquitoes were genotyped using a direct sequencing assay. The number of mosquitoes and their genotypes were as follows: L/L = 24, L/S = 19, L/F = 8, and F/W = 1. The allelic frequency of L1014, 1014S, and 1014F were 72, 18, and 9%, respectively.

  8. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western

  9. Spatial repellency screening in a high-throughput apparatus with Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial repellents are essential for personal protection against mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, to reduce annoyance biting and transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The number of safe and effective repellents, including DEET, picaridin, and IR3535, is limited and contin...

  10. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisgratog, Rungarun; Tananchai, Chatchai; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Tuntakom, Siripun; Bangs, Michael J; Corbel, Vincent; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2012-06-07

    Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2 months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600 hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC), outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC). A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%), followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68%) and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%). An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent) of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60%) versus inside structures. Significantly (P feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito behavior related to host preference, and the temporal and spatial blood feeding activity will help facilitate the design of vector control strategies and effectiveness of vector

  11. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia bellator as malaria vector in Southeastern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.

  12. Control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with chlorfenapyr in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'Guessan, R.; Boko, P.; Odjo, A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Akogbeto, M.; Rowland, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of chlorfenapyr applied on mosquito nets and as an indoor residual spray against populations of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in an area of Benin that shows problematic levels of pyrethroid resistance. Method Eight-week trial conducted in experimental

  13. Investigation of the seasonal microbiome of Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Krajacich

    Full Text Available The poorly understood mechanisms of dry season persistence of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes through the dry season in Africa remain a critical gap in our knowledge of Plasmodium disease transmission. While it is thought that adult mosquitoes remain in a dormant state throughout this seven-month dry season, the nature of this state remains unknown and has largely not been recapitulated in laboratory settings. To elucidate possible connections of this state with microbial composition, the whole body microbiomes of adult mosquitoes in the dry and wet seasons in two locations of Mali with varying water availability were compared by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. These locations were a village near the Niger River with year-round water sources (N'Gabakoro, "riparian", and a typical Sahelian area with highly seasonal breeding sites (Thierola Area, "Sahelian". The 16S bacterial data consisted of 2057 sequence variants in 426 genera across 184 families. From these data, we found several compositional differences that were seasonally and spatially linked. Counter to our initial hypothesis, there were more pronounced seasonal differences in the bacterial microbiome of riparian, rather than Sahelian areas. These seasonal shifts were primarily in Ralstonia, Sphingorhabdus, and Duganella spp. bacteria that are usually soil and water-associated, indicating these changes may be from bacteria acquired in the larval environment, rather than adulthood. In Sahelian dry season mosquitoes, there was a unique intracellular bacteria, Anaplasma, which likely was acquired through non-human blood feeding. Cytochrome B analysis of blood meals showed greater heterogeneity in host choice of An. coluzzii independent of season in the Thierola area compared to N'Gabakoro (77.5% vs. 94.6% human-origin blood meal, respectively, indicating a relaxation of anthropophily. Overall, this exploratory study provides valuable indications of spatial and seasonal differences in

  14. Spatio-temporal variations of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae and their Plasmodium infectivity rates in Lobito, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Pierre; Toto, Jean-Claude; Besnard, Patrick; Santos, Maria Adelaide Dos; Fortes, Filomeno; Allan, Richard; Manguin, Sylvie

    2015-06-01

    From 2003 to 2007, entomological surveys were conducted in Lobito town (Benguela Province, Angola) to determine which Anopheles species were present and to identify the vectors responsible for malaria transmission in areas where workers of the Sonamet Company live. Two types of surveys were conducted: (1) time and space surveys in the low and upper parts of Lobito during the rainy and dry periods; (2) a two-year longitudinal study in Sonamet workers' houses provided with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN), "PermaNet," along with the neighboring community. Both species, An. coluzzii (M molecular form) and An. gambiae (S molecular form), were collected. Anopheles coluzzii was predominant during the dry season in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in natural ponds and temporary pools. However, during the rainy season, An. gambiae was found in higher proportions in the upper part of the town where larvae were collected in domestic water tanks built near houses. Anopheles melas and An. listeri were captured in higher numbers during the dry season and in the low part of Lobito where larvae develop in stagnant brackish water pools. The infectivity rates of An. gambiae s.l. varied from 0.90% to 3.41%. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Comportamiento estacional del Anopheles (nyssorhynchus darlingi root 1926 en localidades de Loreto y Madre de Dios, Perú 1999- 2000

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    Walter León C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el comportamiento estacional del Anopheles darlingi en las localidades de Santa Clara (Loreto y Villa Luz (Madre de Dios. Materiales y métodos: En las localidades de Santa Clara y Villa Luz, entre agosto de 1999 y junio de 2000 se realizó mensualmente la inspección de criaderos, colecta de larvas de Anopheles darlingi por el método del cucharón y colecta de mosquitos adultos por el método cebo humano (intradomicilio y peri domicilió, trampa Shannon y refugio animal (extradomicilio. Se calcularon los indicadores: criadero positivo y densidad larvaria por cucharonada, índice de picadura hombre noche (IPHN, índice de picadura hombre hora (IPHH, índice esporozoítico y tasa de paridad. Resultados: El IPHN en ambas localidades se incrementó en la estación lluviosa con los valores más altos en mayo (Santa Clara y febrero (Villa Luz. En Santa Clara, el comportamiento de la picadura del Anopheles darlingi de agosto a diciembre de 1999, fue unimodal presentándose el pico de IPHH entre las 19.00 y 21.00 horas; sin embargo, de marzo a junio de 2000, el comportamiento fue bimodal con dos picos del IPHH: entre las 19.00 y 22.00 horas, y entre las 2.00 y 4.00 horas. En Villa Luz, el comportamiento de la picadura, de agosto a junio de 1999, se mantuvo unimodal, con el pico de IPHH entre las 21.00 y 24.00 horas. Las especies inmaduras de Anopheles darlingi representaron menos del 20% de las larvas encontradas en los criaderos permanentes. Conclusiones: El Anopheles darlingi presenta mayor densidad poblacional en meses de estación lluviosa, con comportamientos de picadura distintos según localidad y estación. Los criaderos evaluados no serían criaderos tan importantes de esta especie.

  16. Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination

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    Mackenzie Donna O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Solomon Islands, the Malaria Eradication Programmes of the 1970s virtually eliminated the malaria vectors: Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, both late night biting, endophagic species. However, the vector, Anopheles farauti, changed its behaviour to bite early in the evening outdoors. Thus, An. farauti mosquitoes were able to avoid insecticide exposure and still maintain transmission. Thirty years on and the Solomon Islands are planning for intensified malaria control and localized elimination; but little is currently known about the behaviour of the vectors and how they will respond to intensified control. Methods In the elimination area, Temotu Province, standard entomological collection methods were conducted in typical coastal villages to determine the vector, its ecology, biting density, behaviour, longevity, and vector efficacy. These vector surveys were conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention following indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Results Anopheles farauti was the only anopheline in Temotu Province. In 2008 (pre-intervention, this species occurred in moderate to high densities (19.5-78.5 bites/person/night and expressed a tendency to bite outdoors, early in the night (peak biting time 6-8 pm. Surveys post intervention showed that there was little, if any, reduction in biting densities and no reduction in the longevity of the vector population. After adjusting for human behaviour, indoor biting was reduced from 57% pre-intervention to 40% post-intervention. Conclusion In an effort to learn from historical mistakes and develop successful elimination programmes, there is a need for implementing complimentary vector control tools that can target exophagic and early biting vectors. Intensified indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide net use has further promoted the early, outdoor feeding behaviour of An. farauti in the Solomon Islands

  17. Anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes Mwea irrigation scheme, central Kenya

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    Mwangangi Joseph M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity and abundance of Anopheles larvae has significant influence on the resulting adult mosquito population and hence the dynamics of malaria transmission. Studies were conducted to examine larval habitat dynamics and ecological factors affecting survivorship of aquatic stages of malaria vectors in three agro-ecological settings in Mwea, Kenya. Methods Three villages were selected based on rice husbandry and water management practices. Aquatic habitats in the 3 villages representing planned rice cultivation (Mbui Njeru, unplanned rice cultivation (Kiamachiri and non-irrigated (Murinduko agro-ecosystems were sampled every 2 weeks to generate stage-specific estimates of mosquito larval densities, relative abundance and diversity. Records of distance to the nearest homestead, vegetation coverage, surface debris, turbidity, habitat stability, habitat type, rice growth stage, number of rice tillers and percent Azolla cover were taken for each habitat. Results Captures of early, late instars and pupae accounted for 78.2%, 10.9% and 10.8% of the total Anopheles immatures sampled (n = 29,252, respectively. There were significant differences in larval abundance between 3 agro-ecosystems. The village with 'planned' rice cultivation had relatively lower Anopheles larval densities compared to the villages where 'unplanned' or non-irrigated. Similarly, species composition and richness was higher in the two villages with either 'unplanned' or limited rice cultivation, an indication of the importance of land use patterns on diversity of larval habitat types. Rice fields and associated canals were the most productive habitat types while water pools and puddles were important for short periods during the rainy season. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that presence of other invertebrates, percentage Azolla cover, distance to nearest homestead, depth and water turbidity were the best predictors for Anopheles mosquito larval

  18. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

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    Kevin C. Deitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  19. Gene expression changes in the salivary glands of Anopheles coluzzii elicited by Plasmodium berghei infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro-Silva, R.; Borges, L.; Coelho, L.P.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; do Rosário, V.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, SEP 23 2015 (2015), s. 485 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles coluzzii * Salivary glands * Plasmodium berghei * Sporozoite * RNA-seq * Glucose transporter * RNAi Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  20. Wide cross-reactivity between Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus SG6 salivary proteins supports exploitation of gSG6 as a marker of human exposure to major malaria vectors in tropical Africa

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    Petrarca Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. Besides its role in haematophagy, gSG6 is immunogenic and elicits in exposed individuals an IgG response, which may be used as indicator of exposure to the main African malaria vector A. gambiae. However, malaria transmission in tropical Africa is sustained by three main vectors (A. gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus and a general marker, reflecting exposure to at least these three species, would be especially valuable. The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6. The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-reactivity of human sera to gSG6 and fSG6. Methods The A. funestus SG6 protein was expressed/purified and the humoral response to gSG6, fSG6 and a combination of the two antigens was compared in a population from a malaria hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso where both vectors were present, although with a large A. gambiae prevalence (>75%. Sera collected at the beginning and at the end of the high transmission/rainy season, as well as during the following low transmission/dry season, were analysed. Results According to previous observations, both anti-SG6 IgG level and prevalence decreased during the low transmission/dry season and showed a typical age-dependent pattern. No significant difference in the response to the two antigens was found, although their combined use yielded in most cases higher IgG level. Conclusions Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. This study supports the use of gSG6 as reliable indicator of exposure to the three main African malaria vectors, a marker which may be useful to monitor malaria transmission

  1. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

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    Lyons Candice L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance

  2. Microgeographic Genetic Variation of the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae) from Córdoba and Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Gómez, Giovan F.; González, John J.; Castro, Martha I.; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of Plasmodium spp. in several malaria-endemic regions of Colombia. This study was conducted to test genetic variation of An. darlingi at a microgeographic scale (approximately 100 km) from localities in Córdoba and Antioquia states, in western Colombia, to better understand the potential contribution of population genetics to local malaria control programs. Microsatellite loci: nuclear white and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences were analyzed. The northern white gene lineage was exclusively distributed in Córdoba and Antioquia and shared COI haplotypes were highly represented in mosquitoes from both states. COI analyses showed these An. darlingi are genetically closer to Central American populations than southern South American populations. Overall microsatellites and COI analysis showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations in northwestern Colombia. Given the existence of high gene flow between An. darlingi populations of Córdoba and Antioquia, integrated vector control strategies could be developed in this region of Colombia. PMID:20595475

  3. A Revision of the Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    genero Nyssorhynchus, corn especial referencia a morfologia dos ovos. Rev. Biol. Hyg. 9:51- 60. 1938b. Observacoes sobre o ciclo evolutivo de Anopheles...Vale do Paraiba. Nova variedade e ciclo evolutivo do Anofeles (Nyssorhynchus) osvaldoi var. ayrozai n. var. Ann. Paul. Med. Cir. 40:377-392. 1940b

  4. Description and Comparison of Morphological Structures of the Eggs of Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and Related Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-20

    major vector of malaria in China ; however, its vectorial capacity is unknown in the ROK. The other remaining four Anopheles species are not considered to...morphometry and morphology of Anopheles aconitus Form B and C eggs under scanning electron microscope. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo...and its genetic identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa, 378, 1–14. RUEDA ET AL.40 · Zootaxa 2268 © 2009

  5. Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mbadi, P.A.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is considered to be highly anthropophilic and volatiles of human origin provide essential cues during its host-seeking behaviour. A synthetic blend of three human-derived volatiles, ammonia, lactic acid and tetradecanoic acid, attracts A. gambiae. In

  6. 1.45 Å resolution structure of SRPN18 from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meekins, David A.; Zhang, Xin; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Michel, Kristin (Kansas); (KSU); (HWMRI)

    2016-11-19

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) in insects function within development, wound healing and immunity. The genome of the African malaria vector,Anopheles gambiae, encodes 23 distinct serpin proteins, several of which are implicated in disease-relevant physiological responses.A. gambiaeserpin 18 (SRPN18) was previously categorized as non-inhibitory based on the sequence of its reactive-center loop (RCL), a region responsible for targeting and initiating protease inhibition. The crystal structure ofA. gambiaeSRPN18 was determined to a resolution of 1.45 Å, including nearly the entire RCL in one of the two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure reveals that the SRPN18 RCL is extremely short and constricted, a feature associated with noncanonical inhibitors or non-inhibitory serpin superfamily members. Furthermore, the SRPN18 RCL does not contain a suitable protease target site and contains a large number of prolines. The SRPN18 structure therefore reveals a unique RCL architecture among the highly conserved serpin fold.

  7. Impact of Diurnal Temperature Fluctuations during Larval Development on Adult Life History Traits and Insecticide Susceptibility in Two Vectors; Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    ANOPHELES GAMBIAE AND AEDES AEGYPTI. by Jeffrey W. Clark Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Department of Preventive Medicine and...Vectors; Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti." Name of Candidate: Jeffrey Clark Doctor of Philosophy Degree April 30, 2014 DISSERTATION AND ABSTRACT...for the many fruitful discussions and the standing offer to help whenever I needed it; and to Joe Wagman, for providing needed Aedes aegypti eggs from

  8. Transcription regulation of sex-biased genes during ontogeny in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Kalle Magnusson

    Full Text Available In Anopheles gambiae, sex-regulated genes are responsible for controlling gender dimorphism and are therefore crucial in determining the ability of female mosquitoes to transmit human malaria. The identification and functional characterization of these genes will shed light on the sexual development and maturation of mosquitoes and provide useful targets for genetic control measures aimed at reducing mosquito fertility and/or distorting the sex ratio.We conducted a genome wide transcriptional analysis of sex-regulated genes from early developmental stages through adulthood combined with functional screening of novel gonadal genes. Our results demonstrate that the male-biased genes undergo a major transcription turnover starting from larval stages to adulthood. The male biased genes at the adult stage include a significant high number of unique sequences compared to the rest of the genome. This is in contrast to female-biased genes that are much more conserved and are mainly activated during late developmental stages.The high frequency of unique sequences would indicate that male-biased genes evolve more rapidly than the rest of the genome. This finding is particularly intriguing because A. gambiae is a strictly female monogamous species suggesting that driving forces in addition to sperm competition must account for the rapid evolution of male-biased genes. We have also identified and functionally characterized a number of previously unknown A. gambiae testis- and ovary-specific genes. Two of these genes, zero population growth and a suppressor of defective silencing 3 domain of the histone deacetylase co-repressor complex, were shown to play a key role in gonad development.

  9. Host feeding patterns and preference of Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand: baseline site description

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    Tisgratog Rungarun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host feeding patterns of Anopheles minimus in relation to ambient environmental conditions were observed during a 2-year period at Tum Sua Village, located in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, in western Thailand, where An. minimus is found in abundance and regarded as the most predominant malaria vector species. Detailed information on mosquito behavior is important for understanding the epidemiology of disease transmission and developing more effective and efficient vector control methods. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected every 2 months for two consecutive nights from 1800 to 0600 hrs. Three collection methods were used; indoor human-landing collections (HLC, outdoor HLC, and outdoor cattle-bait collections (CBC. Results A total of 7,663 female Anopheles mosquitoes were collected of which 5,392 were identified as members of 3 different species complexes, the most prevalent being Anopheles minimus complex (50.36%, followed by Anopheles maculatus complex (19.68% and Anopheles dirus complex (0.33%. An. minimus s.s. comprised virtually all (> 99.8 percent of Minimus Complex species captured. Blood feeding behavior of An. minimus was more pronounced during the second half of the evening, showing a slight preference to blood feed outdoors (~60% versus inside structures. Significantly (P An. minimus were collected from human-baited methods compared with a tethered cow, indicating a more anthropophilic feeding behavior. Although a significant difference in total number of mosquitoes from the HLC was recorded between the first and second year, the mean biting frequency over the course of the evening hours remained similar. Conclusions The Human landing activity of An. minimus in Tum Sua Village showed a stronger preference/attraction for humans compared to a cow-baited collection method. This study supports the incrimination of An. minimus as the primary malaria vector in the area. A better understanding of mosquito

  10. Bionomics of Anopheles latens in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheong H; Vythilingam, Indra; Matusop, Asmad; Chan, Seng T; Singh, Balbir

    2008-01-01

    Background A large focus of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques was discovered in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. A study was initiated to identify the vectors of malaria, to elucidate where transmission is taking place and to understand the bionomics of the vectors in Kapit. Methods Three different ecological sites in the forest, farm and longhouse in the Kapit district were selected for the study. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing collection at all sites and at the forest also by monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites. Results and Discussions Over an 11-month period, a total of 2,504 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 12 species were caught; 1,035 at the farm, 774 at the forest and 425 at the longhouse. Anopheles latens (62.3%) and Anopheles watsonii (30.6%) were the predominant species caught in the forested ecotypes, while in the farm Anopheles donaldi (49.9%) and An. latens (35.6%) predominated. In the long house, An. latens (29.6%) and An. donaldi (22.8%) were the major Anopheline species. However, An. latens was the only mosquito positive for sporozoites and it was found to be attracted to both human and monkey hosts. In monkey-baited net traps, it preferred to bite monkeys at the canopy level than at ground level. An. latens was found biting early as 18.00 hours. Conclusion Anopheles latens is the main vector for P. knowlesi malaria parasites in the Kapit District of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The study underscores the relationship between ecology, abundance and bionomics of anopheline fauna. The simio-anthropophagic and acrodendrophilic behaviour of An. latens makes it an efficient vector for the transmission of P. knowlesi parasites to both human and monkey hosts. PMID:18377652

  11. Bionomics of Anopheles latens in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusop Asmad

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large focus of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques was discovered in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. A study was initiated to identify the vectors of malaria, to elucidate where transmission is taking place and to understand the bionomics of the vectors in Kapit. Methods Three different ecological sites in the forest, farm and longhouse in the Kapit district were selected for the study. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing collection at all sites and at the forest also by monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites. Results and Discussions Over an 11-month period, a total of 2,504 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 12 species were caught; 1,035 at the farm, 774 at the forest and 425 at the longhouse. Anopheles latens (62.3% and Anopheles watsonii (30.6% were the predominant species caught in the forested ecotypes, while in the farm Anopheles donaldi (49.9% and An. latens (35.6% predominated. In the long house, An. latens (29.6% and An. donaldi (22.8% were the major Anopheline species. However, An. latens was the only mosquito positive for sporozoites and it was found to be attracted to both human and monkey hosts. In monkey-baited net traps, it preferred to bite monkeys at the canopy level than at ground level. An. latens was found biting early as 18.00 hours. Conclusion Anopheles latens is the main vector for P. knowlesi malaria parasites in the Kapit District of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The study underscores the relationship between ecology, abundance and bionomics of anopheline fauna. The simio-anthropophagic and acrodendrophilic behaviour of An. latens makes it an efficient vector for the transmission of P. knowlesi parasites to both human and monkey hosts.

  12. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumu, F.O.; Knols, B.G.J.; Fillinger, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated.

  13. Quantification of the efficiency of treatment of Anopheles gambiae breeding sites with petroleum products by local communities in areas of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin

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    Doannio Julien MC MC

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for developing new insecticidal molecules or, improving the efficacy of existing insecticides or abandoning those to which resistance has emerged. The use of petroleum products (PP against mosquito larvae had an immense success during early programmes of malaria control, but these compounds were abandoned and replaced in the 1950s by synthetic insecticides probably because of the high performances given by these new products. In the current context of vector resistance, it is important to elucidate the empirical use of PP by quantifying their efficiencies on resistant strains of Anopheles. Methods Larvae of Anopheles Ladji a local resistant strain were exposed to increasing concentrations of various PP (kerosene, petrol and engine oils for 24 hours and the lethal activities recorded. The highest concentration (HiC having no lethal activity (also referred as the NOEL or no effect level and the lowest concentration (LoC100 yielding 100% mortality were rated for each PP on the Ladji strain. Prior to laboratory analysis, KAP studies were conducted in three traditional communities were insecticide resistance is clearly established to confirm the use of PP against mosquitoes. Results Laboratory analysis of petrol, kerosene and engine oils, clearly established their lethal activities on resistant strains of Anopheles larvae. Contrary to existing references, this research revealed that exposed larvae of Anopheles were mostly killed by direct contact toxicity and not by suffocation as indicated in some earlier reports. Conclusion This research could serve as scientific basis to backup the empirical utilisation of PP on mosquito larvae and to envisage possibilities of using PP in some traditional settings where Anopheles have developed

  14. Identification of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase sequence motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, MW; Kamerbeek, NM; van Berkel, WJH; Janssen, DB; Kamerbeek, Nanne M.; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    2002-01-01

    Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) form a distinct class of flavoproteins that catalyze the insertion of an oxygen atom in a C-C bond using dioxygen and NAD(P)H. Using newly characterized BVMO sequences, we have uncovered a BVMO-identifying sequence motif: FXGXXXRXXXW(P/D). Studies with

  15. Change in Anopheles richness and composition in response to artificial flooding during the creation of the Jirau hydroelectric dam in Porto Velho, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigures, Moreno S; Batista, Elis P; Silva, Alexandre A; Costa, Fábio M; Neto, Verissimo A S; Gil, Luiz Herman S

    2017-02-22

    Anopheles mosquitoes are the only vectors of human malaria. Anopheles species use standing water as breeding sites. Human activities, like the creation of an artificial lake during the implementation of hydroelectric power plants, lead to changes in environmental characteristics and, therefore, may changes the species richness and composition of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of the present study was to verify whether or not there is an association between the artificial flooding resulting from the construction of the Jirau hydroelectric power plant, and the richness and composition of anophelines. Mosquitoes samples were obtained monthly from the Jirau hydroelectric power plant area located at Porto Velho, Rondônia State, using Human Landing Catch (06:00-10:00 PM). Mosquitoes collected were transported to Laboratório de Entomologia Médica FIOCRUZ-RO where they were identified until species using dichotomous key. A total of 6347 anophelines belonging to eight different species were collected. The anophelines species richness was significantly lower during the first flooding stage. Differences in anophelines species composition were found when comparing the first flooding stage with the other stages. Furthermore, the mean number of Anopheles darlingi, the main vector of malaria in the region, increases during the first and the third flooding stages. The continual monitoring of these vectors during the late operational phase may be useful in order to understand how anophelines will behave in this area.

  16. Effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on plant sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.; Masinde, E.W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae shows great promise for the control of adult malaria vectors. A promising strategy for infection of mosquitoes is supplying the fungus at plant feeding sites. Methods We evaluated the survival of fungus-exposed Anopheles gambiae

  17. The effect of temperature on Anopheles mosquito population dynamics and the potential for malaria transmission.

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    Lindsay M Beck-Johnson

    Full Text Available The parasites that cause malaria depend on Anopheles mosquitoes for transmission; because of this, mosquito population dynamics are a key determinant of malaria risk. Development and survival rates of both the Anopheles mosquitoes and the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria depend on temperature, making this a potential driver of mosquito population dynamics and malaria transmission. We developed a temperature-dependent, stage-structured delayed differential equation model to better understand how climate determines risk. Including the full mosquito life cycle in the model reveals that the mosquito population abundance is more sensitive to temperature than previously thought because it is strongly influenced by the dynamics of the juvenile mosquito stages whose vital rates are also temperature-dependent. Additionally, the model predicts a peak in abundance of mosquitoes old enough to vector malaria at more accurate temperatures than previous models. Our results point to the importance of incorporating detailed vector biology into models for predicting the risk for vector borne diseases.

  18. Diversity and frequency of kdr mutations within Anopheles sinensis populations from Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Feng, Xiangyang; Huang, Zushi; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2016-08-15

    Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China and its control is under great threat as the development of insecticide resistance. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) is the target of several classes of insecticides. Genetic mutations of VGSC have been documented to confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids in mosquitoes. To control this vector efficiently, it is important to know the resistance-associated genetic mutations, their distribution frequencies and genealogical relations. Three hundreds and thirteen (313) adults of An. sinensis collected from nine locations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were used. The partial sequence of the An. sinensis voltage gated sodium channel gene (AS-VGSC) containing codon 1014 was sequenced. PHASE2.1 was used to construct the haplotypes of each individual, and the accuracy of haplotypes was further confirmed by clone sequencing. The genealogical relations of kdr mutations in AS-VGSC was analysed using TCS 2.1 and Network 5.0. Sixteen AS-VGSC haplotypes including seven haplotypes carrying non-synonymous mutations at codon 1014, and fifty-five AS-VGSC genotypes were identified from 313 mosquitoes collected from nine geographical locations across Guangxi. The number of haplotypes in each of the nine populations ranged from 5 to 13. The frequency of haplotypes carrying kdr mutations ranged from 2.7 to 80.0 % within the nine populations, of which 1014C was unexpectedly high in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggested multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis. Diverse haplotypes of AS-VGSC are distributed in Guangxi. The presence of haplotypes carrying mutations at codon 1014 indicates a risk of pyrethroid and DDT resistance. The kdr mutations show differential distribution geographically, with high frequencies occurred in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggests multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis populations

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mtDNA COI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Shi, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The Anopheles hyrcanus group, which includes at least 25 species, is widely distributed in the Oriental and Palearctic regions. Some group members have been incriminated as vectors of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. It is difficult to identify Hyrcanus Group members by morphological features. Thus, molecular phylogeny has been proposed as an important complementary method to traditional morphological taxonomy. Based on the GenBank database and our original study data, we used 466 mitochondrial DNA COI sequences belonging to 18 species to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the Hyrcanus Group across its worldwide geographic range. The results are as follows. 1) The average conspecific K2P divergence was 0.008 (range 0.002-0.017), whereas sequence divergence between congroup species averaged 0.064 (range 0.026-0.108). 2) The topology of COI tree of the Hyrcanus Group was generally consistent with classical morphological taxonomy in terms of species classification, but disagreed in subgroup division. In the COI tree, the group was divided into at least three main clusters. The first cluster contained An. nimpe; the second was composed of the Nigerrimus Subgroup and An. argyropus; and the third cluster was comprised of the Lesteri Subgroup and other unassociated species. 3) Phylogenetic analysis of COI indicated that ancient hybridizations probably occurred among the three closely related species, An. sinensis, An. belenrae, and An. kleini. 4) The results supported An. paraliae as a probable synonym of An. lesteri, and it was possible that An. pseudopictus and An. hyrcanus were the same species, as evident from their extremely low interspecific genetic divergence (0.020 and 0.007, respectively) and their phylogenetic positions. In summary, we reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and analysed genetic divergence of the Hyrcanus Group using mitochondrial COI sequences. Our results suggest that in the future of malaria surveillance, we should not only pay

  20. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM THREE SPECIES OF POACEAE ON ANOPHELES GAMBIAE SPP, MAJOR VECTOR OF MALARIA

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    Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the insecticidal activities on Anopheles gambiae spp of the essential oils (EO extracted from the dry leaves of some species collected in Benin were studied. The essential oil yields are 2.8, 1.7 and 1.4�0respectively for Cymbopogon schoanenthus (L. Spreng (CS, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CC and Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst. Chiov (CG. The GC/MS analysis showed that the EO of CS had a larger proportion in oxygenated monoterpenes (86.3�20whereas those of the sheets of CC and CG are relatively close proportions (85.5�0and 82.7�0respectively with. The piperitone (68.5�  2-carene (11.5� and -eudesmol (4.6�20are the major components of the EO of CS while trans para-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (31.9� trans para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (19.6� cis para-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (7.2� trans piperitol (6.3�20and limonene (6.3�20prevailed in the EO of CG. The EO of CC revealed a rich composition in geranial (41.3� neral (33� myrcene (10.4� and geraniol (6.6� The biological tests have shown that these three EO induced 100�0mortality of Anopheles gambiae to 1.1, 586.58 and 1549 µg•cm-2 respectively for CC, CS and CG. These effects are also illustrated by weak lethal concentration for 50�0anopheles population (CC: 0.306; CS: 152.453 and CG: 568.327 µg•cm-2 in the same order of reactivity. The EO of CC appeared most active on two stocks (sensitive and resistant of Anopheles gambiae.

  1. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

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    Paulo FP Pimenta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence.

  2. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo FP; Orfano, Alessandra S; Bahia, Ana C; Duarte, Ana PM; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Melo, Fabrício F; Pessoa, Felipe AC; Oliveira, Giselle A; Campos, Keillen MM; Villegas, Luis Martínez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simões, Rejane C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M; Lima, José BP; Barbosa, Maria GV; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila FC

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence. PMID:25742262

  3. Ultrastructure of a microsporidium brachiola gambiae n.sp.parasitising a mosquito anopheles gamblae, a malaria vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiser, Jaroslav; Žižka, Zdeněk

    - (2003), s. 35-36 ISSN 1214-021X. [Conference on Cell Biology /5./. České Budějovice, 08.09.2003-10.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : anopheles gambiae * malaria * vector Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. BEBERAPA ASPEK BIONOMIK ANOPHELES SP DI KABUPATEN SUMBA TENGAH, PROVINSI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

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    Ni Wayan Dewi Adyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Research Some Aspects of Anopheles sp Bionomik in Central Sumba Regency, Province of East Nusa Tenggara. Committed in the territory Maradesa Health Center. Data were collected by catching adult mosquitoes by using bait People inside and outside the home, a collection of breaks in the wall and at home, continued with larval surveys in all potential breeding places.  The results showed that the biting behavior tends eksofagik found on An. kochi, An. aconitus and An.barbirostris with bite density peaks in An. aconitus (0.6 persons/hour with a biting peak at 20:00 to 21:00. Behavior tends eksofilik break in An. kochi, An. aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An.flavirostris, An. maculatus and An. indefinitus with the highest density in An.aconitus (0.9 persons/hour at 1:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. Anopheles larvae breeding places found in the small hole in the ground, creek, wetland, non-permanent irrigation, water reservoirs in the vegetable garden, ditches, puddles, swamps, springs, with species that are found as An.kochi, An.aconitus, An. tesselatus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. flavirostris, An. maculatus, An. indefinitus and An. annullaris

  5. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

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    H Vatandoost

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  6. Ecology of Anopheles dthali Patton in Bandar Abbas District, Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran

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    H Vatandoost

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecology of Anopheles dthali was studied in Bandar Abbas County, where there is indigenous malaria. Anopheles dthali plays as a secondary malaria vector in the region. It is active throughout the year in mountainous area with two peaks of activity, whereas in coastal area it has one peak. There is no report of hibernation or aestivation for this species in the re¬gion. Precipitin tests on specimens from different parts showed that 15.6-20.8% were positive for human blood. This species usually rests outdoors. It has different larval habitats. Insecticides susceptibility tests on adult females exhibited susceptibil¬ity to all insecticides recommended by WHO. LT50 for the currently used insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin, is measured less than one minute. The irritability tests to pyrethroid insecticides, showed that permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin had more irritancy compared to deltamethrin and cyfluthrin. Larval bioassay using malathion, chlorpyrifos, temephos and fenithrothion did not show any sing of resistance to these larvicides at the diagnostic dose. It is recommended that all the decision makers should consider the results of our study for any vector control measures in the region.

  7. Species composition and natural infectivity of anthropophilic Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lina A; González, John J; Gómez, Giovan F; Castro, Martha I; Rosero, Doris A; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E; Correa, Margarita M

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health problem in Córdoba and Antioquia states in northwestern Colombia, where 64.4% of the total Colombian cases were reported in 2007. Because little entomological information is available in this region, the aim of this work was to identify the Anopheles species composition and natural infectivity of mosquitoes distributed in seven localities with the highest malaria transmission. A total of 1,768 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches from March 2007 to July 2008. Ten species were identified; overall, An. nuneztovari s.l. was the most widespread (62%) and showed the highest average human biting rates. There were six other species of the Nyssorhynchus subgenus: An. albimanus (11.6%), An. darlingi (9.8%), An. braziliensis (6.6%), An. triannulatus s.l. (3.5%), An. albitarsis s.l. and An. oswaldoi s.l. at <1%; and three of the Anopheles subgenus: An. punctimacula, An. pseudopunctipennis s.l. and An. neomaculipalpus at <1% each. Two species from Córdoba, An. nuneztovari and An. darlingi, were detected naturally infected by Plasmodium vivax VK247 using ELISA and confirmed by nested PCR. All species were active indoors and outdoors. These results provide basic information for targeted vector control strategies in these localities. PMID:20140372

  8. Phylogenetic analysis and DNA-based species confirmation in Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus.

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    Peter G Foster

    Full Text Available Specimens of neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus were collected and identified morphologically. We amplified three genes for phylogenetic analysis-the single copy nuclear white and CAD genes, and the COI barcode region. Since we had multiple specimens for most species we were able to test how well the single or combined genes were able to corroborate morphologically defined species by placing the species into exclusive groups. We found that single genes, including the COI barcode region, were poor at confirming species, but that the three genes combined were able to do so much better. This has implications for species identification, species delimitation, and species discovery, and we caution that single genes are not enough. Higher level groupings were partially resolved with some well-supported groupings, whereas others were found to be either polyphyletic or paraphyletic. There were examples of known groups, such as the Myzorhynchella Section, which were poorly supported with single genes but were well supported with combined genes. From this we can infer that more sequence data will be needed in order to show more higher-level groupings with good support. We got unambiguously good support (0.94-1.0 Bayesian posterior probability from all DNA-based analyses for a grouping of An. dunhami with An. nuneztovari and An. goeldii, and because of this and because of morphological similarities we propose that An. dunhami be included in the Nuneztovari Complex. We obtained phylogenetic corroboration for new species which had been recognised by morphological differences; these will need to be formally described and named.

  9. Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

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    He Ningjia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity. Results We have identified 156 genes in Anopheles gambiae that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters. Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle. Conclusion The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other Anopheles genes.

  10. Identification and characterization of the fibrinogen-like domain of fibrinogen-related proteins in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, genomes

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    Zhao Qin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG domain, which consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs, which contain FBG domains in their C-terminal region, are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this family in insects, we analyzed FREPs in the mosquito genome and made comparisons to FREPs in the fruitfly genome. Results By using the genome data of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, 53 FREPs were identified, whereas only 20 members were found in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout the FBG domain region. By secondary structure analysis and comparison, the FBG domains of FREPs are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. Conclusion Detailed sequence and structural analysis discloses that the FREP family contains FBG domains that have high sequence similarity in the A. gambiae genome. Expansion of the FREP family in mosquitoes during evolutionary history is mainly accounted for by a major expansion of the FBG domain architecture. The characterization of the FBG domains in the FREP family is likely to aid in the experimental analysis of the ability of mosquitoes to recognize parasites in innate immunity and physiologies associated with blood feeding.

  11. Synaptotagmin gene content of the sequenced genomes

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    Craxton Molly

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synaptotagmins exist as a large gene family in mammals. There is much interest in the function of certain family members which act crucially in the regulated synaptic vesicle exocytosis required for efficient neurotransmission. Knowledge of the functions of other family members is relatively poor and the presence of Synaptotagmin genes in plants indicates a role for the family as a whole which is wider than neurotransmission. Identification of the Synaptotagmin genes within completely sequenced genomes can provide the entire Synaptotagmin gene complement of each sequenced organism. Defining the detailed structures of all the Synaptotagmin genes and their encoded products can provide a useful resource for functional studies and a deeper understanding of the evolution of the gene family. The current rapid increase in the number of sequenced genomes from different branches of the tree of life, together with the public deposition of evolutionarily diverse transcript sequences make such studies worthwhile. Results I have compiled a detailed list of the Synaptotagmin genes of Caenorhabditis, Anopheles, Drosophila, Ciona, Danio, Fugu, Mus, Homo, Arabidopsis and Oryza by examining genomic and transcript sequences from public sequence databases together with some transcript sequences obtained by cDNA library screening and RT-PCR. I have compared all of the genes and investigated the relationship between plant Synaptotagmins and their non-Synaptotagmin counterparts. Conclusions I have identified and compared 98 Synaptotagmin genes from 10 sequenced genomes. Detailed comparison of transcript sequences reveals abundant and complex variation in Synaptotagmin gene expression and indicates the presence of Synaptotagmin genes in all animals and land plants. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicate patterns of conservation and diversity in function. Phylogenetic analysis shows the origin of Synaptotagmins in multicellular eukaryotes and their

  12. Effectiveness of synthetic versus natural human volatiles as attractants for Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) sensu stricto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Females of the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, use human volatiles to find their blood-host. Previous work has shown that ammonia, lactic acid, and aliphatic carboxylic acids significantly affect host orientation and attraction of this species, In the current study,

  13. HABITAT PERKEMBANGBIAKAN DAN AKTIVITAS MENGGIGIT NYAMUK ANOPHELES SUNDAICUS DAN ANOPHELES SUBPICTUS DI PURWOREJO, JAWA TENGAH

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    Supratman Sukowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be a public health problem, it causes morbidity, mortality as well as outbreak in several remote areas in Indonesia. Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission. The understanding of mosquito species, its bio-ecology, and the characteristic of their habitats are very important to formulate the vector control strategy. It was recognized that there are many aspects of behavior that are directly and indirectly important in the prevention and control of malaria. One of the main cause of malaria control failure due to lack of understanding vector spesies and its bio-ecology.This paper reported the study of breeding places and biting activities of malaria vector Anophles sundaicus and An. subpictus from coastal area of Purworejo area in year 2004. Natural population of anopheline species was sampled from larval survey, landing collection, animal resting collection, resting collection to study the larval habitat, biting activities, resting habit and biting sites. Nine species of anopheline werefound in Jati Malang e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, An. aconitus, An.indefinitus, An. tesselatus, An. nigerrimus, An. annularis. In Gedangan village was found 5 species of Anopheles e.g. An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. aconitus.The breeding places of Anopheles spp. are varied, in Jati Malang and Gedangan were found lagoon, brackish water fish-pond, rice field, freshwater fishpond, irrigation channel, and pit hole. Therefore, the breeding places of An. sundaicus and An. subpictus confined in the lagoon and brackish water fish ponds, with its characteristics e.g. water temperature ranges 25,6°C-27,8°C, pH ranges 7,2-7,6, water salinity 3,0-3,4%, and water dept is 20,3 cm-25,2 cm, muddy undergroud, stagnant or slow running water with the water weed mostly green algae (Chlorophyta and lichen.The biting activities of An. sundaicus and An

  14. Experience of targeted Usher exome sequencing as a clinical test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Thomas; García-García, Gema; Baux, David; Vaché, Christel; Faugère, Valérie; Larrieu, Lise; Léonard, Susana; Millan, Jose M; Malcolm, Sue; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    We show that massively parallel targeted sequencing of 19 genes provides a new and reliable strategy for molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome (USH) and nonsyndromic deafness, particularly appropriate for these disorders characterized by a high clinical and genetic heterogeneity and a complex structure of several of the genes involved. A series of 71 patients including Usher patients previously screened by Sanger sequencing plus newly referred patients was studied. Ninety-eight percent of the variants previously identified by Sanger sequencing were found by next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS proved to be efficient as it offers analysis of all relevant genes which is laborious to reach with Sanger sequencing. Among the 13 newly referred Usher patients, both mutations in the same gene were identified in 77% of cases (10 patients) and one candidate pathogenic variant in two additional patients. This work can be considered as pilot for implementing NGS for genetically heterogeneous diseases in clinical service. PMID:24498627

  15. Disecciones de Mosquitos del género Anopheles en la Intendencia del Meta

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    Renjifo-Salcedo Santiago

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available EI esclarecimiento de los vectores de malaria reviste especial importancia para la salubridad nacional. En la presente comunicación se dan a conocer los resultados de 1048 disecciones de mosquitos del genero Anopheles (889 glándulas y 894 estómagos hechas por nosotros en el Laboratorio de Villavicencio, Instituto "Carlos Finlay", durante los meses de septiembre, octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 1946.

  16. Biological differences in reproductive strategy between the mosquito sibling species Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. quadriannulatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Stuke, K.; Klowden, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Females of the afrotropical mosquito species Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and An. quadriannulatus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) were studied for the effect of blood meal size and the frequency of blood feeding on reproductive development during the first gonotrophic cycle. To standardize

  17. Identification of four evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmont, Martin; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is an important vector for malaria, which is one of the most serious human parasitic diseases in the world, causing up to 2.7 million deaths yearly. To contribute to our understanding of A. gambiae and to the transmission of malaria, we have now cloned four evolutio......The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is an important vector for malaria, which is one of the most serious human parasitic diseases in the world, causing up to 2.7 million deaths yearly. To contribute to our understanding of A. gambiae and to the transmission of malaria, we have now cloned four...... evolutionarily related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from this mosquito and expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. After screening of a library of thirty-three insect or other invertebrate neuropeptides and eight biogenic amines, we could identify (de-orphanize) three of these GPCRs as...... relationship to the A. gambiae and other insect AKH receptors suggested that it is a receptor for an AKH-like peptide. This is the first published report on evolutionarily related AKH, corazonin, and CCAP receptors in mosquitoes....

  18. INKRIMINASI VEKTOR MALARIA DAN IDENTIFIKASI PAKAN DARAH PADA NYAMUK AnopHELEs SPP DI KECAMATAN BOROBUDUR, KABUPATEN MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Widyastuti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di Kabupaten Magelang, khususnya di Kecamatan Borobudur. Annual Parasite Incidence (API dua tahun terakhir sebesar 0,19 pada tahun 2004 dan meningkat 0,34 pada tahun 2005, menunjukkan status Low Case Incidence (LCI. Kasus malaria di daerah tersebut sehubungan dengan  adanya  beberapa  spesies  nyamuk  Anopheles  yang  potensial  sebagai  vektor  malaria.  Kompetensi vektorial  nyamuk  Anopheles  di  Kecamatan  Borobudur  belum  banyak  dilaporkan,  khususnya  halam  hal kerentanannya terhadap Plasmodium dan sifat antropofilik (kesukaan menghisap darah manusia. Berbagai spesies seperti Anopheles aconitus, An maculatus, dan An. balabacensis merupakan tersangka vektor malaria di daerah tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: a. mendeteksi antigen protein circum sporozoit P. falciparum atau P. vivax pada nyamuk Anopheles sp dengan teknik Enzyme Linked Immunosarbant Assay (Elisa dan b.  mengidentifikasi  pakan  darah  manusia  pada  nyamuk  Anopheles  spp  dengan  teknik  Elisa.  Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Mei 2006 di 2 desa HCI yaitu di Giripurno dan Giritengah, Kecamatan Borobudur. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menangkap nyamuk yang istirahat di dalam dan luar rumah pada malam hari (18.00-12.00 dan pagi hari (06.00-08.00 sesuai dengan metode WHO, 2003. Nyamuk Anopheles spp dipisahkan berdasarkan spesies untuk dihitung kepadatannya. Selanjutnya dilakukan pembedahan ovarium untuk  mengetahui  paritasnya  (parous  atau  nulliparous. Anopheles  spp  parous  (4  spesies  yaitu Anopheles aconitus, An maculatus, An. balabacensis dan An. barbirostris diperiksa kondisi abdomennya untuk kepentingan pengujian dengan ELISA. Keempat spesies nyamuk parous (semua kondisi abdomen yaitu unfed, blood fed, half gravid dan gravid diambil bagian dada-kepala untuk kepentingan Elisa sporozoit. Nyamuk parous dengan kondisi blood fed dan half gravid diambil bagian

  19. A genomic audit of newly-adopted autosomal STRs for forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C

    2017-07-01

    In preparation for the growing use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology to genotype forensic STRs, a comprehensive genomic audit of 73 STRs was made in 2016 [Parson et al., Forensic Sci. Int. Genet. 22, 54-63]. The loci examined included miniSTRs that were not in widespread use, but had been incorporated into MPS kits or were under consideration for this purpose. The current study expands the genomic analysis of autosomal STRs that are not commonly used, to include the full set of developed miniSTRs and an additional 24 STRs, most of which have been recently included in several supplementary forensic multiplex kits for capillary electrophoresis. The genomic audit of these 47 newly-adopted STRs examined the linkage status of new loci on the same chromosome as established forensic STRs; analyzed world-wide population variation of the newly-adopted STRs using published data; assessed their forensic informativeness; and compiled the sequence characteristics, repeat structures and flanking regions of each STR. A further 44 autosomal STRs developed for forensic analyses but not incorporated into commercial kits, are also briefly described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in tropical Africa: review of achievements and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K; Lynch, M

    2007-03-01

    Malaria vector control targeting the larval stages of mosquitoes was applied successfully against many species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in malarious countries until the mid-20th Century. Since the introduction of DDT in the 1940s and the associated development of indoor residual spraying (IRS), which usually has a more powerful impact than larval control on vectorial capacity, the focus of malaria prevention programmes has shifted to the control of adult vectors. In the Afrotropical Region, where malaria is transmitted mainly by Anopheles funestus Giles and members of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, gaps in information on larval ecology and the ability of An. gambiae sensu lato to exploit a wide variety of larval habitats have discouraged efforts to develop and implement larval control strategies. Opportunities to complement adulticiding with other components of integrated vector management, along with concerns about insecticide resistance, environmental impacts, rising costs of IRS and logistical constraints, have stimulated renewed interest in larval control of malaria vectors. Techniques include environmental management, involving the temporary or permanent removal of anopheline larval habitats, as well as larviciding with chemical or biological agents. This present review covers large-scale trials of anopheline larval control methods, focusing on field studies in Africa conducted within the past 15 years. Although such studies are limited in number and scope, their results suggest that targeting larvae, particularly in human-made habitats, can significantly reduce malaria transmission in appropriate settings. These approaches are especially suitable for urban areas, where larval habitats are limited, particularly when applied in conjunction with IRS and other adulticidal measures, such as the use of insecticide treated bednets.

  1. Multiple origins of knockdown resistance mutations in the Afrotropical mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pinto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available How often insecticide resistance mutations arise in natural insect populations is a fundamental question for understanding the evolution of resistance and also for modeling its spread. Moreover, the development of resistance is regarded as a favored model to study the molecular evolution of adaptive traits. In the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae two point mutations (L1014F and L1014S in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, that confer knockdown resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides, have been described. In order to determine whether resistance alleles result from single or multiple mutation events, genotyping of the kdr locus and partial sequencing of the upstream intron-1 was performed on a total of 288 A. gambiae S-form collected from 28 localities in 15 countries. Knockdown resistance alleles were found to be widespread in West Africa with co-occurrence of both 1014S and 1014F in West-Central localities. Differences in intron-1 haplotype composition suggest that kdr alleles may have arisen from at least four independent mutation events. Neutrality tests provided evidence for a selective sweep acting on this genomic region, particularly in West Africa. The frequency and distribution of these kdr haplotypes varied geographically, being influenced by an interplay between different mutational occurrences, gene flow and local selection. This has important practical implications for the management and sustainability of malaria vector control programs.

  2. FAUNA ANOPHELES DI DAERAH PANTAI BEKAS HUTAN MANGROVE KECAMATAN PADANG CERMIN KABUPATEN LAMPUNG SELATAN

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    N. Sushanti Idris-Idram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mosquito collections were carried out in two villages in subdistrict of Padangcermin during 1992-1993. The method of mosquito collections consisted of night landing on man indoor and outdoor, night resting indoor and outdoor around cattle shelters, light trap in cattle shelters, daytime resting indoor and outdoor, as well as larvae collections to identify anophelines breeding sites. Sixteen anophelines i.e. Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. vagus, An. indefinitus, An. nigerrimus, An. peditaeniatus, An. kochi, An. barbirostris, An. bambumbrosus, An. annularis, An. separatus, An. tesselatus, An. aconitus, An. umbrosus, An. leucosphyrus and An. letifer were collected. Among these mosquitos, An. sundaicus was found predominant, followed by An. vagus and An. subpictus. Other species were collected in small numbers. The behavior of Anopheles sundaicus, An. subpictus and An. vagus were exophagic and endophilic. The larvae of An. sundaicus was found only in brackish standing water such as abandoned shrimp ponds, An. subpictus in brackish standing water as well as fresh standing water, while An. vagus was found only in fresh standing water. Breeding sites of An. sundaicus was characterized by pond with floating algae while An. subpictus and An. vagus were not depending on vegetation.

  3. A(maize)ing attraction: gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to maize pollen odours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Hill, Sharon R; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-01-23

    Maize cultivation contributes to the prevalence of malaria mosquitoes and exacerbates malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. The pollen from maize serves as an important larval food source for Anopheles mosquitoes, and females that are able to detect breeding sites where maize pollen is abundant may provide their offspring with selective advantages. Anopheles mosquitoes are hypothesized to locate, discriminate among, and select such sites using olfactory cues, and that synthetic volatile blends can mimic these olfactory-guided behaviours. Two-port olfactometer and two-choice oviposition assays were used to assess the attraction and oviposition preference of gravid Anopheles arabiensis to the headspace of the pollen from two maize cultivars (BH-660 and ZM-521). Bioactive compounds were identified using combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection from the headspace of the cultivar found to be most attractive (BH-660). Synthetic blends of the volatile compounds were then assessed for attraction and oviposition preference of gravid An. arabiensis, as above. Here the collected headspace volatiles from the pollen of two maize cultivars was shown to differentially attract and stimulate oviposition in gravid An. arabiensis. Furthermore, a five-component synthetic maize pollen odour blend was identified, which elicited the full oviposition behavioural repertoire of the gravid mosquitoes. The cues identified from maize pollen provide important substrates for the development of novel control measures that modulate gravid female behaviour. Such measures are irrespective of indoor or outdoor feeding and resting patterns, thus providing a much-needed addition to the arsenal of tools that currently target indoor biting mosquitoes.

  4. BIONOMIK NYAMUK Anopheles DAN KEBIASAAN PENDUDUK YANG MENUNJANG KEJADIAN MALARIA DI KECAMATAN PAGEDONGAN KABUPATEN BANJARNEGARA TAHUN 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarohman Raharjo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria masih merupakan masalah kesehatan global termasuk di Indonesia. Kabupaten Banjarnegara merupakan salah satu kabupaten di Jawa Tengah yang mempunyai masalah malaria cukup serius. Sampai dengan tahun 2002 telah tercatat 86 desa endemis dari 276 desa yang ada, sedangkan 175 desa terancam menjadi daerah HCI (High Case lncidens, jumlah penderita malaria pada tahun 2001 sebanyak 6.793 orang (API: 7,47%o meningkat menjadi 13.401 orang (API: 15,33%o pada tahun 2002 dan 90,2% dari kasus penderita indigenous.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui bionomik nyamuk anopheles dan kebiasaan penduduk yang menunjang kejadian malaria di lokasi penelitian.Penelitian ini termasuk dalam jenis penelitian deskriptif, karena menggambarkan bionomik nyamuk vektor dan kebiasaan penduduk. Penelitian ini bertempat di Kecamatan Pagedongan, KabupatenBanjarnegara, Provinsi Jawa Tengah dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari Nopember 2005.Tempat berkembangbiak Anopheles spp positif adalah kobakan air (belik dan bekas galian pasir disungai dan mata air. Kebiasaan nyamuk Anopheles spp menggigit orang di dalam dan di luar rumah hampir sama banyaknya. Terjadi peningkatan jumlah nyamuk yang tajam pada bulan September. Aktivitas menggigit di dalam rumah dimulai pada pukul 18.00-19.00. Sedangkan aktivitas menggigit di luar rumah meningkat pada pukul 21. 00-22.00 dan mencapai puncaknya pada pukul 22. 00-23.00 dan 03.00-04.00.Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah adanya nyamuk tersangka vektor, kondisi lingkungan dan pengetahuan masyarakat menjadi faktor yang menunjang kejadian malaria di desa wilayah Kecamatan Pagedongan. Saran yang diberikan adalah meningkatkan pengetahuan masyarakat tentang malaria dan mengurangi keberadaan tempat-tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk. Kata Kunci : Malaria, Biomonik

  5. Implications for changes in Anopheles darlingi biting behaviour in three communities in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Saavedra, Marlon P; Bickersmith, Sara A; Lainhart, William; Tong, Carlos; Alava, Freddy; Vinetz, Joseph M; Conn, Jan E

    2015-07-30

    Malaria transmission in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru has been designated as seasonal and hypo-endemic with recently described hyper-endemic hotspots. Despite relatively recent distribution of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs), malaria in Amazonian Peru persists and increased substantially in 2014 compared to previous years. Anopheles darlingi, identified as the main malaria vector, is known for its variable behaviour depending on locality and environment. To evaluate vector biology metrics in relation to seasonality and malaria transmission, mosquito collections were carried out in three localities in the peri-Iquitos region, Loreto, Peru in 2011-2012. Human landing catch (HLC) collection method, Shannon (SHA) and CDC trap types were compared for effectiveness in a neotropical setting. Abundance, human biting rate and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) were measured to provide an updated view of transmission patterns post-LLIN distribution. HLC collected significantly more anopheline mosquitoes than SHA and CDC light traps. Anopheles darlingi was the most prevalent species in all three villages (84% overall). Biting patterns varied depending on trap type, season and village. EIR varied temporally (monthly) and spatially and the highest (2.52) occurred during the 2012 malaria outbreak in Cahuide. Unexpectedly there was a high infection rate (1.47 and 1.75) outside the normal malaria transmission season, coincident with a second local outbreak in Cahuide. The first identification of Anopheles dunhami and Anopheles oswaldoi C in Peru, using molecular markers, is also reported in this study. These data underscore the importance of HLC as the most meaningful collection method for measuring vector biology indices in this region. The highest monthly EIR provides additional evidence of seasonal transmission in riverine localities correlated with high river levels, and An. darlingi as the only contributor to transmission. The trend of an increase in

  6. [Identification of anopheles breeding sites in the residual foci of low malaria transmission «hotspots» in Central and Western Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, O; Konaté, L; Ndiaye, A; Dia, I; Diallo, A; Taïrou, F; Bâ, E L; Gomis, J F; Ndiaye, J L; Cissé, B; Gaye, O; Faye, O

    2016-02-01

    Malaria incidence has markedly declined in the Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey districts (central and western Senegal) thanks to a scaling up of effective control measures namely LLINs (Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Net), ACTs (Artesunate Combination Therapy) and promoting care seeking. However malaria cases are now maintained by foci of transmission called hotspots. We evaluate the role of anopheles breeding sites in the identification of malaria hotspots in the health districts of Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey. Surveys of breeding sites were made in 6 hotspot villages and 4 non-hotspot villages. A sample was taken in each water point with mosquito larvae by dipping method and the collected specimens were identified to the genus level. Additional parameters as name of the village and breeding sites, type of collection, original water turbidity, presence of vegetation, proximity to dwellings, geographic coordinates, sizes were also collected. Sixty-two water collections were surveyed and monitored between 2013 and 2014. Temporary natural breeding sites were predominant regardless of the epidemiological status of the village. Among the 31 breeding sites located within 500 meters of dwellings in hotspots villages, 70% carried Anopheles larvae during the rainy season while 43% of the 21 breeding sites located at similar distances in non-hotspot villages carried Anopheles larvae during the same period (P = 0.042). At the end of the rainy season, the trend is the same with 27% of positive breeding sites in hotspots and 14% in non-hotspots villages. The breeding sites encountered in hotspots villages are mostly small to medium size and are more productive by Anopheles larvae than those found in non-hotspot area. This study showed that the high frequency of smallest and productive breeding sites around and inside the villages can create conditions of residual transmission.

  7. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Mosquitos no litoral paranaense. I - Idade fisioldgica de no Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Anopheles cruzii (Diptera, Culicidae). Arq. Estado do...no Parque National da Peryassii, A.G. 1908. OS culicideos do Brazil. Serra dos Grgaos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Inst. de Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro...Kerteszia no litoral Guimar%es, A.E. and V.N.M. Victoria. 1986. do estado de Santa Catarina. Rev. Bras. Mosquitos no Parque National da Serra dos

  8. The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp. - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Eleonora; Hatz, Christoph; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Travellers are confronted with a variety of vector-borne threats. Is one type of repellent effective against all biting vectors? The aim of this review is to examine the literature, up to December 31st, 2012, regarding repellent efficacy. We searched PubMed for relevant papers. Repellents of interest were DEET, Icaridin as well as other piperidine-derived products (SS220), Insect Repellent (IR) 3535 (ethyl-butylacetyl-amino-propionat, EBAAP) and plant-derived products, including Citriodora (para-menthane-3,8-diol). As vectors, we considered the mosquito species Anopheles, Aedes and Culex as well as the tick species Ixodes. We selected only studies evaluating the protective efficacy of repellents on human skin. We reviewed a total of 102 publications. Repellents were evaluated regarding complete protection time or as percentage efficacy [%] in a time interval. We found no standardized study for tick bite prevention. Regarding Aedes, DEET at concentration of 20% or more, showed the best efficacy providing up to 10 h protection. Citriodora repellency against this mosquito genus was lower compared to the other products. Also between subspecies a difference could be observed: Ae. aegypti proved more difficult to repel than Ae. Albopictus. Fewer studies have been conducted on mosquito species Anopheles and Culex. The repellency profile against Anopheles species was similar for the four principal repellents of interest, providing on average 4-10 h of protection. Culex mosquitoes are easier to repel and all four repellents provided good protection. Few studies have been conducted on the tick species Ixodes. According to our results, the longest protection against Ixodes scapularis was provided by repellents containing IR3535, while DEET and commercial products containing Icaridin or PMD showed a better response than IR3535 against Ixodes ricinus. Many plant-based repellents provide only short duration protection. Adding vanillin 5% to plant-based repellents and to DEET

  9. Development of a gravid trap for collecting live malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Dugassa

    Full Text Available Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps.Experiments were implemented in an 80 m(2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap's sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated.Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.6-1.2; p = 0.284, whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5; p < 0.001. The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6-0.7; p < 0.001. This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2-2.2; p = 0.001 with the new OviART trap.Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles.

  10. Beberapa aspek perilaku Anopheles sundaicus di Desa Konda Maloba Kecamatan Katikutana Selatan Kabupaten Sumba Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Indriaty Paskalita Bule Sopi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Konda Maloba village is one of the areas of malaria risk is high enough. Research surveys conducted in the region with cross sectional data collection. The purpose of this paper is to investigate behavioral aspect of Anopheles sundaicus in Konda Maloba Village, Katikutana District, Central Sumba Regency includes breeding sites, density, characteristics of the environment, bitting and resting activity. Data collection was conducted by human-bait collection method and resting, the detention pra-matured mosquitos and propagation mullet observation. The result showed that the characteristics of breeding habitats of Anopheles sundaicus found in water flow with density 4.1, temperature 25ºC, pH 8.8, salinity 12%, cloudy, heliophilik and biota Cambarus virilis, Poa Annua, and Sphagnum sp. Of 681 An. sundaicus was captured through outdoor landing collection (30.90%, indoor landing collection (30.40%, resting on the wall (23.20% and in the cage (15.95%. Indoor bitting activity of An. sundaicus reached a peak in November (MBR=7,21. The highest indoor man-hour density was experienced in November (MHD=0,78 during 01.00-02.00 a.m. The environmental characteristics and An. sundaicus behavior were potentially maintained malaria transmission in Konda Maloba village, South Katikutana. Keywords: behavior, vector, malaria, Anopheles sundaicus Abstrak. Desa Konda Maloba merupakan salah satu wilayah risiko malaria cukup tinggi. Penelitian survey dilakukan di wilayah tersebut dengan pengumpulan data secara cross-sectional. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui gambaran beberapa aspek perilaku An .sundaicus meliputi jenis habitat perkembangbiakan, kepadatan, karakteristik lingkungannya, aktifitas menghisap darah dan istirahat. Pengumpulan data melalui metode koleksi umpan badan orang dan istirahat, pencidukan nyamuk pradewasa dan observasi habitat perkembangbiakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik habitat perkembangbiakan An.sundaicus pada

  11. IgG responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary antigen gSG6 detect variation in exposure to malaria vectors and disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Will; Bousema, Teun; Jones, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    as the basis of an immuno-assay determining exposure to Afrotropical malaria vectors. In the present study, IgG responses to gSG6 and 6 malaria antigens (CSP, AMA-1, MSP-1, MSP-3, GLURP R1, and GLURP R2) were compared to Anopheles exposure and malaria incidence in a cohort of children from Korogwe district...... with subsequent malaria incidence (test for trend p¿=¿0.004), comparable to malaria antigens MSP-1 and GLURP R2. Our results show that the gSG6 assay is sensitive to micro-epidemiological variations in exposure to Anopheles mosquitoes, and provides a correlate of malaria risk that is unrelated to immune...

  12. The role of skin microbiota in the attractiveness of humans to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world. The African mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (henceforth termed An. gambiae) is highly competent for malaria parasites and preferably feeds on humans inside houses, which make it one of the most effective vectors of the

  13. Carbon dioxide baited trap catches do not correlate with human landing collections of Anopheles aquasalis in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Andriessen, R.; Rijk, de M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of carbon dioxide-baited traps, i.e., the Centers for Disease Control Miniature Light Trap without light, the BioGents (BG) Sentinel Mosquito Trap (BG-Sentinel) and the Mosquito Magnet® Liberty Plus were compared with human landing collections in their efficiency in collecting Anopheles

  14. Human skin microbiota and their volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Host seeking by the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly guided by volatile chemicals present in human odours. The skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of these volatiles, and skin bacteria grown on agar plates attract An. gambiae

  15. Susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to insecticides used for malaria vector control in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Karema, Corine; Munyakanage, Dunia; Iranzi, Gad; Githure, John; Tongren, Jon Eric; Takken, Willem; Binagwaho, Agnes; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2016-12-01

    The widespread emergence of resistance to pyrethroids is a major threat to the gains made in malaria control. To monitor the presence and possible emergence of resistance against a variety of insecticides used for malaria control in Rwanda, nationwide insecticide resistance surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected in 12 sentinel sites throughout Rwanda. These were reared to adults and analysed for knock-down and mortality using WHO insecticide test papers with standard diagnostic doses of the recommended insecticides. A sub-sample of tested specimens was analysed for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. A total of 14,311 mosquitoes were tested and from a sample of 1406 specimens, 1165 (82.9%) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis and 241 (17.1%) as Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mortality results indicated a significant increase in resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin from 2011 to 2013 in 83% of the sites, permethrin in 25% of the sites, deltamethrin in 25% of the sites and DDT in 50% of the sites. Mosquitoes from 83% of the sites showed full susceptibility to bendiocarb and 17% of sites were suspected to harbour resistance that requires further confirmation. No resistance was observed to fenitrothion in all study sites during the entire survey. The kdr genotype results in An. gambiae s.s. showed that 67 (50%) possessed susceptibility (SS) alleles, while 35 (26.1%) and 32 (23.9%) mosquitoes had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Of the 591 An. arabiensis genotyped, 425 (71.9%) possessed homozygous (SS) alleles while 158 (26.7%) and 8 (1.4%) had heterozygous (RS) and homozygous (RR) alleles, respectively. Metabolic resistance involving oxidase enzymes was also detected using the synergist PBO. This is the first nationwide study of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Rwanda. It shows the gradual increase of insecticide resistance to pyrethroids (lambda

  16. A simple Chelex protocol for DNA extraction from Anopheles spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musapa, Mulenga; Kumwenda, Taida; Mkulama, Mtawa; Chishimba, Sandra; Norris, Douglas E; Thuma, Philip E; Mharakurwa, Sungano

    2013-01-09

    Endemic countries are increasingly adopting molecular tools for efficient typing, identification and surveillance against malaria parasites and vector mosquitoes, as an integral part of their control programs. For sustainable establishment of these accurate approaches in operations research to strengthen malaria control and elimination efforts, simple and affordable methods, with parsimonious reagent and equipment requirements are essential. Here we present a simple Chelex-based technique for extracting malaria parasite and vector DNA from field collected mosquito specimens. We morphologically identified 72 Anopheles gambiae sl. from 156 mosquitoes captured by pyrethrum spray catches in sleeping rooms of households within a 2,000 km(2) vicinity of the Malaria Institute at Macha. After dissection to separate the head and thorax from the abdomen for all 72 Anopheles gambiae sl. mosquitoes, the two sections were individually placed in 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tubes and submerged in 20 μl of deionized water. Using a sterile pipette tip, each mosquito section was separately homogenized to a uniform suspension in the deionized water. Of the ensuing homogenate from each mosquito section, 10 μl was retained while the other 10 μl was transferred to a separate autoclaved 1.5 ml tube. The separate aliquots were subjected to DNA extraction by either the simplified Chelex or the standard salting out extraction protocol(9,10). The salting out protocol is so-called and widely used because it employs high salt concentrations in lieu of hazardous organic solvents (such as phenol and chloroform) for the protein precipitation step during DNA extraction(9). Extracts were used as templates for PCR amplification using primers targeting arthropod mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) subunit 4 gene (ND4) to check DNA quality, a PCR for identification of Anopheles gambiae sibling species(10) and a nested PCR for typing of Plasmodium falciparum infection

  17. Fulltext PDF - Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    On the conspecificity of Anopheles fluviatilis species S with. Anopheles minimus species .... plexes in eubacteria: a new role of initiation factor 3. 281. ELISA ..... RT-PCR. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus iso- late from ...

  18. Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Seda, P.; Killeen, G.F.; Hawley, W.A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The success of distinguishing blood meal sources of Anopheles gambiae Giles through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification at the TC-11 and VWA human short tandem repeats (STR) loci. Blood meal size and locus had no significant effect

  19. Changing distribution and abundance of the malaria vector Anopheles merus in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbokazi, F; Coetzee, M; Brooke, B; Govere, J; Reid, A; Owiti, P; Kosgei, R; Zhou, S; Magagula, R; Kok, G; Namboze, J; Tweya, H; Mabuza, A

    2018-04-25

    Background: The malaria vector Anopheles merus occurs in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. As its contribution to malaria transmission in South Africa has yet to be ascertained, an intensification of surveillance is necessary to provide baseline information on this species. The aim of this study was therefore to map An. merus breeding sites in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province and to assess qualitative trends in the distribution and relative abundance of this species over a 9-year period. Methods: The study was carried out during the period 2005-2014 in the four high-risk municipalities of Ehlanzeni District. Fifty-two breeding sites were chosen from all water bodies that produced anopheline mosquitoes. The study data were extracted from historical entomological records that are captured monthly. Results: Of the 15 058 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 64% were An. merus. The abundance and distribution of An. merus increased throughout the four municipalities in Ehlanzeni District during the study period. Conclusion: The expanded distribution and increased abundance of An. merus in the Ehlanzeni District may contribute significantly to locally acquired malaria in Mpumalanga Province, likely necessitating the incorporation of additional vector control methods specifically directed against populations of this species.

  20. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  1. Genetic and phenotypic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern that global climate change will affect the potential for pathogen transmission by insect species that are vectors of human diseases. One of these species is the former European malaria vector, Anopheles atroparvus. Levels of population differentiation of An. atroparvus from southern Europe were characterized as a first attempt to elucidate patterns of population structure of this former malaria vector. Results are discussed in light of a hypothetical situation of re-establishment of malaria transmission. Methods Genetic and phenotypic variation was analysed in nine mosquito samples collected from five European countries, using eight microsatellite loci and geometric morphometrics on 21 wing landmarks. Results Levels of genetic diversity were comparable to those reported for tropical malaria vectors. Low levels of genetic (0.004 FST An. atroparvus populations spanning over 3,000 km distance. Genetic differentiation (0.202 FST An. atroparvus and Anopheles maculipennis s.s. Differentiation between sibling species was not so evident at the phenotype level. Conclusions Levels of population differentiation within An. atroparvus were low and not correlated with geographic distance or with putative physical barriers to gene flow (Alps and Pyrenées. While these results may suggest considerable levels of gene flow, other explanations such as the effect of historical population perturbations can also be hypothesized.

  2. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes changes in response to variations in the larval environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Henry F; Chitnis, Nakul; Müller, Pie

    2017-06-16

    Insecticide resistance threatens the success achieved through vector control in reducing the burden of malaria. An understanding of insecticide resistance mechanisms would help to develop novel tools and strategies to restore the efficacy of insecticides. Although we have substantially improved our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance over the last decade, we still know little of how environmental variations influence the mosquito phenotype. Here, we measured how variations in larval rearing conditions change the insecticide susceptibility phenotype of adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae and A. stephensi larvae were bred under different combinations of temperature, population density and nutrition, and the emerging adults were exposed to permethrin. Mosquitoes bred under different conditions showed considerable changes in mortality rates and body weight, with nutrition being the major factor. Weight is a strong predictor of insecticide susceptibility and bigger mosquitoes are more likely to survive insecticide treatment. The changes can be substantial, such that the same mosquito colony may be considered fully susceptible or highly resistant when judged by World Health Organization discriminatory concentrations. The results shown here emphasise the importance of the environmental background in developing insecticide resistance phenotypes, and caution for the interpretation of data generated by insecticide susceptibility assays.

  3. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  4. Analysis of expression in the Anopheles gambiae developing testes reveals rapidly evolving lineage-specific genes in mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywinski Jaroslaw

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male mosquitoes do not feed on blood and are not involved in delivery of pathogens to humans. Consequently, they are seldom the subjects of research, which results in a very poor understanding of their biology. To gain insights into male developmental processes we sought to identify genes transcribed exclusively in the reproductive tissues of male Anopheles gambiae pupae. Results Using a cDNA subtraction strategy, five male-specifically or highly male-biased expressed genes were isolated, four of which remain unannotated in the An. gambiae genome. Spatial and temporal expression patterns suggest that each of these genes is involved in the mid-late stages of spermatogenesis. Their sequences are rapidly evolving; however, two genes possess clear homologs in a wide range of taxa and one of these probably acts in a sperm motility control mechanism conserved in many organisms, including humans. The other three genes have no match to sequences from non-mosquito taxa, thus can be regarded as orphans. RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that one of the orphans is transcribed in spermatids, which suggests its involvement in sperm maturation. Two other orphans have unknown functions. Expression analysis of orthologs of all five genes indicated that male-biased transcription was not conserved in the majority of cases in Aedes and Culex. Conclusion Discovery of testis-expressed orphan genes in mosquitoes opens new prospects for the development of innovative control methods. The orphan encoded proteins may represent unique targets of selective anti-mosquito sterilizing agents that will not affect non-target organisms.

  5. Analysis of expression in the Anopheles gambiae developing testes reveals rapidly evolving lineage-specific genes in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2009-07-06

    Male mosquitoes do not feed on blood and are not involved in delivery of pathogens to humans. Consequently, they are seldom the subjects of research, which results in a very poor understanding of their biology. To gain insights into male developmental processes we sought to identify genes transcribed exclusively in the reproductive tissues of male Anopheles gambiae pupae. Using a cDNA subtraction strategy, five male-specifically or highly male-biased expressed genes were isolated, four of which remain unannotated in the An. gambiae genome. Spatial and temporal expression patterns suggest that each of these genes is involved in the mid-late stages of spermatogenesis. Their sequences are rapidly evolving; however, two genes possess clear homologs in a wide range of taxa and one of these probably acts in a sperm motility control mechanism conserved in many organisms, including humans. The other three genes have no match to sequences from non-mosquito taxa, thus can be regarded as orphans. RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that one of the orphans is transcribed in spermatids, which suggests its involvement in sperm maturation. Two other orphans have unknown functions. Expression analysis of orthologs of all five genes indicated that male-biased transcription was not conserved in the majority of cases in Aedes and Culex. Discovery of testis-expressed orphan genes in mosquitoes opens new prospects for the development of innovative control methods. The orphan encoded proteins may represent unique targets of selective anti-mosquito sterilizing agents that will not affect non-target organisms.

  6. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Baughman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  7. Interference-free acquisition of overlapping sequences in explicit spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Thomas; Drever, Johannes; Straube, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Some types of human sequential memory, e.g. the acquisition of a new composition by a trained musician, seem to be very efficient in extending the length of a memorized sequence and in flexible reuse of known subsequences in a newly acquired sequential context. This implies that interference between known and newly acquired subsequences can be avoided even when learning a sequence which is a partial mutation of a known sequence. It is known that established motor sequences do not have such flexibility. Using learning of deferred imitation, the current study investigates the flexibility of explicit spatial memory by quantifying the interferences between successively acquired, partially overlapping sequences. After learning a spatial sequence on day 1, this sequence was progressively modified on day 2. On day 3, a retention test was performed with both the initial and the modified sequence. The results show that subjects performed very well on day 1 and day 2. No spatial interference between changed and unchanged targets was observed during the stepwise progressive modification of the reproduced sequence. Surprisingly, subjects performed well on both sequences on day 3. Comparison with a control experiment without intermediate mutation training showed that the initial training on day 1 did not proactively interfere with the retention of the modified sequence on day 3. Vice versa, the mutation training on day 2 did not interfere retroactively with the retention of the original sequence as tested on day 3. The results underline the flexibility in acquiring explicit spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles : effects of host characteristics and parasite infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukabana, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a series of studies designed to understand the principal factors that determine the differential attractiveness of humans to the malaria vector Anopheles

  9. Mediation of oviposition site selection in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) by semiochemicals of microbial origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumba, L.A.; Guda, T.O.; Deng, A.L.; Hassanali, A.; Beier, J.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the role of larval habitat-derived microorganisms in the production of semiochemicals for oviposition site selection by Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto mosquitoes. Dual-choice bioassays with gravid females were conducted in standard mosquito

  10. A simple and affordable membrane-feeding method for Aedes aegpyti and Anopheles minimus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Catherine; Saingamsook, Jassada; Somboon, Pradya

    2015-12-01

    This study developed an artificial feeding (AF) method to replace direct host feeding (DHF) for the maintenance of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus mosquito colonies. The procedure can be adopted by all laboratories due to its simple and affordable materials and design. The apparatus consists of heparinized cow blood contained in a 5cm diameter glass petri dish with 5cm(2) Parafilm M (Bemis(®)) stretched thinly over the top, with a pre-heated bag of vegetable oil placed underneath to keep the blood warm. Both parts are contained within an insulated Styrofoam™ box with a hole in the lid for mosquitoes to access the membrane. Mosquitoes are fed by AF for 15min at a time. Feeding rate and fecundity of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes feeding on the AF device were compared to those feeding on a live rat (DHF(r)), and of Anopheles minimus mosquitoes feeding on the AF device compared to those feeding on a human arm (DHF(h)). Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed by AF or DHF(r) had similar feeding rates (38.2±21.5% and 35.7±18.2%, respectively) and overall egg production (1.5% difference). Anopheles minimus mosquitoes fed by the AF method had a lower feeding rate (52.0±1.0% for AF compared to 70.7±20.2% for DHF(h)) and overall egg production (40% reduction compared to DHF(h)). However, the number of eggs produced by AF-fed mosquitoes (1808 eggs per 100 mosquitoes) was still sufficient for colony maintenance, and with increased feeding time both parameters are expected to increase. Reduced feeding rate and overall egg production was observed when Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood refrigerated for over two weeks. In conclusion, an AF device has been developed which can replace DHF for Ae. aegypti and An. minimus colony maintenance when using blood refrigerated for a maximum of two weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exome Sequencing and the Management of Neurometabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarailo-Graovac, Maja; Shyr, Casper; Ross, Colin J; Horvath, Gabriella A; Salvarinova, Ramona; Ye, Xin C; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Bhavsar, Amit P; Lee, Jessica J Y; Drögemöller, Britt I; Abdelsayed, Mena; Alfadhel, Majid; Armstrong, Linlea; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Burda, Patricie; Connolly, Mary B; Cameron, Jessie; Demos, Michelle; Dewan, Tammie; Dionne, Janis; Evans, A Mark; Friedman, Jan M; Garber, Ian; Lewis, Suzanne; Ling, Jiqiang; Mandal, Rupasri; Mattman, Andre; McKinnon, Margaret; Michoulas, Aspasia; Metzger, Daniel; Ogunbayo, Oluseye A; Rakic, Bojana; Rozmus, Jacob; Ruben, Peter; Sayson, Bryan; Santra, Saikat; Schultz, Kirk R; Selby, Kathryn; Shekel, Paul; Sirrs, Sandra; Skrypnyk, Cristina; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Turvey, Stuart E; Van Allen, Margot I; Wishart, David; Wu, Jiang; Wu, John; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios; Kluijtmans, Leo; Wevers, Ron A; Eydoux, Patrice; Lehman, Anna M; Vallance, Hilary; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Sinclair, Graham; Wasserman, Wyeth W; van Karnebeek, Clara D

    2016-06-09

    Whole-exome sequencing has transformed gene discovery and diagnosis in rare diseases. Translation into disease-modifying treatments is challenging, particularly for intellectual developmental disorder. However, the exception is inborn errors of metabolism, since many of these disorders are responsive to therapy that targets pathophysiological features at the molecular or cellular level. To uncover the genetic basis of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism, we combined deep clinical phenotyping (the comprehensive characterization of the discrete components of a patient's clinical and biochemical phenotype) with whole-exome sequencing analysis through a semiautomated bioinformatics pipeline in consecutively enrolled patients with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic phenotypes. We performed whole-exome sequencing on samples obtained from 47 probands. Of these patients, 6 were excluded, including 1 who withdrew from the study. The remaining 41 probands had been born to predominantly nonconsanguineous parents of European descent. In 37 probands, we identified variants in 2 genes newly implicated in disease, 9 candidate genes, 22 known genes with newly identified phenotypes, and 9 genes with expected phenotypes; in most of the genes, the variants were classified as either pathogenic or probably pathogenic. Complex phenotypes of patients in five families were explained by coexisting monogenic conditions. We obtained a diagnosis in 28 of 41 probands (68%) who were evaluated. A test of a targeted intervention was performed in 18 patients (44%). Deep phenotyping and whole-exome sequencing in 41 probands with intellectual developmental disorder and unexplained metabolic abnormalities led to a diagnosis in 68%, the identification of 11 candidate genes newly implicated in neurometabolic disease, and a change in treatment beyond genetic counseling in 44%. (Funded by BC Children's Hospital Foundation and others.).

  12. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine–serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. PMID:25865270

  13. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  14. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than

  15. Electrophysiological responses of gustatory receptor neurons on the labella of the common malaria mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recorded electrical responses from sensory cells associated with gustatory sensilla on the labella of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to salt, sucrose, quinine (a feeding deterrent) and the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). A salt-sensitive cell responded to increasing con...

  16. Malaria in Suriname: a new era : impact of modified intervention strategies on Anopheles darlingi populations and malaria incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodiumblood parasites which live inside the human host and are spread by Anopheles mosquitoes.Every year an estimated 225 million new cases and near 800.000 malaria deaths are reported. Control of the disease is a formidable task involving all three

  17. An Epithelial Serine Protease, AgESP, Is Required for Plasmodium Invasion in the Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodrigues, J.; Oliveira, G. A.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Dixit, R.; Molina-Cruz, A.; Jochim, R.; Barillas-Mury, C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2012), e35210 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : malaria * mosquito * serine protease * sporozoites * ookinetes * gene silencing * midgut * salivary glands * Plasmodium falciparum * Anopheles gambiae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0035210

  18. Environmental management through sluice gated bed-dam: a revived strategy for the control of Anopheles fluviatilis breeding in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Integrated vector management (IVM) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. In this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of Anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Methods: The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Koraput, constructed two bed-dams across streams, one in Barigaon and the other in Pipalapodar village. The bed-dam in the former village was fitted with two sluice gates whereas the bed dam constructed in the latter village was without the sluice gate. The sluice gates were opened once in a week on a fixed day to flush out the water from the dam. Anopheles immatures were sampled systematically in the streams using a dipper for density measurement and species composition. Results: There was a reduction of 84.9 per cent in the proportion of positive dips for Anopheles larvae/pupae and a reduction of 98.4 per cent in immature density (number/dip) of An. fluviatilis in the experimental downstream compared to the control following opening of the sluice gates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findins showed that opening of sluice gates of the bed-dam regularly once in a week resulted in the control of vector breeding in the downstream due to the flushing effect of the water released with a high flow from the bed-dam that stagnated water in the upstream. The outcome of the study encourages upscaling this measure to other areas, wherever feasible. PMID:25297364

  19. Phospholipid Topography of Whole-Body Sections of the Anopheles stephensi Mosquito, Characterized by High-Resolution Atmospheric-Pressure Scanning Microprobe Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Saleh M; Römpp, Andreas; Pretzel, Jette; Becker, Katja; Spengler, Bernhard

    2015-11-17

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) has been employed to study the molecular anatomical structure of rodent malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. A dedicated sample preparation method was developed which suits both, the special tissue properties of the sample and the requirements of high-resolution MALDI imaging. Embedding in 5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was used to maintain the tissue integrity of the whole mosquitoes, being very soft, fragile, and difficult to handle. Individual lipid compounds, specifically representing certain cell types, tissue areas, or organs, were detected and imaged in 20 μm-thick whole-body tissue sections at a spatial resolution of 12 μm per image pixel. Mass spectrometric data and information quality were based on a mass resolution of 70,000 (at m/z 200) and a mass accuracy of better than 2 ppm in positive-ion mode on an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. A total of 67 imaged lipids were assigned by database search and, in a number of cases, identified via additional MS/MS fragmentation studies directly from tissue. This is the first MSI study at 12 μm spatial resolution of the malaria vector Anopheles. The study provides insights into the molecular anatomy of Anopheles stephensi and the distribution and localization of major classes of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. These data can be a basis for future experiments, investigating, e.g., the metabolism of Plasmodium-infected and -uninfected Anopheles mosquitoes.

  20. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

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    Killeen Gerry F

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days and old (> 4 days with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes.

  1. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel xylanase cDNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain SH 2016, capable of producing xylanase, was isolated and identified as Aspergillus awamori, based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as its ITS rDNA gene sequence analysis. A xylanase gene of 591 bp was cloned from this newly isolated A. awamori and the ORF sequence predicted a ...

  2. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

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    Rider Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically

  3. Presence of Aedes and Anopheles mosquito larvae is correlated to bacteria found in domestic water-storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Louise K J; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Bertilsson, Stefan; Terenius, Olle

    2018-06-01

    Water-storage containers are common in households where access to water is scarce and often act as breeding sites for vector mosquitoes. Bacteria in these containers may be important for attracting or repelling ovipositing mosquitoes. We hypothesized that bacterial community composition in water-storage containers would represent either inhibitory or suitable environmental conditions for mosquito larvae. To investigate this, we characterized the bacterial community composition in water-storage containers and correlated these communities to Aedes and Anopheles larval densities. Water samples were collected over two years from 13 containers in an Indian village and analyzed by high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Comparisons of bacterial community composition between water with and without mosquito larvae showed that Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae were more common (P < 0.05) in absence of larvae, while Lachnospiraceae, Synechococcaceae, Alcaligenaceae and Cryomorphaceae were more common (P < 0.05) in presence of larvae. Indicator analysis identified operational taxonomic units designated as CL500-29 marine group (Acidimicrobiaceae) and FukuN101 (Microbacteriaceae) for absence and presence of larvae, respectively. These results contribute to the understanding of which bacteria, directly or indirectly, can be linked to absence or presence of mosquitoes around households and set the basis for potential measures to be taken against these vector mosquitoes.

  4. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences

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    Frederico Schmitt Kremer

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as “drafts”, incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  5. Approaches for in silico finishing of microbial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Frederico Schmitt; McBride, Alan John Alexander; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) had a significant effect on the availability of genomic information, leading to an increase in the number of sequenced genomes from a large spectrum of organisms. Unfortunately, due to the limitations implied by the short-read sequencing platforms, most of these newly sequenced genomes remained as "drafts", incomplete representations of the whole genetic content. The previous genome sequencing studies indicated that finishing a genome sequenced by NGS, even bacteria, may require additional sequencing to fill the gaps, making the entire process very expensive. As such, several in silico approaches have been developed to optimize the genome assemblies and facilitate the finishing process. The present review aims to explore some free (open source, in many cases) tools that are available to facilitate genome finishing.

  6. Melanotic pathology and vertical transmission of the gut commensal Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Idir G Akhouayri

    Full Text Available The resident gut flora is known to have significant impacts on the life history of the host organism. Endosymbiotic bacterial species in the Anopheles mosquito gut are potent modulators of sexual development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, and thus proposed as potential control agents of malaria transmission.Here we report a melanotic pathology in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, caused by the dominant mosquito endosymbiont Elizabethkingiameningoseptica. Transfer of melanised tissues into the haemolymph of healthy adult mosquitoes or direct haemolymph inoculation with isolated E. meningoseptica bacteria were the only means for transmission and de novo formation of melanotic lesions, specifically in the fat body tissues of recipient individuals. We show that E. meningoseptica can be vertically transmitted from eggs to larvae and that E. meningoseptica-mono-associated mosquitoes display significant mortality, which is further enhanced upon Plasmodium infection, suggesting a synergistic impact of E. meningoseptica and Plasmodium on mosquito survival.The high pathogenicity and permanent association of E. meningoseptica with An. Gambiae through vertical transmission constitute attractive characteristics towards the potential design of novel mosquito/malaria biocontrol strategies.

  7. Modeling of the ecological niches of the anopheles spp in Ecuador by the use of geo-informatic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Oswaldo; Rosas, Pablo; Moreno, Wilson; Toulkeridis, Theofilos

    2017-06-01

    Ecuador in the northwestern edge of South America is struggling by vector-borne diseases with an endemic-epidemic behavior leading to an enormous public health problem. Malaria, which has a cyclicality in its dynamics, is closely related to climatic, ecological and socio-economic phenomena. The main objective of this research has been to compare three different prediction species models, the so-called Maxent, logistic regression and multi criteria evaluation with fuzzy logic, in order to determine the model which best describes the ecological niche of the Anopheles spp species, which transmits malaria within Ecuador. After performing a detailed data collection and data processing, we applied the mentioned models and validated them with a statistical analysis in order to discover that the Maxent model has been the model that best defines the distribution of Anopheles spp within the territory. The determined sites, which are of high strategic value and important for the increasing national development, will now be able to initiate preventive countermeasures based on this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comportamento exófilo de Anopheles darlingi Root, em região meridional do Brasil Exophilic behavior of Anopheles darlingi Root in a Southern Region of Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Observou-se o comportamento da população "Araraquara" de Anopheles darlingi, em seu ambiente original e em relação à sua atividade exófila com isca humana. As coletas foram realizadas às margens do rio Jacaré-Pepira, no Município de Dourado, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O ciclo nictemeral caracteriza-se pelo aspecto bimodal, com os dois picos correspondentes a cada crepúsculo, ou seja, vespertino e matutino. O seu detalhamento permitiu detectar bimodalidade secundária, subdividindo cada pico em um eocrepuscular precedendo ao intracrepuscular propriamente dito. A variação sazonal revelou aumento do número de mosquitos na estação chuvosa e quente e nítido declínio na seca e fria. Embora com dados insuficientes, houve indícios de que o An. albitarsis local, apresente também ritmo bimodal em seu ciclo diário de atividade.Fortnightly 25-hour catches, with human bait, were carried out in a modified environment of the "Jacaré-Pepira" River, Dourado County, S. Paulo, Brazil which is the original region of the "Araraquara" strain of Anopheles darlingi. The exophylic biting activity was mostly nocturnal with bimodal rhythm, showing two clear peaks corresponding, respectively, to dusk and dawn. Going into crepuscular details two secondary peaks were observed, an eocrepuscular preceding the intracrepuscular one As, by means of chromosome arrangement studies, this population was found to have low polymorphism, it is supposed that those rhythms are, in a good measure, of endogenous command. The number of mosquitoes biting increased during the hot, wet season and decreased remarkably during the dry, cold one. There was some evidence that An albitarsis may also show a bimodality in its nocturnal biting activity rhythm.

  9. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India

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    Asima Tripathy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009. An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts. The anthropophilic indices (AI were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall; its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D and An. fluviatilis S (> 50% was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate. Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  10. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat Kumar; Marai, Nitisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu Kumar; Kar, Santanu Kumar; Mahapatra, Namita

    2010-12-01

    The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda) and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur) studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009). An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts). The anthropophilic indices (AI) were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR) were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall); its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D) and An. fluviatilis S (> 50%) was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate). Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  11. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

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    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ≥ 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between

  12. The Romanomermis iyengari parasite for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis suppression in natural habitats in Oaxaca State, Mexico

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    Santamarina Mijares Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In September and November 1996 Romanomermis iyengari Welch, a parasite of larval mosquitoes, was released in 44 natural larval habitat sites of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in an attempt to reduce the larval populations of this important malaria vector. The selected treatment sites ranged in size from 5 to 500 m². The study was carried out in Pochutla District of Oaxaca State, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Chemical pesticides to reduce vector populations have been the principal tool in malaria suppression campaigns. However, the excessive use of these chemicals has created pesticide resistance and other serious collateral problems. Therefore, a biological control project using agents that are pathogens of Anopheles larvae was initiated in 1996. The principal objective was to establish mass rearing capacities for R. iyengari. Detailed methodology for rearing and introducing these nematodes into mosquito larval habitats was established at the National Polytechnic Institute of Oaxaca State. Before application of the parasites to larval habitats, site characteristics were determined, including size, depth, aquatic vegetation, salinity, pH, conductivity, temperature, and pretreatment larval density. With a compressed air sprayer, infective mermithid parasites were released at rates of either 2000 or 3000/m², and the parasites produced high levels of infection. Anopheles populations were sampled 72 h posttreatment, and the larvae obtained were taken to the laboratory and examined through microscopic dissection to determine infection levels and mean parasitism. Nematode parasitism ranged from 85 to 100% at all the treatment sites, even though no previous information concerning field parasitism of An. pseudopunctipennis by R. iyengari has been reported. In addition, a significant reduction of mosquito larval density at the treatment sites was found five days after the nematode application. Levels of parasitism were indicative of the number

  13. Distribución geográfica y comportamiento estacional de la picadura del Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus darlingi Root 1926 en localidades de la frontera Perú-Bolivia, Madre de Dios, Perú

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    Edwin Tineo V

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la distribución geográfica y el comportamiento estacional de la picadura del Anopheles darlingi en localidades de San Pedro, La Novia, Shiringayoc y Mavila del departamento de Madre de Dios. Materiales y métodos: En estas 4 localidades, durante el periodo comprendido entre junio de 2001 y abril de 2002, se realizó la inspección de criaderos, colecta de larvas de Anopheles darlingi por el método del cucharón y la colecta de mosquitos adultos por el método cebo humano (intradomicilio y peridomicilio, trampa Shannon y refugio animal (extradomicilio. Se construyó un mapa de ubicación geográfica del vector, calculándose los indicadores: criadero positivo y densidad larvaria por cucharonada, índice de picadura hombre noche (IPHN, indice de picadura hombre hora (IPHH, índice esporozoítico y tasa de paridad. Resultados: Se demostró la presencia de Anopheles darlingi en las localidades de San Pedro, La Novia y Mavila. Las especies inmaduras representaron menos del 12% de las larvas encontradas en los criaderos permanentes. El IPHN en las tres localidades se incrementó en la estación lluviosa (diciembre-abril. La picadura del Anopheles darlingi tuvo un comportamiento ematofágico unimodal, con picos de IPHH entre las 20.00 y 23.00 horas en San Pedro y La Novia; y entre las 20.00 y 22.00 horas en Mavila. Conclusiones: El Anopheles darlingi presenta mayor densidad poblacional en los meses de estación lluviosa, presentando un comportamiento de picadura unimodal con mayor actividad hematofágica entre las 20.00 y 23.00 horas.

  14. Inhibition of the complement system by saliva of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Pereira-Filho, Adalberto Alves; da Silva, Naylene Carvalho Sales; Koerich, Leonardo Barbosa; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Andersen, John; Valenzuela, Jesus Gilberto; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2018-01-01

    Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of malaria parasites. Their saliva contains anti-hemostatic and immune-modulator molecules that favor blood feeding and parasite transmission. In this study, we describe the inhibition of the alternative pathway of the complement system (AP) by Anopheles aquasalis salivary gland extracts (SGE). According to our results, the inhibitor present in SGE acts on the initial step of the AP blocking deposition of C3b on the activation surfaces. Properdin, which is a positive regulatory molecule of the AP, binds to SGE. When SGE was treated with an excess of properdin, it was unable to inhibit the AP. Through SDS-PAGE analysis, A. aquasalis presented a salivary protein with the same molecular weight as recombinant complement inhibitors belonging to the SG7 family described in the saliva of other anopheline species. At least some SG7 proteins bind to properdin and are AP inhibitors. Searching for SG7 proteins in the A. aquasalis genome, we retrieved a salivary protein that shared an 85% identity with albicin, which is the salivary alternative pathway inhibitor from A. albimanus. This A. aquasalis sequence was also very similar (81% ID) to the SG7 protein from A. darlingi, which is also an AP inhibitor. Our results suggest that the salivary complement inhibitor from A. aquasalis is an SG7 protein that can inhibit the AP by binding to properdin and abrogating its stabilizing activity. Albicin, which is the SG7 from A. albimanus, can directly inhibit AP convertase. Given the high similarity of SG7 proteins, the SG7 from A. aquasalis may also directly inhibit AP convertase in the absence of properdin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Desiccation tolerance in Anopheles coluzzii: the effects of spiracle size and cuticular hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaz, Arthur C.; Huestis, Diana L.; Dao, Adama; Yaro, Alpha S.; Diallo, Moussa; Andersen, John; Blomquist, Gary J.; Lehmann, Tovi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The African malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii range over forests and arid areas, where they withstand dry spells and months-long dry seasons, suggesting variation in their desiccation tolerance. We subjected a laboratory colony (G3) and wild Sahelian mosquitoes during the rainy and dry seasons to desiccation assays. The thoracic spiracles and amount and composition of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of individual mosquitoes were measured to determine the effects of these traits on desiccation tolerance. The relative humidity of the assay, body water available, rate of water loss and water content at death accounted for 88% of the variation in desiccation tolerance. Spiracle size did not affect the rate of water loss or desiccation tolerance of the colony mosquitoes, as was the case for the total CHCs. However, six CHCs accounted for 71% of the variation in desiccation tolerance and three accounted for 72% of the variation in the rate of water loss. Wild A. coluzzii exhibited elevated desiccation tolerance during the dry season. During that time, relative thorax and spiracle sizes were smaller than during the rainy season. A smaller spiracle size appeared to increase A. coluzzii's desiccation tolerance, but was not statistically significant. Seasonal changes in CHC composition were detected in Sahelian A. coluzzii. Stepwise regression models suggested the effect of particular CHCs on desiccation tolerance. In conclusion, the combination of particular CHCs along with the total amount of CHCs is a primary mechanism conferring desiccation tolerance in A. coluzzii, while variation in spiracle size might be a secondary mechanism. PMID:27207644

  16. Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai (Diptera: Culicidae in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yezid Solarte

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.

  17. Examination on the protein profiles of salivary glands of P. berghei infected anopheles Sp. post gamma irradiation using SDS-PAGE technique for developing malaria vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetriana, D.; Syaifudin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sporozoite is a step of malaria parasitic live cycle that is most invasive and appropriate vaccine candidate. Result of experiments showed that malaria vaccine created by attenuating Plasmodium sp sporozoites with gamma rays was proven more effective. Study on the effects of irradiation to the profiles of protein in vaccine development is also important. The aim of this research was to examine the protein profile of salivary glands in sporozoite infected Anopheles sp post gamma irradiation using Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique. Examination covered the infection of Anopheles sp with Plasmodium sp, maintenance of infected mosquitoes for 14-16 days to obtain sporozoites, in vivo - in vitro irradiation of mosquitoes, preparation of salivary glands, electrophoresis on 10% SDS-PAGE, and Commassie blue staining. Results showed a different protein profile of infected and non infected salivary glands of Anopheles sp. There was additional protein band numbers at higher dose of irradiation (200 Gy) from sporozoite protein of P. berghei (MW 62 kDa). However, no difference of the profiles of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) observed among gamma irradiation doses of 150, 175 and 200 Gy. These results provide basic information that would lead to further study on the role of sporozoite proteins in malaria vaccine development. (author)

  18. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-06-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine-serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Isolation of Tahyna virus (California Encephalitis Group) from Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae), a mosquito species new to, and expanding in, Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 6 (2014), s. 1264-1267 ISSN 0022-2585 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Orthobunyavirus * mosquito * Anopheles hyrcanus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2014

  20. Riceland mosquito management practices for Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R A; Wilkes, W W; Lewis, C N; Meisch, M V

    2008-12-01

    Two separate but related studies were conducted regarding management of Anopheles quadrimaculatus larval populations in commercial rice fields near Cleveland, MS, in 2004. Study 1 was to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 treatments of aerially applied ultra-low volume applications of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) against An. quadrimaculatus larvae in dense, high-canopy mid- to late-season rice crop. Study 2 was to investigate the effect of preflood treatments of lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate), which is commonly used against rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), on An. quadrimaculatus larvae. Excellent initial, but short residual control (>99% control 1 day after treatment) was observed in the Bti-treated fields in both mid- and late-season rice. Little or no effect on mosquito larvae was observed in the lambda-cyhalothrin-treated fields. Results indicate that Bti can be effectively used by mosquito management personnel to control larval populations of An. quadrimaculatus in late-season rice fields; however, lambda-cyhalothrin did not effectively control larval An. quadrimaculatus when applied preflood to rice fields.

  1. Combined effect of seaweed (Sargassum wightii) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on the coastal mosquito,Anopheles sundaicus, in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were made of the extract of Sargassum wightii combined with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) for control of the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus. Treatment of mosquito larvae with 0.001% S. wightii extract indicated median lethal concentrations (LC50) of 88, 73, 134, 156, and...

  2. Bionomics of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae in two villages of the Wayúu people, Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia

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    Airleth Sofía Díaz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Anopheles albimanus was the only collected species found in water supply deposits in the villages Marbacella and El Horno. Given that the species is the main vector for malaria in the area, we suggest the implementation of a community-based entomological surveillance system which should respect Wayúu cosmology and routine activities such as fishing.

  3. Unidirectional hybrid male sterility from crosses between species A and species B of the taxon Anopheles (Cellia) culicifacies Giles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S J

    1981-02-01

    Crosses between species A females and species B males of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies give F1 males with undeveloped testes, reduced vasa deferentia, and apparently normal accessory glands. F1 males from the reciprocal cross, and F1 hybrid females from both reciprocal crosses are fertile, though their fertility is less than that of either parental species

  4. Effects of larvicidal and larval nutritional stresses on Anopheles gambiae development, survival and competence for Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Vantaux, Am?lie; Ouattarra, Issiaka; Lef?vre, Thierry; Dabir?, Kounbobr Roch

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that the environment in which larvae develop can influence adult characteristics with consequences for the transmission of pathogens. We investigated how two environmental stresses (larviciding and nutritional stress) interact to affect Anopheles gambiae (previously An. gambiae S molecular form) life history traits and its susceptibility for field isolates of its natural malaria agent Plasmodium falciparum. Methods Larvae were reared in the presence or not o...

  5. PCR-based methods for the detection of L1014 kdr mutation in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om P; Bali, Prerna; Hemingway, Janet; Subbarao, Sarala K; Dash, Aditya P; Adak, Tridibes

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles culicifacies s.l., a major malaria vector in India, has developed widespread resistance to DDT and is becoming resistant to pyrethroids–the only insecticide class recommended for the impregnation of bed nets. Knock-down resistance due to a point mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel at L1014 residue (kdr) is a common mechanism of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. The selection of this resistance may pose a serious threat to the success of the pyrethroid-impregnated bed net programme. This study reports the presence of kdr mutation (L1014F) in a field population of An. culicifacies s.l. and three new PCR-based methods for kdr genotyping. Methods The IIS4-IIS5 linker to IIS6 segments of the para type voltage gated sodium channel gene of DDT and pyrethroid resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population from the Surat district of India was sequenced. This revealed the presence of an A-to-T substitution at position 1014 leading to a leucine-phenylalanine mutation (L1014F) in a few individuals. Three molecular methods viz. Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR), an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and Primer Introduced Restriction Analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR) were developed and tested for kdr genotyping. The specificity of the three assays was validated following DNA sequencing of the samples genotyped. Results The genotyping of this An. culicifacies s.l. population by the three PCR based assays provided consistent result and were in agreement with DNA sequencing result. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in heterozygous condition was observed in the resistant population. Frequencies of the different genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion The Leu-Phe mutation, which generates the kdr phenotype in many insects, was detected in a pyrethroid and DDT resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population. Three PCR-based methods were developed for kdr genotyping. All the three assays were specific. The ARMS method was refractory to non

  6. PCR-based methods for the detection of L1014 kdr mutation in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato

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    Dash Aditya P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles culicifacies s.l., a major malaria vector in India, has developed widespread resistance to DDT and is becoming resistant to pyrethroids–the only insecticide class recommended for the impregnation of bed nets. Knock-down resistance due to a point mutation in the voltage gated sodium channel at L1014 residue (kdr is a common mechanism of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. The selection of this resistance may pose a serious threat to the success of the pyrethroid-impregnated bed net programme. This study reports the presence of kdr mutation (L1014F in a field population of An. culicifacies s.l. and three new PCR-based methods for kdr genotyping. Methods The IIS4-IIS5 linker to IIS6 segments of the para type voltage gated sodium channel gene of DDT and pyrethroid resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population from the Surat district of India was sequenced. This revealed the presence of an A-to-T substitution at position 1014 leading to a leucine-phenylalanine mutation (L1014F in a few individuals. Three molecular methods viz. Allele Specific PCR (AS-PCR, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS and Primer Introduced Restriction Analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR were developed and tested for kdr genotyping. The specificity of the three assays was validated following DNA sequencing of the samples genotyped. Results The genotyping of this An. culicifacies s.l. population by the three PCR based assays provided consistent result and were in agreement with DNA sequencing result. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in heterozygous condition was observed in the resistant population. Frequencies of the different genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion The Leu-Phe mutation, which generates the kdr phenotype in many insects, was detected in a pyrethroid and DDT resistant An. culicifacies s.l. population. Three PCR-based methods were developed for kdr genotyping. All the three assays were specific. The ARMS method

  7. Identificación de especies de anopheles de importancia médica en el departamento de Sucre, Colombia

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    Gladis Pérez Rodríguez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia los mosquitos Anopheles, subgénero Nyssorhynchus tiene una gran importancia en medicina tropical ya que este subgénero contiene la mayoría de las especies vectoras de la malaria encontradas en el país. El departamento de Sucre, localizado al norte de Colombia, presenta condiciones bioclimáticas que favorecen el desarrollo de insectos pertenecientes al subgénero Nyssorhynchus; sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre este es escaso. Con el objetivo de verificar la presencia de especies del subgénero en dos subregiones del departamento de Sucre (La Sabana y Golfo de Morrosquillo, se realizó un inventario de mosquitos Anopheles, utilizando para su captura cebo humano. Para la identificación de las especies se utilizaron claves taxonómicas. Se coleccionaron un total de 221 especimenes pertenecientes a cinco especies del subgénero Nyssorhynchus: A. albimanus, A. triannulatus, A. marajoara, A. pseudopunctipennis y A. nunestovari de las cuales dos son consideradas como vectores principales de la malaria (A. albimanus y A. nunestovari y una como vector secundario (A. pseudopunctipennis. (Duazary 2006; 2:104-109

  8. Metabolic and Target-Site Mechanisms Combine to Confer Strong DDT Resistance in Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sara N.; Rigden, Daniel J.; Dowd, Andrew J.; Lu, Fang; Wilding, Craig S.; Weetman, David; Dadzie, Samuel; Jenkins, Adam M.; Regna, Kimberly; Boko, Pelagie; Djogbenou, Luc; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Ranson, Hilary; Paine, Mark J. I.; Mayans, Olga; Donnelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of resistance to insecticides has become a classic exemplar of evolution occurring within human time scales. In this study we demonstrate how resistance to DDT in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is a result of both target-site resistance mechanisms that have introgressed between incipient species (the M- and S-molecular forms) and allelic variants in a DDT-detoxifying enzyme. Sequencing of the detoxification enzyme, Gste2, from DDT resistant and susceptible strains of An. gambiae, revealed a non-synonymous polymorphism (I114T), proximal to the DDT binding domain, which segregated with strain phenotype. Recombinant protein expression and DDT metabolism analysis revealed that the proteins from the susceptible strain lost activity at higher DDT concentrations, characteristic of substrate inhibition. The effect of I114T on GSTE2 protein structure was explored through X-ray crystallography. The amino acid exchange in the DDT-resistant strain introduced a hydroxyl group nearby the hydrophobic DDT-binding region. The exchange does not result in structural alterations but is predicted to facilitate local dynamics and enzyme activity. Expression of both wild-type and 114T alleles the allele in Drosophila conferred an increase in DDT tolerance. The 114T mutation was significantly associated with DDT resistance in wild caught M-form populations and acts in concert with target-site mutations in the voltage gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1575Y and Vgsc-1014F) to confer extreme levels of DDT resistance in wild caught An. gambiae. PMID:24675797

  9. Pseudoxanthomonas icgebensis sp. nov., isolated from the midgut of Anopheles stephensi field-collected larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Asha; Sharma, Anil; Adak, Tridibes; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2010-10-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, golden yellow, rod-shaped bacterium, a strain designated ICGEB-L15(T), was isolated from the larval midgut of Anopheles stephensi captured in District Jhajjar, Haryana, India. The strain ICGEB-L15(T) grows at 30-50°C (optimum 30-37°C), pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 2% NaCl. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (22.5% of total fatty acid), anteiso-C(15:0) (16.5%), iso-C(17:1) 9c (10.3%), iso-C(16:0) (7.3%), C(16:0) (6.1%), and iso-C(11:0) (5.3%). The strain showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the type strains Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis KCTC 12207(T) (97.4%), Pseudoxanthomonas kaohsiungensis J36(T) (97.17%), and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) (97.11%). The DNA relatedness between ICGEB-L15(T) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis KCTC 12207(T), Pseudoxanthomonas kaohsiungensis J36(T) and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana AMX 26B(T) was 24.5%, 28.2%, and 33.6%, respectively. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 69.9 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone of strain ICGEB-L15(T) was Q-8. The strain ICGEB-L15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas based on physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic properties; therefore, the name Pseudoxanthomonas icgebensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ICGEB-L15(T) (=KACC 14090(T) =DSM 22536(T)).

  10. The Anopheles gambiae cE5, a tight- and fast-binding thrombin inhibitor with post-transcriptionally regulated salivary-restricted expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ronca, R.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Lombardo, F.; Rizzo, C.; Currà, C.; Ponzi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Arcà, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2012), s. 610-620 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anopheles * Salivary protein * Anti-thrombin * Anophelin * Hematophagy * Post-transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2012

  11. [Anopheles (Culicidae, Anophelinae) and Malaria in Buriticupu-Santa Luzia, pre-Amazonic Maranhao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, J M; da Silva, A R; Ferreira, L A; Vieira, J A

    1997-01-01

    Seven species belonging the subgenus Nyssorhyncus were found. Anopheles (N.) darlingi, the principal vector of human malaria, was the most abundant (53.1%) followed by A. (N.) evansae (21.0%, A. (N.) triannulatus (17.4%) e A. (N.) nuñeztovari (4.8%). The others, A. (N.) argyritarsis. A. (N.) oswaldoi and A. (N.) rangeli, were less frequently found, representing only 3.7% of the total sample. The anophelines were most frequent in both the extra (51.7%) and peridomiciles (45.7%). The intradomicile was visited by some specimens of the A. (N.) darlingi and A. (N.) evansae (active in both the rain and dry seasons, especially in the former, when the malaria reached high levels of transmission.

  12. Implementace analýzy FMEA v rámci logistické technologie Just-in-Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    FRANĚK, Václav

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this master thesis is to design implementation of FMEA analysis in logistics technology Just-in-Sequence at company Robert Bosch in České Budějovice. The operational objective is to define process and product produced by technology Just-in-Sequence. Analyze newly developed technology Just-in-Sequence and compare its advantages over the original method.

  13. Sex-specific and blood meal-induced proteins of Anopheles gambiae midguts: analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

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    Laurent-Winter C

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa. The mosquito midgut constitutes a barrier that the parasite must cross if it is to develop and be transmitted. Despite the central role of the mosquito midgut in the host/parasite interaction, little is known about its protein composition. Characterisation of An. gambiae midgut proteins may identify the proteins that render An. gambiae receptive to the malaria parasite. Methods We carried out two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of An. gambiae midgut proteins and compared protein profiles for midguts from males, sugar-fed females and females fed on human blood. Results Very few differences were detected between male and female mosquitoes for the approximately 375 silver-stained proteins. Male midguts contained ten proteins not detected in sugar-fed or blood-fed females, which are therefore probably involved in male-specific functions; conversely, female midguts contained twenty-three proteins absent from male midguts. Eight of these proteins were specific to sugar-fed females, and another ten, to blood-fed females. Conclusion Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins found only in blood-fed female midguts, together with data from the recent sequencing of the An. gambiae genome, should make it possible to determine the role of these proteins in blood digestion or parasite receptivity.

  14. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

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    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  15. Evaluation of Methods for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera, Culicidae) in Suriname and the Relation With Its Biting Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the

  16. Scanning electron microscopic (Sem studies on fourth instar larva and pupa of Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston (Anophelinae: Culicidae

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    Jagbir Singh Kirti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.

  17. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant...

  18. Distribuição vertical e sazonal de Anopheles (Kerteszia em Ilha Comprida, SP Vertical and seasonal distribution of Anopheles (Kerteszia in Ilha Comprida, Southeastern Brazil

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    Helene Mariko Ueno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii são vetores da malária-bromélia, característicos de áreas preservadas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a distribuição sazonal e vertical desses anofelinos, visando contribuir para a avaliação do risco de transmissão desse agravo. MÉTODOS: No município de Ilha Comprida, SP, foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC iscadas com gelo seco, das 17 às 20h, a um, seis e 12m do solo, quinzenalmente, de setembro de 2001 a setembro de 2002. A relação da densidade desses anofelinos com o clima foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de Spearman e suas densidades entre os estratos foram comparadas pelo teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Do total de 55.226 mosquitos, 1.341 eram An. bellator (2,4% do total de Culicidae, sendo capturados 278 indivíduos próximo ao solo, 261 a seis metros e 802 na copa (12 m. Na mesma ordem, foram capturados 452, 1.032 e 4.420 adultos de An. cruzii, totalizando 5.904 mosquitos desta espécie (10,7%. Houve correlação positiva entre a densidade das duas espécies com a temperatura máxima, e entre An. bellator e amplitude térmica diária. As densidades das duas espécies foram maiores na copa. Nos três estratos, An. cruzii predominou sobre An. bellator. CONCLUSÕES: Confirmou-se o comportamento acrodendrófilo dessas espécies, principalmente An. cruzii. Após medidas drásticas de controle, esses anofelinos permaneceram na região mas, atualmente, não são alvo de vigilância entomológica. A persistência da transmissão de malária autóctone e o incremento de atividades de ecoturismo na região apontam a necessidade de monitoramento dessas espécies.OBJECTIVE: Anopheles bellator e An. cruzii are vectors of the so-called bromeliad-malaria, typical of conserved areas. The objective was to evaluate the seasonal and vertical distribution of these anophelines, aiming at assessing the risk of malaria transmission. METHODS: In the municipality of Ilha

  19. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  20. Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Johirul; Zaman, Kamaruz; Tyagi, Varun; Duarah, Sanjukta; Dhiman, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2017-10-01

    Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED 50 ) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED 50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco

  1. Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae midgut transcriptome

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    Mahairaki Vassiliki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The midgut of hematophagous insects, such as disease transmitting mosquitoes, carries out a variety of essential functions that mostly relate to blood feeding. The midgut of the female malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major site of interactions between the parasite and the vector. Distinct compartments and cell types of the midgut tissue carry out specific functions and vector borne pathogens interact and infect different parts of the midgut. Results A microarray based global gene expression approach was used to compare transcript abundance in the four major female midgut compartments (cardia, anterior, anterior part of posterior and posterior part of posterior midgut and between the male and female Anopheles gambiae midgut. Major differences between the female and male midgut gene expression relate to digestive processes and immunity. Each compartment has a distinct gene function profile with the posterior midgut expressing digestive enzyme genes and the cardia and anterior midgut expressing high levels of antimicrobial peptide and other immune gene transcripts. Interestingly, the cardia expressed several known anti-Plasmodium factors. A parallel peptidomic analysis of the cardia identified known mosquito antimicrobial peptides as well as several putative short secreted peptides that are likely to represent novel antimicrobial factors. Conclusion The A. gambiae sex specific midgut and female midgut compartment specific transcriptomes correlates with their known functions. The significantly greater functional diversity of the female midgut relate to hematophagy that is associated with digestion and nutrition uptake as well as exposes it to a variety of pathogens, and promotes growth of its endogenous microbial flora. The strikingly high proportion of immunity related factors in the cardia tissue most likely serves the function to increase sterility of ingested sugar and blood. A detailed characterization of the

  2. Efficient Feature Selection and Classification of Protein Sequence Data in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ibrahima; Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Md Said, Abas

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics has been an emerging area of research for the last three decades. The ultimate aims of bioinformatics were to store and manage the biological data, and develop and analyze computational tools to enhance their understanding. The size of data accumulated under various sequencing projects is increasing exponentially, which presents difficulties for the experimental methods. To reduce the gap between newly sequenced protein and proteins with known functions, many computational techniques involving classification and clustering algorithms were proposed in the past. The classification of protein sequences into existing superfamilies is helpful in predicting the structure and function of large amount of newly discovered proteins. The existing classification results are unsatisfactory due to a huge size of features obtained through various feature encoding methods. In this work, a statistical metric-based feature selection technique has been proposed in order to reduce the size of the extracted feature vector. The proposed method of protein classification shows significant improvement in terms of performance measure metrics: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, recall, F-measure, and so forth. PMID:25045727

  3. Efek Beauveria bassiana pada Anopheles maculatus Fase Aquatik di Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Ikawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBeauveria bassiana can be used both as for controlling agricultural insect and protecting health. Thisstudy aims to examine the effects of aquatic phase of B. bassiana on An. maculatus in the laboratory.Samples were eggs and larvae of An. maculatus reared from Banjarnegara colony. Eggs and instarlarvae II, III and IV and their control which consisted of 10 larvae/eggs were replicated six times andcontacted to B. bassiana spores for 15 minutes and then transferred to aquades to be maintained forobservation, in every 24 hours as long as 192 hours (8 days. Probit analysis found that applicationof B. bassiana caused damage of external coat of eggs and inhibited >60% of unhatched eggs. Lethaldosage was dosage spores of 1,713x107 (16 days, whereas the lethal dose required to make 50% ofunperached eggs is a dose of spore concentration of 1,361x107 (11.6 days. Higher concentrationswill be needed to know the faster effects B bassiana on An. maculatus larvae or eggs.Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Anopheles maculatus, aquatic phase, laboratory AbstrakBeauveria bassiana dapat digunakan baik sebagai pengendali serangga pertanian maupun kesehatan.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji efek B. bassiana terhadap An. maculatus pada fase akuatik dilaboratorium. Sampel uji berupa telur dan larva An. maculatus dari koloni Banjarnegara. Telur danlarva instar II,III dan IV serta kontrol masing-masing sebanyak 10 ekor/butir dengan replikasi 6 kalidikontakkan dengan spora B. bassiana selama 15 menit dan selanjutnya dipindahkan ke aquadesuntuk dipelihara untuk dilakukan pengamatan, pengamatan dengan mikroskop compound terutamapada larva yang lemah/mati setiap 24 jam selama 192 jam (8 hari. Analisis probit membuktikanbahwa aplikasi B. bassiana pada telur menimbulkan efek kerusakan pada lapisan luar telur diketahuidari pengamatan dengan mikroskop serta mampu menghambat >60% telur tidak menetas. Simulasidengan análisis probit menunjukkan lethal dose yang dibutuhkan

  4. Comparing larvicidal Effect of Methanol Extract of the Aerial Parts of Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L. and Oleander ( Nerium oleander L. plants on Anopheles spp Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Vitro

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    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is an infectious disease by fever and chills, anemia and splenomegaly genus Plasmodium parasite is the agent it. One of the easiest and least expensive methods to prevent this disease is removing the vector that usually by been done insecticides and chemical pesticides, but nowadays due to the damaging effects of by toxic chemicals is currently trying to organic toxic and plant compounds used to combat the pests. So in this study used from the Hyoscyamus niger L. and Nerium oleander L. to destroy the larvae of this vectors and positive results were compared these two plants together. Methods In this experimental study, H. niger and N. oleander collected and dried to extraction by methanol usingthe Rotary Evaporator. Mosquito larvae collected from stagnant water pits and ponds around the Birjand, Iran and order to apply the relevant identity tests and isolation of Anopheles spp mosquito larvae. Survival measurement were used to estimate LC50 values using Probit analysis in Excel 2010 and SPSS (ver 20 software. Results Both Hyoscyamus niger and Nerium oleander had positive effects on destroying the Anopheles spp larvae and between obtained results, the most effective extract for destroying the mosquitoes Anopheles spp larvae, was the flower extract of henbane (LC50 = 0/26 ppm and the weakest one, was the leaves extract of oleander (LC50 = 4/85 ppm. Conclusions According to the results, the flower extract of henbane is recommended as a toxic, organic and natural compounds to fight Anopheles spp mosquito larvae, which it is stronger and more effective compared to the other parts of these two plants.

  5. Improved taxonomic assignment of human intestinal 16S rRNA sequences by a dedicated reference database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritari, Jarmo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Lahti, Leo; Vos, de Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current sequencing technology enables taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems at high resolution and depth by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker. Taxonomic assignation of newly acquired data is based on sequence comparisons with comprehensive reference databases to

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J.; Hassan, M.M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C.A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on

  7. Comparison of double-locus sequence typing (DLST) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for the investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholley, Pascal; Stojanov, Milos; Hocquet, Didier; Thouverez, Michelle; Bertrand, Xavier; Blanc, Dominique S

    2015-08-01

    Reliable molecular typing methods are necessary to investigate the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. Reference methods such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are costly and time consuming. Here, we compared our newly developed double-locus sequence typing (DLST) method for Pseudomonas aeruginosa to MLST and PFGE on a collection of 281 isolates. DLST was as discriminatory as MLST and was able to recognize "high-risk" epidemic clones. Both methods were highly congruent. Not surprisingly, a higher discriminatory power was observed with PFGE. In conclusion, being a simple method (single-strand sequencing of only 2 loci), DLST is valuable as a first-line typing tool for epidemiological investigations of P. aeruginosa. Coupled to a more discriminant method like PFGE or whole genome sequencing, it might represent an efficient typing strategy to investigate or prevent outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Practicing on Newly Dead

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    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  9. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

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    Do Manh Cuong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both

  10. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus) darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Zimmerman, Robert; Galardo, Clícia Denis

    2013-01-01

    Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex® CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae) surveillance of health and established thresholds. One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6) treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51) while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001). VectoLex® CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  11. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6 treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51 while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VectoLex(r CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  12. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6 treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51 while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VectoLex(r CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  13. Effects of blood-feeding on olfactory sensitivity of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: application of mixed linear models to account for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Gort, G.; Torricelli, A.; Takken, W.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction plays an important role in the host-seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. After a complete blood meal, female mosquitoes will not engage in host-seeking behavior until oviposition has occurred. We investigated if peripheral olfactory sensitivity changed after a blood

  14. Exploring Anopheles gut bacteria for Plasmodium blocking activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C; Dong, Yuemei; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Mlambo, Godfree; Tripathi, Abhai; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Chandra, Ramesh; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria parasite transmission requires the successful development of Plasmodium gametocytes into flagellated microgametes upon mosquito blood ingestion, and the subsequent fertilization of microgametes and macrogametes for the development of motile zygotes, called ookinetes, which invade and transverse the Anopheles vector mosquito midgut at around 18-36 h after blood ingestion. Within the mosquito midgut, the malaria parasite has to withstand the mosquito's innate immune response and the detrimental effect of its commensal bacterial flora. We have assessed the midgut colonization capacity of 5 gut bacterial isolates from field-derived, and 2 from laboratory colony, mosquitoes and their effect on Plasmodium development in vivo and in vitro, along with their impact on mosquito survival. Some bacterial isolates activated the mosquito's immune system, affected the mosquito's life span, and were capable of blocking Plasmodium development. We have also shown that the ability of these bacteria to inhibit the parasites is likely to involve different mechanisms and factors. A Serratia marcescens isolate was particularly efficient in colonizing the mosquitoes’ gut, compromising mosquito survival, and inhibiting both sexual- and asexual-stage Plasmodium through secreted factors, thereby rendering it a potential candidate for the development of a malaria transmission intervention strategy. PMID:24428613

  15. Multiple blood meals in Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Paolucci Pimenta, Paulo Filemon; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles darlingi is an important vector of human malaria in the Amazon. Adult females of this mosquito species require a blood meal to develop eggs, preferring humans to other blood sources. Although gonotrophic concordance has been described as the norm for An. darlingi, here we report An. darlingi female mosquitoes taking two or more blood meals within their first gonotrophic cycle. Only half of field-captured adult females fed one blood meal developed follicles to Christophers' stage V. This outcome is dependent on larval nutrition, as 88% of laboratory-raised well-nourished females completed the first gonotrophic cycle with only one blood meal, while less nourished females needed additional blood meals. Half of the field-captured blood-seeking An. darlingi females had follicles in intermediate (IIIa and IIIb) and final (V) stages of the gonotrophic cycle, supporting the conclusion that An. darlingi blood feed more than once during a gonotrophic cycle. Additionally, we observed females attempting to blood feed a second time during the same day. Additional studies of An. darlingi biting behavior are necessary to accurately estimate Plasmodium sp. entomologic inoculation rates throughout the An. darlingi vast geographical distribution. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. An algorithm to find all palindromic sequences in proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-20

    Jan 20, 2013 ... 1976; Karrer and Gall 1976; Vogt and Braun 1976) and (iii) in the formation of hairpin loops in the newly transcribed RNA. Palindromic sequences are observed in various classes of proteins like histones (Cheng et al. 1989), prion proteins (Sulkowski 1992; Kazim 1993),. DNA-binding proteins (Suzuki 1992; ...

  17. Trial of spatial repellency of metofluthrin impregnated paper strip against Anopheles and Culex in shelters without walls in Lombok, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    TriaIs of metofluthrin-impregnated multilayer paper strips against mosquitoes in shelters with no walls were carried out at 3 sites in Lombok, Indonesia. Major reductions in human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus,Anopheles balabacensis, and An. sundaicus were achieved. The device is a very praitical measure of preventing outdoor mosquito biting, with no need for electricity or heating to evaporate its active ingredient.

  18. Trial of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated paper strip against Anopheles and Culex in shelters without walls in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Tsuda, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro

    2004-12-01

    Trials of metofluthrin-impregnated multilayer paper strips against mosquitoes in shelters with no walls were carried out at 3 sites in Lombok, Indonesia. Major reductions in human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles balabacensis, and An. sundaicus were achieved. The device is a very practical measure of preventing outdoor mosquito biting, with no need for electricity or heating to evaporate its active ingredient.

  19. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left premotor cortex (PMC) stabilizes a newly learned motor sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Jan; Kemmet, Sylvia; Krause, Vanessa; Keitel, Ariane; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    While the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in the acquisition the premotor cortex (PMC) has been related to over-night consolidation of a newly learned motor skill. The present study aims at investigating the possible contribution of the left PMC for the stabilization of a motor sequence immediately after acquisition as determined by susceptibility to interference. Thirty six healthy volunteers received anodal, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left PMC either immediately prior to or during training on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) with the right hand. TDCS was applied for 10min, respectively. Reaction times were measured prior to training (t1), at the end of training (t2), and after presentation of an interfering random pattern (t3). Beyond interference from learning, the random pattern served as control condition in order to estimate general effects of tDCS on reaction times. TDCS applied during SRTT training did not result in any significant effects neither on acquisition nor on susceptibility to interference. In contrast to this, tDCS prior to SRTT training yielded an unspecific facilitation of reaction times at t2 independent of tDCS polarity. At t3, reduced susceptibility to interference was found following cathodal stimulation. The results suggest the involvement of the PMC in early consolidation and reveal a piece of evidence for the hypothesis that behavioral tDCS effects vary with the activation state of the stimulated area. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Observations on the distribution of anophelines in Suriname with particular reference to the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi

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    J. A. Rozendaal

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made on the distribution of anophelines in Suriname with special emphasis on the principal malaria vector Anopheles darlingi and on the occurrence of other possible vector species. Peridomestic human bait collections of adult mosquitoes and collections of larvae were made in many localities with a recent history of malaria transmission. Stable population of An. darlingi were only found in the interior, south of the limit of tidal influence, due to year-round availability of breeding habitats in quietly sunlit places in flooded forest areas and along river banks. In the area with tidal movement of the rivers, breeding is limited to flooded areas in the west season. Anopheles darlingi was only incidentally collected in low densities. In the interior, malaria transmission occurred in all places where An. darlingi was found. The absence of malaria transmission along the Upper Suriname River could be explained by the absence of An. darlingi. In the malaria endemic areas, An darlingi was the most numerous mosquito biting on man. In the tidal region, malaria outbreak are infrequent and might be explained by the temporary availability of favourable beeding habitats for An. darlingi. However, evidence is insufficient to incriminate an. darlingi as the vector of malaria in this region and the possible vectorial role of other anophelines is discussed.

  2. Entomologic inoculation rates of Anopheles arabiensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-09-01

    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density.

  3. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

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    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  5. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  6. Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector–pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi–Plasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

  7. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  8. Identification of genomic insertion and flanking sequence of G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes in soybean using whole genome sequencing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfu Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization of sequences flanking exogenous fragment insertions is essential for safety assessment and labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMO. In this study, the T-DNA insertion sites and flanking sequences were identified in two newly developed transgenic glyphosate-tolerant soybeans GE-J16 and ZH10-6 based on whole genome sequencing (WGS method. About 21 Gb sequence data (~21× coverage for each line was generated on Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The junction reads mapped to boundary of T-DNA and flanking sequences in these two events were identified by comparing all sequencing reads with soybean reference genome and sequence of transgenic vector. The putative insertion loci and flanking sequences were further confirmed by PCR amplification, Sanger sequencing, and co-segregation analysis. All these analyses supported that exogenous T-DNA fragments were integrated in positions of Chr19: 50543767-50543792 and Chr17: 7980527-7980541 in these two transgenic lines. Identification of the genomic insertion site of the G2-EPSPS and GAT transgenes will facilitate the use of their glyphosate-tolerant traits in soybean breeding program. These results also demonstrated that WGS is a cost-effective and rapid method of identifying sites of T-DNA insertions and flanking sequences in soybean.

  9. The double main sequence of Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Cassisi, S.; Momany, Y.

    Recent, high precision photometry of Omega Centauri, the biggest Galactic globular cluster, has been obtained with Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The color magnitude diagram reveals an unexpected bifurcation of colors in the main sequence (MS). The newly found double MS, the multiple turnoffs and subgiant branches, and other sequences discovered in the past along the red giant branch of this cluster add up to a fascinating but frustrating puzzle. Among the possible explanations for the blue main sequence an anomalous overabundance of helium is suggested. The hypothesis will be tested with a set of FLAMES@VLT data we have recently obtained (ESO DDT program), and with forthcoming ACS@HST images. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Chemical Quality of Water in Anopheles stephensi Habitats and its susceptibility to different insecticides in South Eastern of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davari, B.; Vatandoost, H.

    2009-01-01

    Using of insecticides depends on the knowledge of the susceptibility levels of malaria vectors to these chemical. In this study, the chemical quality of water in the larval breeding habitats and the susceptibility levels of Anopheles stephensi to DDT 4% dieldrin 0.4% permethrin 0.75, cyfluthrin 0.15 deltamethrin 0.05% and lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% were investigated according to WHO method in south eastern of Iran. (Author)

  11. Deep sequencing revealed molecular signature of horizontal gene transfer of plant like transcripts in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies: an evolutionary puzzle [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT has been regarded as an important evolutionary drive to acquire and retain beneficial genes for their survival in diverse ecologies. However, in eukaryotes, the functional role of HGTs remains questionable, although current genomic tools are providing increased evidence of acquisition of novel traits within non-mating metazoan species. Here, we provide another transcriptomic evidence for the acquisition of massive plant genes in the mosquito, Anopheles culicifacies. Our multiple experimental validations including genomic PCR, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and immuno-florescence microscopy, confirmed that plant like transcripts (PLTs are of mosquito origin and may encode functional proteins. A comprehensive molecular analysis of the PLTs and ongoing metagenomic analysis of salivary microbiome provide initial clues that mosquitoes may have survival benefits through the acquisition of nuclear as well as chloroplast encoded plant genes. Our findings of PLTs further support the similar questionable observation of HGTs in other higher organisms, which is still a controversial and debatable issue in the community of evolutionists. We believe future understanding of the underlying mechanism of the feeding associated molecular responses may shed new insights in the functional role of PLTs in the mosquito.

  12. Phenotypic dissection of a Plasmodium-refractory strain of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi: the reduced susceptibility to P. berghei and P. yoelii.

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    Naoaki Shinzawa

    Full Text Available Anopheline mosquitoes are the major vectors of human malaria. Parasite-mosquito interactions are a critical aspect of disease transmission and a potential target for malaria control. Current investigations into parasite-mosquito interactions frequently assume that genetically resistant and susceptible mosquitoes exist in nature. Therefore, comparisons between the Plasmodium susceptibility profiles of different mosquito species may contribute to a better understanding of vectorial capacity. Anopheles stephensi is an important malaria vector in central and southern Asia and is widely used as a laboratory model of parasite transmission due to its high susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. In the present study, we identified a rodent malaria-refractory strain of A. stephensi mysorensis (Ehime by comparative study of infection susceptibility. A very low number of oocysts develop in Ehime mosquitoes infected with P. berghei and P. yoelii, as determined by evaluation of developed oocysts on the basal lamina. A stage-specific study revealed that this reduced susceptibility was due to the impaired formation of ookinetes of both Plasmodium species in the midgut lumen and incomplete crossing of the midgut epithelium. There were no apparent abnormalities in the exflagellation of male parasites in the ingested blood or the maturation of oocysts after the rounding up of the ookinetes. Overall, these results suggest that invasive-stage parasites are eliminated in both the midgut lumen and epithelium in Ehime mosquitoes by strain-specific factors that remain unknown. The refractory strain newly identified in this report would be an excellent study system for investigations into novel parasite-mosquito interactions in the mosquito midgut.

  13. The vertical dispersión of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzi in a forest in southern Brazil suggests that human cases of malaria of simian origin might be expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas M. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available By staining females of Anopheles cruzi with fluorescent coloured powders in a forest in the State of Santa Catarina, we showed that they move from canopy to ground and vice-versa to feed. This suggests that in areas where this mosquito is a vector of human and simian malarias sporadic infections of man with monkey plasmodia might be expected.Pintando fêmeas de Anopheles cruzi com pós fluorescentes coloridos, numa floresta de Santa Catarina, mostramos que elas movimentam-se da copa ao solo e vice-versa para se alimentar de sangue. Isso sugere que em áreas onde esse mosquito for tansmissor das malárias humana e simiana pode-se esperar que ocorram infecções humanas esporádicas por plasmódios de macacos.

  14. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadouleton, Anges William M; Asidi, Alex; Djouaka, Rousseau F; Braïma, James; Agossou, Christian D; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests were performed to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various agricultural insecticides and biochemical analysis were done to characterize molecular status of population of An. gambiae. Results This research showed that: (1) The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations; (2) Urban agriculture increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (3) At a molecular level, PCR revealed the presence of three sub-species of An. gambiae (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles melas and Anopheles arabiensis) and two molecular forms (M and S). The kdr west mutation recorded in samples from the three sites and more specifically on the M forms seems to be one of the major resistance mechanisms found in An. gambiae from agricultural areas. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted during this research revealed a clear pattern of resistance to permethrin (76% mortality rate at Parakou; 23.5% at Porto-Novo and 17% at Cotonou). Conclusion This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. This has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus exerting a huge selection pressure on mosquito larval population, which resulted to the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. PMID:19442297

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: a novel role in egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphemot, Rene; Estévez-Lao, Tania Y; Rouhier, Matthew F; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-08-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we sequenced the A. gambiae Kir1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical features of a Kir channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comportamiento de picadura de Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 (Diptera: Culicidae y su asociación con la transmisión de malaria en Villavicencio (Colombia

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    Martha Liliana Ahumada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Anopheles darlingi es el principal vector de la malaria, o paludismo, en el neotrópico. Esta especie es reconocida por presentar un comportamiento antropofílico y variabilidad en sus hábitos de picadura a lo largo de su rango de distribución. Objetivo. Caracterizar el comportamiento de picadura de An. darlingi y establecer su relación con latransmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio. Materiales y métodos. Entre 2008 y 2009 se llevaron a cabo un estudio de tipo transversal y uno longitudinal, en cinco localidades de Villavicencio con transmisión de malaria. Estos incluyeron recolección de ejemplares inmaduros y de adultos en las viviendas. Se utilizó la prueba ELISA para la detección de infección con Plasmodium spp. Resultados. Se recolectaron 2.772 mosquitos. Anopheles darlingi fue la especie predominante enlas capturas con atrayente humano. Los criaderos identificados para esta especie fueron pantanos, caños, lagunas y estanques piscícolas. Anopheles darlingi estuvo presente durante todo el año, con densidades mensuales promedio entre 2,2 y 55,5 mosquitos por persona por noche. Presentó actividad hematofágica durante toda la noche en el intradomicilio y en el peridomicilio. De las 18:00 a las 22:00, se registraron entre el 47 % y el 81 % de los mosquitos capturados en 12 horas de observación. Se encontró una tasa de infección con Plasmodium falciparum de 0,05 % y se estimó una tasa entomológica de inoculación de 2,9 picaduras infecciosas por persona al año. Conclusión. Anopheles darlingi se encontró infectado con P. falciparum, estuvo presente durante todo el año y exhibió características en su comportamiento de picadura que favorecen el contacto entre humano y vector, lo cual es un riesgo permanente para la transmisión de la malaria en Villavicencio.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i2.1492

  17. Age and prior blood feeding of Anopheles gambiae influences their susceptibility and gene expression patterns to ivermectin-containing blood meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jonathan A; Alout, Haoues; Meyers, Jacob I; Stenglein, Mark D; Dabiré, Roch K; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Burton, Timothy A; Kuklinski, Wojtek S; Black, William C; Foy, Brian D

    2015-10-15

    Ivermectin has been proposed as a novel malaria transmission control tool based on its insecticidal properties and unique route of acquisition through human blood. To maximize ivermectin's effect and identify potential resistance/tolerance mechanisms, it is important to understand its effect on mosquito physiology and potential to shift mosquito population age-structure. We therefore investigated ivermectin susceptibility and gene expression changes in several age groups of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The effect of aging on ivermectin susceptibility was analyzed in three age groups (2, 6, and 14-days) of colonized female Anopheles gambiaemosquitoes using standard survivorship assays. Gene expression patterns were then analyzed by transcriptome sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. RT-qPCR was used to validate transcriptional changes and also to examine expression in a different, colonized strain and in wild mosquitoes, both of which blood fed naturally on an ivermectin-treated person. Mosquitoes of different ages and blood meal history died at different frequencies after ingesting ivermectin. Mortality was lowest in 2-day old mosquitoes exposed on their first blood meal and highest in 6-day old mosquitoes exposed on their second blood meal. Twenty-four hours following ivermectin ingestion, 101 and 187 genes were differentially-expressed relative to control blood-fed, in 2 and 6-day groups, respectively. Transcription patterns of select genes were similar in membrane-fed, colonized, and naturally-fed wild vectors. Transcripts from several unexpected functional classes were highly up-regulated, including Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) genes, peritrophic matrix-associated genes, and immune-response genes, and these exhibited different transcription patterns between age groups, which may explain the observed susceptibility differences. Niemann-Pick Type 2 genes were the most highly up-regulated transcripts after ivermectin ingestion (up to 160 fold) and

  18. Diversitas Genetik Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas di Berbagai Daerah Indonesia Berdasarkan Sekuen Gen ITS 2 DNA Ribosom

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    Widiarti Widiarti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMalaria control is remain a challenge although various attempts have been conducted. One of the issues in controlling the vectors is the presence of species complex. The species complex is an example of genetic diversity. Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas reported as complex species in various countries, but has not been widely reported in Indonesia. In order to enhance malaria control, it is important to understand the vectors and its bioecology. The aim of the study were a. to identify An. balabacensis, Baisas suspected as species complex based on ribosomal DNA the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 gene sequences, b. to understand the genetic diversity of An. balabacensis, Baisas collected from endemic and non endemic regions distincted by geographical distance, c. to understand the genetic relationships (taxonomi distance among An. balabacensis, Baisas from difference regions in Indonesia through reconstructing the phylogenetic trees. The results showed that An. balabacensis, Baisas in Indonesia is identified as sympatric and allopatrik complex species. There were differences which was far enough in the genetic relationships among An. balabacensis populations collected from Pusuk Lestari in the area of Meninting Health Center, West Lombok, NTB. This differences were identified as sympatric complex. In addition, base on the relationship among An. leucosphyrus group, An balabacensis, Baisas collected from Berjoko Nunukan Regency showed that the species quite far compare to An. balabacensis, Baisas originally from Central Java and Lombok NTB.Keywords : An. balabacensis, genetic variation, the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2.AbstrakPenanggulangan malaria masih banyak menemui kendala walaupun berbagai upaya telah dilakukan. Salah satu kendala yang menyulitkan dalam pengendalian vektor adalah adanya spesies kompleks pada populasi nyamuk vektor. Spesies kompleks merupakan contoh diversitas genetik. Anopheles balabacensis

  19. Evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmied, W.H.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. Possible use of the BG Sentinel (BGS) trap to sample Anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. The

  20. Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    2005-12-01

    No previous studies have been conducted on the natural food of larval Anopheles culicifacies s.l. (the major malaria vector) and An. varuna (a secondary vector) in Sri Lanka. The present study analyzed the contents of guts dissected from larvae collected from pools in a natural stream-cum-irrigation conveyance channel in the Upper Yan Oya watershed in the North Central Province of the country during August-September 1997 and July 1998. Determinations of physicochemical and biological parameters of the pools and their water were done at the same time. A fluorochromatic stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, was used to stain larval gut contents. Quantitative estimates of different categories of food types were made by analyzing the gut contents of 95 An. culicifacies (26 second instars and 69 fourth instars) and 52 An. varuna (21 second instars and 31 fourth instars). Detritus was the most frequent food type, comprising >74% of the gut contents in both species. Other food types included bacteria (cocci and rods), filamentous algae, diatoms, and desmids. Overall, bacteria constituted a significantly higher proportion of the gut contents in An. culicifacies than in An varuna. Significantly more detritus, bacteria, and total particulate matter occurred in 4th instars of An. culicifacies than in An. varuna, indicating a greater food intake in the former species. Second instars of An. culicifacies and An. varuna did not differ significantly in any parameter. A significant increase in food intake between 2nd and 4th instars was seen for An. culicifacies, but not An. varuna. Food indices were lower in An. varuna than in An. culicifacies when the 2 species co-occurred, indicating competition for food, and the implications of this to adult body size, survival, and fecundity are discussed.

  1. Quetzal: a transposon of the Tc1 family in the mosquito Anopheles albimanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Z; Grossman, G L; Cornel, A J; Collins, F H

    1996-10-01

    A member of the Tc1 family of transposable elements has been identified in the Central and South American mosquito Anopheles albimanus. The full-length Quetzal element is 1680 base pairs (bp) in length, possesses 236 bp inverted terminal repeats (ITRs), and has a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential of encoding a 341-amino-acid (aa) protein that is similar to the transposases of other members of the Tc1 family, particularly elements described from three different Drosophila species. The approximately 10-12 copies per genome of Quetzal are found in the euchromatin of all three chromosomes of A. albimanus. One full-length clone, Que27, appears capable of encoding a complete transposase and may represent a functional copy of this element.

  2. Identification of Salivary Gland Proteins Depleted after Blood Feeding in the Malaria Vector Anopheles campestris-like Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sor-suwan, Sriwatapron; Jariyapan, Narissara; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Phumee, Atchara; Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Intakhan, Nuchpicha; Chanmol, Wetpisit; Bates, Paul A.; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2014-01-01

    Malaria sporozoites must invade the salivary glands of mosquitoes for maturation before transmission to vertebrate hosts. The duration of the sporogonic cycle within the mosquitoes ranges from 10 to 21 days depending on the parasite species and temperature. During blood feeding salivary gland proteins are injected into the vertebrate host, along with malaria sporozoites in the case of an infected mosquito. To identify salivary gland proteins depleted after blood feeding of female Anopheles ca...

  3. Malaria transmission and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Libreville and Port-Gentil, Gabon

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    Kombila Maryvonne

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban malaria is a major health priority for civilian and militaries populations. A preliminary entomologic study has been conducted in 2006-2007, in the French military camps of the two mains towns of Gabon: Libreville and Port-Gentil. The aim was to assess the malaria transmission risk for troops. Methods Mosquitoes sampled by human landing collection were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoïte (CSP indexes were measured by ELISA, and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR were calculated for both areas. Molecular assessments of pyrethroid knock down (kdr resistance and of insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance were conducted. Results In Libreville, Anopheles gambiae s.s. S form was the only specie of the An. gambiae complex present and was responsible of 9.4 bites per person per night. The circumsporozoïte index was 0.15% and the entomological inoculation rate estimated to be 1.23 infective bites during the four months period. In Port-Gentil, Anopheles melas (75.5% of catches and An. gambiae s.s. S form (24.5% were responsible of 58.7 bites per person per night. The CSP indexes were of 1.67% for An. gambiae s.s and 0.28% for An. melas and the EIRs were respectively of 1.8 infective bites per week and of 0.8 infective bites per week. Both kdr-w and kdr-e mutations in An. gambiae S form were found in Libreville and in Port-Gentil. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase has been detected for the first time in Gabon in Libreville. Conclusion Malaria transmission exists in both town, but with high difference in the level of risk. The co-occurrence of molecular resistances to the main families of insecticide has implications for the effectiveness of the current vector control programmes that are based on pyrethroid-impregnated bed nets.

  4. Cytochrome P450 associated with insecticide resistance catalyzes cuticular hydrocarbon production in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanidou, Vasileia; Kampouraki, Anastasia; MacLean, Marina; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus; Juárez, M Patricia; Mijailovsky, Sergio J; Chalepakis, George; Anthousi, Amalia; Lynd, Amy; Antoine, Sanou; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary; Lycett, Gareth J; Vontas, John

    2016-08-16

    The role of cuticle changes in insecticide resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was assessed. The rate of internalization of (14)C deltamethrin was significantly slower in a resistant strain than in a susceptible strain. Topical application of an acetone insecticide formulation to circumvent lipid-based uptake barriers decreased the resistance ratio by ∼50%. Cuticle analysis by electron microscopy and characterization of lipid extracts indicated that resistant mosquitoes had a thicker epicuticular layer and a significant increase in cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) content (∼29%). However, the CHC profile and relative distribution were similar in resistant and susceptible insects. The cellular localization and in vitro activity of two P450 enzymes, CYP4G16 and CYP4G17, whose genes are frequently overexpressed in resistant Anopheles mosquitoes, were analyzed. These enzymes are potential orthologs of the CYP4G1/2 enzymes that catalyze the final step of CHC biosynthesis in Drosophila and Musca domestica, respectively. Immunostaining indicated that both CYP4G16 and CYP4G17 are highly abundant in oenocytes, the insect cell type thought to secrete hydrocarbons. However, an intriguing difference was indicated; CYP4G17 occurs throughout the cell, as expected for a microsomal P450, but CYP4G16 localizes to the periphery of the cell and lies on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane, a unique position for a P450 enzyme. CYP4G16 and CYP4G17 were functionally expressed in insect cells. CYP4G16 produced hydrocarbons from a C18 aldehyde substrate and thus has bona fide decarbonylase activity similar to that of dmCYP4G1/2. The data support the hypothesis that the coevolution of multiple mechanisms, including cuticular barriers, has occurred in highly pyrethroid-resistant An gambiae.

  5. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

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    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  6. Survivorship of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae in relation with malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available We performed a longitudinal study of adult survival of Anopheles darlingi, the most important vector in the Amazon, in a malarigenous frontier zone of Brazil. Survival rates were determined from both parous rates and multiparous dissections. Anopheles darlingi human biting rates, daily survival rates and expectation of life where higher in the dry season, as compared to the rainy season, and were correlated with malaria incidence. The biting density of mosquitoes that had survived long enough for completing at least one sporogonic cycle was related with the number of malaria cases by linear regression. Survival rates were the limiting factor explaining longitudinal variations in Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence and the association between adult mosquito survival and malaria was statistically significant by logistic regression (P<0.05. Survival rates were better correlated with malaria incidence than adult mosquito biting density. Mathematical modeling showed that P. falciparum and P. malariae were more vulnerable to changes in mosquito survival rates because of longer sporogonic cycle duration, as compared to P. vivax, which could account for the low prevalence of the former parasites observed in the study area. Population modeling also showed that the observed decreases in human biting rates in the wet season could be entirely explained by decreases in survival rates, suggesting that decreased breeding did not occur in the wet season, at the sites where adult mosquitoes were collected. For the first time in the literature, multivariate methods detected a statistically significant inverse relation (P<0.05 between the number of rainy days per month and daily survival rates, suggesting that rainfall may cause adult mortality.

  7. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

  8. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Semen M; Artemov, Gleb N; Sharakhov, Igor V; Stegniy, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO-a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 STRAIN LOKAL DALAM BUAH KELAPA TERHADAP LARVA Anopheles sp dan Culex sp di KAMPUNG LAUT KABUPATEN CILACAP

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    Blondine Ch. P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Bacillus thuringiensis serotipe H-14 strain lokal adalah bakteri patogen bersifat target spesifiknya larva nyamuk, aman bagi mamalia dan lingkungan. Penelitian bertujuan menentukan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal yang dikembangbiakkan dalam buah kelapa untuk pengendalian larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp. Rancangan eksperimental semu, terdiri dari kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal dikembangbiakan dalam10 buah kelapa umur 6–8 bulan, dengan berat kira-kira 1 kg, telah berisi air kelapa sekitar 400-500 ml/buah kelapa yang diperoleh dari Desa Klaces, Kampung Laut, Kabupaten Cilacap. Diinkubasi selama 14 hari pada temperatur kamar dan ditebarkan di 6 kolam yang menjadi habitat perkembangbiakan larva nyamuk dengan luas berkisar 3–100 m2.Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal terhadap larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp selama 1 hari sesudah penebaran kematian larva berturut-turut sebesar 80–100% dan 79,31–100%. Sedangkan pada hari ke-14 sebesar 69,30–76,71% dan 67,69–86,04%. Buah kelapa dapat digunakan sebagai media lokal alternatif untuk pengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal Kata kunci: B. thuringiensis H-14,  strain  lokal, buah kelapa, pengendalian larva Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 local strain is pathogenic bacteria which specific  target to mosquito larvae. It is safe for mammals and enviroment. The aims of this study was to determine the effectivity of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain which culturing in thecoconut wates against Anopheles sp and Culex sp mosquito larvae. This research is quasi experiment which consist of treated  and control groups. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain was cultured in 10 coconuts with 6–8 months age with weight around 1 kg that contained were approximately 400-500 ml/coconut were taken from Klaces village, Kampung Laut. After that the coconuts incubated for 14

  10. Effective autodissemination of pyriproxyfen to breeding sites by the exophilic malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in semi-field settings in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lwetoijera, Dickson; Harris, Caroline; Kiware, Samson; Dongus, Stefan; Devine, Gregor J; McCall, Philip; Majambere, Silas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\ud Malaria vector control strategies that target adult female mosquitoes are challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance and behavioural resilience. Conventional larviciding is restricted by high operational costs and inadequate knowledge of mosquito-breeding habitats in rural settings that might be overcome by the juvenile hormone analogue, Pyriproxyfen (PPF). This study assessed the potential for Anopheles arabiensis to pick up and transfer lethal doses of PPF from cont...

  11. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropicenvironment: 5- Breeding of Anopheles albitarsis in flooded rice fields in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on breeding Anopheles albitarsis and association with rice growth in irrigated paddy fields were carried out during the rice cultivation cycle from December 1993 to March 1994. This period corresponded to the length of time of permanent paddy flooding. Breeding occurred in the early stage up until five weeks after transplantation when rice plant height was small. That inverse correlation may give potential direction to control measures.

  12. In vivo gene expression profiling of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana elucidates its infection stratagems in Anopheles mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiling; Chen, Huan; Wei, Ge; Wang, Guandong; Li, Fang; Wang, Sibao

    2017-08-01

    The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control mosquitoes is a promising tool for reducing vector-borne disease transmission. To better understand infection stratagems of insect pathogenic fungi, we analyzed the global gene expression profiling of Beauveria bassiana at 36, 60, 84 and 108 h after topical infection of Anopheles stephensi adult mosquitoes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 5,354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are identified over the course of fungal infection. When the fungus grows on the mosquito cuticle, up-regulated DEGs include adhesion-related genes involved in cuticle attachment, Pth11-like GPCRs hypothesized to be involved in host recognition, and extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation and penetration of the mosquito cuticle. Once in the mosquito hemocoel, the fungus evades mosquito immune system probably through up-regulating expression of β-1,3-glucan degrading enzymes and chitin synthesis enzymes for remodeling of cell walls. Moreover, six previous unknown SSCP (small secreted cysteine-rich proteins) are significantly up-regulated, which may serve as "effectors" to suppress host defense responses. B. bassiana also induces large amounts of antioxidant genes to mitigate host-generated exogenous oxidative stress. At late stage of infection, B. bassiana activates a broad spectrum of genes including nutrient degrading enzymes, some transporters and metabolism pathway components, to exploit mosquito tissues and hemolymph as a nutrient source for hyphal growth. These findings establish an important framework of knowledge for further comprehensive elucidation of fungal pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of Beauveria-mosquito interactions.

  13. Molecular typing of bacteria of the genus Asaia in malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905

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    S. Epis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acetic acid bacterium Asaia spp. was successfully detected in Anopheles arabiensis Patton, 1905, one of the major vector of human malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. A collection of 45 Asaia isolates in cellfree media was established from 20 individuals collected from the field in Burkina Faso. 16S rRNA universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR and specific qPCR, for the detection of Asaia spp. were performed in order to reveal the presence of different bacterial taxa associated with this insect. The isolates were typed by internal transcribed spacer-PCR, BOX-PCR, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, proved the presence of different Asaia in A. arabiensis.

  14. Population Dynamics and Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) Infectivity Rates for the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) at Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandalo, Leonard C; Brooke, Basil D; Munhenga, Givemore; Lobb, Leanne N; Zikhali, Jabulani; Ngxongo, Sifiso P; Zikhali, Phineas M; Msimang, Sipho; Wood, Oliver R; Mofokeng, Mohlominyana; Misiani, Eunice; Chirwa, Tobias; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-11-07

    Anopheles arabiensis (Patton; Diptera: Culicidae) is a major malaria vector in the southern African region. In South Africa, effective control of this species using indoor-based interventions is reduced owing to its tendency to rest outdoors. As South Africa moves towards malaria elimination there is a need for complementary vector control strategies. One of the methods under consideration is the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Key to the successful implementation of an SIT programme is prior knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the target population. Understanding mosquito population dynamics for both males and females is critical for efficient programme implementation. It is thus necessary to use outdoor-based population monitoring tools capable of sampling both sexes of the target population. In this project mosquito surveillance and evaluation of tools capable of collecting both genders were carried out at Mamfene in northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, during the period January 2014 to December 2015. Outdoor- and indoor-resting Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled in three sections of Mamfene over the 2-yr sampling period using modified plastic buckets, clay pots and window exit traps. Morphological and molecular techniques were used for species identifications of all samples. Wild-caught adult females were tested for Plasmodium falciparum (Welch; Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) infectivity. Out of 1,705 mosquitoes collected, 1,259 (73.8%) and 255 (15%) were identified as members of either the Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles funestus group respectively. An. arabiensis was the most abundant species contributing 78.8% of identified specimens. Mosquito density was highest in summer and lowest during winter. Clay pots yielded 16.3 mosquitoes per trap compared to 10.5 for modified plastic buckets over the 2-yr sampling period. P. falciparum infection rates for An. arabiensis were 0.7% and 0.5% for 2014 and 2015, respectively

  15. Identification, characterisation, and function of adipokinetic hormones and receptor in the African malaria mosquito, "Anopheles Gambiae" (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Christian; Betschart, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    En utilisant la bioinformatique et la biologie moléculaire, nous avons pu identifier chez le principal vecteur africain de la malaria, le moustique, Anopheles gambiae deux hormones adipokinétiques (AKHs): l'octapeptide, Anoga-AKH-I (pQLTFTPAWa) et le décapeptide, Anoga-AKH-II, (pQVTFSRDWNAa). La fonction principale des AKHs est d’induire une hyperlipémie (effet d’adipokinétique), ainsi qu’une hypertrehalosémie et une hyperprolinémie. En tant que membres de la famille des AKH, les deux neurope...

  16. Genes for genetic sexing in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), and the mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    A system was developed utilizing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that produced only male medflies. High sterility in the line plus male mortality from the treatment made the system unsuitable for genetic sexing on a large scale. A strain of Anopheles stephensi was developed in which females could be killed by dieldrin, but males survived. A large field cage release of medfly sexed by colour in the pupal stage demonstrated the advantages of male-only releases. The pupal colour sexing strain broke down under mass rearing. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  17. Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, W.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if

  18. PCR-based karyotyping of Anopheles gambiae inversion 2Rj identifies the BAMAKO chromosomal form

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    Conway David J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is polymorphic for chromosomal inversions on the right arm of chromosome 2 that segregate nonrandomly between assortatively mating populations in West Africa. One such inversion, 2Rj, is associated with the BAMAKO chromosomal form endemic to southern Mali and northern Guinea Conakry near the Niger River. Although it exploits a unique ecology and both molecular and chromosomal data suggest reduced gene flow between BAMAKO and other A. gambiae populations, no molecular markers exist to identify this form. Methods To facilitate study of the BAMAKO form, a PCR assay for molecular karyotyping of 2Rj was developed based on sequences at the breakpoint junctions. The assay was extensively validated using more than 700 field specimens whose karyotypes were determined in parallel by cytogenetic and molecular methods. As inversion 2Rj also occurs in SAVANNA populations outside the geographic range of BAMAKO, samples were tested from Senegal, Cameroon and western Guinea Conakry as well as from Mali. Results In southern Mali, where 2Rj polymorphism in SAVANNA populations was very low and most of the 2Rj homozygotes were found in BAMAKO karyotypes, the molecular and cytogenetic methods were almost perfectly congruent. Elsewhere agreement between the methods was much poorer, as the molecular assay frequently misclassified 2Rj heterozygotes as 2R+j standard homozygotes. Conclusion Molecular karyotyping of 2Rj is robust and accurate on 2R+j standard and 2Rj inverted homozygotes. Therefore, the proposed approach overcomes the lack of a rapid tool for identifying the BAMAKO form across developmental stages and sexes, and opens new perspectives for the study of BAMAKO ecology and behaviour. On the other hand, the method should not be applied for molecular karyotyping of j-carriers within the SAVANNA chromosomal form.

  19. Immune Regulatory Effect of Newly Isolated Lactobacillus delbrueckii from Indian Traditional Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Jang, Soojin; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Hangeun

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits. Here, we isolated LAB from Indian fermented foods, such as traditional Yogurt and Dosa. LAB from Yogurt most significantly induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, whereas LAB from Dosa induced mild cytokine production. After 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, a Yogurt-borne lactic acid bacterium was identified and classified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and it was renamed L. delbrueckii K552 for the further studies. Our data suggest that the newly isolated L. delbrueckii can be used for the treatment of immune deficiency disorders.

  20. Observaciones sobre Phlebotomus y Anopheles en el Callejon de Huaylas

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    Arístides Herrer

    1943-03-01

    Full Text Available Se han llevado a cabo observaciones entomológicas en relación con la verruga y el paludismo en la zona del Callejón de Huaylas comprendida desde la ciudad de Yuramarca a la de Huarás, prestando especial atención a la región del Cañón del Pato. Se indica, como resultados de tales observaciones, la presencia de las titiras: Phlebotomus verrucarum, P. peruensis, P. noguchii y una especia nueva, señalando detenidamente las localidades donde se las han encontrado. El P. verrucarum, principal trasmisor de la verruga, se halla a lo largo de toda la zona estudiada, siendo su número bastante reducido en la ciudad de Huarás. Desde Yuramarca hasta cerca de la ciudad de Carás se ha encontrado únicamente el Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, tanto larvas como adultos. Sus criaderos se encuentran principalmente en las márgenes del río Santa, en las de algunos afluentes de éste y en numerosos, manantiales.

  1. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  2. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

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    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  3. Synergism between ammonia, lactic acid and carboxylic acids as kairomones in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.

    2005-01-01

    Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is

  4. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  5. Extensive circadian and light regulation of the transcriptome in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes exhibit 24 hr rhythms in flight activity, feeding, reproduction and development. To better understand the molecular basis for these rhythms in the nocturnal malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, we have utilized microarray analysis on time-of-day specific collections of mosquitoes over 48 hr to explore the coregulation of gene expression rhythms by the circadian clock and light, and compare these with the 24 hr rhythmic gene expression in the diurnal Aedes aegypti dengue vector mosquito. Results In time courses from An. gambiae head and body collected under light:dark cycle (LD) and constant dark (DD) conditions, we applied three algorithms that detect sinusoidal patterns and an algorithm that detects spikes in expression. This revealed across four experimental conditions 393 probes newly scored as rhythmic. These genes correspond to functions such as metabolic detoxification, immunity and nutrient sensing. This includes glutathione S-transferase GSTE5, whose expression pattern and chromosomal location are shared with other genes, suggesting shared chromosomal regulation; and pulsatile expression of the gene encoding CYP6M2, a cytochrome P450 that metabolizes pyrethroid insecticides. We explored the interaction of light and the circadian clock and highlight the regulation of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), important components of the olfactory system. We reveal that OBPs have unique expression patterns as mosquitoes make the transition from LD to DD conditions. We compared rhythmic expression between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti heads collected under LD conditions using a single cosine fitting algorithm, and report distinct similarities and differences in the temporal regulation of genes involved in tRNA priming, the vesicular-type ATPase, olfaction and vision between the two species. Conclusions These data build on our previous analyses of time-of-day specific regulation of the An. gambiae transcriptome to reveal additional rhythmic genes, an

  6. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  7. Genome Sequences of Ilzat and Eleri, Two Phages Isolated Using Microbacterium foliorum NRRL B-24224

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ilzat; Jones, Acacia Eleri; Mohamed, Aleem

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophages Ilzat and Eleri are newly isolated Siphoviridae infecting Microbacterium foliorum NRRL B-24224. The phage genomes are similar in length, G+C content, and architecture and share 62.9% nucleotide sequence identity. PMID:29650566

  8. Insecticide resistance status of three malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis, from the south, central and east coasts of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoson, Jean-Desire; Fornadel, Christen M; Belemvire, Allison; Norris, Laura C; George, Kristen; Caranci, Angela; Lucas, Bradford; Dengela, Dereje

    2017-08-23

    Insecticide-based vector control, which comprises use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), is the key method to malaria control in Madagascar. However, its effectiveness is threatened as vectors become resistant to insecticides. This study investigated the resistance status of malaria vectors in Madagascar to various insecticides recommended for use in ITNs and/or IRS. WHO tube and CDC bottle bioassays were performed on populations of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus and An. mascarensis. Adult female An. gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and pupae were tested for their resistance to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Resting An. funestus and An. mascarensis female mosquitoes collected from unsprayed surfaces were tested against permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. The effect on insecticide resistance of pre-exposure to the synergists piperonyl-butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) also was assessed. Molecular analyses were done to identify species and determine the presence of knock-down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase resistance (ace-1 R ) gene mutations. Anopheles funestus and An. mascarensis were fully susceptible to permethrin, deltamethrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was fully susceptible to bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl. Among the 17 An. gambiae (s.l.) populations tested for deltamethrin, no confirmed resistance was recorded, but suspected resistance was observed in two sites. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was resistant to permethrin in four out of 18 sites (mortality 68-89%) and to alpha-cypermethrin (89% mortality) and lambda-cyhalothrin (80% and 85%) in one of 17 sites, using one or both assay methods. Pre-exposure to PBO restored full susceptibility to all pyrethroids tested except in one site where only partial restoration to permethrin was observed. DEF

  9. Increased presence of the thermophilic mosquitoes and potential vectors Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771) and Culex modestus Ficalbi 1889 in Central Europe’s lower Dyje River basin (South Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, O.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 272-280 ISSN 0037-9271 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anopheles hyrcanus * Culex modestus * vector Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2015

  10. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Adedayo O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance monitoring is essential in ensuring the success of insecticide based vector control programmes. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility status of urban populations of Anopheles gambiae to carbamate insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin. Methods Two – three day old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes reared from larval collections in 11 study sites from Local Government Areas of Lagos were exposed to test papers impregnated with DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and propoxur 0.1% insecticides. Additional tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility status of the Anopheles gambiae population to bendiocarb insecticide. Members of the A. gambiae complex, the molecular forms, were identified by PCR assays. The involvement of metabolic enzymes in carbamate resistance was assessed using Piperonyl butoxide (PBO synergist assays. The presence of kdr-w/e and ace-1R point mutations responsible for DDT-pyrethroid and carbamate resistance mechanisms was also investigated by PCR. Results Propoxur resistance was found in 10 out of the 11 study sites. Resistance to three classes of insecticides was observed in five urban localities. Mortality rates in mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and propoxur did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05 but was significantly higher (P A. gambiae s.s (M form. The kdr -w point mutation at allelic frequencies between 45%-77% was identified as one of the resistant mechanisms responsible for DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Ace-1R point mutation was absent in the carbamate resistant population. However, the possible involvement of metabolic resistance was confirmed by synergistic assays conducted. Conclusion Evidence of carbamate resistance in A. gambiae populations already harbouring resistance to DDT and permethrin is a clear indication that calls for the implementation of

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in La Reunion Island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009

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    Lempérière Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An often confounding facet of the dynamics of malaria vectors is the aquatic larval habitat availability and suitable conditions under which they can thrive. Here, we investigated the impact of environmental factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in different locations on La Reunion Island. Methods A retrospective examination was made from archival data which provided the complete enumeration of An. arabiensis breeding habitats in three distinct geographic zones - extending North-east, West and South of the island over 14 years, from January 1996 to December 2009. Data on the occurrence and the number of active larval habitats at each of a total of 4376 adjacent ellipsoid grid cells (216,506 square meters each were used (1 to provide the geographic extent of breeding site availability from year to year and (2 to analyze associations with prevailing environmental factors, habitat types, and locations. Results Anopheles arabiensis utilized a spectrum of man-made and natural aquatic habitats, most of which were concentrated primarily in the rock pools located in ravines and river fringes, and also in the large littoral marshes and within the irrigated agricultural zones. The numbers of breeding site per sampling grid differed significantly in different parts of the island. In contrast to an originally more widespread distribution across the island in the 1950s, detailed geographic analyses of the data obtained in the period extending from 1996-2009 showed an intriguing clustered distribution of active breeding sites in three discontinuous geographic zones, in which aquatic habitats availability fluctuates with the season and year. Seasonality in the prevalence of anopheles breeding sites suggests significant responsiveness to climatic factors. Conclusions The observed retreat of An. arabiensis distribution range to lower altitudinal zones (

  12. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

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    Valerie Choumet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. METHODS: Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. RESULTS: The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%. A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. CONCLUSION: This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen

  13. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loïc; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission.

  14. Transgenic Expression of the Anti-parasitic Factor TEP1 in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Volohonsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes genetically engineered to be resistant to Plasmodium parasites represent a promising novel approach in the fight against malaria. The insect immune system itself is a source of anti-parasitic genes potentially exploitable for transgenic designs. The Anopheles gambiae thioester containing protein 1 (TEP1 is a potent anti-parasitic protein. TEP1 is secreted and circulates in the mosquito hemolymph, where its activated cleaved form binds and eliminates malaria parasites. Here we investigated whether TEP1 can be used to create malaria resistant mosquitoes. Using a GFP reporter transgene, we determined that the fat body is the main site of TEP1 expression. We generated transgenic mosquitoes that express TEP1r, a potent refractory allele of TEP1, in the fat body and examined the activity of the transgenic protein in wild-type or TEP1 mutant genetic backgrounds. Transgenic TEP1r rescued loss-of-function mutations, but did not increase parasite resistance in the presence of a wild-type susceptible allele. Consistent with previous reports, TEP1 protein expressed from the transgene in the fat body was taken up by hemocytes upon a challenge with injected bacteria. Furthermore, although maturation of transgenic TEP1 into the cleaved form was impaired in one of the TEP1 mutant lines, it was still sufficient to reduce parasite numbers and induce parasite melanization. We also report here the first use of Transcription Activator Like Effectors (TALEs in Anopheles gambiae to stimulate expression of endogenous TEP1. We found that artificial elevation of TEP1 expression remains moderate in vivo and that enhancement of endogenous TEP1 expression did not result in increased resistance to Plasmodium. Taken together, our results reveal the difficulty of artificially influencing TEP1-mediated Plasmodium resistance, and contribute to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying mosquito resistance to Plasmodium parasites.

  15. Complete Genome Sequences of Mycobacteriophages Clautastrophe, Kingsolomon, Krypton555, and Nicholas

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hui-Min; D’Elia, Tom; Ross, Joseph F.; Alvarado, Samuel M.; Brantley, Molly-Catherine; Bricker, Lydia P.; Butler, Courtney R.; Crist, Carson; Dane, Julia M.; Farran, Brett W.; Hobbs, Sierra; Lapak, Michelle; Lovell, Conner; Ludergnani, Nicholas; McMullen, Allison

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of four subcluster L3 mycobacteriophages newly isolated from soil samples, using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as the host. Comparative genomic analyses with four previously described subcluster L3 phages reveal strong nucleotide similarity and gene conservation, with several large insertions/deletions near their right genome ends.

  16. Efficacy of Bendiocarb Used for Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Madagascar: Results With Local Anopheles Species (Diptera: Culicidae) From Experimental Hut Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamaherijaona, Sanjiarizaha; Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose; Assoukpa, Jade; Madec, Yoann; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar. No significant difference was detected in either exophily or blood-feeding rates between treated and untreated huts. The mortality rate was significantly greater in treated huts compared to untreated huts. Efficacy up to 80% was found for 5 mo posttreatment. Although effective, bendiocarb has been used for 7 yr, and therefore an alternative insecticide may be needed to avoid the emergence of resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. LIFE CYCLE STUDY OF MALARIA VECTOR ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barodji Barodji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles aconitus Donitz, merupakan vector utama penyakit malaria di daerah-daerah sekitar persawahan di pulau Jawa, sejak tahun 1983 telah berhasil dikembangbiakkan di labo­ratorium. Siklus hidupnya dari telur sampai dewasa paling singkat selama 11 hari, sedang umum­nya antara 13 sampai 16 hari. Perkawinan terjadi sebelum nyamuk mengisap darah. Nyamuk mulai menghisap darah pada dua hari setelah muncul dari pupa dan bertelur dua sampai lima hari ke­mudian. Setelah bertelur nyamuk akan menghisap darah lagi. Dari munculnya nyamuk dewasa sampai bertelur yang pertama diperlukan waktu antara empat sampai tujuh hari, sedang peletakan telur berikutnya terjadi paling cepat dua hari dan paling lama lima hari setelah menghisap darah. Nyamuk generasi baru akan muncul setiap 15 hari sekali. Nyamuk jantan maupun betina dapat ber­tahan hidup sekitar 25 hari, sekitar 50% nyamuk jantan hidup lebih dari 13 hari dan nyamuk betina lebih dari 12 hari.

  18. The effects of oviposition-site deprivation on Anopheles gambiae reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Kathryne L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, depends on availability of suitable surface water for oviposition. Short and long dry spells occur throughout the year in many parts of its range that limit its access to oviposition sites. Although not well understood, oviposition-site deprivation has been found to rapidly reduce egg batch size and hatch rate of several mosquito species. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess these effects of oviposition-site deprivation on An. gambiae and to evaluate the role of nutrition and sperm viability as mediators of these effects. Methods Anopheles gambiae adults (1–2 d old from the G3 laboratory colony were assigned to the following treatment groups: oviposition-deprived (fed once and then deprived of oviposition site for 7 or 14 d, multiple-fed control (fed regularly once a week and allowed to lay eggs without delay, and age matched blood-deprived control (fed once, three days before water for oviposition was provided. Egg batch size and hatch rate were measured. In the second experiment two additional treatment groups were included: oviposition-deprived females that received either a second (supplemental blood meal or virgin males (supplemental mating 4 days prior to receiving water for oviposition. Results An. gambiae was highly sensitive to oviposition-site deprivation. Egg batch size dropped sharply to 0–3.5 egg/female within 14 days, due to reduced oviposition rate rather than a reduced number of eggs/batch. Egg hatch rate also fell dramatically to 0-2% within 7 days. The frequency of brown eggs that fail to tan was elevated. A supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ recovered the oviposition rate of females subjected to oviposition-site deprivation. Similarly, a supplemental blood meal, but not ‘supplemental insemination,’ partly recovered hatch rate, but this increase was marginally significant (P  Conclusions Even a short dry spell

  19. Determination of Age and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles Maculipennis Sensu Lato in the Central Plateau of Iran

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    Hamideh Edalat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Islamic Republic of Iran has greatly reduced its malaria burden and has a national goal to eliminate malaria by 2025. The aim of this study was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato, in relation to probable malaria transmission. For this purpose, the study was conducted in three villages in Isfahan Province of Iran, from April to March 2014. Materials and Methods: Two mosquitoes sampling methods were conducted, comprises human landing catch and human bed net collection. The results of this investigation were subjected to one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: A. maculipennis s.l. was found as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 p.m and 1.00-2.00 a.m. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, and life expectancy of the species were 4, 0.82, and 5 days, respectively. Malaria vectorial capacity of A. maculipennis was measured 0.0128 and 0.059 for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium Falciparum, respectively. Conclusion: The findings indicate that there is a negative correlation between the temperature and daily age of A. maculipennis s.l. The method described can be used as a standard method to determine the daily age of Anopheles, as well as of other mosquito species since it is fast and precise and needs small samples. Survey on the age structure of vectors is very important as it is useful in monitoring the success of large-scale vector control measures.

  20. Singapore's Anopheles sinensis Form A is susceptible to Plasmodium vivax isolates from the western Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Sook-Cheng; Andolina, Chiara; Malleret, Benoit; Christensen, Peter R; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Razak, Muhammad Aliff Bin Abdul; Chong, Chee-Seng; Li, Daiqin; Chu, Cindy S; Russell, Bruce; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lee-Ching; Nosten, Francois

    2017-11-16

    Singapore has been certified malaria-free by the World Health Organization since November 1982. However, sporadic autochthonous malaria outbreaks do occur. In one of the most recent outbreaks of vivax malaria, an entomological investigation identified Anopheles sinensis as the most probable vector. As metaphase karyotype studies divided An. sinensis into two forms, A and B, with different vector competence: the investigation of vector competence of An. sinensis found in Singapore was thus pursued using Plasmodium vivax field isolates from the Thailand-Myanmar border. Adults and larvae An. sinensis were collected from Singapore from 14 different locations, using various trapping and collection methods between September 2013 and January 2016. Molecular identification of An. sinensis species were conducted by amplifying the ITS2 and CO1 region using PCR. Experimental infections of An. sinensis using blood from seven patients infected with P. vivax from the Thailand-Myanmar border were conducted with Anopheles cracens (An. dirus B) as control. Phylogenetic analysis showed that An. sinensis (F 22 , F 2 and collected from outbreak areas) found in Singapore was entirely Form A, and closely related to An. sinensis Form A from Thailand. Artificial infection of these Singapore strain An. sinensis Form A resulted in the development of oocysts in four experiments, with the number of sporozoites produced by one An. sinensis ranging from 4301 to 14,538. Infection experiments showed that An. sinensis Form A from Singapore was susceptible to Thai-Myanmar P. vivax strain, suggesting a potential role as a malaria vector in Singapore.

  1. Application status and vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Qingyin; Chen Zuyi; Yu Jinshui; Han Shuqin

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a newly developed subject based on seismostratigraphy, and has been widely applied in the exploration of hydrocarbon and other sedimentogenic mineral deposits and great achievements have been obtained. However, the application of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits is just at the beginning. In this paper, some primary research achievements of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are summarized, and problems and their reasons of the application of sequence stratigraphy are discussed. Further more, according to characteristics of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and the development of sequence stratigraphy, the application vistas of sequence stratigraphy to the exploration of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits are estimated. Finally, application directions are proposed, and some specific suggestions are given. (authors)

  2. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maisa da-Silva; Gil, Luiz Herman S; e-Silva, Alexandre de-Almeida

    2012-08-02

    The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids). Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship), which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly affected by larval food availability. Greater larval food supply

  3. Next-generation site-directed transgenesis in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae: self-docking strains expressing germline-specific phiC31 integrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Meredith

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and the situation is complicated due to difficulties with both existing control measures and the impact of climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. The Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-directed transgene integration in a range of insects, thus overcoming many limitations due to size constraints and random integration associated with transposon-mediated transformation. Using this technology, we previously published the first site-directed transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 docking site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-directed integration of an anti-malarial effector gene. In the current publication we report improved efficiency and utility of the phiC31 integrase system following the generation of Anopheles gambiae self-docking strains. Four independent strains, with docking sites at known locations on three different chromosome arms, were engineered to express integrase under control of the regulatory regions of the nanos gene from Anopheles gambiae. The resulting protein accumulates in the posterior oocyte to provide integrase activity at the site of germline development. Two self-docking strains, exhibiting significantly different levels of integrase expression, were assessed for site-directed transgene integration and found to demonstrate greatly improved survival and efficiency of transformation. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters to regulate their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness

  4. Knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and PCR assays for their detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om P; Dykes, Cherry L; Lather, Manila; Agrawal, Om P; Adak, Tridibes

    2011-03-14

    Knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. The most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue Leu1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. This study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, at this residue in a major malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and describes new PCR assays for their detection. Part of the vgsc (IIS4-S5 linker-to-IIS6 transmembrane segment) of An. stephensi collected from Alwar (Rajasthan, India) was PCR-amplified from genomic DNA, sequenced and analysed for the presence of deduced amino acid substitution(s). Analysis of DNA sequences revealed the presence of two alternative non-synonymous point mutations at L1014 residue in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of vgsc, i.e., T>C mutation on the second position and A>T mutation on the third position of the codon, leading to Leu (TTA)-to-Ser (TCA) and -Phe (TTT) amino acid substitutions, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed for identification of each of these two point mutations. Genotyping of An. stephensi mosquitoes from Alwar by PCR assays revealed the presence of both mutations, with a high frequency of L1014S. The PCR assays developed for detection of the kdr mutations were specific as confirmed by DNA sequencing of PCR-genotyped samples. Two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014S and L1014F, were detected in An. stephensi with a high allelic frequency of L1014S. The occurrence of L1014S is being reported for the first time in An. stephensi. Two specific PCR assays were developed for detection of two kdr-like mutations in An. stephensi.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Mycobacteriophages Clautastrophe, Kingsolomon, Krypton555, and Nicholas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Min; D’Elia, Tom; Ross, Joseph F.; Alvarado, Samuel M.; Brantley, Molly-Catherine; Bricker, Lydia P.; Butler, Courtney R.; Crist, Carson; Dane, Julia M.; Farran, Brett W.; Hobbs, Sierra; Lapak, Michelle; Lovell, Conner; McMullen, Allison; Mirza, Sohail A.; Thrift, Noah; Vaughan, Donald P.; Worley, Grace; Ejikemeuwa, Amara; Zaw, May; Albritton, Claude F.; Bertrand, Sarah C.; Chaudhry, Shanzay S.; Cheema, Vzair A.; Do, Camilla; Do, Michael L.; Duong, Huyen M.; El-Desoky, Dalia H.; Green, Kelsey M.; Lee, Rhea N.; Thornton, Lauren A.; Vu, James M.; Zahra, Mah Noor; Stoner, Ty H.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of four subcluster L3 mycobacteriophages newly isolated from soil samples, using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 as the host. Comparative genomic analyses with four previously described subcluster L3 phages reveal strong nucleotide similarity and gene conservation, with several large insertions/deletions near their right genome ends. PMID:29122864

  6. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  7. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  8. Presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, L1014F and L1014S, and a novel mutation, V1010L, in the voltage gated Na+ channel of Anopheles culicifacies from Orissa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Rajendra M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knockdown resistance in insects resulting from mutation(s in the voltage gated Na+ channel (VGSC is one of the mechanisms of resistance against DDT and pyrethroids. Recently a point mutation leading to Leu-to-Phe substitution in the VGSC at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in Anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the Indian subcontinent. This study reports the presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the VGSC of an An. culicifacies population from Malkangiri district of Orissa, India. Methods Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato (s.l. samples, collected from a population of Malkangiri district of Orissa (India, were sequenced for part of the second transmembrane segment of VGSC and analyzed for the presence of non-synonymous mutations. A new primer introduced restriction analysis-PCR (PIRA-PCR was developed for the detection of the new mutation L1014S. The An. culicifacies population was genotyped for the presence of L1014F substitution by an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS and for L1014S substitutions by using a new PIRA-PCR developed in this study. The results were validated through DNA sequencing. Results DNA sequencing of An. culicifacies individuals collected from district Malkangiri revealed the presence of three amino acid substitutions in the IIS6 transmembrane segments of VGSC, each one resulting from a single point mutation. Two alternative point mutations, 3042A>T transversion or 3041T>C transition, were found at residue L1014 leading to Leu (TTA-to-Phe (TTT or -Ser (TCA changes, respectively. A third and novel substitution, Val (GTG-to-Leu (TTG or CTG, was identified at residue V1010 resulting from either of the two transversions–3028G>T or 3028G>C. The L1014S substitution co-existed with V1010L in all the samples analyzed irrespective of the type of point mutation associated with the latter. The PIRA-PCR strategy developed for the

  9. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  10. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekoe, Eunice

    2014-04-24

    South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997). The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis) in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied.  The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro) based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation.  The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  11. The effect of metal pollution on the life history and insecticide resistance phenotype of the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Shüné V.; Brooke, Basil D.

    2018-01-01

    Metal exposure is one of the commonest anthropogenic pollutants mosquito larvae are exposed to, both in agricultural and urban settings. As members of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which contains several major malaria vector species including An. arabiensis, are increasingly adapting to polluted environments, this study examined the effects of larval metal exposure on various life history traits of epidemiological importance. Two laboratory strains of An. arabiensis, SENN (insecticide suscep...

  12. Biologia de anofelinos amazônicos: XII. Ocorrência de espécies de Anopheles, dinâmica da transmissão e controle da malária na zona urbana de Ariquemes (Rondônia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Santos, Joselita Maria Mendes dos; Costa, Wellington Luciano de Souza; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

    1988-01-01

    Dados sobre o grau de incidência e distribuição de espécies Anopheles, em Ariquemes (RO), evidenciaram que a diversidade é maior na periferia da cidade e que Anopheles darlingi é registrada em praticamente todas as localidades de coleta. O inquérito entomológico revelou níveis diferentes de penetração da espécie na área urbana, podendo-se constatar que os Setores 1 e 3 são áreas livres de malária; Setores 2 e 4 mostram riscos na periferia; e a Área Industrial e Setor de Áreas Especiais, Conju...

  13. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Crasta, Graziano; Bellini, Romeo; Comandatore, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2016-11-02

    Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1) has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4) of Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size) on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0-24 to 0-48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior and lower cannibalism rate. The understanding of

  14. Intra-instar larval cannibalism in Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Porretta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannibalism has been observed in a wide range of animal taxa and its importance in persistence and stability of populations has been documented. In anopheline malaria vectors the inter-instar cannibalism between fourth- and first-instar larvae (L4-L1 has been shown in several species, while intra-instar cannibalism remains poorly investigated. In this study we tested the occurrence of intra-instar cannibalism within larvae of second-, third- and fourth-instar (L2, L3 and L4 of Anopheles gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi. Experiments were set up under laboratory conditions and the effects of larval density, duration of the contact period among larvae and the presence of an older larva (i.e. a potential cannibal of bigger size on cannibalism rate were analysed. Cannibalism was assessed by computing the number of missing larvae after 24 and 48 h from the beginning of the experiments and further documented by records with a GoPro videocamera. Results Intra-instar cannibalism was observed in all larval instars of both species with higher frequency in An. gambiae (s.s. than in An. stephensi. In both species the total number of cannibalistic events increased from 0–24 to 0–48 h. The density affected the cannibalism rate, but its effect was related to the larval instar and to the presence of older larvae. Interestingly, the lower cannibalism rate between L4 larvae was observed at the highest density and the cannibalism rate between L3 larvae decreased when one L4 was added. Conclusions The present study provides experimental evidence of intra-instar cannibalism in the malaria vectors An. gambiae (s.s. and An. stephensi and highlights the possible occurrence of complex interactions between all larval instars potentially present in the breeding sites. We hypothesize that the high density and the presence of a potential cannibal of bigger size could affect the readiness to attack conspecifics, resulting into low risk larval behavior

  15. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius L28 Isolated from Ground Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Diana I; Cook, Peter W; Campos, David L; Brashears, Mindy M; den Bakker, Henk; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2017-09-28

    In this report, we describe the draft genome sequence of a newly discovered probiotic strain, Lactobacillus salivarius L28. L. salivarius L28 demonstrates antagonistic effects against human foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes , in coculture experiments and food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Ayala et al.

  17. Purification and characterization of gamma poly glutamic acid from newly Bacillus licheniformis NRC20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tork, Sanaa E; Aly, Magda M; Alakilli, Saleha Y; Al-Seeni, Madeha N

    2015-03-01

    γ-poly glutamic acid (γ-PGA) has received considerable attention for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. γ-PGA from the newly isolate Bacillus licheniformis NRC20 was purified and characterized using diffusion distance agar plate, mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. All analysis indicated that γ-PGA is a homopolymer composed of glutamic acid. Its molecular weight was determined to be 1266 kDa. It was composed of L- and D-glutamic acid residues. An amplicon of 3050 represents the γ-PGA-coding genes was obtained, sequenced and submitted in genbank database. Its amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that obtained from B. licheniformis strains. The bacterium NRC 20 was independent of L-glutamic acid but the polymer production enhanced when cultivated in medium containing L-glutamic acid as the sole nitrogen source. Finally we can conclude that γ-PGA production from B. licheniformis NRC20 has many promised applications in medicine, industry and nanotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  19. The Seasonality and Ecology of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Dipetra: Culicidae) in Liberia Using Molecular Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, N T; Villinski, J T; Bolay, F; Stoops, C A; Tageldin, R A; Fakoli, L; Okasha, O; Obenauer, P J; Diclaro, J W

    2015-05-01

    Members of the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Giles) complex define a group of seven morphologically indistinguishable species, including the principal malaria vectors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Members of this complex differ in behavior and ability to transmit malaria; hence, precise identification of member species is critical to monitoring and evaluating malaria threat levels. We collected mosquitoes from five counties in Liberia every other month from May 2011 until May 2012, using various trapping techniques. A. gambiae complex members were identified using molecular techniques based on differences in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region between species and the molecular forms (S and M) of A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s) specimens. In total, 1,696 A. gambiae mosquitoes were collected and identified. DNA was extracted from legs of each specimen with species identification determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction using specific primers. The molecular forms (M or S) of A. gambiae s.s were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models identified environmental variables associated with genomic differentiation. Our results indicate widespread occurrence of A. gambiae s.s., the principal malaria vector in the complex, although two Anopheles melas Theobald/A. merus Donitz mosquitoes were detected. We found 72.6, 25.5, and 1.9% of A. gambiae s.s specimens were S, M, and hybrid forms, respectively. Statistical analysis indicates that the S form was more likely to be found in rural areas during rainy seasons and indoor catchments. This information will enhance vector control efforts in Liberia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons.

  1. Salivary gland proteome analysis reveals modulation of anopheline unique proteins in insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Cornelie

    Full Text Available Insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance due to a mutation in the acetylcholinesterase (ace encoding ace-1 gene confers cross-resistance to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in Anopheles gambiae populations from Central and West Africa. This mutation is associated with a strong genetic cost revealed through alterations of some life history traits but little is known about the physiological and behavioural changes in insects bearing the ace-1(R allele. Comparative analysis of the salivary gland contents between An. gambiae susceptible and ace-1(R resistant strains was carried out to charaterize factors that could be involved in modifications of blood meal process, trophic behaviour or pathogen interaction in the insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Differential analysis of the salivary gland protein profiles revealed differences in abundance for several proteins, two of them showing major differences between the two strains. These two proteins identified as saglin and TRIO are salivary gland-1 related proteins, a family unique to anopheline mosquitoes, one of them playing a crucial role in salivary gland invasion by Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Differential expression of two other proteins previously identified in the Anopheles sialome was also observed. The differentially regulated proteins are involved in pathogen invasion, blood feeding process, and protection against oxidation, relevant steps in the outcome of malaria infection. Further functional studies and insect behaviour experiments would confirm the impact of the modification of the sialome composition on blood feeding and pathogen transmission abilities of the resistant mosquitoes. The data supports the hypothesis of alterations linked to insecticide resistance in the biology of the primary vector of human malaria in Africa.

  2. Community Profiling of Fusarium in Combination with Other Plant-Associated Fungi in Different Crop Species Using SMRT Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Walder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures. Up to now, most molecular tools that monitor Fusarium communities on plants are limited to certain species and do not distinguish other plant associated fungi. To close these gaps, we developed a sequencing-based community profiling methodology for crop-associated fungi with a focus on the genus Fusarium. By analyzing a 1600 bp long amplicon spanning the highly variable segments ITS and D1–D3 of the ribosomal operon by PacBio SMRT sequencing, we were able to robustly quantify Fusarium down to species level through clustering against reference sequences. The newly developed methodology was successfully validated in mock communities and provided similar results as the culture-based assessment of Fusarium communities by seed health tests in grain samples from different crop species. Finally, we exemplified the newly developed methodology in a field experiment with a wheat-maize crop sequence under different cover crop and tillage regimes. We analyzed wheat straw residues, cover crop shoots and maize grains and we could reveal that the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa acts as a potent alternative host for Fusarium (OTU F.ave/tri showing an eightfold higher relative abundance compared with other cover crop treatments. Moreover, as the newly developed methodology also allows to trace other crop-associated fungi, we found that vetch and green fallow hosted further fungal plant pathogens including Zymoseptoria tritici

  3. Cluster of Legionnaires' disease in a newly built block of flats, Denmark, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Louise Hjelmar; Krogfelt, K. A.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    During December 2008 to January 2009, two persons contracted Legionnaires' disease in a newly built block of flats in a suburb of Copenhagen in Denmark. Polymerase chain reaction and culture was used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in this cluster. Isolates from both patients tested positive...... for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 subgroup Philadelphia sequence type 1 and the same strain was detected in hot water samples taken from the residential area indicating that the hot water supply system was the most likely source of infection. Legionella was not detected in the cold water. Two interventions...

  4. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Dia, Ibrahima; Konate, Lassana; Ayala, Diego; Fontenille, Didier; Cohuet, Anna

    2012-09-05

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  5. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Escovar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%, while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82% and outdoors (73%. One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria.

  6. Respuesta de Anopheles albimanus a compuestos volátiles de casas del sur de Chiapas, México Behavioral response of Anopheles albimanus to volatile compounds collected inside houses from the south of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvany Mayoly Ríos-Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto de los compuestos volátiles en las casas sobre la respuesta conductual del vector del paludismo Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en enero de 2006 en el ejido Nueva Independencia, municipio de Suchiate, Chiapas. Se colectaron compuestos volátiles dentro de casas y los extractos se probaron sobre hembras sin alimentar en un olfatómetro en "Y". Los extractos se analizaron mediante cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 28 extractos, 12 presentaron respuesta de atracción y dos de repelencia. Los análisis por CG-EM indicaron variación en la presencia de compuestos volátiles y no se vincularon con compuestos específicos indicativos de algún efecto. CONCLUSIONES: Los volátiles en casas presentaron efecto de atracción y repelencia para An. albimanus. No se reconoció un patrón definido en cuanto a la presencia de compuestos químicos característicos y la respuesta obtenida.OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of volatile compounds in homes on the behavioral response of Anopheles albimanus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in January 2006, in the village of Nueva Independencia village, Suchiate, Chiapas. Volatile compounds were collected inside homes and the extracts were tested on unfed females in a Y-olfactometer. Extracts were analyzed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system (GC-MS. RESULTS: Twenty eight extracts were obtained, twelve presented attraction and two repellency responses. GC-MS analyses of the extracts indicated variation in the volatile compound present in the extracts, but could not associated specific compounds with any particular effect. CONCLUSIONS: Within homes, volatiles presented attraction and repellency responses to An. albimanus. A definate pattern concerning the presence of a characteristic chemical compound and the observed response was not found.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Systellognatha (Plecoptera: Arctoperlaria) inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Zhao, Meng-Yuan; Xu, Cheng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2018-05-01

    The infraorder Systellognatha is the most species-rich clade in the insect order Plecoptera and includes six families in two superfamilies: Pteronarcyoidea (Pteronarcyidae, Peltoperlidae, and Styloperlidae) and Perloidea (Perlidae, Perlodidae, and Chloroperlidae). To resolve the debatable phylogeny of Systellognatha, we carried out the first mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis covering all the six families, including three newly sequenced mitogenomes from two families (Perlodidae and Peltoperlidae) and 15 published mitogenomes. The three newly reported mitogenomes share conserved mitogenomic features with other sequenced stoneflies. For phylogenetic analyses, we assembled five datasets with two inference methods to assess their influence on topology and nodal support within Systellognatha. The results indicated that inclusion of the third codon positions of PCGs, exclusion of rRNA genes, the use of nucleotide datasets and Bayesian inference could improve the phylogenetic reconstruction of Systellognatha. The monophyly of Perloidea was supported in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but Pteronarcyoidea was recovered as paraphyletic and remained controversial. In this mitochondrial phylogenetic study, the relationships within Systellognatha were recovered as (((Perlidae + (Perlodidae + Chloroperlidae)) + (Pteronarcyidae + Styloperlidae)) + Peltoperlidae). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

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    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  9. Demographic history and population structure of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in Argentina based on the mitochondrial COI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur Juri, María J; Moreno, Marta; Prado Izaguirre, Mónica J; Navarro, Juan C; Zaidenberg, Mario O; Almirón, Walter R; Claps, Guillermo L; Conn, Jan E

    2014-09-04

    Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is an important malaria vector in the Neotropical region and the only species involved in Plasmodium transmission in the Andean foothills. Its wide geographical distribution in America, high preference for biting humans and capacity to rest inside dwellings after feeding, are attributes contributing to its vector status. Previous reports have tried to elucidate its taxonomic status, distinguishing populations from North, Central and South America. In the present study we used a mitochondrial marker to examine the demographic history of An. pseudopunctipennis in northwestern Argentina. Twelve localities were selected across 550 km of the distribution of this species in Argentina, including two near the Bolivian border and several in South Tucumán, for sampling. A fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was sequenced and haplotype relationships were analyzed by a statistical parsimony network and a Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree. Genetic differentiation was estimated with FST. Historical demographic processes were evaluated using diversity measures, neutrality tests and mismatch distribution. Forty-one haplotypes were identified, of which haplotype A was the most common and widely distributed. Neither the network nor the NJ tree showed any geographic differentiation between northern and southern populations. Haplotype diversities, Tajima's DT and Fu & Li's F and D neutrality tests and mismatch distribution supported a scenario of Holocene demographic expansion. The demographic pattern suggests that An. pseudopunctipennis has undergone a single colonization process, and the ancestral haplotype is shared by specimens from all localities, indicating mitochondrial gene flow. Genetic differentiation was minimal, observed only between one northern and one southern locality. The estimated time of the population expansion of this species was during the Holocene. These data suggest that regional vector control measures would be equally

  10. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  11. Identification of rhabdoviral sequences in oropharyngeal swabs from German and Danish bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M; Müller, Thomas; Schatz, Juliane; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriel, Mariann; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-11-25

    In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). In total, 15 RT-qPCR positive swabs were detected. Remarkably, sequencing of positive samples did not confirm the presence of bat associated lyssaviruses but revealed nine distinct novel rhabdovirus-related sequences. Several novel rhabdovirus-related sequences were detected both in German and Danish insectivorous bats. The results also prove that the novel generic pan-lyssavirus RT-qPCR offers a very broad detection range that allows the collection of further valuable data concerning the broad and complex diversity within the family Rhabdoviridae.

  12. Prevalence of drug resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise B; Christensen, Marianne B; Gerstoft, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the prevalence of drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in Denmark. In addition we assessed the prevalence of non-B subtypes based on phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene. Plasma samples from 104 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive...... patients were obtained in the year 2000. The entire protease gene and 320 amino acids of the reverse transcriptase gene were genotyped. Sequences were obtained from 97 patients. No subjects displayed primary resistance mutations in the protease gene, whereas all carried 1 or more secondary mutations....... Resistance mutations in the RT-gene associated with NRTI-resistance were found in 1 patient, who was infected with zidovudine resistant HIV-1 harbouring the M41L mutation in combination with T215S and L210S. The T215S mutation has been showed to be associated with reversion of zidovudine resistance. The T215...

  13. Limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of Chiapas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H

    1990-12-01

    Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered.

  14. Large scale identification and categorization of protein sequences using structured logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn Panella; Ifrim, Georgiana; Liboriussen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Structured Logistic Regression (SLR) is a newly developed machine learning tool first proposed in the context of text categorization. Current availability of extensive protein sequence databases calls for an automated method to reliably classify sequences and SLR seems well...... problem. Results Using SLR, we have built classifiers to identify and automatically categorize P-type ATPases into one of 11 pre-defined classes. The SLR-classifiers are compared to a Hidden Markov Model approach and shown to be highly accurate and scalable. Representing the bulk of currently known...... for further biochemical characterization and structural analysis....

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R G

    1993-09-01

    In a laboratory study, the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae was evaluated at field, 1/3 field and 1/10 field rates using WHO conical exposure chambers and excito-repellency test boxes. Bendiocarb was the least irritant insecticide at all rates, inducing levels of takeoff, flight and exiting behavior similar to those of a distilled water control treatment. Of those mosquitoes introduced to the bendiocarb-treated boxes, not more than 1% exited and survived at any dose rate. Lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were highly irritant to An. gambiae, inducing a strong stimulation to take off and fly and also a high level of exiting. Exiting-survival rates associated with lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were between 15 and 51%. The relevance of these findings to the control of mosquito populations and the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed.

  16. Intrauterine transfusion combined with partial exchange transfusion for twin anemia polycythemia sequence: modeling a novel technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaghekke, F.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; Akkermans, J.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Middeldorp, J. M.; Klumper, F. J.; Oepkes, D.; Lopriore, E.

    2015-01-01

    Twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS) is a newly described disease in monochorionic twin pregnancies, characterized by large inter-twin hemoglobin differences. Optimal management for TAPS is not clear. One of the possible treatment modalities is intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) in the donor

  17. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Seekoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997. The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Objectives: To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Method: A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied. Results: The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation. Conclusion: The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  18. Resistance Mechanisms of Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae to Temephos

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    Aboozar Soltani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.

  19. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  20. Monitoring the operational impact of insecticide usage for malaria control on Anopheles funestus from Mozambique

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    Sharp Brian L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS has again become popular for malaria control in Africa. This combined with the affirmation by WHO that DDT is appropriate for use in the absence of longer lasting insecticide formulations in some malaria endemic settings, has resulted in an increase in IRS with DDT as a major malaria vector control intervention in Africa. DDT was re-introduced into Mozambique's IRS programme in 2005 and is increasingly becoming the main insecticide used for malaria vector control in Mozambique. The selection of DDT as the insecticide of choice in Mozambique is evidence-based, taking account of the susceptibility of Anopheles funestus to all available insecticide choices, as well as operational costs of spraying. Previously lambda cyhalothrin had replaced DDT in Mozambique in 1993. However, resistance appeared quickly to this insecticide and, in 2000, the pyrethroid was phased out and the carbamate bendiocarb introduced. Low level resistance was detected by biochemical assay to bendiocarb in 1999 in both An. funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, although this was not evident in WHO bioassays of the same population. Methods Sentinel sites were established and monitored for insecticide resistance using WHO bioassays. These assays were conducted on 1–3 day old F1 offspring of field collected adult caught An. funestus females to determine levels of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population. WHO biochemical assays were carried out to determine the frequency of insecticide resistance genes within the same population. Results In surveys conducted between 2002 and 2006, low levels of bendiocarb resistance were detected in An. funestus, populations using WHO bioassays. This is probably due to significantly elevated levels of Acetylcholinesterase levels found in the same populations. Pyrethroid resistance was also detected in populations and linked to elevated levels of p450 monooxygenase activity. One site had

  1. GI-SVM: A sensitive method for predicting genomic islands based on unannotated sequence of a single genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bingxin; Leong, Hon Wai

    2016-02-01

    Genomic islands (GIs) are clusters of functionally related genes acquired by lateral genetic transfer (LGT), and they are present in many bacterial genomes. GIs are extremely important for bacterial research, because they not only promote genome evolution but also contain genes that enhance adaption and enable antibiotic resistance. Many methods have been proposed to predict GI. But most of them rely on either annotations or comparisons with other closely related genomes. Hence these methods cannot be easily applied to new genomes. As the number of newly sequenced bacterial genomes rapidly increases, there is a need for methods to detect GI based solely on sequences of a single genome. In this paper, we propose a novel method, GI-SVM, to predict GIs given only the unannotated genome sequence. GI-SVM is based on one-class support vector machine (SVM), utilizing composition bias in terms of k-mer content. From our evaluations on three real genomes, GI-SVM can achieve higher recall compared with current methods, without much loss of precision. Besides, GI-SVM allows flexible parameter tuning to get optimal results for each genome. In short, GI-SVM provides a more sensitive method for researchers interested in a first-pass detection of GI in newly sequenced genomes.

  2. The susceptibility of five African Anopheles species to Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquitocidal cry genes

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    Ketseoglou Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, one of the leading causes of death in Africa, is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Problems associated with the development of resistance to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects and persistence of chemical insecticides have prompted the development of environmentally friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of a genetically engineered cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC 7120#11, against five African Anopheles species in laboratory bioassays. Findings There were significant differences in the susceptibility of the anopheline species to PCC 7120#11. The ranking of the larvicidal activity of PCC 7120#11 against species in the An. gambiae complex was: An. merus An. arabiensis An. gambiae An. quadriannulatus, where 50. The LC50 of PCC 7120#11 against the important malaria vectors An. gambiae and An. arabiensis was 12.3 × 105 cells/ml and 8.10 × 105 cells/ml, respectively. PCC 7120#11 was not effective against An. funestus, with less than 50% mortality obtained at concentrations as high as 3.20 × 107 cells/ml. Conclusions PCC 7120#11 exhibited good larvicidal activity against larvae of the An. gambiae complex, but relatively weak larvicidal activity against An. funestus. The study has highlighted the importance of evaluating a novel mosquitocidal agent against a range of malaria vectors so as to obtain a clear understanding of the agent’s spectrum of activity and potential as a vector control agent.

  3. Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.

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    Natalie L. Dillon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of the 25 EST-SSR markers exhibited polymorphisms, identifying a total of 86 alleles with an average of 5.38 alleles per locus, and distinguished between all Mangifera selections. Private alleles were identified for Mangifera species. These newly developed EST-SSR markers enhance the current 11 SSR mango genetic identity panel utilized by the Australian Mango Breeding Program. The current panel has been used to identify progeny and parents for selection and the application of this extended panel will further improve and help to design mango hybridization strategies for increased breeding efficiency.

  4. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

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    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  5. Deforestation and Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae Giles Mosquitoes in Malaria Transmission, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A.; Little, Tom J.; Lawson, Bernard W.; Githeko, Andrew K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of deforestation on microclimates and sporogonic development of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in an area of the western Kenyan highland prone to malaria epidemics. An. gambiae mosquitoes were fed with P. falciparum–infected blood through membrane feeders. Fed mosquitoes were placed in houses in forested and deforested areas in a highland area (1,500 m above sea level) and monitored for parasite development. Deforested sites had higher temperatures and relative humidities, and the overall infection rate of mosquitoes was increased compared with that in forested sites. Sporozoites appeared on average 1.1 days earlier in deforested areas. Vectorial capacity was estimated to be 77.7% higher in the deforested site than in the forested site. We showed that deforestation changes microclimates, leading to more rapid sporogonic development of P. falciparum and to a marked increase of malaria risk in the western Kenyan highland. PMID:18826815

  6. Genome-wide identification, characterization and classification of ionotropic glutamate receptor genes (iGluRs) in the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Si, Feng-Ling; He, Zheng-Bo; Chen, Bin

    2018-01-15

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are conserved ligand-gated ion channel receptors, and ionotropic receptors (IRs) were revealed as a new family of iGluRs. Their subdivision was unsettled, and their characteristics are little known. Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in eastern Asia, and its genome was recently well sequenced and annotated. We identified iGluR genes in the An. sinensis genome, analyzed their characteristics including gene structure, genome distribution, domains and specific sites by bioinformatic methods, and deduced phylogenetic relationships of all iGluRs in An. sinensis, Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the characteristics and phylogenetics, we generated the classification of iGluRs, and comparatively analyzed the intron number and selective pressure of three iGluRs subdivisions, iGluR group, Antenna IR and Divergent IR subfamily. A total of 56 iGluR genes were identified and named in the whole-genome of An. sinensis. These genes were located on 18 scaffolds, and 31 of them (29 being IRs) are distributed into 10 clusters that are suggested to form mainly from recent gene duplication. These iGluRs can be divided into four groups: NMDA, non-NMDA, Antenna IR and Divergent IR based on feature comparison and phylogenetic analysis. IR8a and IR25a were suggested to be monophyletic, named as Putative in the study, and moved from the Antenna subfamily in the IR family to the non-NMDA group as a sister of traditional non-NMDA. The generated iGluRs of genes (including NMDA and regenerated non-NMDA) are relatively conserved, and have a more complicated gene structure, smaller ω values and some specific functional sites. The iGluR genes in An. sinensis, An. gambiae and D. melanogaster have amino-terminal domain (ATD), ligand binding domain (LBD) and Lig_Chan domains, except for IR8a that only has the LBD and Lig_Chan domains. However, the new concept IR family of genes (including regenerated Antenna IR, and Divergent

  7. Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi in a malaria-endemic region of Eastern Amazonian Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conn, Jan E.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Bollback, Jonathan Paul

    2006-01-01

    of insecticides, but since the mid-1990s there has been a shift to patient treatment and focal insecticide fogging. Anopheles darlingi was believed to have been significantly reduced in a gold-mining community, Peixoto de Azevedo (in Mato Grosso State), in the early 1990s by insecticide use during a severe...... malaria epidemic. In contrast, although An. darlingi was eradicated from some districts of the city of Belem (the capital of Para State) in 1968 to reduce malaria, populations around the water protection area in the eastern district were treated only briefly. To investigate the population structure of An...

  8. CONTROL DEMONSTRATION OF THE RICEFIELD BREEDING MOSQUITO ANOPHELES ACONITUS DONITZ IN CENTRAL JAVA, USING; POECILIA RETICULATA THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION : 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustriayu Nalim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk menjajagi cara memberantas vektor malaria Anopheles aconitus di sawah dengan ikan pemakan jentik Poecilia reticulata. Dalam penelitian ini terlihat bahwa dalam pelaksanaan program pemberantasan ini, partisipasi petani untuk mina padi dapat digalakkan melalui rapat kelompok tani. Program mina padi menye­diakan tempat hidup bagi ikan pemakan jentik. Rencana pelaksanaan program ini serta cara penggalakan   petani dibicarakan dalam makalah ini.

  9. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are effective for identifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA was extracted from newly formed leaves and amplified using 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (NH001c, NH002b, NH005b, NH007b, NH008b, NH009b, NH011b, NH013b, NH012a, NH014a, NH015a, NH017a, KA4b, KA5, KA14, KA16, KB16, KU10, BGA35, BGT23b and HGA8b). The data was analyzed by ...

  10. Chloroquine mediated modulation of Anopheles gambiae gene expression.

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    Patrícia Abrantes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium development in the mosquito is crucial for malaria transmission and depends on the parasite's interaction with a variety of cell types and specific mosquito factors that have both positive and negative effects on infection. Whereas the defensive response of the mosquito contributes to a decrease in parasite numbers during these stages, some components of the blood meal are known to favor infection, potentiating the risk of increased transmission. The presence of the antimalarial drug chloroquine in the mosquito's blood meal has been associated with an increase in Plasmodium infectivity for the mosquito, which is possibly caused by chloroquine interfering with the capacity of the mosquito to defend against the infection.In this study, we report a detailed survey of the Anopheles gambiae genes that are differentially regulated by the presence of chloroquine in the blood meal, using an A. gambiae cDNA microarray. The effect of chloroquine on transcript abundance was evaluated separately for non-infected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes. Chloroquine was found to affect the abundance of transcripts that encode proteins involved in a variety of processes, including immunity, apoptosis, cytoskeleton and the response to oxidative stress. This pattern of differential gene expression may explain the weakened mosquito defense response which accounts for the increased infectivity observed in chloroquine-treated mosquitoes.The results of the present study suggest that chloroquine can interfere with several putative mosquito mechanisms of defense against Plasmodium at the level of gene expression and highlight the need for a better understanding of the impacts of antimalarial agents on parasite transmission.

  11. Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwane, Philippe; Etang, Josiane; Chouaїbou, Mouhamadou; Toto, Jean Claude; Koffi, Alphonsine; Mimpfoundi, Rémy; Simard, Frédéric

    2013-02-22

    Increasing incidence of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is seen as a limiting factor for malaria vector control. The current study aimed at an in-depth characterization of An. gambiae s.l. resistance to insecticides in Cameroon, in order to guide malaria vector control interventions. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected as larvae and pupae from six localities spread throughout the four main biogeographical domains of Cameroon and reared to adults in insectaries. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility tests were carried out with 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin and 0.05% deltamethrin. Mortality rates and knockdown times (kdt50 and kdt95) were determined and the effect of pre-exposure to the synergists DEF, DEM and PBO was assessed. Tested mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular forms (M or S) using PCR-RFLP. The hot ligation method was used to depict kdr mutations and biochemical assays were conducted to assess detoxifying enzyme activities. The An. arabiensis population from Pitoa was fully susceptible to DDT and permethrin (mortality rates>98%) and showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin. Resistance to DDT was widespread in An. gambiae s.s. populations and heterogeneous levels of susceptibility to permethrin and deltamethrin were observed. In many cases, prior exposure to synergists partially restored insecticide knockdown effect and increased mortality rates, suggesting a role of detoxifying enzymes in increasing mosquito survival upon challenge by pyrethroids and, to a lower extent DDT. The distribution of kdr alleles suggested a major role of kdr-based resistance in the S form of An. gambiae. In biochemical tests, all but one mosquito population overexpressed P450 activity, whereas baseline GST activity was low and similar in all field mosquito populations and in the control. In Cameroon, multiple resistance mechanisms segregate in the S form of An. gambiae resulting in heterogeneous resistance profiles, whereas in

  12. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

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    Okara Robi M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is the second in a series of three articles documenting the geographical distribution of 41 dominant vector species (DVS of human malaria. The first paper addressed the DVS of the Americas and the third will consider those of the Asian Pacific Region. Here, the DVS of Africa, Europe and the Middle East are discussed. The continent of Africa experiences the bulk of the global malaria burden due in part to the presence of the An. gambiae complex. Anopheles gambiae is one of four DVS within the An. gambiae complex, the others being An. arabiensis and the coastal An. merus and An. melas. There are a further three, highly anthropophilic DVS in Africa, An. funestus, An. moucheti and An. nili. Conversely, across Europe and the Middle East, malaria transmission is low and frequently absent, despite the presence of six DVS. To help control malaria in Africa and the Middle East, or to identify the risk of its re-emergence in Europe, the contemporary distribution and bionomics of the relevant DVS are needed. Results A contemporary database of occurrence data, compiled from the formal literature and other relevant resources, resulted in the collation of information for seven DVS from 44 countries in Africa containing 4234 geo-referenced, independent sites. In Europe and the Middle East, six DVS were identified from 2784 geo-referenced sites across 49 countries. These occurrence data were combined with expert opinion ranges and a suite of environmental and climatic variables of relevance to anopheline ecology to produce predictive distribution maps using the Boosted Regression Tree (BRT method. Conclusions The predicted geographic extent for the following DVS (or species/suspected species complex* is provided for Africa: Anopheles (Cellia arabiensis, An. (Cel. funestus*, An. (Cel. gambiae, An. (Cel. melas, An. (Cel. merus, An. (Cel. moucheti and An. (Cel. nili*, and in the European and Middle Eastern Region: An. (Anopheles atroparvus

  13. High Diversity of Myocyanophage in Various Aquatic Environments Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Major Capsid Protein Gene With a New Set of Primers

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    Weiguo Hou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Myocyanophages, a group of viruses infecting cyanobacteria, are abundant and play important roles in elemental cycling. Here we investigated the particle-associated viral communities retained on 0.2 μm filters and in sediment samples (representing ancient cyanophage communities from four ocean and three lake locations, using high-throughput sequencing and a newly designed primer pair targeting a gene fragment (∼145-bp in length encoding the cyanophage gp23 major capsid protein (MCP. Diverse viral communities were detected in all samples. The fragments of 142-, 145-, and 148-bp in length were most abundant in the amplicons, and most sequences (>92% belonged to cyanophages. Additionally, different sequencing depths resulted in different diversity estimates of the viral community. Operational taxonomic units obtained from deep sequencing of the MCP gene covered the majority of those obtained from shallow sequencing, suggesting that deep sequencing exhibited a more complete picture of cyanophage community than shallow sequencing. Our results also revealed a wide geographic distribution of marine myocyanophages, i.e., higher dissimilarities of the myocyanophage communities corresponded with the larger distances between the sampling sites. Collectively, this study suggests that the newly designed primer pair can be effectively used to study the community and diversity of myocyanophage from different environments, and the high-throughput sequencing represents a good method to understand viral diversity.

  14. Identification and analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the mosquito Anopheles funestus, malaria vector

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    Hemingway Janet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common source of genetic variation in eukaryotic species and have become an important marker for genetic studies. The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet, prior to this study, no SNPs have been described for this species. Here we report a genome-wide set of SNP markers for use in genetic studies on this important human disease vector. Results DNA fragments from 50 genes were amplified and sequenced from 21 specimens of An. funestus. A third of specimens were field collected in Malawi, a third from a colony of Mozambican origin and a third form a colony of Angolan origin. A total of 494 SNPs including 303 within the coding regions of genes and 5 indels were identified. The physical positions of these SNPs in the genome are known. There were on average 7 SNPs per kilobase similar to that observed in An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Transitions outnumbered transversions, at a ratio of 2:1. The increased frequency of transition substitutions in coding regions is likely due to the structure of the genetic code and selective constraints. Synonymous sites within coding regions showed a higher polymorphism rate than non-coding introns or 3' and 5'flanking DNA with most of the substitutions in coding regions being observed at the 3rd codon position. A positive correlation in the level of polymorphism was observed between coding and non-coding regions within a gene. By genotyping a subset of 30 SNPs, we confirmed the validity of the SNPs identified during this study. Conclusion This set of SNP markers represents a useful tool for genetic studies in An. funestus, and will be useful in identifying candidate genes that affect diverse ranges of phenotypes that impact on vector control, such as resistance insecticide, mosquito behavior and vector competence.

  15. [Sequence-based typing of enviromental Legionella pneumophila isolates in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qu, Pinghua; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Shouyi

    2011-03-01

    To characterize the genes of Legionella pneumophila isolated from different water source in Guangzhou from 2006 to 2009. To genotype the strains by using sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme. In total 44 L. pneumophila strains were identified by SBT with 7 diversifying genes of flaA, asd, mip, pilE, mompS, proA and neuA. Analysis of the amplicons sequence was taken in the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) international SBT database to obtain the allelic profiles and sequence types (STs). Serogroups were typed by latex agglutination test. Data from SBT revealed a high diversity among the strains and ST01 accounts for 30% (13/ 44). Fifteen new STs were discovered from 20 STs and 2 of them were newly assigned (ST887 and ST888) by EWGLI. SBT Phylogenetic tree was generated by SplitsTree and BURST programs. High diversity and specificity were observed of the L. pneumophila strains in Guangzhou. SBT is useful for L. pneumophila genomic study and epidemiological surveillance.

  16. Host preferences and feeding patterns of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in three sites of Shandong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Shi, Guihong; Cheng, Peng; Liu, Lijuan; Gong, Maoqing

    2017-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann is a major vector of malaria and is among the dominant species in Shandong province of China. Knowledge of the blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes is crucial for elimination of malaria vectors. However, little information is available on the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis mosquitoes in Shandong province. This study was carried out to compare the blood-feeding behaviour of An. sinensis in malaria-endemic areas of Shandong province China. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three malaria-endemic areas (Jimo, Yinan and Shanxian), during the peak months of mosquito population (August and September) from 2014 to 2015. Indoor-resting mosquitoes and outdoor-resting blood-fed females were sampled in the morning hours (0600 to 0900 hrs) from 10 randomly selected houses using pyrethrum spray catch