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Sample records for newly developed standard

  1. The Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale: a reliability and validity study on a newly developed standardized psychodynamic assessment for youth with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Geneviève; Botbol, Michel; Graignic, Rozenn; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Bronsard, Guillaume; Kermarrec, Solenn; Clement, Marie-Christine; Cukierman, Annick; Druon, Catherine; Duprat, Andrée; Jardin, Françoise; du Chatellier, Anik Maufras; Tricaud, Jacqueline; Urwand, Simone; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Cohen, David; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2010-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the reliability and validity of the Autism Psychodynamic Evaluation of Changes (APEC) scale, developed to assess the evolution in individuals with autism under treatment. The APEC scale focuses on the key role of impairment in body image construction, which requires cross-modal sensory integration through emotional communication with motor representations. Thus, the body image construction is associated simultaneously with spatial and temporal organization and allows the emergence of self- and others-representations. The use of the APEC scale, with its seven domains (expression of emotion in relationships, eye contact, body image, graphic productions, exploration of space and objects, time perception, and verbal language), underlines the importance in autistic disorder of anxieties related to body and spatial representations, and of impairment in the body ego construction which is closely linked to the emergence of individuation/separation processes. This study was conducted on 73 children and adolescents with autistic disorder. They were recruited in day care facilities where two caregivers independently gave their ratings based on their clinical observation on a daily basis during the same month. Analyses included assessing construct validity through correspondence analyses and inter-rater reliability using kappa coefficients. The APEC scale offers a reliable and validated psychodynamic assessment of interest for professionals (such as child psychiatrists, caregivers, therapists or teachers) and researchers working with children, adolescents and adults with autistic disorder, especially in the follow-up of their evolution. The APEC scale provides an approach at the interface of psychoanalysis and neuroscience, and is also of interest for clinical and developmental psychology. Using the APEC scale in a range of different practical and research settings will foster links between psychoanalytic perspectives and educational

  2. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate concentratio

  3. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  4. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  5. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  6. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  7. Performance of a newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Tatsumi, E; Takano, H

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the newly developed implantable centrifugal blood pump was investigated in vitro. The pump was developed with the end goal of building a versatile system that includes a left ventricular assist system with an internal secondary battery or an implantable biventricular assist system with two implantable blood pumps. The hydrodynamic characteristics and efficiency of the blood pump were evaluated, and the mechanical damage to the blood caused by the blood pump was assessed through a hemolysis test using fresh goat blood. The pump could generate 120 mm Hg at a flow rate of 5 L/min and a motor speed of 2,500 rpm. The electric input power to the pump was approximately 5 watts under these working conditions. The hemolysis caused by the pump was a bit higher than that by the former model, but stayed within an acceptable range. Performance of the pump in vitro was considered sufficient for a left ventricular assist device, although further design improvement is necessary in terms of hemolysis and system efficiency to improve biocompatibility of the pump.

  8. A wind tunnel test of newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-07-01

    In this study the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers was evaluated. The two test samplers are cyclone-based personal samplers that incorporate a recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluations focused on the physical efficiencies that a personal bioaerosol sampler could provide, including aspiration, collection, and capture efficiencies. The evaluation tests were carried out in a wind tunnel, and the test personal samplers were mounted on the chest of a full-size manikin placed in the test chamber of the wind tunnel. Monodisperse fluorescent aerosols ranging from 0.5 to 20 microm were used to challenge the samplers. Two wind speeds of 0.5 and 2.0 m/sec were employed as the test wind speeds in this study. The test results indicated that the aspiration efficiency of the two test samplers closely agreed with the ACGIH inhalable convention within the size range of the test aerosols. The aspiration efficiency was found to be independent of the sampling orientation. The collection efficiency acquired from these two samplers showed that the 50% cutoff diameters were both around 0.6 microm. However the wall loss of these two test samplers increased as the aerosol size increased, and the wall loss of PAS-4 was considerably higher than that of PAS-5, especially in the aerosol size larger than 5 microm, which resulted in PAS-4 having a relatively lower capture efficiency than PAS-5. Overall, the PAS-5 is considered a better personal bioaerosol sampler than the PAS-4.

  9. Impact of newly developed, next-generation artificial endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Noriko; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Takaishi, Kazumi; Katayama, Toshiko; Sakai, Yoko; Soga, Tomohiro; Kawano, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that strict perioperative blood glucose management may reduce mortality and morbidity in critically ill adult patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the intraoperative application of a newly developed, next-generation artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55, Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Twenty patients scheduled to undergo surgery were enrolled in this study. The STG-55 is designed to be more user-friendly than its conventional counterpart (STG-22) while maintaining the latter's fundamental functions, such as a closed-loop system using algorithms for insulin and glucose infusion. After anesthetic induction, a 20G intravenous catheter was inserted into a peripheral forearm vein and connected to a continuous blood glucose monitor. The resultant 105 scores for paired blood glucose values were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Stable blood glucose values were maintained automatically, and there were no complications related to use of the STG-55. A close correlation (r=0.96) was observed between continuous glucose measurements using the STG-55 and conventional intermittent glucose measurements. The difficulty of manipulation using this system was decreased by improved preparation procedures. The glycemic control system using the STG-55 could provide an alternative way to achieve effective and safe perioperative glycemic control.

  10. A newly developed open-end intracranial hematoma drainage tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao He; Nongnaphat Wanussakul; Dong Yang; Tianya Wu; Ming Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Methods:The newly developed device consists of two parts:the plunger and barrel. On one side, the barrel is bullet shaped with an opening tip. The plunger is located in the middle cavity of the tube barrel and extended out at the open-end. It was designed for strengthening the tube barrel and for convenience in performing the drainage procedure. It can be used by inserting the drainage tube into the lesion and pulling out the plunger, whereby blood will forcefully rise up inside the barrel, providing a satisfactory outcome. It is made for effusion drainage purposes. During the procedure, the drainage tip is placed at the deepest part of the intracranial hematoma to completely drain the blood. Moreover, the plunger fits tightly in the tube, preventing leakage during the operation. With the use of the device, brain can be separated. In addition, the device can help reduce the risk of cerebral damage because of the small operating area. The barrel sidewall has matching opening holes bilaterally and equally for exchanging substances between the inner and outer parts. The overlapping ratio in each horizontal pair is around 1/3–1/2. Each pair on the opposite side will form a different pressure. Thus, the opening holes will not easily get blocked with blood clot. Results: Blood and accumulated liquid from the deepest part of the intracranial hematoma can be directly drawn through the drainage tube without damaging a large area. The tube does not get blocked easily and allows for complete removal of the hematoma. Conclusions:The device is asuitable instrument for clinical application.

  11. Standardization Bossts SGGCC Fast Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    OverviewDuring the development of State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC),standardization work is always highlighted,adhering to standardization planning as a focus in standardization work,centered on technology R&D,grid construction,production & operation,industrial development,etc.,SGCC set up a technology standards system with production process as a main line and featured by "Vertical in the end,lateral to the edge",and launched STATE GRID Corporation of China of Technical Standards System.

  12. Newly developed apparatus for calibration of quadrupole mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Yongjun, Cheng; Detian, Li; Wenjun, Sun; Lan, Zhao; Meiru, Guo; Yongjun, Wang; Huzhong, Zhang; Yanwu, Li; Gang, Li

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new calibration apparatus has been developed for calibrating quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) from 10-8 Pa to 10-2 Pa for He, N2 and Ar. Based on the apparatus, two calibration methods are introduced to generate standard pressure P i ‧ (or P i ″) of lower than 10-2 Pa, which are named as ‘the SRG measurement method’ and ‘the CDG measurement method’. The SRG measurement method can generate a standard pressure range from 10-8 Pa to 10-5 Pa, and the CDG measurement method can generate a standard pressure range from 10-5 Pa to 10-2 Pa. A molecular flow condition is determined and a QMS is calibrated by the two methods using single gas and mixture gas. The gas flow through the small tube and orifice realizes molecular flow at an upstream pressure of less than 70 Pa. The sensitivities calibration results with the two methods agree well, and the difference is less than 3%. The sensitivity calibrated with single gas is different from that calibrated with mixture gas. Obtained results are roughly consistent with those of previous studies.

  13. Initial experience with a newly developed cementless hip endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, V; Delfs, G

    2009-01-01

    The HELICA-Endoprosthesis is a newly developed cementless hip prosthesis for dogs. It was implanted in 39 dogs that had severe hip osteoarthritis and a history of hip pain, as well as in one dog that had chronic hip luxation. One dog had a bilateral arthroplasty. The body weight of the patients ranged between 22 and 54 kg and their ages between nine months and 10 years. Both the femoral stem and acetabular component of the prosthesis were screwed into position following bony preparation. Additional fixation was not necessary as the components remain fixed in position until osteointegration is complete. There are currently five sizes of prosthesis available, and the various components such as the stem, cup and head are readily interchangeable. Although it appeared that good osseous anchorage of the prostheses in the bone on the surgery table had been obtained, three patients experienced both stem and cup loosening (one week, three weeks and six months after surgery). In one animal, stem loosening was observed six weeks after surgery, and another dog experienced a cup loosening two weeks postoperatively. Most of the complications were due to technical errors that occurred during the learning phase. Surgical revisions were successful in three out of five animals. In two animals we had to perform a femoral head and neck excision. Two other animals experienced radiographic bone resorption underneath the segmented collar of the femoral prosthesis but did not show any significant clinical signs of lameness. Another dog that showed signs of ischial neuropraxy after surgery, recovered completely within six weeks after surgery. All of the dogs were capable of weight bearing on the operated leg one day after surgery. The main advantage of the HELICA-Endoprosthesis is the relatively easy surgical technique and short surgery time. The initial clinical results in these 40 cases have been very encouraging. The aim of this study was to assess the early clinical results in these 39

  14. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob Beard; Leland Traylor

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. This product should continue to be developed; the testing did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude it's widespread use. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of CBM production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  15. The Impact of European Union’s Newly-Adopted Environmental Standards on its Trading Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnete Sorin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption by the European Union of environmental and social standards seems to affect trade relations with countries from outside the Union. Most seriously hurt are a great number of developing countries that are highly dependent on the European market for their exports. Complying with the said regulations means higher production costs, which eat into the respective countries’ international competitiveness. However, for all the widespread discontent, many developing countries are taking steps in order to adjust their production and export systems to the new rules. Unfortunately it will probably take a long time until full compliance is achieved. Meanwhile, in the short run, the frequent clashes between developing countries and their partners in the West in respect of environmental and social issues are disrupting the smooth functioning of international trade.

  16. Announcement of Newly Approved National Standards of P. R. China 2006 No.13 (total No. 100)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R. China and Standardization Administration of China have approved the following 371 national standards and publicize now.

  17. Announcement of Newly Approved National Standards of P. R. China 2006 No.11 (total No.98)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R. China and Standardization Administration of China have approved the following 220 national standards and publicize now.

  18. Announcement of Newly Approved National Standards of P. R. China 2007 No.4 (total No. 104)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R. China and Standardization Administration of China have approved the following 114 national standards and publicize now.

  19. Discover - deepen - do: A 3D pedagogical approach for developing newly qualified teachers as professional learners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Sally; Lester, Nicola; Dickerson, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for teaching newly qualified teachers (NQTs) during their first year of teaching, developed by teacher educators from the University of Hertfordshire School of Education...

  20. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  1. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob Beard

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time, but has shown the ability to reduce costs, and increase production, if run times can be improved. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. PSI and Beard Oil intend to continue testing the pump with non-government funding. The testing to date did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude the widespread use of this pump, and as an operator, I believe that with further improvement and testing, the pump can have a significant impact on stripper well costs. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of the production environment found at the Weber field and in CMB production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  2. Challenges on innovations of newly-developed safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Zhang, Hao [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing (China). Beijing Future Science and Technology City

    2016-05-15

    With the development of safety analysis method, the safety analysis codes meet more challenges. Three challenges are presented in this paper, which are mathematic model, code design and user interface. Combined with the self-reliance safety analysis code named COSINE, the ways of meeting these requirements are suggested, that is to develop multi-phases, multi-fields and multi-dimension models, to adopt object-oriented code design ideal and to improve the way of modeling, calculation control and data post-processing in the user interface.

  3. Evaluating the language development of newly arrived migrant pupils: Go beyond words!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, F.C.

    2016-01-01

    It is a widespread practice to assess Newly Arrived Migrant pupilS (NAMS) with diagnostic tests, even though most tests have only been standardized for monolingual speakers. Sometimes tests are informally translated bilingual clinicians from L2 to L1, without being adapted to the targeted structures

  4. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  5. Towards a climatology of tropical cyclone morphometric structures using a newly standardized passive microwave satellite dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuth, J.; Hart, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    The structure of a tropical cyclone (TC) is a spatial representation of its organizational pattern and distribution of energy acquisition and release. Physical processes that react to both the external environment and its own internal dynamics manifest themselves in the TC shape. This structure depicts a specific phase in the TC's meteorological lifecycle, reflecting its past and potentially constraining its future development. For a number of reasons, a thorough objective definition of TC structures and an intercomparison of their varieties have been neglected. This lack of knowledge may be a key reason why TC intensity forecasts, despite numerical model improvements and theoretical advances, have been stagnant in recent years relative to track forecasts. Satellite microwave imagers provide multiple benefits in discerning TC structure, but compiling a research quality data set has been problematic due to several inherent technical and logistical issues. While there are multiple satellite sensors that incorporate microwave frequencies, inter-comparison between such sensors is limited by the different available channels, spatial resolutions, and calibration metrics between satellites, all of which provide inconsistencies in resolving TC structural features. To remedy these difficulties, a global archive of TCs as measured by all available US satellite microwave sensors is compiled and standardized. Using global historical best track data, TC microwave data is retrieved from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series (including all SSM/I and SSMIS), TMI, AMSR-E, and WindSat sensors. Standardization between sensors for each TC overpass are performed, including: 1) Recalibration of data from the 'ice scattering' channels to a common frequency (89GHz); 2) Resampling the DMSP series to a higher resolution using the Backus-Gilbert technique; and 3) Re-centering the TC center more precisely using the ARCHER technique (Wimmers and Velden 2010) to analyze the

  6. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  7. Implementations of newly developed wheel and rail profile design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Shen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The developments of a series of wheel profile computer aided methods based on the RRDF or CADF contact functions are briefly described. Since 2001 the implementations of these methods are carried out according to different requirements for tramway vehicles, metro vehicles, and main line EMU vehicles etc. It is found that the main advantage of these new methods in wheel profile design is obtaining the proper wheel profiles to efficiently reduce the wears of wheel and rail and to improve the performances of both stability and curving performances. Moreover, post process of transfering a profile with discrete points to a profile with arc and line combinations is studied with a high precision.

  8. [A newly-developed capsule endoscope in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Haruhiko

    2008-07-01

    A new video capsule endoscope (VCE) developed by Olympus Medical Systems provides upgrade resolution, depth of the field, and brightness of the image, by improving the optical system, contained with the new function to adjust the level of lighting automatically coordinate with the brightness around, and the original handy displayed real-time viewer. Clinical trial using this capsule demonstrated the significantly higher diagnostic yield compared with barium contrast radiography of small bowel, especially for vascular involvement. Real-time viewer could be useful for detecting the gastric transit abnormality as well as for increasing the likelihood of a complete small-bowel examination with metoclopramide administration. Together with balloon-equipped enteroscopy, VCE is a new device which contributes to the diagnosis and the treatment of the small bowel lesion.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of newly developed synthetic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rajan K; Bruch, Reinhard F; Covington, Aaron M

    2010-05-01

    Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as near-infrared (NIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy are valuable diagnostic tools that can be used to elucidate comprehensive structural information of numerous biological samples. In this review article, we have highlighted the advantages of nanotechnology and biophotonics in conjunction with vibrational spectroscopic techniques in order to understand the various aspects of new kind of synthetic biopolymers termed as polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated lipids. In contrast to conventional phospholipids, these novel lipids spontaneously form liposomes or nanovesicles upon hydration, without the supply of external activation energy. The amphiphiles considered in this study differ in their hydrophobic acyl chain length and contain different units of PEG hydrophilic headgroups. We have further explored the thermotropic phase behaviors and associated changes in the conformational order/disorder of such lipids by using variable-temperature FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Phase transition temperature profiles and correlation between various spectral indicators have been identified by either monitoring the shifts in the vibrational peak positions or plotting vibrational peak intensity ratios in the C--H stretching region as a function of temperature. To supplement our observations of phase transformations, a thermodynamic approach known as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied and revealed a good agreement with the infrared and Raman spectroscopic data. Finally, the investigation of thermal properties of lipids is extremely crucial for numerous purposes, thus the results obtained in this work may find application in a wide variety of studies including the development of PEGylated lipid based drug and substances delivery vehicles.

  10. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  11. Brief Introduction to Some of the Newly Approved National Standards on Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ GB 2712-2003 The Hygienic Standard of Fermented Bean Products This standard stipulates the specification, food additives, hygienic requirements of production and processing, packaging, marking, storage and transportation requirements and inspection methods for fermented bean products. It applies to fermented bean products such as fermented bean curd, fermented soya beans and fermented beans made from soya beans and other beans.

  12. Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vredenburgh, James J., E-mail: vrede001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer [Department of Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

  13. Technical characterization of dialysis fluid flow of newly developed dialyzers using mass transfer correlation equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Satoru; Fukuda, Makoto; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Yagi, Yutaka; Matsuda, Masato; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2009-01-01

    Dialysis fluid flow and mass transfer rate of newly developed dialyzers were evaluated using mass transfer correlation equations of dialysis fluid-side film coefficient. Aqueous creatinine clearance and overall mass transfer coefficient for APS-15S (Asahi Kasei Kuraray) as a conventional dialyzer, and APS-15SA (Asahi Kasei Kuraray), PES-150Salpha (Nipro), FPX140 (Fresenius), and CS-1.6U (Toray) as newly developed dialyzers were obtained at a blood-side flow rate (QB) of 200 ml/min, dialysis fluid-side flow rates (QD) of 200-800 ml/min and a net filtration rate (QF) of 0 ml/min. Mass transfer correlation equations between Sherwood number (Sh) containing dialysis fluid-side mass transfer film coefficient and Reynolds number (Re) were formed for each dialyzer. The exponents of Re were 0.62 for APS-15S whereas approximately 0.5 for the newly developed dialyzers. The dialysis fluid-side mass transfer film coefficients of the newly developed dialyzers were higher than those of the conventional dialyzer. Based on the mass transfer correlation equations, introduction of short taper, full baffle of dialyzer jacket and further wave-shaped hollow fiber improves the dialysis fluid flow of the newly developed dialyzers.

  14. Developing the Framed Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Michael J; Chan, H M; Tsou, S T

    2011-01-01

    The framed standard model (FSM) suggested earlier, which incorporates the Higgs field and 3 fermion generations as part of the framed gauge theory structure, is here developed further to show that it gives both quarks and leptons hierarchical masses and mixing matrices akin to what is experimentally observed. Among its many distinguishing features which lead to the above results are (i) the vacuum is degenerate under a global $su(3)$ symmetry which plays the role of fermion generations, (ii) the fermion mass matrix is "universal", rank-one and rotates (changes its orientation in generation space) with changing scale $\\mu$, (iii) the metric in generation space is scale-dependent too, and in general non-flat, (iv) the theta-angle term in the QCD action of topological origin gets transformed into the CP-violating phase of the CKM matrix for quarks, thus offering at the same time a solution to the strong CP problem.

  15. Reliability and agreement between 2 strength devices used in the newly modified and standardized Constant score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Aagesen, Maria; Hjerrild, Signe;

    2014-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The new and standardized test protocol for the Constant score (CS) provides new methodology, but different devices are still used for shoulder strength testing. It was hypothesized that strength measurements using the IsoForceControl (IFC) dynamometer (MDS Medical Device Solutions, Ob...

  16. Standard chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab for women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer (ICON7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oza, Amit M; Cook, Adrian D; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICON7 trial previously reported improved progression-free survival in women with ovarian cancer with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy, with the greatest effect in patients at high risk of disease progression. We report the final overall survival results of the ...

  17. The IFC standard - a review of history, development, and standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Mikael; Kiviniemi, Arto

    2012-01-01

    IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) is an open and standardized data model intended to enable interoperability between building information modeling software applications in the AEC/FM industry. IFC has been in development by an industry consortium since 1994, and since the start of the effort, the evolving industry context, standardization organization, resource availability, and technology development have exposed the standardization process to a dynamic environment. While the overarching mis...

  18. The value of temozolomide in combination with radiotherapy during standard treatment for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Tae Min; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hye; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Il Han; Jung, Hee-Won

    2013-04-01

    The current best standard care for glioblastoma still has limitations and unsatisfactory outcomes in patients with an unmethylated O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter. Whether the effects of temozolomide are primarily due to its concomitant use with radiotherapy or are also mediated by their independent use in the adjuvant phase remain unclear. To validate the concomitant use of temozolomide in the standard protocol, we compared the overall survival of two prospective patient groups: one treated with radiotherapy alone followed by adjuvant temozolomide (RT → TMZ group) and the other treated with concomitant radiotherapy and temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide (CCRT-TMZ group). Each patient in the RT → TMZ group (n = 25) was matched with two patients in the CCRT-TMZ group (n = 50) with respect to age, extent of resection, MGMT promoter methylation status, and postsurgical performance status to minimize the influence of confounding factors. In patients with MGMT promoter methylation, the CCRT-TMZ group showed superior overall survival (OS; median, 41.0 months) and progression-free survival (PFS; median, 24.0 months) compared with the RT → TMZ group. However, the OS and PFS did not differ between the CCRT-TMZ and the RT → TMZ groups in the patients without MGMT promoter methylation. Although this data is from a retrospective analysis using small number of patients, the study might indicate that concomitant use of temozolomide with radiotherapy is a crucial step in the standard treatment for glioblastoma patients with MGMT promoter methylation. And the use of temozolomide, either concurrently or by adjuvant after radiotherapy, remains a questionable value for those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter.

  19. Color coverage of a newly developed system for color determination and reproduction in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dozic, A.; Voit, N.F.A.; Zwartser, R.; Khashayar, G.; Aartman, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A newly developed system for color determination and reproduction is logically arranged and systematically combines a few components to acquire its broad color range. The objective was to evaluate color coverage of human teeth with the range of the new system and to compare it with other

  20. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  1. Newly Developed Ceramic Membranes for Dehydration and Separation of Organic Mixtures by Pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van R.W.; Cuperus, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric pervaporation membranes sometimes show great variety in performance when they are alternately used for different solvent mixtures. In addition, membrane stability in time is a problem in case of some solvents. Therefore, newly developed ceramic silica membranes with a 'dense' top layer wer

  2. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107

  3. Newly Developed Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Patients who Underwent Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Young Jeon

    Full Text Available The relationship between a perioperative change in sarcopenic status and clinical outcome of liver transplantation (LT is unknown. We investigated whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status were associated with the survival of patients.This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 145 patients from a single transplant center who during a mean of 1 year after LT underwent computed tomography imaging evaluation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle of LT patients was compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status affect post-LT survival.The mean age at LT of the 116 male and 29 female patients was 50.2 ± 7.9 years; the mean follow-up duration was 51.6 ± 32.9 months. All pre-LT patients with sarcopenia still had sarcopenia 1 year after LT; 14 (15% patients had newly developed sarcopenia. The mean survival duration was 91.8 ± 4.2 months for non-sarcopenic patients and 80.0 ± 5.2 months for sarcopenic patients (log-rank test, p = 0.069. In subgroup analysis, newly developed sarcopenia was an independent negative predictor for post-LT survival (hazard ratio: 10.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-80.93, p = 0.024.Sarcopenia in LT recipients did not improve in any of the previously sarcopenic patients and newly developed within 1 year in others. Newly developed sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality. Newly developed sarcopenia can be used to stratify patients with regard to the risk of post-LT mortality.

  4. Newly Developed Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Patients who Underwent Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, So Young; Xu, Weiguang; Lee, Jung-Dong; Lee, Jei Hee; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan Woo; Han, Seung Jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relationship between a perioperative change in sarcopenic status and clinical outcome of liver transplantation (LT) is unknown. We investigated whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status were associated with the survival of patients. Method This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 145 patients from a single transplant center who during a mean of 1 year after LT underwent computed tomography imaging evaluation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle of LT patients was compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status affect post-LT survival. Results The mean age at LT of the 116 male and 29 female patients was 50.2 ± 7.9 years; the mean follow-up duration was 51.6 ± 32.9 months. All pre-LT patients with sarcopenia still had sarcopenia 1 year after LT; 14 (15%) patients had newly developed sarcopenia. The mean survival duration was 91.8 ± 4.2 months for non-sarcopenic patients and 80.0 ± 5.2 months for sarcopenic patients (log-rank test, p = 0.069). In subgroup analysis, newly developed sarcopenia was an independent negative predictor for post-LT survival (hazard ratio: 10.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.37–80.93, p = 0.024). Conclusion Sarcopenia in LT recipients did not improve in any of the previously sarcopenic patients and newly developed within 1 year in others. Newly developed sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality. Newly developed sarcopenia can be used to stratify patients with regard to the risk of post-LT mortality. PMID:26619224

  5. The natural history of a newly developed flexion contracture following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Andres; Abdel, Matthew P; Lee, Yuo-yu; Lyman, Stephen; González Della Valle, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the incidence, natural history, and functional consequences of a newly developed flexion contracture after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty patients with full knee extension preoperatively who developed a postoperative flexion contracture were match-paired 1:2 with 80 patients who had full extension. The incidence of a newly developed flexion contracture, ROM, and Knee Society scores (KSS) at six weeks, four months, and one year were analysed. The incidence of a new flexion contracture at six weeks was 14%, but diminished to 5% and 0.3% at four months and one year, respectively. One year after surgery, there was no difference in the KSS (p = 0.5). This study showed that the majority of patients who developed a new flexion contracture after TKA have full knee extension one year postoperatively. Moreover, knee extension and KSS at one year are equivalent to those patients who did not developed a flexion contracture.

  6. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country According to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, J. Marinda; Els, Christoffel Johannes; Blignaut, Anita Seugnet

    2013-01-01

    A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL) provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives…

  7. Contribution of Professional Development to Standards Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Yakobovitch, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' professional development is a key to any educational change and is critical when leading and assimilating change, such as introducing standards into classrooms. A national professional development (PD) framework was developed for the implementation of science standards published by the Israeli Ministry of Education, which was activated…

  8. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  9. Developing Foreign Language Teacher Standards in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the development of foreign language (FL) teacher standards in Uruguay. It begins by discussing what it means to be a teacher, what standards are and are not, and how they can be helpful or misused in teacher development. In the proposal, a distinction is made between teacher preparation programs that are course-based and…

  10. Codes & standards research, development & demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for SDOs to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  11. Investigation of newly developed solid state fermenter on carboxymethyl cellulase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enzyme (cellulase contributes 10% to overall cost in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This means that the cost for bioethanol production will be reduced if cellulase can be produced using cheaper method. Compared with submerged fermentation, it is recognized that the cost for cellulase production using solid state fermentation (SSF process is much cheaper. The present study aimed to optimize cellulase production via SSF process using agro-industrial residual as substrate.Methodology and result: Newly developed solid state bioreactor, FERMSOSTAT had been evaluated in cellulase production using local isolate Aspergillus niger USM AI 1 grown on sugarcane baggase and palm kernel cake as substrates at 1:1 (w/w ratio. Under optimized SSF conditions of 0.5 kg substrate; 70% (w/w moisture content; 30 °C; aeration at 4 L/h.g fermented substrate for 5 min and mixing at 0.5 rpm for 5 min, about 62.6 U/g of CMCase activity obtained. At the same time, comparative studies of the enzyme production under the same SSF conditions indicated that CMCase produced by Trichoderma reesei was about 9% lower compared with A. niger USM AI 1.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: It can be concluded that the performance of newly developed SSF fermenter is good since it can used to produce CMCase enzyme with reasonable good title (863% increased in CMCase production after optimization. Thus, this newly developed SSF bioreactor has highly potential be used as prototype for larger scale bioreactor design.

  12. Developing and enforcing internal information systems standards: InduMaker’s Standards Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loebbecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely agreed that standards provide numerous benefits when available and enforced. Company-internal Information Systems (IS management procedures and solutions, in the following coined IS ‘standards’, allow for harmonizing operations between company units, locations and even different service providers. However, many companies lack an organized process for defining and managing internal IS standards, which causes uncertainties and delays in decision making, planning, and design processes. In this case study of the globally operating InduMaker (anonymized company name, an established manufacturing supplier, we look into the company-internal management of IS standards. Theoretically grounded in the organizational and IS-focused literature on business process modelling and business process commoditization, we describe and investigate InduMaker’s newly developed Standard Management Process (SMP for defining and managing company-internal business and IS standards, with which the multinational pursues offering clear answers to business and IT departments about existing IS standards, their degree of obligation, applicability, and scope at any time.

  13. Reactivation of human brain homogenate cholinesterases inhibited by Tabun using newly developed oximes K117 and K127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Cabal, Jiri; Jung, Yung Sik; Musilek, Kamil; Soukup, Ondrej; Jun, Daniel; Pohanka, Miroslav; Musilova, Lucie; Karasová, Jana; Novotný, Ladislav; Hrabinova, Martina

    2009-09-01

    Newly developed acetylcholinesterase reactivators K117 [1,5-bis(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-3-oxapentane dichloride] and K127 [(1-(4-hydroxyiminomethylpyridinium)-5-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-3-oxapentane dibromide)] were tested for their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited human brain cholinesterases. Pralidoxime and trimedoxime were chosen as standard reference reactivators. Human tissue was used, as that was closer on the real treatment of human beings. As a result, oxime K127 was found as the best tested reactivator according to the constant k(r), characterizing the overall reactivation process. On the contrary, the maximal reactivation ability expressed as percentage of reactivation was the best for trimedoxime. This differences were caused as a result of using the enzyme from different species. Due to this, experiments on human tissue should be conducted after in vitro and in vivo tests on animals to eliminate such important failures of promising oximes.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya I. Rodin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article process of development of professional standards, and also systems ofcertification and an assessment of qualification of shots is described. Requirements of modern business in the Russian Federation to shots are described. Research of developed and introduced professional standards in separate branchesof national economy is conducted. Also interaction business of communities and executive authorities in the course of development and deployment of professionalstandards and system of certifi cation of shots is described.

  15. Development of plating thickness standards. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Standards which are unavailable from the National Bureau of Standards were developed to support the nondestructive measurement of plating thickness. Their fabrication, measurement, certification, and calibration-recall schedule are discussed. Reference standards that have been put into service include aluminum/Kapton, silver/copper, tin/steel, gold/silver, cadmium/Kovar, silver/iron, rhodium/copper, and gold/ceramic. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Developing Professional Standards for Accomplished Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations (AFMLTA) has recently developed a set of professional standards for accomplished language teachers. Standards of teaching are statements of values about the processes of teaching, learning, and knowing, and of the practices of those who teach languages and cultures. These standards…

  17. China's High-technology Standards Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are several major technology standards, including audio video coding (AVS), automotive electronics, third generation (3G) mobile phones, mobile television, wireless networks and digital terrestrial television broadcasting, that have been released or are currently under development in China. This article offers a detailed analysis of each standard and studies their impact on China's high-technology industry.

  18. Muscle Attenuation Is Associated With Newly Developed Hypertension in Men of African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Zmuda, Joseph M; Kuipers, Allison L; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Youk, Ada O; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-05-01

    Increased ectopic adipose tissue infiltration in skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. We evaluated whether change in skeletal muscle adiposity predicts subsequent development of hypertension in men of African ancestry, a population sample understudied in previous studies. In the Tobago Health Study, a prospective longitudinal study among men of African ancestry (age range 40-91 years), calf intermuscular adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle attenuation were measured with computed tomography. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or receiving antihypertensive medications. Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for age, insulin resistance, baseline and 6-year change in body mass index, baseline and 6-year change in waist circumference, and other potential confounding factors. Among 746 normotensive men at baseline, 321 (43%) developed hypertension during the mean 6.2 years of follow-up. Decreased skeletal muscle attenuation was associated with newly developed hypertension after adjustment for baseline and 6-year change of body mass index (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]) or baseline and 6-year change of waist circumference (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]). No association was observed between increased intermuscular adipose tissue and hypertension. Our novel findings show that decreased muscle attenuation is associated with newly developed hypertension among men of African ancestry, independent of general and central adiposity and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to adjust for inflammation, visceral and other ectopic adipose tissue depots, and to confirm our findings in other population samples. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. ASTM residential green building standard guide development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D. [Building Environmental Science and Technology, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Reed, W. [Hillier Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have led development of a Standard Guide for Residential Green Buildings through the consensus process of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The voluntary guidance document has been processed through two public peer reviews in ASTM`s E-50.06 sub-committee on the environment. The guide`s purpose is to present general criteria for home builders, residential designers and developers on how to systematically approach the creation of a green home--from the design phase on through to eventual de-commissioning of residential structures. This paper briefly reviews the standards process, includes an overview of the Standard Guides` principal criteria, and provides a robust resource listing for further investigation by readers. During development of the Standard Guide, authors emphasized thorough review of the available literature on sustainable residential development. This was then reflected in the technical contents of the Standard Guide to provide criteria useful to builders to: provide a standardized framework for evaluating whether homes (new or remodeled) meet minimum consensus guidelines on resource efficiency; reduce environmental impact of new-home developments and major remodeling projects; improve long tern sustainability of the nation`s new and existing housing; and help to effectively recognize and promote the benefit of efficiency and renewable energy.

  20. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-08-18

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  1. Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Groenvold, Mogens;

    2008-01-01

    was within the set of problems involving attribution. Conclusion The cognitive interview methodology was effective in identifying and reducing problems within the questionnaire responding process. Patients tended to selectively report problems they considered to be caused by their thyroid disease even when......Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing. Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5.......e. whether or not to report only issues considered of thyroid causality. Within each round of interviews, the number of problems declined from an initial average of six per interview to two, mainly due to a reduction in the number of problems associated with comprehension. The least amount of reduction...

  2. Development of NASA's Models and Simulations Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertch, William J.; Zang, Thomas A.; Steele, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    From the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, there were several NASA-wide actions that were initiated. One of these actions was to develop a standard for development, documentation, and operation of Models and Simulations. Over the course of two-and-a-half years, a team of NASA engineers, representing nine of the ten NASA Centers developed a Models and Simulation Standard to address this action. The standard consists of two parts. The first is the traditional requirements section addressing programmatics, development, documentation, verification, validation, and the reporting of results from both the M&S analysis and the examination of compliance with this standard. The second part is a scale for evaluating the credibility of model and simulation results using levels of merit associated with 8 key factors. This paper provides an historical account of the challenges faced by and the processes used in this committee-based development effort. This account provides insights into how other agencies might approach similar developments. Furthermore, we discuss some specific applications of models and simulations used to assess the impact of this standard on future model and simulation activities.

  3. Development of standard components for remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The core of Fusion Experimental Reactor consists of various components such as superconducting magnets and forced-cooled in-vessel components, which are remotely maintained due to intense of gamma radiation. Mechanical connectors such as cooling pipe connections, insulation joints and electrical connectors are commonly used for maintenance of these components and have to be standardized in terms of remote handling. This paper describes these mechanical connectors developed as the standard component compatible with remote handling and tolerable for radiation. (author)

  4. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...

  5. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  6. Dosimetric Performance of Newly Developed Farmer-Type Ionization Chamber in Radiotherapy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Sathiyan; Godson, Henry Finlay; Ponmalar, Retna; Manickam, Ravikumar; Mazarello, James; Fernandes, Rahul

    2016-12-01

    Dose measurement with ionization chamber is essential to deliver accurate dose to the tumor in radiotherapy. The cylindrical Farmer-type ionization chamber is recommended by various dosimetry protocols for dose measurement of radiotherapy beams. The air-equivalent graphite wall Farmer-type ionization chamber (FAR 65 GB) of active volume 0.65 cm(3) with aluminum as the central electrode material was fabricated. Various dosimetric parameters were studied for the newly developed ionization chamber in cobalt-60, 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The preirradiation and postirradiation leakage of the chamber was within 0.08%. The long-term stability and the stem effect of the chamber were within 0.07% and 0.3%, respectively. The sensitivity of the ionization chamber was found to be 22.15 nC/Gy. The chamber shows linear response with dose for cobalt-60, 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The ion recombination correction factor increases with increase in bias voltage. For all energies and field sizes, the polarity correction factor is almost closer to unity. The ion recombination and polarity correction measurements show that the polarizing potential and polarity recommended during the calibration of ionization chamber should be used for routine measurement to avoid the uncertainty. The chamber response is independent of dose rate and energy. The chamber is cost-effective and shows precise and reproducible response. The study carried out confirms that the newly fabricated ion chamber can be used in the measurement of absolute dose for high-energy photon beams.

  7. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a newly developed CRDI single cylinder diesel engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Paras Gupta; Atul Dhar

    2015-09-01

    For improving engine performance, combustion and controlling emissions from compression ignition (CI) engines, common rail direct injection (CRDI) technology offers limitless possibilities by controlling fuel injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, rate of fuel injection and injection duration. CRDI systems available commercially are quite complex and use a large number of sensors, hardware and analytical circuits, which make them very expensive and unfeasible for cheaper single cylinder engines, typically used in agricultural sector and decentralized power sector. This paper covers experimental investigations of a simpler version of CRDI system developed for a constant-speed, single-cylinder engine. Modifications in the cylinder head for accommodating solenoid injector, designing injector driver circuit and development of high pressure stage controls were some of the engine modification and development tasks undertaken. SOI timing is an important parameter for improving engine's combustion characteristics. SOI timings were varied between 25° and 40° BTDC for investigating engine's performance, emissions and combustion characteristics. Advanced fuel injections showed higher heat release rate (HRR), cylinder pressure and rate of pressure rise (RoPR) because of relatively longer ignition delay experienced. Lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was obtained for 34° CA BTDC SOI. Reduction in engine out emissions except NOx was observed for advanced fuel injection timings for this newly developed CRDI system.

  8. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP, BP or any other suitable regulatory guidelines. The Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Gradient method was developed by utilizing Waters Symmetry C8, 150x4.6mm, 3.5µm on Waters 2487 series Liquid Chromatograph. The retention time of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate was found to be 5.973minutes. Considering all the results of validation parameters simplicity of the method and the cost effectiveness of the overall procedure, it is possible to conclude that the developed method can be suitable for the regular quality control determination of bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate in bulk as well as pharmaceutical dosage form.The developed Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient method was validated with respect to System Suitability , linearity, , precision ,Range, Ruggedness, Test Solution and Mobile phase stability ,Robustness..

  9. Development of a NASA standard gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Karp, Harold; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Standard Gas Generator (NSGG) Program are to create a NASA standard gas generating cartridge, characterize its performance, and make it readily available to users. A cartridge within the same envelope as the NASA Standard Initiator (NSI) has the greatest potential use. This potential use is described in viewgraph form. Our approach for NSGG development and qualification was planned to be conducted in several phases. Test methods were developed to evaluate output performance for a variety of potential applications. A feasibility study using modified NSI's was accomplished. Preliminary and final development will be conducted with a delta qualification to evaluate the effects of manufacturing lots and environments. Feasibility study results, feasibility study conclusions, and future plans are presented.

  10. Xeon Phi - A comparison between the newly introduced MIC architecture and a standard CPU through three types of problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    As Moore s law continues, processors keep getting more cores packed together on the chip. This thesis is an empirical study of the rather newly introduced Intel Many Integrated Core (IMIC) architecture found in the Intel Xeon Phi. With roughly 60 cores connected by a high performance on-die interconnect, the Intel Xeon Phi makes an interesting candidate for High Performance Computing. By digging into parallel algorithms solving three well known problems, our goal is to optimize, test and comp...

  11. The role of food standards in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    — for Middle-Class Farmers, joint with Henrik Hansen, estimates the impact of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing using the data from the Vietnamese pangasius sector. In this paper we estimate both the average effect as well as the effects on poorer and richer farmers using the instrumental variable quantile......The thesis consists of three papers based on the original data collected through fieldwork in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. It is focused on understanding the implications of modern agri-food sector restructuring for farmers in developing countries. The thesis particularly looks at (i) the impact...... of the emergence of food standards on farmers’ wellbeing, (ii) the effects of various forms of vertical coordination on household welfare and (iii) the consequences of the concurrent emergence of food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. The first paper, Food Standards are Good...

  12. Newly developed SSR markers reveal genetic diversity and geographical clustering in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göl, Şurhan; Göktay, Mehmet; Allmer, Jens; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Spinach is a popular leafy green vegetable due to its nutritional composition. It contains high concentrations of vitamins A, E, C, and K, and folic acid. Development of genetic markers for spinach is important for diversity and breeding studies. In this work, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology was used to develop genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. After cleaning and contig assembly, the sequence encompassed 2.5% of the 980 Mb spinach genome. The contigs were mined for SSRs. A total of 3852 SSRs were detected. Of these, 100 primer pairs were tested and 85% were found to yield clear, reproducible amplicons. These 85 markers were then applied to 48 spinach accessions from worldwide origins, resulting in 389 alleles with 89% polymorphism. The average gene diversity (GD) value of the markers (based on a GD calculation that ranges from 0 to 0.5) was 0.25. Our results demonstrated that the newly developed SSR markers are suitable for assessing genetic diversity and population structure of spinach germplasm. The markers also revealed clustering of the accessions based on geographical origin with clear separation of Far Eastern accessions which had the overall highest genetic diversity when compared with accessions from Persia, Turkey, Europe, and the USA. Thus, the SSR markers have good potential to provide valuable information for spinach breeding and germplasm management. Also they will be helpful for genome mapping and core collection establishment.

  13. Automated computer software development standards enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, H.P.; Formento, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Uniform Development Environment (UDE) is being investigated as a means of enforcing software engineering standards. For the programmer, it provides an environment containing the tools and utilities necessary for orderly and controlled development and maintenance of code according to requirements. In addition, it provides DoD management and developer management the tools needed for all phases of software life cycle management and control, from project planning and management, to code development, configuration management, version control, and change control. This paper reports the status of UDE development and field testing. 5 refs.

  14. Investigation of newly developed added damping and stiffness device with low yield strength steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIH Ming-hsiang; SUNG Wen-pei; GO Cheer-germ

    2004-01-01

    Energy dissipators, isolated-resistant and specific structural forms for earthquake resistance are popular topics in the research to improve shock-resistance. In this work, experimental methods were used to investigate the property of low yield strength steel. Carbon content in LYS material is lower than that in other steels; the ultimate stress is three times the yield stress. The ultimate elongation rate is about 62% and the ductility is 2?3 times that of A36 steel. In order to overcome some defects of ordinary use metallic dampers, the mechanical characteristic of low yield strength steel is used to develop added damping and stiffness for rhombic steel plate absorber. Test of the energy dissipation behavior for this newly developed device indicated that LYS could stably dissipate or absorb the input energy of earthquake. Then, the analytical model for the hysteretic behavior of this new device is proposed. Comparison of experimental data and numerical simulation results showed that this analytical model is suitable for simulating the hysteretic energy behavior of this new device.

  15. Experimental, numerical and analytical modelling of a newly developed rockfall protective cable-net structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhakal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative configuration of pocket-type rockfall protective cable-net structure, known as Long-span Pocket-type Rock-net (LPR, has been developed in Japan. The global performance of the proposed system was initially checked by the experimental (full-scale modelling. Given the various limitations of the physical experiments, particularly for the parametric study to have a detailed understanding of the newly developed system, a reliable and simplified method of numerical modelling is felt necessary. Again, given the sophistication involved with the method of numerical simulation, a yet simplified modelling approach may prove more effective. On top of this background, this paper presents a three-tier modelling of a design of LPR. After physical modelling, which has revealed that the displacement response may be taken more vital for LPR performance, Finite Element based numerical modelling is presented. The programme LS-DYNA is used and the models are calibrated and verified with the element- and structure-level experiments. Finally, a simple analytical modelling consisting of the equivalently linear and elastic, lumped-mass, single-degree-of-freedom system, capable of predicting the global displacement response, is proposed based on the basic principles of conservation of linear momentum and energy. The model is back-calculated and modified from the analyses of the verified numerical model.

  16. Thickness Analysis of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA Slab Compacted Using a Newly Developed Roller Compactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pavement mix design procedures and specifications are usually derived from laboratory experiments. Therefore, laboratory experiments should be able to simulate to a high degree the conditions in the field, especially in term of compaction procedures. Based on literature reviews and analysis of past studies, it can be concluded that there are no exact method for laboratory compaction that can simulate field compaction procedures. Turamesin, a newly developed laboratory compaction device has been designed to provide a solution to the problem of producing laboratory specimens which are representative of materials laid and compacted in the field. This study reports on the evaluation of the thickness of the compacted slabs and analysis of the consistency of the measured parameter. A total of 15 slabs from three different types of asphalt binders, namely Grade 60/70, Grade PG76 and Grade 80/100 were prepared, measured and analyzed. Based on statistical analysis conducted, the compacted slabs were found to have an average area of 590 mm of length by 500 mm of width and thickness ranging from 60 mm to 68 mm. The compacted slabs were found to have problems in terms of the difference in thickness between left-side and right-side of the slab that occurred due to unequal load distribution from the roller compactor. The results obtained from this study will lead to development of Turamesin as an improved laboratory compaction device.

  17. Newly developed high performance structural steels for long span bridge construction; Chotaikyo ni shiyosareru shinkozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-15

    This paper reports new steels for long span bridge construction with the thick steel plate as a main part. On the basis of the high-tension steel utilizing technology examined around 1965, a reheated, quenched-and-tempered martensitic steel plate (HT690) was used for the Onaruto Bridge and Seto Ohashi Bridge in a Honsyu-Shikoku linking project. Moreover, a larger number of quenched martensitic high-tension steel plates (HT670 and HT780) were used for the Yojima Bridge together with existing SM400, SM490, SM520, and SM570 steel plates. The lately built Akashi Kaikyo Ohashi Bridge that is 1990 m between struts is longest in the world. The newly developed steel plate (HT780) for a bridge girder of which weldability was improved for lightening was used actually. To reduce the welding cost or improve the welding environment, this steel plate decreased the preheating temperature for weld cracking prevention in a heat-affected zone from about 100degC to 50degC or less. A new wire (of 1800Mpa in tensile strength) was also used for a cable. In future, the bridge girder will be economically and rationally manufactured by the development of design and construction methods that fully draw the characteristics of the new steel. 33 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Recent Trends in Newly Developed Plasma-Sprayed and Sintered Coatings for Implant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bsat, Suzan; Speirs, Andrew; Huang, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    The current paper aims to review recent trends (2011 to 2015) in newly developed plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings for implant applications. Recent developments in plasma-sprayed and sintered coatings have focused on improving biological performance, bacterial growth resistance, and mechanical properties, predominantly of HA and glass ceramics. The majority of these improvements are attributed to the addition of dopants. To improve biological performance, trace elements, such as Zn and Mg, both of which are found in bone, were added to replicate the functions they provide for the skeletal system. Though bacterial growth resistance is traditionally improved by Ag dopant, the addition of new dopants such as CeO2 and Zn were explored as well. Great effort has also been made to improve coating adherence and reduce stresses by minimizing coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and substrate through the addition of elements such as Zn and Mg or the inclusion of a buffer layer. For sintering process in particular, there was an emphasis on reducing sintering temperature through modification of 45S5 Bioglass. New plasma spray and sintering technologies aimed at reducing high-temperature exposure are briefly introduced as well. These include microplasma spray and spark plasma sintering.

  19. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  20. 36 CFR 28.12 - Development standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development standards. 28.12 Section 28.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE... the prerequisites for Federal flood insurance as determined by the National Flood Insurance Program...

  1. WP1 Development of New Standardization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work package can be divided into two main areas: 1. Review of existing standardization procedures with focus on leading edge fatigue cracks and recommendations / rules for avoiding leading edge cracks. 2. Development of a new standardization process focusing on leading edge...... cracks. The process must include a practical approach which can be implemented as an add-on to the recent certification procedure. In addition to these main areas focus is also on cost models related to the costs of blade defects, inspections, repair and maintenance needed as a consequence...

  2. Perturbations in the Lipid Profile of Individuals with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Lipidomics Analysis of a Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program Sample Subset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Christina M.; Ding, Jie; Zhang, Qibin; Alquier, Thierry; Zhao, Rui; Mueller, Patricia W.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-08-01

    Objectives: To characterize the lipid profile of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus using LC-MS-based lipidomics and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Design and methods: Lipids were extracted from plasma and sera of 10 subjects from the Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program (years 2000-2005) and 10 non-diabetic subjects and analyzed by capillary liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid ion-trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Lipids were identified and quantified using the AMT tag approach. Results: Five hundred sixty lipid features differentiated (q < 0.05) diabetic from healthy individuals in a partial least-squares analysis, characterizing of individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: A lipid profile associated with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may aid in further characterization of biochemical pathways involved in lipid regulation or mobilization and lipotoxicity of pancreatic beta-cells.

  3. Design of an X-band accelerating structure using a newly developed structural optimization procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Fang, Wencheng; Gu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhentang

    2017-05-01

    An X-band high gradient accelerating structure is a challenging technology for implementation in advanced electron linear accelerator facilities. The present work discusses the design of an X-band accelerating structure for dedicated application to a compact hard X-ray free electron laser facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, and numerous design optimizations are conducted with consideration for radio frequency (RF) breakdown, RF efficiency, short-range wakefields, and dipole/quadrupole field modes, to ensure good beam quality and a high accelerating gradient. The designed X-band accelerating structure is a constant gradient structure with a 4π/5 operating mode and input and output dual-feed couplers in a racetrack shape. The design process employs a newly developed effective optimization procedure for optimization of the X-band accelerating structure. In addition, the specific design of couplers providing high beam quality by eliminating dipole field components and reducing quadrupole field components is discussed in detail.

  4. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  5. Newly developed autoimmune cholangitis without relapse of autoimmune pancreatitis after discontinuing prednisolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Hun Kim; Jae Hyuck Chang; Sung Min Nam; Mi Jeong Lee; Il Ho Maeng; Jin Young Park; Yun Sun Im

    2012-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with a 2-wk history of painless jaundice and weight loss.He had a large illdefined enhancing mass-like lesion in the uncinate process of the pancreas with stricture of the distal common bile duct.Aspiration cytology of the pancreatic mass demonstrated inflammatory cells without evidence of malignancy.Total serum immunoglobulin G level was slightly elevated,but IgG4 level was normal.After the 2-wk 40 mg prednisolone trial,the patient's symptoms and bilirubin level improved significantly.A follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan showed a dramatic resolution of the pancreatic lesion.A low dose steroid was continued.After six months he self-discontinued prednisolone for 3 wk,and was presented with jaundice again.ACT scan showed newly developed intrahepatic biliary dilatation and marked concentric wall thickening of the common hepatic duct and the proximal common bile duct without pancreatic aggravation.The patient' s IgG4 level was elevated to 2.51 g/L.Prednisolone was started again,after which his serum bilirubin level became normal and the thickening of the bile duct was resolved.This case suggests that autoimmune pancreatitis can progress to other organs that are not involved at the initial diagnosis,even with sustained pancreatic remission.

  6. Performance and characterization of a newly developed self-agitated anaerobic reactor with biological desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You

    2011-05-01

    The continuous operation of a newly developed methane fermentation reactor, which requires no electricity for the agitation of the fermentation liquid was investigated, and the extent of the biological desulfurization was monitored. Inside the reactor, the continual change in the liquid level and the self-agitation, occurring between 5 and 16 times every day, distributed the organic load near the inlet port of the reactor, as well as providing a nutrient supply to the hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria. At different COD(Cr) loading rates (5, 7, 10 kg m(3)d(-1)), the reactor achieved a biogas production yield of 0.72-0.82 m(3)g(-1)-TS, a COD(Cr) reduction of 79.4-85.5% and an average of 99% hydrogen sulfide removal. This investigation demonstrated that the self-agitated reactor is comparable in digestion performance to the completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) investigated in a previous study, and that the desulfurization performance was significantly enhanced compared to the CSTR.

  7. In Vivo Analysis of Extracellular Proteins in Rat Brains with a Newly Developed Intracerebral Microdialysis Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura,Mitsuo

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptides and proteins in the extracellular space in the central nervous system were investigated in vivo using an intracerebral microdialysis probe. The molecular cut-off of the hollow fiber which was used for the probe was approximately 100 kDa. We examined recovery rates of several compounds in vitro. The recovery rates of proteins and peptides were between 7-28%, with the exceptions of substance P and insulin-like growth factor I. The recovery rates of monoamines and their metabolites were 22-40%. In in vivo studies, two major proteins with apparent molecular weights of 62 kDa and 12 kDa, and several minor proteins (28 kDa, 43 kDa, 52 kDa and 70 kDa were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the dialysate from a probe implanted in the striatum of anesthetized rats. These results suggest that the newly developed, intracerebral microdialysis probe might be useful for investigating the dynamic changes of peptides and proteins in the central nervous system.

  8. Rapid excavation with a newly developed retaining system:Spiral assembly steel structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关成立; 杨宇友; 王成彪

    2015-01-01

    The spiral assembly steel structure, a newly developed retaining wall for the rapid excavation of small-sized foundation pits in unsaturated soil, is presented. This new type of retaining structure is prefabricated in the factory and is assembled on site in the excavation of a pit. This retaining structure is composed of several prefabricated steel structural units, in which the adjacent steel structural units are joined with connectors. Each steel structural unit has one steel pipe in the radial direction and is welded to a single piece of steel plate. After full installation in situ, the retaining structure becomes a cylindrical steel structure. With the protection afforded by this new type of retaining structure, excavation work can be completed within 24 h to a depth up to 5 m. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of this new retaining structure, field construction tests were conducted in Beijing, China. The test construction was monitored. The monitoring program included measuring stress in the structure, lateral earth pressure, and lateral deformation of the surrounding soil. The monitoring data from the field test were compared with the theoretical results. The results show that the proposed new structure is reliable and effective.

  9. A newly developed lubricant, chitosan laurate, in the manufacture of acetaminophen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Kobayashi, Asuka; Yamada, Kyohei; Haj-Ali, Dana; Uchimoto, Takeaki; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-04-10

    To study the usefulness of chitosan laurate (CS-LA), a newly developed chitosan salt, as a lubricant, lubrication properties such as the pressure transmission ratio and ejection force were determined at different concentrations of CS-LA in tableting. In addition, tablet properties such as the tensile strength, disintegration time, and dissolution behavior, were also determined. When CS-LA was mixed at concentrations of 0.1%-3.0%, the pressure transmission ratio was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and the value at a CS-LA concentration of 3% was equal to that of magnesium stearate (Mg-St), a widely used lubricant. Additionally, a reduction in the ejection force was observed at a concentration from 1%, proving that CS-LA has good lubrication performance. A prolonged disintegration time and decreased tensile strength, which are known disadvantages of Mg-St, were not observed with CS-LA. Furthermore, with CS-LA, retardation of dissolution of the drug from the tablets was not observed. Conjugation of CS with LA was found to be quite important for both lubricant and tablet properties. In conclusion, CS-LA should be useful as an alternative lubricant to Mg-St. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization.

  11. Immunoassay screening of diphenhydramine (Benadryl®) in urine and blood using a newly developed assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Warren C; Castro, Catherine; Catbagan, Philip; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong

    2012-03-01

    Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a common over the counter antihistamine that produces drowsiness and has the potential to cause driving under the influence of drugs-related accidents. To date there are no commercially available immunoassay screening kits for its detection in biological fluids such as urine and/or blood. We describe a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen and report on its utility in the analysis of authentic specimens taken from volunteers. The assay is specific for detection of DPH and does not detect closely related antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine. There is a varying amount of cross-reactivity seen with certain tricyclic compounds, due to similarities in side chain structure with DPH. Intra- and interday precision of the assay were determined to be less than 10%. The assay is highly sensitive and has a working range from 1 to 500 ng/mL for urine and 1 to 250 ng/mL for blood. The assay was further validated with authentic urine and blood specimens obtained from volunteers and coroner's laboratories.

  12. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Dairaku, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-10-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J—EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 × 3 mm 2. As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux.

  13. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  14. Cold Cracking Sensitivity of a Newly Developed 9Cr2WVTa Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lu, Shanping; Li, Yongkui; Hu, Qingxian; Rong, Lijian; Li, Dianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Cold cracking susceptibility of the newly developed 9Cr2WVTa steel plate welded with the corresponding gas tungsten arc welding wire has been evaluated using the implant test and the Y-groove cracking test. Measurement of diffusible hydrogen content shows that the welding wire is ultra-low welding consumables (0.40 mL/100 g). Results of the implant test show that the fracture critical stress without pre-heating is only 300 MPa and increases up to the yield strength with pre-heating to 150 °C. The fracture critical stress under high heat input decreases to 250 MPa owing to the formation of quenched microstructure. Fractographies show ductile dimple fracture under higher loads and quasi-cleavage fracture under lower loads. Results of Y-groove cracking tests show that the minimum pre-heating temperature is 150 °C and the maximum transverse residual stress is located at the root of the weld metal. Therefore, the heat input should be chosen in a proper range and the pre-heating temperature is no less than 150 °C.

  15. Cold Cracking Sensitivity of a Newly Developed 9Cr2WVTa Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lu, Shanping; Li, Yongkui; Hu, Qingxian; Rong, Lijian; Li, Dianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Cold cracking susceptibility of the newly developed 9Cr2WVTa steel plate welded with the corresponding gas tungsten arc welding wire has been evaluated using the implant test and the Y-groove cracking test. Measurement of diffusible hydrogen content shows that the welding wire is ultra-low welding consumables (0.40 mL/100 g). Results of the implant test show that the fracture critical stress without pre-heating is only 300 MPa and increases up to the yield strength with pre-heating to 150 °C. The fracture critical stress under high heat input decreases to 250 MPa owing to the formation of quenched microstructure. Fractographies show ductile dimple fracture under higher loads and quasi-cleavage fracture under lower loads. Results of Y-groove cracking tests show that the minimum pre-heating temperature is 150 °C and the maximum transverse residual stress is located at the root of the weld metal. Therefore, the heat input should be chosen in a proper range and the pre-heating temperature is no less than 150 °C.

  16. [People in divorce and their ambivalence: initial use of a newly developed couples inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl-Emde, A; Frei, R; Willi, J

    1994-02-01

    It has been reported that intact internal, external and social accommodation is related to a stable partnership between men and women. Every partnership, however, is also characterized by a certain potential towards separation that may develop despite of the named stabilizing factors. This led to the question of how the accommodation is constituted in men and women during separation. A written questionnaire was, therefore, sent to a total of 35 men and women in separation. The Bradburn inventory was used to define the well-being of the volunteers in relation to a representative sample. Using a newly developed inventory, a number of items had to be rated twice: once to reflect the condition at the beginning of the partnership and once to reflect the situation during the last year. In addition, the relative contribution of a particular item in favor or against separation was asked. The Bradburn inventory shows that the general well-being of the test sample is more impaired than that of the representative sample. The evaluation of the 80% returned questionnaires revealed worsening of all items. Most important reasons to finish the partnership were i) the lack of verbal communication, ii) extramarital affairs, and iii) the impression that the partnership limits the personal development. Reasons to continue the partnership were different between those who initiated the separation and those who were left: The initiators predominantly mentioned structural factors such as financial situation, living conditions and care for children, whereas the non-initiators predominantly mentioned internal qualities of the partnership.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-S.; Lee, Y.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  18. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  19. Exploring Content Validity of Shore Handwriting Screening and Newly Developed Score Sheet With Pre-Kindergarten Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K. Donica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited tools exist to measure handwriting readiness skills of pre-kindergarten students. This study was a preliminary exploration of content validity of the Shore Handwriting Screening (SHS and the newly developed Score Sheet with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2 in 4- and 5-year-old pre-kindergarten students. Because socioeconomic status (SES is known to impact handwriting skills, data from two different socioeconomic groups were collected. Method: Students from a Lower SES group (n = 36 and a Higher SES group (n = 14 completed the SHS and fine motor composite of the BOT-2. Pearson’s correlation was used to compare scores on the two assessments within the two groups. Results: SHS overall percentage scores were compared to standard scores and composite scores of the BOT-2. SHS scores displayed moderate to high correlation with fine manual control portions of the BOT-2 for the Lower SES group and low to moderate correlation for the same portion in the Higher SES group. Conclusion: SHS and the Score Sheet correlate to fine and visual-motor skill subtests on the fine manual control portions of the BOT-2, which supports the need for further research on the reliability and validity of the Score Sheet for use in practice.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of Newly Developed Chitosan Salt Coating Dispersions for Colon Delivery without Requiring Overcoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Although chitosan (CS) has been recognized as a good material for colon-specific drug delivery systems, an overcoating with an enteric coating polymer on the surface of CS is absolutely necessary because CS is soluble in acidic conditions before reaching the colon. In the present study, to improve its stability in the presence of acid, a newly developed CS-laurate (CS-LA) material was evaluated as a coating dispersion for the development of colon-specific drug delivery systems. Two types of CS with different molecular weights, CS250 and CS600, were used to prepare CS-LA films by the casting method. The CS250-LA films had smooth surfaces, whereas the surfaces of the CS600-LA films were rough, indicating that the CS250-LA dispersion could form a denser film than CS600-LA. Both of these CS-LA films maintained a constant shape over 22 h in a pH 1.2 HCl/NaCl buffer, where the corresponding CS films rapidly disintegrated. In addition, the CS250-LA film showed specific colon degradability in a pH 6.0 phosphate buffered solution containing 1.0% (w/v) β-glucosidase. As a result of tensile strength and elongation at the break, both CS-LA films were found to have flexible film properties. Finally, the release of acetaminophen from disks coated with CS250-LA dispersions was significantly suppressed in fluids at pH 1.2 and 6.8, whereas disks coated with CS solution rapidly released the drug in pH 1.2 fluids. Taken together, this study shows that LA modification could be a useful approach in preparing CS films with acid stability and colonic degradability properties without requiring overcoating.

  1. Validation of the Newly Developed Graphical Inventory of Ethical Leadership (GIEL) Scale: Implications for Administrator Preparation and Business Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janet; Loose, William; Reveles, Ursula; Hanshaw, George

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative pilot-study empirically tested the factor structure and reliability of the newly developed Graphical Inventory of Ethical Leadership (GIEL) scale, a Likert-style scale for quantifying key concepts related to ethical leadership. Correlations and principal components analyses were performed using pre-existing data as self-reports…

  2. Reliability and validity of data for 2 newly developed shuttle run tests in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim; Ketelaar, Majolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; Helders, Paul J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of data obtained with 2 newly developed shuttle run tests (SRT-I and SRT-II) to measure aerobic power in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who were classified at level I or II on the Gross Motor Function Cl

  3. Clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled release morphine sulphate suppository in patients with cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, F.; Meijler, W.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; Visser, Jan; Proost, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled-release suppository (MSR) with MS Contin tablets (MSC) in cancer patients with pain. Methods: In a double-blind, randomised, two-way crossover trial, 25 patients with cancer pain were selected with a morp

  4. Clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled release morphine sulphate suppository in patients with cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, F.; Meijler, W.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; Visser, Jan; Proost, J.H.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled-release suppository (MSR) with MS Contin tablets (MSC) in cancer patients with pain. Methods: In a double-blind, randomised, two-way crossover trial, 25 patients with cancer pain were selected with a

  5. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Newly Developed Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Fujii, Hideki; Goto, Shunsuke; Nakai, Kentaro; Kono, Keiji; Watanabe, Shuhei; Shinohara, Masami; Nishi, Shinichi

    2017-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Thus, elucidating its pathophysiological mechanisms is essential for improving the prognosis. We evaluated characteristics of CKD-MBD in a newly developed CKD rat model. We used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, which are used as models for nonobese type 2 diabetes. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). At 10 weeks, the rats were classified into six groups and administered with a vehicle or a low- or high-dose paricalcitol thrice a week. At 20 weeks, the rats were sacrificed; blood and urinary biochemical analyses and histological analysis of the aorta were performed. At 20 weeks, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, blood pressure, and renal function were not significantly different among the six groups. Serum calcium and phosphate levels tended to be higher in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. The urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate was significantly greater in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. After administering paricalcitol, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels were significantly higher in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. The degree of aortic calcification was significantly more severe and the aortic calcium content was significantly greater in SDT-Nx rats than in SD-Nx rats. We suggest that our new CKD rat model using SDT rats represents a useful CKD-MBD model, and this model was greatly influenced by paricalcitol administration. Further studies are needed to clarify the detailed mechanisms underlying this model.

  7. An impact evaluation of a newly developed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Michelle Hanna; Keller, Sheila D; Northington, LaDonna

    2015-01-01

    The highly complex pediatric patients with congenital heart disease require interprofessional teamwork and collaboration to ensure high-quality outcomes with low mortality and morbidity (Congenit Heart Dis. 2013;8:3-19). The purpose of this study was to conduct an impact evaluation for a newly formed pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and to answer: Is there a difference between the pediatric intensive care unit and the PCICU on clinical outcome measures of pediatric cardiac postoperative patients and nursing resources? A retrospective pretest/posttest design was used with the independent variables being type of intensive care unit. The confounding variables included demographic data, clinical outcome data, registered nurse (RN) staffing data, and RN turnover data. The setting was a large, level I pediatric medical and surgical intensive care unit (ICU) located at a children's hospital within an academic medical center. The population was pediatric cardiac postoperative patients. Patients excluded were those older than 18 years or cases without a Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Category score of 1 through 5. Owen's impact evaluation method and descriptive statistical measures, t test and Pearson χ test, were used for analysis. Demographic data were comparable between the pediatric intensive care unit (n = 296) and PCICU (n = 333). No statistical differences were found in several of the clinical outcome measures. Statistically significant differences were found in surgeon (P = .00) and RN nursing hours per patient day for all cardiac patients (P = .01). The PCICU time frame had a higher RN turnover rate. The majority of quality measures were not statistically different between the 2 ICUs. Even though statistical significance was not reached, the clinical impact of the PCICU's reduction in patient infections, mortality, and ICU length of stay was noted. This evaluation has

  8. Basic and clinical evaluation of our newly developed radiographic orthopantomography in studying the TMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Sumio

    1987-03-01

    Temporomandibular arthrosis has been reported in many fields: oral surgery, dental prosthetics, otolaryngology, radiology, psychosomatic medicine etc... Roentgenographic examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular arthrosis. There have been studies on various types of roentgenography of the temporomandibular joint, but because its anatomical morphology is so complicated that it is difficult to obtain an adequate roentgenograph. Thus, no definite method of roentgenography has been clearly established. We developed a new method of roentgenography that takes advantage of the characteristics of orthopantomography, and analyzed our results statistically. The following results were obtained: 1) As conditions for roentgenography, the optimal tube voltage was 60 -- 75 KVp, but this varied according to sex and age; the optimal tube current was 15 mA. 2) The optimal position of the head in the anteroposterior position was 10 mm in front of the standard point, and that in the vertical position was the central part of the film. 3) The optimal position of the head was reached when the OM line was horizontal. 4) On the basis of the data obtained from these basic experiments, images from standard roentgenography were compared statistically with those from the modified method of Schuller in patients with temporomandibular arthrosis. There was a significant difference between the images. These results demonstrated that this method of roentgenography may be useful in standardizing X-ray procedures, provides images of temporomandibular arthrosis of high reproductive quality, suggesting that this method may be adequate for more definitive diagnoses.

  9. Infrared spectroscopic study of thermotropic phase behavior of newly developed synthetic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Rajan K; Bruch, Reinhard F; Covington, Aaron M

    2011-10-15

    The thermotropic phase behavior of a suite of newly developed self-forming synthetic biopolymers has been investigated by variable-temperature Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy. The temperature-induced infrared spectra of these artificial biopolymers (lipids) composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDM-12), 1,2-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDO-12) and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol-3-triicosaethylene glycol (GDS-23) in the spectral range of 4000-500 cm(-1) have been acquired by using a thin layered FT-IR spectrometer in conjunction with a custom built temperature-controlled demountable liquid cell having a pathlength of ∼15 μm. The lipids under consideration have long hydrophobic acyl chains and contain various units of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) headgroups. In contrast to conventional phospholipids, this new kind of lipids forms liposomes or nanovesicles spontaneously upon hydration, without requiring external activation energy. We have found that the thermal stability of the PEGylated lipids differs greatly depending upon the acyl chain-lengths as well as the nature of the associated bonds and the number of PEG headgroup units. In particular, GDM-12 (saturated 14 hydrocarbon chains with 12 units of PEG headgroup) exhibits one sharp order-disorder phase transition over a temperature range increasing from 3°C to 5°C. Similarly, GDS-23 (saturated 18 hydrocarbon chains with 23 units of PEG headgroup) displays comparatively broad order-disorder phase transition profiles between temperature 17°C and 22°C. In contrast, GDO-12 (monounsaturated 18 hydrocarbon chains with 12 units of PEG headgroup) does not reveal any order-disorder transition phenomena demonstrating a highly disordered behavior for the entire temperature range. To confirm these observations, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was applied to the samples and revealed good agreement with the infrared spectroscopy results

  10. A newly developed Fe-doped calcium sulfide nanoparticles with magnetic property for cancer hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Steven Yueh-Hsiu; Tseng, Ching-Li; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a magnetic iron-doped calcium sulfide (Fe-CaS) nanoparticle was newly developed and studied for the purpose of hyperthermia due to its promising magnetic property, adequate biodegradation rate, and relatively good biocompatibility. Fe-CaS nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical co-precipitation process with heat treatment in a N2 atmosphere, and were subsequently cooled in N2 and exposed to air at a low temperature. The crystal structure of the Fe-CaS nanoparticles was similar to that of the CaS, which was identified by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The particle size was less than 40 nm based on a Debye-Scherrer equation and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. Magnetic properties obtained from the SQUID magnetometer demonstrated that the synthesized CaS was a diamagnetic property. Once the Fe ions were doped, the synthesized Fe-CaS converted into paramagnetism which showed no hysteresis loop. Having been heated above 600 °C in N2, the Fe-CaS showed a promising magnetic property to produce enough energy to increase the temperature for hyperthermia. 10 mg/ml of the Fe-CaS was able to generate heat to elevate the media temperature over 42.5 °C within 6 min. The area of the hysteresis loop increased with the increasing of the treated temperature, especially at 800 °C for 1 h. This is because more Fe ions replaced Ca ions in the lattice at the higher heat treatment temperature. The heat production was also increasing with the increasing of heat treatment temperature, which resulted in an adequate specific absorption ratio (SAR) value, which was found to be 45.47 W/g at 37 °C under an alternative magnetic field of f = 750 KHz , H = 10 Oe. The in vitro biocompatibility test of the synthesized Fe-CaS nanoparticles examined by the LDH assay showed no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast. The result of in vitro cell hyperthermia shows that under magnetic field the Fe-CaS nanoparticles were able to generate heat and kill the CT-26 cancer

  11. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  12. Performance evaluation of newly developed SrI2(Eu) scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, M.; Kishimoto, A.; Kataoka, J.; Sakuragi, S.; Yamasaki, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The development of europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2(Eu)) has attracted considerable attention, because of its excellent material properties as regards gamma-ray scintillator applications. These include its excellent energy resolution, high light output (> 80 , 000 ph / MeV), and high effective atomic number (Z=49). Here we report on the performance of ϕ 1 in×1 in SrI2(Eu) cylindrical crystals newly fabricated by Union Materials Inc. In this study, we measured the energy resolution and light output at 10 °C temperature intervals between -40 and 40 °C, using an optically coupled 2-in photomultiplier tube (PMT) (Super Bialkali, Hamamatsu). The SrI2(Eu) light output increased by 0.12%/°C as the temperature decreased. At -40 °C, we obtained the optimal energy resolution recording 2.91±0.02% full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 662 keV gamma rays measured with 137Cs. For comparison, we also measured the same crystal using both a large-area (19×19 mm2) avalanche photodiode detector (APD) and 8×8 multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) arrays of 3×3 mm2 pixels. The energy resolutions of 2.94±0.02%, 3.14±0.06% and 3.99±0.01% were obtained using PMT, APD, and MPPC, respectively, as measured at -20 °C. We also measured the inherent background of SrI2(Eu) in a cave composed of Cu-Pb blocks with their thickness of 5-10 cm confirming that SrI2(Eu) has an extremely low inherent background radiation. In this study, we have shown that SrI2(Eu) is a promising scintillator that can be utilized for radiation measurements incorporating low-energy X-rays to high-energy gamma rays, and can thus be applied in various medical, industrial, and environmental treatment fields in the near future.

  13. Development of standard digital images for pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jeong; Choi, Byung-Soon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Choong-Ki; Park, Jai-Soung; Tae, Seok; Hering, Kurt Georg

    2011-11-01

    We developed the standard digital images (SDIs) to be used in the classification and recognition of pneumoconiosis. From July 3, 2006 through August 31, 2007, 531 retired male workers exposed to inorganic dust were examined by digital (DR) and analog radiography (AR) on the same day, after being approved by our institutional review board and obtaining informed consent from all participants. All images were twice classified according to the International Labour Office (ILO) 2000 guidelines with reference to ILO standard analog radiographs (SARs) by four chest radiologists. After consensus reading on 349 digital images matched with the first selected analog images, 120 digital images were selected as the SDIs that considered the distribution of pneumoconiosis findings. Images with profusion category 0/1, 1, 2, and 3 were 12, 50, 40, and 15, respectively, and a large opacity were in 43 images (A = 20, B = 22, C = 1). Among pleural abnormality, costophrenic angle obliteration, pleural plaque and thickening were in 11 (9.2%), 31 (25.8%), and 9 (7.5%) images, respectively. Twenty-one of 29 symbols were present except cp, ef, ho, id, me, pa, ra, and rp. A set of 120 SDIs had more various pneumoconiosis findings than ILO SARs that were developed from adequate methods. It can be used as digital reference images for the recognition and classification of pneumoconiosis.

  14. China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of International Standard Day, China Technical Standardization Development Strategy and National Technical Standardization System Construction Senior Forum was held in Beijing from September 26th to September 28th.

  15. Newly graduated doctors' competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrests assessed using a standardized Advanced Life Support (ALS) assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marianne Lidang; Hesselfeldt, R.; Rasmussen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    and to study whether teaching site affects their resuscitation competence. Materials and methods: The entire cohort of medical students from Copenhagen University expected to graduate in June 2006 was invited to participate in the study. Participants’ ALS- competence was assessed using the Advanced Life...... Support Provider (ALS) examination standards as issued by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC). The emergency medicine course is con- ducted at three different university hospital teaching sites and teaching and assessment might vary across sites, despite the common end objectives regarding...... resuscitation teaching issued by the university. Results: Participation was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates. Only 23% of the participants met the ALS pass criteria. They primarily lacked skills in managing cardiopulmonary arrest. There were significant differences in ALS-competence between teaching sites....

  16. The role of food standards in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    The thesis consists of three papers based on the original data collected through fieldwork in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. It is focused on understanding the implications of modern agri-food sector restructuring for farmers in developing countries. The thesis particularly looks at (i) the impact...... farmers. The richest farmers do not apply standards because the added gain is too small. In the second paper, Welfare Effects of Vertical Integration and Contracts in Pangasius Sector in Vietnam, I analyse the impact of different vertical integration options on household welfare and the implications...... of different stages of integration for the success of the whole sector. Contract farming and employment on rocessorowned estate farms are in this context considered as two distinct options of ertical integration. The welfare gain from contracts and estate employment is estimated using a maximum simulated...

  17. Regional characteristics of building supply in a newly developed city in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tsutsumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the author undertook a micro-level analysis of the relationship between landownershipchange and the growth process of Sapporo city. The most important questionsaddressed by this paper are: Why the process occurred?; When did it occur?; Where did ittake place?; Who was responsible?; and, How was it conducted? The author analyzed thelong-term process of building supply and revealed how many renovation cases were identifiedthat were brought about by newly advanced land purchasers, and how many cases werebrought about by original land-owners without land-ownership change.

  18. BOMOS: Management and development model for open standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Erwin; Kajan, Ejub; Dorloff, Frank-Dieter; Bedini, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    E-Business standards, or standards for interoperability, are developed outside the traditional standard development organizations, often within industry specific domain organizations. These organizations need some guidance in how to develop and manage standards for their specific domain in order to

  19. Are newly discovered drivers of immune-mediated skin disorders expressed in normal skin regenerating from standardized surface injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.G.M.; Keijsers, R.R.M.C.; Seyger, M.M.B.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2014-01-01

    Background: In healthy skin, tape stripping induces a transient wave of histological changes resembling immune-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis. The response to surface trauma may harbor mechanisms which are also relevant to the development of Koebner-positive skin disorders. However, studi

  20. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  1. 新建本科院校财务管理规范化探讨%Probing into the Standardization of Financial Management in the Newly Established Undergraduate Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宏倩

    2015-01-01

    财务管理的规范化与否直接影响到一所新建本科院校正常运行。由于受旧有的财务管理思维模式的束缚及经验不足等原因,当前新建本科院校财务管理规范化进程缓慢,漏洞、弊端突显。为了适应现代财务管理的需要,必须建立健全规范的财务管理体制,促进新建本科院校财务管理改革,推动学校教育事业的稳健发展。%The standardization of financial management has a direct impact on the normal operation of a newly established university .Due to the shackles of the old financial management thinking mode , coupled with the new lack of experience , the process in the financial management standardization of the current new undergraduate colleges and universities is slow , and the flaws and drawbacks of it are highlighted .In order to meet the needs of the modern financial management , a sound financial management system should be established to promote the re-form of the financial management of the newly established undergraduate colleges and universities and to push on the stable and healthy development of the newly established undergraduate universities ’ education cause .

  2. Newly developed vacuum differential pressure casting of thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The newly designed vacuum differential pressure casting (VDPC) unit was introduced, by which the capability of the VDPC process to produce thin-walled complicated Al-alloy castings, that are free from oxides, gas pore and shrinkage cavity and thus enhance overall part quality, was studied. Experimental results were compared with those of traditional gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting. The first series of experiments were focused on investigating the castability of thin section Al-alloy casting. In the second series of experiments the metallographic evidence, casting strength and soundness were examined. Finally, case studies of very interesting thin walled complicated casting applications were described. The advantages of the described technique have made possible to produce thin walled complicated Al-alloy casting (up to a section thickness of 1 mm), which is not practical for gravity pouring and vacuum suction casting.

  3. Newly developed dope-free coatings help improve running operations in remote protected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Nestor J.; Gallo, Ernesto A. [TENARIS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas industry has been evolving in a permanent way to reach new sources of energy or to produce in the existing ones in a more efficient way, triggering in such a way the development of new drilling, completion and production techniques, equipment and processes; among these equipment, pipes and connections are not the exception, and the requirements on material and connections performance and reliability have been increased as well. The complexity of the new wells is not only related to the architecture of the well but also to the type of environments that are being found such as H2S, CO2, high pressure and/or high temperature; therefore, for these cases, connections have to be special premium connections threaded in most of the cases on highly alloyed materials (Ni-Cr alloys). Additionally, most of the regions under exploration are offshore and/or in remote areas of the planet which are considered untouchable due to economic reasons (fishing) or preservation (endangered flora and fauna) for instance Alaska, North Atlantic, North Sea, etc. For these areas, new environmental restrictions are applied which make it difficult for the operators to use standard practices. Among the recent solutions developed for Oil and Gas industry aiming to help with the protection of the environment are the dope-free coatings. These coatings are applied on tubing and casing connections providing a real greener alternative to traditional thread compounds, while maintaining the performance of the connections, for different materials as carbon steels, 13Cr and Corrosion Resistance Alloys (Ni, Cr). In spite of being a technically sound solution, the elimination of thread compounds may lead to potential operational problems such as galling, difficulties in making-up due to low temperature, etc. In addition, it is also necessary to evaluate the interaction between the dry coatings and the different connections to be used, as the designs have to be able to allocate the coating

  4. Building SAWE Capability as an ANSI Accredited Standards Developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Ed; Peterson, Eric; Griffiths, William T.; Brooks, Andy; Stratton, Bonnie; Attar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2014 status of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers' process towards becoming an Accredited Standards Developer (ASD) under certification by the United States American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Included is material from the committee's 2013 International presentation, current status, and additional general background material. The document strives to serve as a reference point to assist SAWE Recommended Practice and Standards developers in negotiating United States Standards Strategy, international standards strategy, and the association of SAWE standards and recommended practices to those efforts. Required procedures for SAWE to develop and maintain Recommended Practices and ANSI/SAWE Standards are reviewed.

  5. Ecological Residence Standards and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Habitation environment standards are both ancient and new. Caves, tents and cottages comprise the three initial kinds of human domestic environment, corresponding to the three primary forms of society: hunting,nomadism and farming.

  6. Virtual Ships: NATO Standards Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    than runtime performance. The STANAG provides specific Federation Object Model (FOM) extensions to the standard Real-time Platform Reference FOM ( RPR ...Reference FOM. It is envisaged that the Virtual Ship Reference FOM will ultimately be used to improve the next generation RPR FOM open international...STANAG provides specific Federation Object Model (FOM) extensions to the standard Real-time Platform Reference FOM ( RPR FOM). They include constructs for

  7. Evaluation of a regional chemistry transport model using a newly developed regional OMI NO2 retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kuhlmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate a high-resolution chemistry transport model (CTM (3 km x 3 km spatial resolution with the new Hong Kong (HK NO2 retrieval developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on-board the Aura satellite. The three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry was modelled in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in southern China by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modelling system from October 2006 to January 2007. In the HK NO2 retrieval, tropospheric air mass factors (AMF were recalculated using high-resolution ancillary parameters of surface reflectance, NO2 profile shapes and aerosol profiles of which the latter two were taken from the CMAQ simulation. We also tested four different aerosol parametrizations. Ground level measurements by the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring (RAQM network were used as additional independent measurements. The HK NO2 retrieval increases the NO2 vertical column densities (VCD by (+31 ± 38 %, when compared to NASA's standard product (SP2, and reduces the mean bias (MB between satellite and ground measurements by 26 percentage points from −41 to −15 %. The correlation coefficient r is low for both satellite datasets (r = 0.35 due to the high spatial variability of NO2 concentrations. The correlation between CMAQ and the RAQM network is low (r ≈ 0.3 and the model underestimates the NO2 concentrations in the north-western model domain (Foshan and Guangzhou. We compared the CMAQ NO2 time series of the two main plumes with our regional OMI NO2 product. The model overestimates the NO2 VCDs by about 15 % in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, while the correlation coefficient is satisfactory (r = 0.56. In Foshan and Guangzhou, the correlation is low (r = 0.37 and the model underestimates the VCDs strongly (MB = −40 %. In addition, we estimated that the OMI VCDs are also underestimated by about 10 to 20 % in Foshan and Guangzhou because of the influence of the model parameters on the AMF

  8. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  9. Ten Key Steps to Developing a Programme of University Mentoring for Newly Enrolled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Casado-Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer mentoring or tutoring is an educational guidance method that is growing in universities around the world. Directed at the integration of students over the first year of university studies, it is based on the support and guidance that a more experienced student offers to a recently enrolled fellow student. It is a recent process in Spain which started a little over a decade ago, but each course brings more experiences. This article, derived from research, seeks to identify a series of key steps and ideas to implement this type of programme. The summary of the proposals stems from three main sources: a the experience and assessment of the Mentoring Programme at the University of Burgos; b the review of the peer mentoring programs implemented at 35 Spanish universities; and c the review, comparison and adaptation of formal mentoring to the university according to Perrone (2003.  The outcomes may be especially useful for those universities that wish to start mentoring programmes, and as a source of reflection and comparison for those with greater experience. We believe that special attention should be given on increasing and improving participation in the mentoring of newly enrolled students and on monitoring and assessing the whole process.

  10. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  11. Developing a standardized healthcare cost data warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Sue L; Naessens, James M; Yawn, Barbara P; Reinalda, Megan S; Anderson, Stephanie S; Borah, Bijan J

    2017-06-12

    Research addressing value in healthcare requires a measure of cost. While there are many sources and types of cost data, each has strengths and weaknesses. Many researchers appear to create study-specific cost datasets, but the explanations of their costing methodologies are not always clear, causing their results to be difficult to interpret. Our solution, described in this paper, was to use widely accepted costing methodologies to create a service-level, standardized healthcare cost data warehouse from an institutional perspective that includes all professional and hospital-billed services for our patients. The warehouse is based on a National Institutes of Research-funded research infrastructure containing the linked health records and medical care administrative data of two healthcare providers and their affiliated hospitals. Since all patients are identified in the data warehouse, their costs can be linked to other systems and databases, such as electronic health records, tumor registries, and disease or treatment registries. We describe the two institutions' administrative source data; the reference files, which include Medicare fee schedules and cost reports; the process of creating standardized costs; and the warehouse structure. The costing algorithm can create inflation-adjusted standardized costs at the service line level for defined study cohorts on request. The resulting standardized costs contained in the data warehouse can be used to create detailed, bottom-up analyses of professional and facility costs of procedures, medical conditions, and patient care cycles without revealing business-sensitive information. After its creation, a standardized cost data warehouse is relatively easy to maintain and can be expanded to include data from other providers. Individual investigators who may not have sufficient knowledge about administrative data do not have to try to create their own standardized costs on a project-by-project basis because our data

  12. Newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH: a better correlation in vaginal atrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiviriyapun, P; Panyakhamlerd, K; Triratanachat, S; Chatsuwan, T; Chaikittisilpa, S; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation among symptoms, signs, and the number of lactobacilli in postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. The secondary objective was to develop a new parameter to improve the correlation. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Naturally postmenopausal women aged 45-70 years with at least one clinical symptom of vaginal atrophy of moderate to severe intensity were included in this study. All of the objective parameters (vaginal atrophy score, vaginal pH, the number of lactobacilli, vaginal maturation index, and vaginal maturation value) were evaluated and correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. A new parameter of vaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy symptoms II, was developed and consists of the two most bothersome symptoms (vaginal dryness and dyspareunia). Vaginal atrophy symptoms II was analyzed for correlation with the objective parameters. A total of 132 naturally postmenopausal women were recruited for analysis. Vaginal pH was the only objective parameter found to have a weak correlation with vaginal atrophy symptoms (r = 0.273, p = 0.002). The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II parameter showed moderate correlation with vaginal pH (r = 0.356, p atrophy score (r = 0.230, p atrophy symptoms and the objective parameters. Vaginal pH was significantly correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II was associated with a better correlation. The vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH may be better tools for clinical evaluation and future study of the vaginal ecosystem.

  13. Maintaining Enteral Nutrition in the Severely Ill using a Newly Developed Nasojejunal Feeding Tube with Gastric Decompression Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh Yoon, Ezekiel; Nishihara, Kazuki; Murata, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    For nutritional support of critically ill patients, the enteral route is preferred over the parenteral route. Although nasojejunal feeding can be superior to gastric feeding when gastrointestinal symptoms occur, it does not necessarily solve the problem of large gastric residual volumes. We report the successful use of a newly developed nasojejunal feeding tube with gastric decompression function in an 84-year-old man with severe pneumonia. After gastric feeding was considered not well tolerated, the use of this tube improved the delivery of nutrition until the patient was stable enough to undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  14. Vibrations of double-nanotube systems with mislocation via a newly developed van der Waals model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-06-01

    This study deals with transverse vibrations of two adjacent-parallel-mislocated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under various end conditions. These tubes interact with each other and their surrounding medium through the intertube van der Waals (vdW) forces, and existing bonds between their atoms and those of the elastic medium. The elastic energy of such forces due to the deflections of nanotubes is appropriately modeled by defining a vdW force density function. In the previous works, vdW forces between two identical tubes were idealized by a uniform form of this function. The newly introduced function enables us to investigate the influences of both intertube free distance and longitudinal mislocation on the natural transverse frequencies of the nanosystem which consists of two dissimilar tubes. Such crucial issues have not been addressed yet, even for simply supported tubes. Using nonlocal Timoshenko and higher-order beam theories as well as Hamilton's principle, the strong form of the equations of motion is established. Seeking for an explicit solution to these integro-partial differential equations is a very problematic task. Thereby, an energy-based method in conjunction with an efficient meshfree method is proposed and the nonlocal frequencies of the elastically embedded nanosystem are determined. For simply supported nanosystems, the predicted first five frequencies of the proposed model are checked with those of assumed mode method, and a reasonably good agreement is achieved. Through various studies, the roles of the tube's length ratio, intertube free space, mislocation, small-scale effect, slenderness ratio, radius of SWCNTs, and elastic constants of the elastic matrix on the natural frequencies of the nanosystem with various end conditions are explained. The limitations of the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory are also addressed. This work can be considered as a vital step towards better realizing of a more complex system that consists of

  15. Describing a residency program developed for newly graduated nurse practitioners employed in retail health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabault, Paulette; Mylott, Laura; Patterson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Retail health clinics are an expanding health care delivery model and an emerging new practice site for nurse practitioners (NPs). Critical thinking skills, clinical competence, interprofessional collaboration, and business savvy are necessary for successful practice in this highly independent and autonomous setting. This article describes a pilot residency partnership program aimed at supporting new graduate NP transition to practice, reducing NP turnover, and promoting academic progression. Eight new graduate NPs were recruited to the pilot and paired with experienced clinical NP preceptors for a 12-month program that focused on increasing clinical and business competence in the retail health setting. The residency program utilized technology to facilitate case conferences and targeted Webinars to enhance learning and peer-to-peer sharing and support. An on-line doctoral-level academic course that focused on interprofessional collaboration in health care, population health, and business concepts was offered. Both NPs and preceptors were highly satisfied with the academic-service residency program between MinuteClinic and Northeastern University School of Nursing in Boston, MA. New NPs particularly valued the preceptor model, the clinical case conferences, and business Webinars. Because their priority was in gaining clinical experience and learning the business acumen relevant to managing the processes of care, they did not feel ready for the doctoral course and would have preferred to take later in their practice. The preceptors valued the academic course and felt that it enhanced their precepting and leadership skills. At the time of this article, 6 months post completion of the residency program, there has been no turnover. Our experience supports the benefits for residency programs for newly graduated NPs in retail settings. The model of partnering with academia by offering a course within a service organization's educational programs can enable academic

  16. Gliadel wafer implantation combined with standard radiotherapy and concurrent followed by adjuvant temozolomide for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Lynn S; Smith, Kris A; Stea, Baldassarre

    2016-08-24

    Since 2003, only two chemotherapeutic agents, evaluated in phase III trials, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma (HGG): Gliadel wafers (intracranially implanted local chemotherapy) and temozolomide (TMZ) (systemic chemotherapy). Neither agent is curative, but each has been shown to improve median overall survival (OS) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone. To date, no phase III trial has tested these agents when used in sequential combination; however, a number of smaller trials have reported favorable results. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the combination of Gliadel wafers with standard RT (60 Gy) plus concurrent and adjuvant TMZ (RT/TMZ) for newly diagnosed HGG. A literature search was conducted for the period of January 1995 to September 2015. Data were extracted and categorized, and means and ranges were determined. A total of 11 publications met criteria, three prospective trials and eight retrospective studies, representing 411 patients who received Gliadel plus standard RT/TMZ. Patients were similar in age, gender, and performance status. The weighted mean of median OS was 18.2 months (ten trials, n = 379, range 12.7 to 21.3 months), and the weighted mean of median progression-free survival was 9.7 months (seven trials, n = 287, range 7 to 12.9 months). The most commonly reported grade 3 and 4 adverse events were myelosuppression (10.22 %), neurologic deficit (7.8 %), and healing abnormalities (4.3 %). Adverse events reflected the distinct independent safety profiles of Gliadel wafers and RT/TMZ, with little evidence of enhanced toxicity from their use in sequential combination. In the 11 identified trials, an increased benefit from sequentially combining Gliadel wafers with RT/TMZ was strongly suggested. Median OS tended to be improved by 3 to 4 months beyond that observed for Gliadel wafers or TMZ when used alone in the respective phase III

  17. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Adapted to change: The rapid development of symbiosis in newly settled, fast-maturing chemosymbiotic mussels in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Sven R; Duperron, Sébastien; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Hilário, Ana; Cunha, Marina R

    2015-12-01

    Symbioses between microbiota and marine metazoa occur globally at chemosynthetic habitats facing imminent threat from anthropogenic disturbance, yet little is known concerning the role of symbiosis during early development in chemosymbiotic metazoans: a critical period in any benthic species' lifecycle. The emerging symbiosis of Idas (sensu lato) simpsoni mussels undergoing development is assessed over a post-larval-to-adult size spectrum using histology and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Post-larval development shows similarities to that of both heterotrophic and chemosymbiotic mussels. Data from newly settled specimens confirm aposymbiotic, planktotrophic larval development. Sulphur-oxidising (SOX) symbionts subsequently colonise multiple exposed, non-ciliated epithelia shortly after metamorphosis, but only become abundant on gills as these expand with greater host size. This wide-spread bathymodiolin recorded from sulphidic wood, bone and cold-seep habitats, displays a suite of adaptive traits that could buffer against anthropogenic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis

    2009-01-01

    What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…

  20. Software Development Standard for Mission Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    1990, September 1990. 5 ISO/IEC 15939. International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC...International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) – Part 11, Guidance on...deliverables (such as CDRL items based on DIDs) take the form of paper documents exactly following required formats and structure. While this form

  1. The Development View for Newly Established Undergraduate Universities and the Scientific Development%新建本科院校发展观与科学发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱果

    2012-01-01

    本文通过新建本科院校在发展中坚持以科学发展观为指导的必要性和重要性的阐述,探讨了运用科学发展观来剖析自身发展中存在的问题,以及如何在科学发展观指导下科学确立新建本科院校的发展观,以促进自身发展。%The article introduced the necessity and importance ofinsisting scientific development views for newly established undergraduate universities. It also discussed that how those universities could analysis internal problems by scientific development views. Moreover, the article pointed out ways of setting up developing views for newly established universities under the guidelines of scientific views to advance the development.

  2. The benzene⋯naphthalene complex: A more challenging system than the benzene dimer for newly developed computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weizhou, E-mail: wzw@lynu.edu.cn, E-mail: ybw@gzu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471022 (China); Sun, Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo, E-mail: wzw@lynu.edu.cn, E-mail: ybw@gzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, and Key Laboratory of Guizhou High Performance Computational Chemistry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)

    2015-09-21

    High-level coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] computations with up to the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set (1924 basis functions) and various extrapolations toward the complete basis set (CBS) limit are presented for the sandwich, T-shaped, and parallel-displaced benzene⋯naphthalene complex. Using the CCSD(T)/CBS interaction energies as a benchmark, the performance of some newly developed wave function and density functional theory methods has been evaluated. The best performing methods were found to be the dispersion-corrected PBE0 functional (PBE0-D3) and spin-component scaled zeroth-order symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SCS-SAPT0). The success of SCS-SAPT0 is very encouraging because it provides one method for energy component analysis of π-stacked complexes with 200 atoms or more. Most newly developed methods do, however, overestimate the interaction energies. The results of energy component analysis show that interaction energies are overestimated mainly due to the overestimation of dispersion energy.

  3. Development of Avionics Installation Interface Standards. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    impact on some portion of the avionics suite for Phase III of the Multinational Staged Improvement Pro- gram ( MSIP ). This program has not been fully...have improvement programs similar to that planned under the F-16 MSIP ) and piecemeal retrofit programs that are not shown on the chart. 2-4 * * The...i.e., MS 25212 form factor units) contained intrinsically low-dissi- pation avionics components and the major heat source was the standard inte

  4. Circulating plasma cells in newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma as a possible prognostic marker for patients with standard-risk cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnoni, Davide; Travaglini, Fosco; Pezzoni, Valerio; Ruggieri, Miriana; Bigazzi, Catia; Dalsass, Alessia; Mestichelli, Francesca; Troiani, Emanuela; Falcioni, Sadia; Mazzotta, Serena; Natale, Annalisa; Angelini, Mario; Ferretti, Silvia; Angelini, Stefano; Galieni, Piero

    2015-08-01

    Detection of circulating plasma cells (PCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is a well-known prognostic factor. We evaluated circulating PCs by flow cytometry (FC) in 104 patients with active MM at diagnosis by gating on CD38(+)  CD45(-) cells and examined their relationship with cytogenetic risk. Patients had an average follow-up of 36 months. By using a receiver operating characteristics analysis, we estimated the optimal cut-off of circulating PCs for defining poor prognosis to be 41. Patients with high-risk cytogenetics (n = 24) had poor prognosis, independently of circulating PC levels [PC cytogenetics (n = 65) showed a better prognosis when associated with a lower number of circulating PCs (PC cytogenetics confirmed that the co-presence of circulating PCs ≥ 41, older age, Durie-Salmon stage >I and lack of maintenance adversely affected PFS, while OS was adversely affected only by lactate dehydrogenase, older age and lack of maintenance. Our results indicate that the quantification of circulating PCs by a simple two-colour FC analysis can provide useful prognostic information in newly diagnosed MM patients with standard-risk cytogenetics.

  5. Attributes and Dynamic Development Phases of ICT Standards Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Standards consortia are private industry alliances that serve a certain purpose and gather likeminded companies that share the same interest to sponsor and develop technologies for standardization. Compared to formal standard setting, participation in consortia is less bureaucratic, more efficient in reacting to market needs and allows, in respect to the tiered membership structures, a strategic influence of standard setting outcomes. Formal standardization is in contrast an often protracted ...

  6. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  7. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country according to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marinda van Zyl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives through professional development and training. In order to examine factors which affect the success of ODL offered by the North-West University in South Africa, a qualitative and quantitative research approach is used. Factors examined include face-to-face classroom contact, the implementation and use of ICTs, and e-readiness. The relationships between these factors are also discussed. A questionnaire was administered to 87 teacher-students in four Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE programs to collect quantitative data regarding aspects of their classes and the e-readiness of students. This data was qualitatively elaborated upon by three semi-structured, open-ended focus-group interviews. Besides descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank-order correlations (r were determined between variables pertaining to negative feelings towards face-to-face classroom contact, ODL as students’ choice of delivery mode, and students’ positive attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT. Combined quantitative and qualitative findings were used to evaluate the effectiveness of contact classes as well as the e-readiness of students towards the attainment of ODL development Phase D. This phase refers to UNESCO’s description of ICT implementation, integration, and use. Relationships (Spearman’s rank-order correlations between ODL, as teacher-students’ choice of educational delivery mode, and aspects of their e-readiness suggest that the e-readiness of teacher-students is implicit to their choice of ODL as educational delivery mode for professional development.

  8. Developing voluntary standards for district nurse education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mary

    2016-05-01

    This article charts the development of a project, funded by the Queen's Nursing Institute and Queen's Nursing Institute Scotland, to develop voluntary standards that reflect the contemporary and future practice of district nurses. The standards are designed to enhance, but not replace, the Nursing and Midwifery Council standards for district nurse specialist practice. The project encompassed the four UK countries and gathered data from a wide range of sources to inform the new standards that were launched in September 2015.

  9. Standardization of Information Systems Development Processes and Banking Industry Adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuna Ozcer; Zuhal Tanrikulu

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall l...

  10. [Treatment sequence using newly developed agents for men with castration resistant prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Naohiro

    2014-12-01

    Abiraterone acetate(AA), enzalutamide (EZL) and cabazitaxel (CBZ) are becoming available in Japan. Clinical trials demonstrated the benefit of these agents in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, data on sequence therapy using these agents are very limited. Based on the mechanisms of agents and clinical data, AA and EZL may be indicated in early stage and CBZ may be indicated in late stage of CRPC. Prostate cancer is significantly heterogeneous between individuals and useful biomarkers for deciding the best treatment are unavailable yet. Therefore, it is hard to establish a standard sequence of the treatments. Until clinical trials demonstrate the best treatment sequence, individualized therapy is required for each patient based on patient and disease characteristics.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT ALLOGAMIC ASSOCIATED TRAIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE NEWLY DEVELOPED CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILE (CMS LINES IN RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematzadeh GHORBAN ALI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Five suitable maintainer varieties were identifi ed through testcrosses with IR58025A and the transfer of wild abortive cytoplasm was carried out by seven successive backcrosses. Five new CMS lines were developed by this approach in well adapted high yielding improved varietal background such as ‘Nemat’, ‘Neda’, ‘Dasht’, ‘Amol3’ and ‘Champa’. Agronomical characterization and allogamy-associated traits of the fi ve newly developed CMS lines were studied for their interrelationship. Anther length had a signifi cant positive correlation with the duration of glume opening (0.759 and high correlation of (0.698 with the angle between lemma and palea. The results indicated that ‘Nemat’ A, ‘Neda’ A, ‘Dasht’ A are more suitable as parents for hybrid seed production due to their favorable and superior fl oral characteristics in comparison to IR58025A.

  12. THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY TEST: NEW EVIDENCE FROM NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyyaz Zeren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.

  13. PCTFPeval: a web tool for benchmarking newly developed algorithms for predicting cooperative transcription factor pairs in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Computational identification of cooperative transcription factor (TF) pairs helps understand the combinatorial regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Many advanced algorithms have been proposed to predict cooperative TF pairs in yeast. However, it is still difficult to conduct a comprehensive and objective performance comparison of different algorithms because of lacking sufficient performance indices and adequate overall performance scores. To solve this problem, in our previous study (published in BMC Systems Biology 2014), we adopted/proposed eight performance indices and designed two overall performance scores to compare the performance of 14 existing algorithms for predicting cooperative TF pairs in yeast. Most importantly, our performance comparison framework can be applied to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the performance of a newly developed algorithm. However, to use our framework, researchers have to put a lot of effort to construct it first. To save researchers time and effort, here we develop a web tool to implement our performance comparison framework, featuring fast data processing, a comprehensive performance comparison and an easy-to-use web interface. The developed tool is called PCTFPeval (Predicted Cooperative TF Pair evaluator), written in PHP and Python programming languages. The friendly web interface allows users to input a list of predicted cooperative TF pairs from their algorithm and select (i) the compared algorithms among the 15 existing algorithms, (ii) the performance indices among the eight existing indices, and (iii) the overall performance scores from two possible choices. The comprehensive performance comparison results are then generated in tens of seconds and shown as both bar charts and tables. The original comparison results of each compared algorithm and each selected performance index can be downloaded as text files for further analyses. Allowing users to select eight existing performance indices and 15

  14. 5. Newly developed atrial fibrillation in liver transplant patient with intravenous dexmedetomedine sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Hammodi Ali

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Intravenous dexmedetomidine (precedex™ is a common cause of AF in critically ill patients. This kind of side effect needs scrutinized assessment and follow up to find out the risk factors involved in its development especially in the era of increasing dexmedetomidine as a state-of-art recommended sedative agent in intensive care units and perioperative as well.

  15. Making Explicit the Analysis of Students' Mathematical Discourses--Revisiting a Newly Developed Methodological Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Sfard and Kieran [Kieran, C., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 187-228; Sfard, A., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 13-57; Sfard, A. and Kieran, C., Mind, Culture, and Activity 8, 2001, 42-76] have developed a methodological framework, which aims at characterizing the students' mathematical discourses while they are working…

  16. Codes and standards research, development and demonstration roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-07-22

    C&S RD&D Roadmap - 2008: This Roadmap is a guide to the Research, Development & Demonstration activities that will provide data required for Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) to develop performance-based codes and standards for a commercial hydrogen fueled transportation sector in the U.S.

  17. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  18. 25 CFR 36.13 - Standard IV-Curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard IV-Curriculum development. 36.13 Section 36.13... § 36.13 Standard IV—Curriculum development. (a) Each school shall implement an organized program of curriculum development involving certified and non-certified staff and shall provide the opportunity for...

  19. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process:horizontal squeeze casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peijie; Huang Xiusong; He Liangju; Liu Xiangshang; Wang Benci

    2014-01-01

    Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC), horizontal squeeze casting (HSC) is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity ifling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity ifling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve ifling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve ifling velocity. Finaly, two speciifc applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  20. Investigation of the drying airflow at a newly developed dryer geometry for mixed flow grain dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Scaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-flow dryer has been a matter of investigation many times regarding drying efficiency, dryer control, and performance enhancement over the past years. However, there is still considerable demand for optimization in terms of energy efficiency and homogeneity of drying. In order to analyze the specific energy consumption and the homogeneity of the drying process, different thermodynamic process conditions have been investigated for the conventional MFD design using numerical and experimental methods. Based on the results obtained, a novel dryer design has been developed. With this, a considerable increase of efficiency is expected. As the fluid dynamic analysis of the first design draft revealed, further development is required until scaling-up and transfer into practice will be possible. While homogeneous airflow conditions could be demonstrated in the core flow region in the center of the dryer, the configuration must be optimized in the near wall regions.

  1. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peijie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC, horizontal squeeze casting (HSC is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity filling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve filling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve filling velocity. Finally, two specific applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  2. Newly-developed Fiber Product: How to Realize the Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ However, for domestic Chinese textile enterprise, most of them have the ability to develop new textile fibers. In the past years, fiber products, such as the corn fiber, milk fiber, bamboo fiber and so on, mushroomed in the markets. Whereas, during the process of product promotion, they experience a bottleneck: from fiber to consumer, how to improve and realize the long value chain, how to promote the industrial application.

  3. Dynamic Regulation of Auxin Response during Rice Development Revealed by Newly Established Hormone Biosensor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Yuan, Zheng; Meng, Qingcai; Huang, Guoqiang; Périn, Christophe; Bureau, Charlotte; Meunier, Anne-Cécile; Ingouff, Mathieu; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    The hormone auxin is critical for many plant developmental processes. Unlike the model eudicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), auxin distribution and signaling in rice tissues has not been systematically investigated due to the absence of suitable auxin response reporters. In this study we observed the conservation of auxin signaling components between Arabidopsis and model monocot crop rice (Oryza sativa), and generated complementary types of auxin biosensor constructs, one derived from the Aux/IAA-based biosensor DII-VENUS but constitutively driven by maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, and the other termed DR5-VENUS in which a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) was used to drive expression of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Using the obtained transgenic lines, we observed that during the vegetative development, accumulation of DR5-VENUS signal was at young and mature leaves, tiller buds and stem base. Notably, abundant DR5-VENUS signals were observed in the cytoplasm of cortex cells surrounding lateral root primordia (LRP) in rice. In addition, auxin maxima and dynamic re-localization were seen at the initiation sites of inflorescence and spikelet primordia including branch meristems (BMs), female and male organs. The comparison of these observations among Arabidopsis, rice and maize suggests the unique role of auxin in regulating rice lateral root emergence and reproduction. Moreover, protein localization of auxin transporters PIN1 homologs and GFP tagged OsAUX1 overlapped with DR5-VENUS during spikelet development, helping validate these auxin response reporters are reliable markers in rice. This work firstly reveals the direct correspondence between auxin distribution and rice reproductive and root development at tissue and cellular level, and provides high-resolution auxin tools to probe fundamental developmental processes in rice and to establish links between auxin, development and agronomical traits like yield or root architecture. PMID

  4. 5. Newly developed atrial fibrillation in liver transplant patient with intravenous dexmedetomedine sedation

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Hammodi Ali; Ali Al-Azim

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the commonest type of arrhythmias in common population and critically ill as well. Intensive care patients are vulnerable to develop AF due to numerous causing and risk factors during their illness. Drug-induced AF is a group of underestimated causes known to induce arrhythmias in severely ill patients one of these medications is. Dexmetedomedine (precedx™) one of relatively new sedative-analgesic is effectively used in mechanically ventilated patients and as a con...

  5. Standardization of Software Application Development and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    always available. Some similarities are that both datacenters and cloud computing offer specific resources, storage , memory, and CPU power. Cloud ...Defense (DOD) mandates moving applications to consolidated datacenters and cloud computing. When examined from an application development perspective...consolidated data.centers and cloud computing. This thes is will outline an architectural framework incorporating a common approach for softv.•are

  6. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  7. Newly identified patterns of Pax2 expression in the developing mouse forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason John O

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of specific markers expressed in different regions of the developing nervous system provides a useful tool for the study of mouse mutants. One such marker, the transcription factor Pax2, is expressed at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and in the cerebellum, spinal cord, retina, optic stalk, and optic chiasm. We recently described a group of diencephalic cells that express Pax2 as early as embryonic day (E 10.5, and become part of the eminentia thalami by E11.5. The discovery of this previously undescribed cell population prompted us to examine Pax2 protein expression in the developing mouse forebrain in more detail. Results We determined the expression pattern of Pax2 in the forebrain of wild type mouse embryos between E10.5 and postnatal day (P 15. Pax2 expression was detected in the septum of the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, eminentia thalami and in the subfornical organ. To evaluate Pax2 as a marker for septal cells, we examined Pax2 expression in Pax6Sey/Sey mutants, which have an enlarged septum. We found that Pax2 clearly marks a population of septal cells equivalent to that seen in wild types, indicating its utility as a marker of septal identity. These cells did not express the GABAergic marker calbindin nor the cholinergic marker choline acetyltransferase and were not detectable after P15. Conclusion Pax2 is expressed in populations of cells within the developing septum, hypothalamus, and eminentia thalami. It seems especially useful as a marker of the telencephalic septum, because of its early, strong and characteristic expression in this structure. Further, its expression is maintained in the enlarged septum of Pax6Sey/Sey mutants.

  8. Cytogenetic Evaluation of the Physiological Saline Extract of a Newly Developed Dental Material "ORMO-48".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanan, P V; Mol, Lizzy

    2011-07-01

    The ORMO-48 is a new indigenous material for dental applications, developed by the Dental Products Laboratory of our Institute. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of an indigenously developed dental material in Swiss albino mice. The genotoxic effect was evaluated by micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. Two grams of dental material was extracted in 10.0 ml of physiological saline at 70°C for 24 h. The extract was cooled to room temperature and was used for the experiment. The experimental designed had three groups each (six mice in each group) for micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. The first, second, and third groups were given a single exposure of physiological saline alone (control), dental material's extract (test), and cyclophosphamide (positive control) respectively for micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. The result of the study indicated that, the percentage of micronucleated PCE (polychromatic erythrocytes) and NCE (normochromatic erythrocytes) induced by the dental material (extract) treated group was well comparable with control group, whereas the positive control induced significantly high (P dental material extract treated group was similar to that of control group. The chromosomal anomalies such as chromatid/chromosomal breaks, centric rings, exchanges, dicentric, and acentric fragments were evaluated. The result showed that the anomalies of the dental material extract treated group were similar to control group, however, significant anomalies were observed in the cyclophosphamide treated group. Hence, the present study concluded that the indigenously developed biocompatible dental material, ORMO-48 is non genotoxic at our laboratory conditions.

  9. The use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice—A synopsis of a newly developed manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wintner, Lisa M; Sztankay, Monika; Aaronson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    to and facilitators of their beneficial use are well known. To support health care professionals and other stakeholders in the implementation of the EORTC PRO measures, the EORTC Quality of Life Group provides guidance on issues considered important for their use in daily clinical practice. Herein, we present......Cancer has increasingly become a chronic condition and the routine collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) like quality of life is widely recommended for clinical practice. Nonetheless, the successful implementation of PROs is still a major challenge, although common barriers...... an outline of the newly developed "'Manual for the use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice", covering the following issues: * a rationale for using EORTC measures in routine care *selection of EORTC measures, timing of assessments, scoring and presentation of results * aspects of a strategic...

  10. Dosimetric evaluation of newly developed well-type ionization chamber for use in the calibration of brachytherapy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyan Saminathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-type ionization chamber has been designed for convenient use in brachytherapy source strength calibration. The chamber has a volume of 240 cm 3 , weight of 2.5 kg, and is open to atmospheric conditions. The well-type ionization chamber dosimetric characteristics such as leakage current, stability, scattering effect, ion collection efficiency, and nominal response with energy were studied. The evaluated dosimetric characteristics of well-type ionization chamber were compared with two other commercially available well-type ionization chambers. The study shows that the newly developed well-type ionization chamber is reliable for air-kerma strength calibration. The results obtained confirm that this chamber can be used for the calibrations of high-dose rate brachytherapy sources.

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of newly developed well-type ionization chamber for use in the calibration of brachytherapy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Sathiyan; Godson, Henry Finlay; Ponmalar, Retna; Manickam, Ravikumar; Mazarello, James

    2016-01-01

    The well-type ionization chamber has been designed for convenient use in brachytherapy source strength calibration. The chamber has a volume of 240 cm(3), weight of 2.5 kg, and is open to atmospheric conditions. The well-type ionization chamber dosimetric characteristics such as leakage current, stability, scattering effect, ion collection efficiency, and nominal response with energy were studied. The evaluated dosimetric characteristics of well-type ionization chamber were compared with two other commercially available well-type ionization chambers. The study shows that the newly developed well-type ionization chamber is reliable for air-kerma strength calibration. The results obtained confirm that this chamber can be used for the calibrations of high-dose rate brachytherapy sources.

  12. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  13. Steam oxidation behavior of high strength newly developed ferritic/martensitic steels at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, Alina; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Gutierrez, Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Mayr, Peter [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Spiradek-Hahn, Krystina [Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (AIT), Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of thermal power plants is currently limited by the strength and the oxidation resistance of the commercially available ferritic steels. The higher operating pressures and temperatures, essential to increase efficiency, impose important requirements on the materials from both the mechanical and chemical stability perspective. For instance, a creep rupture strength of 100 MPa after 100.000 hours at 650 C has been defined as the target for new steel development. Moreover, steam oxidation resistance is required as otherwise, at temperatures higher than 600 C, the resulting thick oxide scales will spall, causing blockage on bends as well as overheating of heat exchangers due to a thermal insulation effect, erosion of down-stream components and loss of cross-section in critical components such as blades. It has been shown that in general, a Cr wt. % higher than 9 is required for acceptable oxidation rates at 650 C, but such high Cr content results in a reduction of the creep strength. As an exception, several 9 wt. % steels developed by Abe which also containing Si and Mn, exhibit resistance to steam oxidation but only after having been subjected to a pre-oxidation heat treatment at 650 C for many hours. Substantial efforts are being carried out in Europe, North America and Japan attempting to design and produce steels with these properties. The steam oxidation behavior of high strength new alloys, such as CB2 and FT7 steels developed within the frame of European COST Actions 522 and 536, as well as of a NIMS developed B containing 9Cr3W3CoVNb (NPM) martensitic steel, was studied by exposing these materials to pure flowing steam in the laboratory for periods of time in excess of 10,000 h at 650 C. CB2 and FT7 have similar creep strength to P92 whereas NPM reaches 21,000 h at 100 MPa exceeding by far that of P92 according to the ECCC values. (orig.)

  14. Newly-developed Fiber Product:How to Realize the Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Referring to the well-known fiber products in the global markets,you could easily list the LYCRA~ from INVISTA,TENCEL~ from Lenzing,without doubt.Sometimes,the fiber label could be one of the most important elements for consumers to decide their purchasing behavior,especially during a more environment-friendly green consumption period.So that the research and development of new ecofriendly fiber become more and more necessary,challenging the technology innovation ability and market competitiveness for textile and apparel enterprises.

  15. The Durability and Performance of Short Fibers for a Newly Developed Alkali-Activated Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Funke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the development of a fiber-reinforced alkali-activated binder (FRAAB with an emphasis on the performance and the durability of the fibers in the alkaline alkali-activated binder (AAB-matrix. For the development of the matrix, the reactive components granulated slag and coal fly ash were used, which were alkali-activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide (2–10 mol/L and an aqueous sodium silicate solution (SiO2/Na2O molar ratio: 2.1 at ambient temperature. For the reinforcement of the matrix integral fibers of alkali-resistant glass (AR-glass, E-glass, basalt, and carbon with a fiber volume content of 0.5% were used. By the integration of these short fibers, the three-point bending tensile strength of the AAB increased strikingly from 4.6 MPa (no fibers up to 5.7 MPa (carbon after one day. As a result of the investigations of the alkali resistance, the AR-glass and the carbon fibers showed the highest durability of all fibers in the FRAAB-matrix. In contrast to that, the weight loss of E-glass and basalt fibers was significant under the alkaline condition. According to these results, only the AR-glass and the carbon fibers reveal sufficient durability in the alkaline AAB-matrix.

  16. Developing and implementing norms and standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available become more skilled, but that they apply those skills, and that this brings about better results in terms of achieving whatever it is they have been capacitated to do. ? ? be supported by feedback, leading to continuous improvement ? in capacity..., the motivation and inspiration of people to improve their lives.? ? A less complex statement of unknown origin is that: ?Capacity building is the process of assisting people to develop the technical and decision making skills to address their own needs...

  17. Development of a Simple Attitude Control System for Newly Constructed Balloon-Borne Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshitaka; Iijima, Issei; Nonaka, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Yuji; Kan'no, Makoto; Kishimoto, Yuji; Gunji, Shuichi; Sato, Tetsuya; Mihara, Tatehiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Ohta, Yukihiro; Yamauchi, Manabu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    A simple attitude control system for a balloon experiment has been developed. This system aims to achieve an accuracy of 0.1 deg in azimuth for a small payload with a diameter of 1.5 m and a moment of inertia of 100 kg·m2. It will be first flown with the Polarimetry for High ENErgy X-rays (PHENEX) experiment, which is to observe the polarization of astronomical objects in the hard X-ray energy region. The system is composed of the attitude sensors (sun sensors, geomagnetic aspect sensors, and an optical fiber gyro), read-out modules, CPU, output modules (PC104 based boards), and actuators (a torsion relief motor and a reaction wheel motor with their drivers). In this paper, after introducing these modules, the properties of the sensors and the control system based on the ground will be reviewed.

  18. First performance test of newly developed plastic scintillator for radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M., E-mail: minori@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ono, H. [Nippon Dental University, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata 951-8580 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyata, H. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Itoh, Y.; Ishida, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Yamaguchi, Y. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0024 (Japan)

    2015-01-11

    We present a plastic scintillator, developed in collaboration with Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., that is fabricated using a liquid parent material cured at room temperature by adding a hardener. The new scintillator can incorporate heat-labile functional materials such as gadolinium to enhance neutron sensitivity. The characteristics of the new scintillator, in particular the light yield and attenuation length, were evaluated using a {sup 90}Sr β-ray source. The light yield was measured 7% Anthracene on the basis of a comparison with commercially available scintillator (BC-408) at a distance of 18 cm from the photodetector surface. This light yield is dependent on the distance between the luminous point and the photodetector because of light attenuation. The attenuation length of the Gd-doped scintillator was about 50 cm.

  19. Initial operation of a newly developed multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.; Ko, J.; Wi, H.; Messmer, M.; Schenkelaars, S.; Scheffer, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2016-11-01

    A photo-elastic modulator based 25-chord motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic has been successfully developed and commissioned in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The diagnostic measures the radial magnetic pitch angle profile of the Stark splitting of a D-alpha line at 656.1 nm by the electric field associated with the neutral deuterium heating beam. A tangential view of the neutral beam provides a good spatial resolution of 1-3 cm for covering the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.28 m, and the time resolution is achieved at 10 ms. An in-vessel calibration before the vacuum closing as well as an in situ calibration during the tokamak operation was performed by means of specially designed polarized lighting sources. In this work, we present the final design of the installed MSE diagnostic and the first results of the commissioning.

  20. Radial transport dynamics studies of SMBI with a newly developed TPSMBI code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Hui; Guo, Wen-Feng; Wang, Zhan-Hui; Ren, Qi-Long; Sun, Ai-Ping; Xu, Min; Wang, Ai-Ke; Xiang, Nong

    2016-10-01

    In tokamak plasma fueling, supersonic molecule beam injection (SMBI) with a higher fueling efficiency and a deeper penetration depth than the traditional gas puffing method has been developed and widely applied to many tokamak devices. It is crucial to study the transport dynamics of SMBI to improve its fueling efficiency, especially in the high confinement regime. A new one-dimensional (1D) code of TPSMBI has also been developed recently based on a six-field SMBI model in cylindrical coordinate. It couples plasma density and heat radial transport equations together with neutral density transport equations for both molecules and atoms and momentum radial transport equations for molecules. The dominant particle collisional interactions between plasmas and neutrals, such as molecule dissociation, atom ionization and charge-exchange effects, are included in the model. The code is verified to be correct with analytical solutions and also benchmarked well with the trans-neut module of BOUT++ code. Time-dependent radial transport dynamics and mean profile evolution are studied during SMBI with the TPSMBI code in both slab and cylindrical coordinates. Along the SMBI path, plasma density increases due to particle fuelling, while plasma temperature decreases due to heat cooling. Being different from slab coordinate, the curvature effect leads to larger front densities of molecule and atom during SMBI in cylindrical coordinate simulation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11575055, 11375053, and 11475219) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013GB111005, 2014GB108004, and 2015GB110001).

  1. Development and Standardization of Mysore Triguna Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have developed a personality tool to assess Trigunas, that is, Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. The Trigunas are composed of the Pancha Mahabhutas, but one or the other guna is dominant singularly or in combination. There can never be a state when one or the other Pancha Mahabhutas, and consequently the Trigunas, is absent totally. One or the other guna is in dominance and is responsible for the behavior expressed by an individual. The present authors have tried to validate the same in psychology, taking into account the descriptions as delineated in Indian tradition and classical textual scriptures. In this process, the psychometric properties of the scale are established.

  2. Developing Process of Tropical Crop Machinery Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation Tropical crop machinery is a new special mechanical profession, which began to develop from 1950s to 1960s in China. Because the weather, soil and farm crops varieties in tropical region are greatly different from those in the other regions, most of the traditional farm machinery can't be directly used in tropical region or on the tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery needs a special design and manufacture. So some professional research institutes and education units were set up and some enterprises were built at that time, and the profession of tropical crop machinery was formed.

  3. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  4. Effect of environment on corrosion characteristics of newly developed DMR-1700 structural steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injeti Gurrappa and Guntupalli Malakondaiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of any metallic material depends on the environment to which it is exposed. DMR-1700 steel is a material for structural applications that has been recently developed at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory by changing the chemistry of alloying elements. Therefore, a detailed understanding of its corrosion characteristics under different environmental conditions is essential. In the present paper, we report the results of a systematic corrosion study that was carried out on the new steel to determine the effect of the environment on the protective nature of the oxide scale that forms on its surface under different environmental conditions. Furthermore, the oxide scale as well as the resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion were studied in various environments. The surface morphologies of the corroded steels were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM to determine the nature of the corrosion. On the basis of studies by different techniques, DMR-1700 steel is recommended for the manufacture of components used in various systems in conjunction with the application of an appropriate protective coating to improve its resistivity to corrosion.

  5. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  6. Quantification of the fate of dietary fiber in humans by a newly developed radiolabeled fiber marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carryer, P.W.; Brown, M.I.; Malagelada, J.R.; Carlson, G.L.; McCall, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    A radiolabeled cellulose (/sup 131/I-fiber) that retains the essential physical and chemical properties of this class of fiber was developed in our laboratory. Researchers quantified the fate of orally ingested /sup 131/I-fiber in healthy individuals by external gamma camera monitoring and fecal collections. The marker passes virtually intact through the human gastrointestinal tract with negligible release and absorption of the label in the gut. Comparison of the gastric emptying rate of /sup 131/I-fiber with that of a predominantly aqueous marker, /sup 99/mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-DTPA), showed that /sup 131/I-fiber strands were evacuated more slowly than intragastric fluids. An important finding was that some /sup 131/I-fiber emptying occurred during most time periods, even before liquids were completely evacuated. This suggests that the human stomach is able to empty simultaneously liquids and fiber strands (1-15 mm in length) that are resistant to grinding by antral mechanical forces and to digestion by acid-peptic secretion. Thus, some nondigestible solids may be emptied with the bulk of a meal, although at a slower rate. /sup 131/I-Fiber may be a useful marker for quantifying gastric emptying of nondigestible solids. Further, the stability of /sup 131/I-fiber in the gut, as opposed to most other physiologic solid labels, should enable future investigation of intestinal and colonic transit of fiber, which is an important component of the human diet.

  7. Targeting mitochondrial cell death pathway to overcome drug resistance with a newly developed iron chelate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Ganguly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multi drug resistance (MDR or cross-resistance to multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful application of chemotherapy and a basic problem in cancer biology. The multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, and its gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp are an important determinant of MDR. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of novel compounds that are not substrates of P-glycoprotein and are effective against drug-resistant cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this present study, we have synthesized a novel, redox active Fe (II complex (chelate, iron N- (2-hydroxy acetophenone glycinate (FeNG. The structure of the complex has been determined by spectroscopic means. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of FeNG we used doxorubicin resistant and/or sensitive T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and show that FeNG kills both the cell types irrespective of their MDR phenotype. Moreover, FeNG induces apoptosis in doxorubicin resistance T lymphoblastic leukemia cell through mitochondrial pathway via generation reactive oxygen species (ROS. This is substantiated by the fact that the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC could completely block ROS generation and, subsequently, abrogated FeNG induced apoptosis. Therefore, FeNG induces the doxorubicin resistant T lymphoblastic leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis and thus overcome MDR. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence that FeNG, a redox active metal chelate may be a promising new therapeutic agent against drug resistance cancers.

  8. Radiological study on newly developed composite corn advance lines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle Olatunji, Michael; Bemigho Uwatse, Onosohwo; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Amin, Y. M.; Faruq, G.

    2014-12-01

    Owing to population growth, there has been high demand for food across the world, and hence, different agricultural activities such as use of phosphate fertilizers, recycling of organic matters, etc, have been deployed to increase crop yields. In Malaysia, a total of nine composite corn advance lines have been developed at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya and are being grown under different conditions with a bid to meet the average daily human need for energy and fiber intake. To this end, the knowledge of radioactivity levels in these corn advance lines are of paramount importance for the estimation of possible radiological hazards due to its consumption. Hence, the radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in the corn have been determined using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations in the corn ranged from 0.05 to 19.18 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, from 0.10 to 3.22 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and from 26.4 to 129 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In order to ascertain the radiological safety of the population regarding maize consumption, the daily intakes of these radionuclides as well as the annual effective dose were estimated. The total effective dose obtained due to the ingestion of radionuclides via maize consumption is 15.39 μSv y-1, which is less than the international recommendations.

  9. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  10. Estimating uncertainties in the newly developed multi-source land snow data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Fei; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The snow simulations from the recently developed multivariate land snow data assimilation system (SNODAS) for the Northern Hemisphere are assessed with regard to uncertainties in atmospheric forcing, model structure, data assimilation technique, and satellite remote sensing product. The SNODAS consists of the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). A series of experiments are conducted to estimate each of the above uncertainty sources. The experiments include several open-loop model cases and data assimilation cases that assimilate the snow cover fraction (SCF) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). The atmospheric forcing uncertainty in terms of precipitation and radiation is found to be the largest among the various uncertainty sources examined, especially over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and most of the mid- and high-latitudes. Model structure and choice of data assimilation technique are also two big sources of uncertainty in SNODAS. The uncertainty of model structure is represented by two different parameterizations of SCF. The density-based SCF scheme (as used in CLM4) generally results in better snow simulations than does the stochastic SCF scheme (as in CLM4.5) within the data assimilation framework. The choice of TWS products retrieved from GRACE has relatively the least impact on the snow data assimilation.

  11. A newly developed removable dental device for fused 3-D MRI/Meg imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuboki, Takuo [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Dental School; Clark, G.T.; Akhtari, M.; Sutherling, W.W.

    1999-06-01

    Recently 3-D imaging techniques have been used to shed light on the role of abnormal brain functions in such conditions as nocturnal bruxism and orofacial pain. In order to achieve precise 3-D image fusion between magnetic resonance images (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we developed a removable dental device which attaches rigidly to the teeth. Using this device, correlation of MEG and MRI data points was achieved by the co-registration of 3 or more fiducial points. Using a Polhemus 3-space digitizer the locations of the points were registered on MEG and then a small amount of high-water-content material was placed at each point for registering these same points on MRI. The mean reproducibility of interpoint distances, determined for 2 subjects, was between 0.59 and 0.82 mm. Using a Monte Carlo statistical analysis we determined that the accuracy of a posterior projection from the fiducial points to any point within the strata of the brain is {+-}3.3 mm. The value of this device is that it permits reasonably precise and repeatable co-registration of these points and yet it is easily removed and replaced by the patient. Obviously such a device could also be adapted for use in diagnosis and analysis of brain functions related with other various sensory and motor functions (e.g., taste, pain, clenching) in maxillofacial region using MRI and MEG. (author)

  12. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  13. A newly developed MR simulation system for intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a prototype system for a magnetic resonance (MR) simulation to accurately estimate radiation doses to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Six patients with cervical cancer underwent MR simulation prior to intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy using Co-60 sources. Tandem and ovoid applicators filled with tap-water were placed in the uterine cavity and vaginal fornix, then MR imaging examinations were performed. Frontal and lateral images of maximum intensity projection (MIP) of applicators generated from a data set of half-Fourier single shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) images were chosen for processing by the treatment planning computer system. Then, isodose curves on the coronal or sagittal plane of the tandem section were superimposed on corresponding T2-weighted images derived from a turbo spin-echo technique. Doses to the tumor, the posterior wall of the urinary bladder, the anterior wall of the rectum, and the urethra were read from isodose curves superimposed on the T2-weighted sagittal image. Phantom experiments were done to evaluate geometrical errors. The possible distortion of the lattice image on the phantom was small. This system promises to be useful in customizing the dose distribution corresponding to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. (author)

  14. Clinical usefulness of a newly developed body surface navigation and monitoring system in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Obata, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Takenaka, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Yasujirou; Goto, Hajime; Hattori, Tomohiko

    2011-02-02

    In radiotherapy, setup precision has great influence on the therapeutic effect. In addition, body movements during the irradiation and physical alternations during the treatment period might cause deviation from the planned irradiation dosage distribution. Both of these factors could undesirably influence the dose absorbed by the target. In order to solve these problems, we developed the "body surface navigation and monitoring system" (hereafter referred to as "Navi-system"). The purpose of this study is to review the precision of the Navi-system as well as its usefulness in clinical radiotherapy. The Navi-system consists of a LED projector, a CCD camera, and a personal computer (PC). The LED projector projects 19 stripes on the patient's body and the CCD camera captures these stripes. The processed image of these stripes in color can be displayed on the PC monitor along with the patient's body surface image, and the digitalized results can be also displayed on the same monitor. The Navi-system calculates the height of the body contour and the transverse height centroid for the 19 levels and compares them with the reference data to display the results on the monitor on a real-time basis. These results are always replaced with new data after they are used for display; so, if the results need to be recorded, such recording commands should be given to the computer. 1) Evaluating the accuracy of the body surface height measurement: from the relationship between actual height changes and calculated height changes with torso surface by the Navi-system, for the height changes from 0.0 mm to ± 10.0mm, the changes show the underestimation of 1.0-1.5 mm and for ± 11.0mm to ± 20.0 mm, the underestimation of 1.5-3.0 mm. 2) Evaluating the accuracy of the transverse height centroid measurement: displacement of the inclined flat panel to the right by 5.0 mm, 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm and 20.0 mm showed the transverse height centroid calculated by the Navi-system for 0.024 ± 0.007 line

  15. Differential phenotyping of Brucella species using a newly developed semi-automated metabolic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A commercial biotyping system (Taxa Profile™, Merlin Diagnostika) testing the metabolization of various substrates by bacteria was used to determine if a set of phenotypic features will allow the identification of members of the genus Brucella and their differentiation into species and biovars. Results A total of 191 different amines, amides, amino acids, other organic acids and heterocyclic and aromatic substrates (Taxa Profile™ A), 191 different mono-, di-, tri- and polysaccharides and sugar derivates (Taxa Profile™ C) and 95 amino peptidase- and protease-reactions, 76 glycosidase-, phosphatase- and other esterase-reactions, and 17 classic reactions (Taxa Profile™ E) were tested with the 23 reference strains representing the currently known species and biovars of Brucella and a collection of 60 field isolates. Based on specific and stable reactions a 96-well "Brucella identification and typing" plate (Micronaut™) was designed and re-tested in 113 Brucella isolates and a couple of closely related bacteria. Brucella species and biovars revealed characteristic metabolic profiles and each strain showed an individual pattern. Due to their typical metabolic profiles a differentiation of Brucella isolates to the species level could be achieved. The separation of B. canis from B. suis bv 3, however, failed. At the biovar level, B. abortus bv 4, 5, 7 and B. suis bv 1-5 could be discriminated with a specificity of 100%. B. melitensis isolates clustered in a very homogenous group and could not be resolved according to their assigned biovars. Conclusions The comprehensive testing of metabolic activity allows cluster analysis within the genus Brucella. The biotyping system developed for the identification of Brucella and differentiation of its species and biovars may replace or at least complement time-consuming tube testing especially in case of atypical strains. An easy to handle identification software facilitates the applicability of the Micronaut

  16. Differential phenotyping of Brucella species using a newly developed semi-automated metabolic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appel Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commercial biotyping system (Taxa Profile™, Merlin Diagnostika testing the metabolization of various substrates by bacteria was used to determine if a set of phenotypic features will allow the identification of members of the genus Brucella and their differentiation into species and biovars. Results A total of 191 different amines, amides, amino acids, other organic acids and heterocyclic and aromatic substrates (Taxa Profile™ A, 191 different mono-, di-, tri- and polysaccharides and sugar derivates (Taxa Profile™ C and 95 amino peptidase- and protease-reactions, 76 glycosidase-, phosphatase- and other esterase-reactions, and 17 classic reactions (Taxa Profile™ E were tested with the 23 reference strains representing the currently known species and biovars of Brucella and a collection of 60 field isolates. Based on specific and stable reactions a 96-well "Brucella identification and typing" plate (Micronaut™ was designed and re-tested in 113 Brucella isolates and a couple of closely related bacteria. Brucella species and biovars revealed characteristic metabolic profiles and each strain showed an individual pattern. Due to their typical metabolic profiles a differentiation of Brucella isolates to the species level could be achieved. The separation of B. canis from B. suis bv 3, however, failed. At the biovar level, B. abortus bv 4, 5, 7 and B. suis bv 1-5 could be discriminated with a specificity of 100%. B. melitensis isolates clustered in a very homogenous group and could not be resolved according to their assigned biovars. Conclusions The comprehensive testing of metabolic activity allows cluster analysis within the genus Brucella. The biotyping system developed for the identification of Brucella and differentiation of its species and biovars may replace or at least complement time-consuming tube testing especially in case of atypical strains. An easy to handle identification software facilitates the

  17. Standardization of information systems development processes and banking industry adaptations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanrikulu, Zuhal

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the current system development processes of three major Turkish banks in terms of compliance to internationally accepted system development and software engineering standards to determine the common process problems of banks. After an in-depth investigation into system development and software engineering standards, related process-based standards were selected. Questions were then prepared covering the whole system development process by applying the classical Waterfall life cycle model. Each question is made up of guidance and suggestions from the international system development standards. To collect data, people from the information technology departments of three major banks in Turkey were interviewed. Results have been aggregated by examining the current process status of the three banks together. Problematic issues were identified using the international system development standards.

  18. Wear of nanofilled dental composites in a newly-developed in vitro testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C.

    Purpose. In vivo wear of dental composites can lead to loss of individual tooth function and the need to replace a composite restoration. To evaluate the wear performance of new and existing dental composites, we developed a novel system for measuring in vitro wear and we used this system to analyze the mechanisms of wear of nanofilled composite materials. Methods. A modified wear testing device was designed based on the Alabama wear testing machine. The new device consists of: (1) an antagonist which is lowered to and raised from the composite specimen by weight loading, (2) a motorized stage to cause the antagonist to slide 2mm on the composite surface, and (3) pumps for applying lubricant to the specimens. Various testing parameters of the device were examined before testing, including the impulse force, the third-body medium, the lubricant and antagonist. The parameters chosen for this study were 20N at 1Hz with a 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist. Three nano-composites were fabricated with a BisGMA polymer matrix and 40nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25%, 50% and 65%). The mechanical properties of the composites were measured. The materials were then tested in the modified wear testing device under impact wear, sliding wear and a combination of impact and sliding wear. The worn surfaces were then analyzed with a non-contact profilometer and SEM. Results. The volumetric wear data indicated that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and decreased toughness. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the 25% filled materials failed by fatigue and the 50% and 65% filled materials failed by abrasive wear. Impact wear produced fretting in this device and sliding wear is more aggressive than impact wear. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study and previous studies on this topic, manufacturers are recommended to use a filler

  19. Newly Developed Neutralized pH Icodextrin Dialysis Fluid: Nonclinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Murata, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Eiji; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    A two-compartment system (NICOPELIQ; NICO, Terumo Co., Tokyo, Japan) has recently been developed to neutralize icodextrin peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). In this study, a nonclinical evaluation of NICO was carried out to evaluate biocompatibility as well as water transport ability. Glucose degradation products (GDPs) in the icodextrin PDFs were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cell viability of human peritoneal mesothelial cells derived from peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE-HPMCs) was evaluated as well as the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released after exposure to different PDFs (NICO and EXTRANEAL [EX, Baxter Healthcare Corp., Chicago, IL, USA]) and neutralized pH glucose PDF MIDPELIQ 250 (M250, Terumo). The water transport ability of NICO, EX, and M250 was tested using dialysis tube membranes with various pore sizes: 1, 2, 6-8, and 12-16 kDa. Although cell viability decreased by 30% after 30 min exposure to NICO, it was maintained for 6 h while a significant decrease was observed after 6 h exposure to EX. However, following adjustment of the pH to the same pre-exposure pH value, there was no significant difference in cell viability within the same pH group despite a doubling of the difference in the total amount of GDPs (44.6 ± 8.6 µM in NICO and 91.9 ± 9.5 µM in EX, respectively). In contrast, a significant decrease in cell viability was observed when the pH decreased to less than pH 6. Levels of released LDH, a cytotoxic marker, were within 5% after a 6-h exposure of NICO to PDE-HPMCs. There was no significant difference in water transport ability represented as overall osmotic gradients between NICO and EX. In conclusion, neutralization of icodextrin PDF is beneficial for maintaining cell viability and minimizing LDH release while water transport ability is comparable to the conventional icodextrin PDF. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development and Demand Analysis of Convention and Exhibition Industry Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the necessity and urgency of accelerating convention and exhibition industrial standardization on the basis of an analysis of the industry demands, developing tendencies, and existing problems during development.

  1. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO STANDARDIZATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Blinov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes educational standards as the key concept of modern education; their interrelation with the national qualifications system and professional standards being considered. The authors denote the reasons for changing the conceptual approach to the standard developments, and demonstrate the possible ways of educational quality assurance.Diversification and mobility of the modern qualifications along with the fast technological changes affects the educational content and knowledge acquisition, and requires the variable and flexible educational  curricula and management. The global development trends, concerning the educational quality standards, involve their orientation on the learning outcomes, which should be taken into account while developing the Federal State Educational Standards of the fourth generation. The authors reveal the structure of the future standard, outline its implementation stages, and demonstrate the mechanism guaranteeing the regulatory legal provision of professional education. 

  2. Evaluation of some Newly Developed Diploid Hybrids and their Breeding Value in 4x-2x Crosses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The narrow genetic base in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) limits the progress in cultivar development.The rich diploid germplasm in the origin center of potato provide a unique resource for improvement of tetraploid potatoes. Seven newly developed diploid hybrids with 2n pollen production, all of which have S.phureja background,were developed and evaluated for their value in potato breeding. They were crossed as male parnets to six tetraploid Solanum tuberosum cultivars,and seeds in large quantity from eleven crosses were obtained. Main agronomic traits ,such as tuber yield ,tuber number,mean tuber weight ,tuber shape ,eye depth, skin smoothness, flesh color, and specific gravity, were measured for 4x-2x tetraploid progenies in seedling generation ,and their parents as well. All of the diploid hybrids had some merit for specific traits and the DH39 was more promising ;high specific gravity trait in some diploid hybrids was successfully introgressed into tetroploid progenies via 4x-2x crosses. These diploid hybrids have potential value in potato breeding.

  3. Performance standards and meat safety--developments and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2012-11-01

    Performance standards have been developed to express, for regulatory purposes, an acceptable level of food safety afforded by either a product or a process. These performance standards have reflected the development of scientific thought on food safety management through setting of microbiological criteria, implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems, process control and risk-based management. In meat safety management, some performance standards reflect current risk-based thinking which sets objectives and/or criteria and allows freedom on how those objectives/criteria can be met. However, many performance standards do not reflect current thinking and some perpetuate the idea that meat can be consumed with zero risk.

  4. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs.

  5. Development of a versatile in vitro method for understanding the migration of Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Baird, Alan W; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that causes serious losses to livestock producers, and also zoonotic disease. The limitations of chemotherapy for the control of fasciolosis have led to significant interest in the development of vaccines to protect cattle and sheep from infection. However, relatively few studies have concentrated on the mechanisms of invasion of the gut by newly excysted juvenile liver flukes (NEJ) and the host response triggered by this event. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study invasion by NEJ, while also reducing the requirement for challenge infections of experimental animals. Fasciola hepatica metacercariae were excysted in vitro and placed into compartments containing rat distal jejunal sheets. Variations in incubation medium, chamber size and incubation temperature were used to identify optimal conditions for NEJ migration across the gut. Histological examination showed increased migration until 120 min post-incubation. The use of RPMI, without gassing at 39 °C, as the incubation medium was found to be optimal, with 40·5% of NEJ migrating after 150 min. This study describes a readily-reproducible method for studying the migration of F. hepatica NEJ within the definitive host. It will be useful for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets.

  6. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [Federal Institute of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana [Coimbra Health School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  7. Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - A newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Dames, Sibylle; Heinrich, Manuel; Ziegler, Matthias; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The MUSAD was developed as a diagnostic observational instrument in an interactional music framework. It is based on the ICD-10/DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was designed to assess adults on a lower level of functioning, including individuals with severe language impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument. Calculations were based on a consecutive clinical sample of N=76 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) suspected of ASD. Objectivity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were calculated and a confirmatory factor analysis was applied to verify a reduced and optimized test version. The structural model showed a good fit, while internal consistency of the subscales was excellent (ω>.92). Item difficulties ranged between .04≤pi≤.82 and item-total correlation from .21 to .85. Objectivity was assessed by comparing the scorings of two external raters based on a subsample of n=12; interrater agreement was .71 (ICC 2, 1). Reliability was calculated for four test repetitions: the average ICC (3, 1) was .69. Convergent ASD measures correlated significantly with the MUSAD, while the discriminant Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) showed no significant overlap. Confirmation of factorial structure and acceptable psychometric properties suggest that the MUSAD is a promising new instrument for diagnosing ASD in adults with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Activities to develop digital SDTV/HDTV standards in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chieteuk; Kim, Yong Han; Park, Sang Gyu; Yang, Jae-Woo; Nam, Jae Y.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we first introduce some R&D activities to develop the technical standards for digital standard definition TV (SDTV) and high definition TV (HDTV) as well as MPEG related activities in Korea. Then we present the key element of the technical standards of SDTV and HDTV via satellite, which are based on the MPEG-2 international standard. We describe design and implementation of a prototype DTV encoding system we developed. We also explain the system architecture and design considerations for the development of the prototype HDTV encoding system with application specific integrated circuit. Both of these prototype systems will be used to verify the technical standards, which need to be prepared for the introduction of digital video services.

  9. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  10. Why Kansas Is Developing Standards for Its Adult Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Glass, Dianne S.

    2010-01-01

    In Kansas, local and state adult education leaders realized that leadership standards cannot be ignored if adult education is to be perceived as a professional discipline within the state's larger educational community. The perfect opportunity to study and develop leadership standards for adult education directors and coordinators presented itself…

  11. ODX - diagnostic standard and development tools; ODX Diagnosestandard und Entwicklungswerkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, A.; Kricke, C.; Meyer, J. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    ODX, the new standard for the description of diagnostic protocols and data for electronic control units was released a year ago. After a brief review of the standard, ETAS introduces development tools for measuring, calibration, and diagnostic applications, with an emphasis on ECU calibration tasks. (orig.)

  12. The use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice-A synopsis of a newly developed manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Lisa M; Sztankay, Monika; Aaronson, Neil; Bottomley, Andrew; Giesinger, Johannes M; Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aa; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Velikova, Galina; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma; Holzner, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    Cancer has increasingly become a chronic condition and the routine collection of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) like quality of life is widely recommended for clinical practice. Nonetheless, the successful implementation of PROs is still a major challenge, although common barriers to and facilitators of their beneficial use are well known. To support health care professionals and other stakeholders in the implementation of the EORTC PRO measures, the EORTC Quality of Life Group provides guidance on issues considered important for their use in daily clinical practice. Herein, we present an outline of the newly developed "'Manual for the use of EORTC measures in daily clinical practice", covering the following issues: * a rationale for using EORTC measures in routine care *selection of EORTC measures, timing of assessments, scoring and presentation of results * aspects of a strategic implementation * electronic data assessment and telemonitoring, and * further use of EORTC measures and ethical considerations. Next to an extensive overview of currently available literature, the manual specifically focuses on knowledge about EORTC measures to give evidence-based recommendations whenever possible and to encourage readers and end-users of EORTC measures to contribute to further needed high-quality research. The manual will be accessible on the EORTC Quality of Life Group website's homepage and will be periodically updated to take into account any new knowledge due to medical, technical, regulatory and scientific advances. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid determination of tacrine and other drug metabolites in microsomal incubate by newly developed targeting algorithm on UHPLC/TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloos, Kristie C; Hondo, Toshinobu

    2009-12-15

    A rapid simultaneous determination method for in vitro Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity assay of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine (tacrine) metabolites using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with computer-assisted in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) monitoring was investigated. In general, enzyme inhibition assays require quantitative analysis of incubates with drugs using various concentrations of substrates/inhibitors. The assay of CYP isozyme inhibition is an important informational step in the drug discovery process and, with the many substrates listed by the FDA, high-throughput qualitative and quantitative analyses are desired. Based on sub-2-micron packing material with reversed phase chromatography combined with a single liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS), a less than 1min analysis time is presented for two additional drugs. We successfully determined seven of the eight potential isomer metabolites for the drug tacrine in 2.5min using a 2mm internal diameterx100mm length column and applying in-source CID with our newly developed chromatographic peak deconvolution technique. Although two of the peaks were heavily fused at a peak width of less than 300ms, we could clearly identify these peaks by monitoring the chromatographic intensity difference of their fragment peaks on the mass spectrum.

  14. Effects of Cold and Heat Stress on Egg Quality Traits of a Newly Developed Native Hybrid Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Durmuş

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ATAK-S is a newly developed native hybrid layer. Although the laying performance of this hybrid has been studied and determined, the performance response of the hybrid to different environmental temperature conditions is not known. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the effect of cold and heat stress on egg quality traits. Hens were divided into three different groups; control (20°C, low (12°C and high (32°C. A total of 360 hens, with 120 in each of the groups, were used in the study. Hens were held in three tier battery cages in an environmentally controlled poultry house. The study lasted for 3 weeks. No differences were found among different groups in terms of shape index, albumen height and Haugh unit of the egg quality traits. It was found that the differences among the heat groups in terms of egg shell breaking strength, egg weight, shell thickness and yolk colour were significant and the value of these traits decreased under the heat stress conditions, whereas they were not affected from the cold stress.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Banglong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Guoliang, E-mail: glqin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Meng, Xiangmeng; Ji, Yang; Zou, Yong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lei, Zhen [Harbin Welding Institute, Harbin 150028 (China)

    2014-11-03

    The newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 was for the first time joined by laser beam welding in order to meet the ever-increased long-term requirements of aerospace, aviation and armament industries. The weld appearance, microstructure, solute segregation, precipitate behavior, and their relationships with mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated. Sound joints with no crack and a few small porosities are obtained under appropriate heat inputs. As a result of heterogeneous nucleation involving the effect of Zr and Li, a non-dendritic equiaxed zone forms between partially melted zone and fusion zone. The crystal morphologies in fusion zone vary from columnar dendrite to equiaxed dendrite, with the increase of constitutional supercooling. Solute segregation leads to the variations of Cu content in grain interior and boundary, as well as the weak ability of re-precipitation of fusion zone. Most precipitates in the base metal dissolve during welding, and fusion zone contains a decreased quantity of δ′, β′, θ′, and T{sub 1}. The ultimate tensile strength of laser welded joints is 83.4% of that of the base metal, and can meet the application requirements from related industries, but the ductility still needs to be improved. Welding defects and loss of solid solution/precipitation hardened structure lead to the degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile fracture occurs in weld with the brittle intergranular dominated mode and premature failure occurs and extends in the equiaxed zone.

  16. Age-dependent preferential dense-core vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells revealed by newly developed monomeric fluorescent timer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Takashi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Karasawa, Satoshi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Although it is evident that only a few secretory vesicles accumulating in neuroendocrine cells are qualified to fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the extracellular space, the molecular mechanisms that regulate their exocytosis are poorly understood. For example, it has been controversial whether secretory vesicles are exocytosed randomly or preferentially according to their age. Using a newly developed protein-based fluorescent timer, monomeric Kusabira Green Orange (mK-GO), which changes color with a predictable time course, here we show that small GTPase Rab27A effectors regulate age-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles in PC12 cells. When the vesicles were labeled with mK-GO-tagged neuropeptide Y or tissue-type plasminogen activator, punctate structures with green or red fluorescence were observed. Application of high [K(+)] stimulation induced exocytosis of new (green) fluorescent secretory vesicles but not of old (red) vesicles. Overexpression or depletion of rabphilin and synaptotagmin-like protein4-a (Slp4-a), which regulate exocytosis positively and negatively, respectively, disturbed the age-dependent exocytosis of the secretory vesicles in different manners. Our results suggest that coordinate functions of the two effectors of Rab27A, rabphilin and Slp4-a, are required for regulated secretory pathway.

  17. Experimental investigation for determination of optimal X-ray beam tube voltages in a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye-Suk, E-mail: radiosugar@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye-Seul, E-mail: radiohesugar@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywchoi@keri.re.kr [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, JaeGu, E-mail: jgchoi88@paran.com [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI), Ansan, Geongki 426-170 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Yong-Chun, E-mail: ycrhee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate optimal tube voltages (kVp) for a newly developed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) process and to determine tube current–exposure time products (mA s) for the average glandular dose (AGD), which is similar to that of the two views in conventional mammography (CM). In addition, the optimal acquisition parameters for this system were compared with those of CM. The analysis was based on the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from the simulated micro-calcifications on homogeneous phantoms, and the figure of merit (FOM) was retrieved from the CNR and AGD at X-ray tube voltages ranging from 24 to 40 kVp at intervals of 2 kV. The optimal kVp increased more than 2 kV with increasing glandularity for thicker (≥50 mm) breast phantoms. The optimal kVp for DBT was found to be 4–7 kV higher than that calculated for CM with breast phantoms thicker than 50 mm. This is likely due to the greater effect of noise and dose reduction by kVp increment when using the lower dose per projection in DBT. It is important to determine optimum acquisition conditions for a maximally effective DBT system. The results of our study provide useful information to further improve DBT for high quality imaging.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of annealing temperature (1000–1150 °C on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, magnetic force microscopy (MFM, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, uniaxial tensile tests (UTT, and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT. The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP. The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN.

  19. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical and Corrosion Behavior of a Newly Developed Novel Lean Duplex Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Hu, Jincheng; Li, Jin; Jiang, Laizhu; Liu, Tianwei; Wu, Yanping

    2014-09-12

    The effect of annealing temperature (1000-1150 °C) on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and pitting corrosion behavior of a newly developed novel lean duplex stainless steel with 20.53Cr-3.45Mn-2.08Ni-0.17N-0.31Mo was studied by means of optical metallographic microscopy (OMM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), uniaxial tensile tests (UTT), and potentiostatic critical pitting temperature (CPT). The results showed that tensile and yield strength, as well as the pitting corrosion resistance, could be degraded with annealing temperature increasing from 1000 up to 1150 °C. Meanwhile, the elongation at break reached the maximum of 52.7% after annealing at 1050 °C due to the effect of martensite transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). The localized pitting attack preferentially occurred at ferrite phase, indicating that the ferrite phase had inferior pitting corrosion resistance as compared to the austenite phase. With increasing annealing temperature, the pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of ferrite phase dropped, while that of the austenite phase rose. Additionally, it was found that ferrite possessed a lower Volta potential than austenite phase. Moreover, the Volta potential difference between ferrite and austenite increased with the annealing temperature, which was well consistent with the difference of PREN.

  20. Estimation of skin phototypes with optical parameters: an experimental study using newly developed fibre optic detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, F; Kapoustina, V; Kron, A; Fink, A; Rädle, M

    2013-02-01

    In an experimental study (October 2010 Mannheim Germany) with 99 Caucasian volunteers, the skin colour (L*, a*, b*) and the reflectance spectra of human skin were compared to the Fitzpatrick's sun-reactive skin photo types (SPT). For this purpose, the skin colour and the reflectance spectra of human skin were determined using non-invasive method with a newly developed fibre optic detection device. The device, based on reflectance spectroscopy, was designed and optimized using a commercial optical analysis Software. By means of the measured spectra of scattered light, the colour values and the absorption spectra of the skin were calculated. Neither any of the L*, a*, b* colour values nor any of the parameters of the absorbance spectra can be used alone to assess the skin type properly. Therefore, an ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed, using the statistical computing software r, to correlate the skin types with the measured optical parameters. It turned out that the detection device combined with the extended statistical analysis gives a better estimate of skin type in respect of the measured optical parameters than a procedure with only L*, a*, b* colour values. Even with the extended methodology, the procedure gives only a rough estimation of the skin type.

  1. Numerical and analytical investigation towards performance enhancement of a newly developed rockfall protective cable-net structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhakal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous companion paper, we presented a three-tier modelling of a particular type of rockfall protective cable-net structure (barrier, developed newly in Japan. Therein, we developed a three-dimensional, Finite Element based, nonlinear numerical model having been calibrated/back-calculated and verified with the element- and structure-level physical tests. Moreover, using a very simple, lumped-mass, single-degree-of-freedom, equivalently linear analytical model, a global-displacement-predictive correlation was devised by modifying the basic equation – obtained by combining the principles of conservation of linear momentum and energy – based on the back-analysis of the tests on the numerical model. In this paper, we use the developed models to explore the performance enhancement potential of the structure in terms of (a the control of global displacement – possibly the major performance criterion for the proposed structure owing to a narrow space available in the targeted site, and (b the increase in energy dissipation by the existing U-bolt-type Friction-brake Devices – which are identified to have performed weakly when integrated into the structure. A set of parametric investigations have revealed correlations to achieve the first objective in terms of the structure's mass, particularly by manipulating the wire-net's characteristics, and has additionally disclosed the effects of the impacting-block's parameters. Towards achieving the second objective, another set of parametric investigations have led to a proposal of a few innovative improvements in the constitutive behaviour (model of the studied brake device (dissipator, in addition to an important recommendation of careful handling of the device based on the identified potential flaw.

  2. Recent developments in standardization of high efficiency video coding (HEVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports on recent developments in video coding standardization, particularly focusing on the Call for Proposals (CfP) on video coding technology made jointly in January 2010 by ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG and the April 2010 responses to that Call. The new standardization initiative is referred to as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and its development has been undertaken by a new Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) formed by the two organizations. The HEVC standard is intended to provide significantly better compression capability than the existing AVC (ITU-T H.264 | ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Part 10) standard. The results of the CfP are summarized, and the first steps towards the definition of the HEVC standard are described.

  3. High-speed monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) during photodegradation by using a newly developed wide area NIR imaging system (Compovision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Furukawa, Daiki; Wei, Tseng Tsai; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Motomura, Asako; Igarashi, Yoko; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to achieve wide area rapid monitoring of the crystallinity change in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during photodegradation caused by ultraviolet (UV) light by using a newly developed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovison). Several kinds of PLA samples with different crystallinities and their blends with poly[(3)-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] were prepared. Their two-dimensional NIR spectra in the 1,000-2,350-nm region were measured by Compovision at a 5-min interval during photolysis. An intensity decrease of the band in the 1,900-1,925-nm region due to the second overtone of the C = O stretching vibration of PLA was observed during photolysis. This suggests that an anhydride carbonyl is produced during photolysis. The NIR image of the crystallinity change monitored by the band at 1,917 nm in the standard normal variate spectra clearly shows the inhomogeneity of crystal evolution. A logarithmic increase was observed for all identified areas in the PLA film; however, the time to reach the maximum crystallinity was slightly different according to the initial crystallinity of the sample. It is likely that the initial crystallinity of the sample influences the degradation speed more than the degradation amount. These imaging results have provided fundamental chemical insights into the photolytic process for PLA, and at the same time they have demonstrated that the two-dimensional spectral data obtained by Compovision are useful for process monitoring of polymers.

  4. Cytological Evaluation and REBA HPV-ID HPV Testing of Newly Developed Liquid-Based Cytology, EASYPREP: Comparison with SurePath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Soo; Gong, Gyungyub; Sohn, Jin Hee; Ryu, Ki Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Khang, Shin Kwang; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Yong-Man; Kang, Chang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a newly-developed EASYPREP liquid-based cytology method in cervicovaginal specimens and compare it with SurePath. Cervicovaginal specimens were prospectively collected from 1,000 patients with EASYPREP and SurePath. The specimens were first collected by brushing for SurePath and second for EASYPREP. The specimens of both methods were diagnosed according to the Bethesda System. Additionally, we performed to REBA HPV-ID genotyping and sequencing analysis for human papillomavirus (HPV) on 249 specimens. EASYPREP and SurePath showed even distribution of cells and were equal in cellularity and staining quality. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods was 96.5%. Based on the standard of SurePath, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EASYPREP were 90.7%, 99.2%, 94.8%, and 98.5%, respectively. The positivity of REBA HPV-ID was 49.4% and 95.1% in normal and abnormal cytological samples, respectively. The result of REBA HPV-ID had high concordance with sequencing analysis. EASYPREP provided comparable results to SurePath in the diagnosis and staining quality of cytology examinations and in HPV testing with REBA HPV-ID. EASYPREP could be another LBC method choice for the cervicovaginal specimens. Additionally, REBA HPV-ID may be a useful method for HPV genotyping.

  5. Imagery metadata development based on ISO/TC 211 standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present status and major problems of the existing ISO standards related to imagery metadata. An imagery metadata model is proposed to facilitate the development of imagery metadata on the basis of conformance to these standards and combination with other ISO standards related to imagery. The model presents an integrated metadata structure and content description for any imagery data for finding data and data integration. Using the application of satellite data integration in CEOP as an example, satellite imagery metadata is developed, and the resulting satellite metadata list is given.

  6. Structural design of a newly developed pediatric circulatory assist device for Fontan circulation by using shape memory alloy fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Sugai, T K; Tanaka, A; Yoshizawa, M; Yambe, T; Yamada, A; Omran, M H; Shiga, T; Kitano, T; Kamiya, K; Mochizuki, S; Miura, H; Homma, D; Yamagishi, M

    2011-01-01

    Total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is commonly applied for the surgical treatment of congenital heart disease such as single ventricle in pediatric patients. Patients with no ventricle in pulmonary circulation are treated along with Fontan algorithm, in which the systemic venous return is diverted directly to the pulmonary artery without passing through subpulmonary ventricle. In order to promote the pulmonary circulation after Fontan procedure, we developed a newly designed pulmonary circulatory assist device by using shape memory alloy fibers. We developed a pulmonary circulatory assist device as a non-blood contacting mechanical support system in pediatric patients with TCPC. The device has been designed to be installed like a cuff around the ePTFE TCPC conduit, which can contract from outside. We employed a covalent type functional anisotropic shape memory alloy fiber (Biometal, Toki Corporation, Tokyo Japan) as a servo actuator of the pulmonary circulatory assist device. The diameter of this fiber was 100 microns, and its contractile frequency was 2-3 Hz. Heat generation with electric current contracts these fibers and the conduit. The maximum contraction ratio of this fiber is about 7% in length. In order to extend its contractile ratio, we fabricated and installed mechanical structural units to control the length of fibers. In this study, we examined basic contractile functions of the device in the mock system. As a result, the internal pressure of the conduit increased to 63 mmHg by the mechanical contraction under the condition of 400 msec-current supply in the mock examination with the overflow tank of 10 mmHg loading.

  7. Controlling methods of a newly developed extra aortic counter-pulsation device using shape memory alloy fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed O; Yamada, A; Tsuboko, Y; Muira, H; Homma, D; Shiraishi, Y; Yambe, T

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic counter-pulsation has been used to provide circulatory augmentation for short term cardiac support. The success of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) therapy has generated interest in long term counter-pulsation strategies to treat heart failure patients. The authors have been developing a totally implantable extra aortic pulsation device for the circulatory support of heart failure patients, using 150 µm Ni-Ti anisotropic shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers. These fibers contract by Joule heating with an electric current supply. The special features of our design are as follow: non blood contacting, extra aortic pulsation function synchronizing with the native heart, a wrapping mechanical structure for the aorta in order to achieve its assistance as the aortomyoplsty and the extra aortic balloon pump. The device consisted of rubber silicone wall plates, serially connected for radial contraction. We examined the contractile function of the device, as well as it controlling methods; the phase delay parameter and the pulse width modulation, in a systemic mock circulatory system, with a pneumatically driven silicone left ventricle model, arterial rubber tubing, a peripheral resistance unit, and a venous reservoir. The device was secured around the aortic tubing with a counter-pulsation mode of 1:4 against the heartbeat. Pressure and flow waveforms were measured at the aortic outflow, as well as its driving condition of the contraction phase width and the phase delay. The device achieved its variable phase control for co-pulsation or counter-pulsation modes by changing the phase delay of the SMA fibers. Peak diastolic pressure significantly augmented, mean flow increased (p<0.05) according to the pulse width modulation. Therefore the newly developed extra aortic counter-pulsation device using SMA fibers, through it controlling methods indicated its promising alternative extra aortic approach for non-blood contacting cardiovascular circulatory support.

  8. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K.; Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K.; Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; Altenheiner, S.; Blue, A.; Bomben, M.; Butter, A.; Cervelli, A.; Crawley, S.; Ducourthial, A.; Gisen, A.; Hagihara, M.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hirose, M.; Homma, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Kamada, S.; Kono, T.; Macchiolo, A.; Marchiori, G.; Meloni, F.; Milovanovic, M.; Morton, A.; Mullier, G.; Munoz, F. J.; Nellist, C.; Paschen, B.; Quadt, A.; Rashid, T.; Rieger, J.; Rummler, A.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Savic, N.; Sawai, H.; Sexton, K.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Swiatlowski, M.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Terzo, S.; Todome, K.; Tojo, J.; Houten, K. Van; Weingarten, J.; Wonsak, S.; Wraight, K.; Yamamura, K.

    2016-09-01

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD).

  9. Gliadel wafer implantation combined with standard radiotherapy and concurrent followed by adjuvant temozolomide for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ashby, Lynn S.; Smith, Kris A.; Stea, Baldassarre

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, only two chemotherapeutic agents, evaluated in phase III trials, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of newly diagnosed high-grade glioma (HGG): Gliadel wafers (intracranially implanted local chemotherapy) and temozolomide (TMZ) (systemic chemotherapy). Neither agent is curative, but each has been shown to improve median overall survival (OS) compared to radiotherapy (RT) alone. To date, no phase III trial has tested these agents when used in se...

  10. Student collaboration in developing an on-line self assessment tool to enhance development for student and newly qualified professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Laxton, Julie; Dagg, Paul; Hargreaves, Janet; Laverick, Duane; Mitchell, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    A “Competence in Practice” (CiPA) self assessment tool was developed initially as a research instrument as part of the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning; Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings.\\ud \\ud The tool asks a series of questions against which participants self-rate their preparedness for practice. A working group then created software from this that is used as a formative exercise to rate confidence and perceived competence in practice. This freely available package...

  11. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed bispyridinium oximes (K250, K251) with commonly used oximes against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil; Kopelikova, Irena

    2009-08-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K250, K251) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue AChE in poisoned rats and showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with the oxime HI-6 but it is significantly lower than the reactivating effects of obidoxime and trimedoxime, especially in diaphragm and brain. Both newly developed oximes were also found to be able to slightly reduce lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Their therapeutic efficacy is higher than the potency of the oxime HI-6 but it is lower than the therapeutic effects of trimedoxime and obidoxime. Thus, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes (K250, K251) does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available oximes and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  12. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Kunesova, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K027, K048) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (170 microg kg(-1) i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that the oxime HI-6 in combination with atropine was not able to protect the rats from the lethal effects of tabun. Two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats and one tabun-poisoned rat treated with atropine combined with HI-6 died within 2 h. On the other hand, all other tested oximes combined with atropine allowed all the tabun-poisoned rats to survive 7 days following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be sufficiently effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine approached the potency of newly developed oximes but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was significantly lower, especially at 24 h after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  13. Darwin Core: an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wieczorek

    Full Text Available Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations.

  14. Darwin Core: An Evolving Community-Developed Biodiversity Data Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, John; Bloom, David; Guralnick, Robert; Blum, Stan; Döring, Markus; Giovanni, Renato; Robertson, Tim; Vieglais, David

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity data derive from myriad sources stored in various formats on many distinct hardware and software platforms. An essential step towards understanding global patterns of biodiversity is to provide a standardized view of these heterogeneous data sources to improve interoperability. Fundamental to this advance are definitions of common terms. This paper describes the evolution and development of Darwin Core, a data standard for publishing and integrating biodiversity information. We focus on the categories of terms that define the standard, differences between simple and relational Darwin Core, how the standard has been implemented, and the community processes that are essential for maintenance and growth of the standard. We present case-study extensions of the Darwin Core into new research communities, including metagenomics and genetic resources. We close by showing how Darwin Core records are integrated to create new knowledge products documenting species distributions and changes due to environmental perturbations. PMID:22238640

  15. Personnel involved in nuclear standards development: 1980 directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S.J. (ed.)

    1980-03-01

    The development of nuclear standards is an active and necessary endeavor that is concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of nuclear potential. There are almost 4100 people from the teachnical community who are presently involved either in writing nuclear standards, including codes, or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document identifies the current participation of each individual as member, chairman, cochairman (vice-chairman), or secretary of about 700 standards development committees and groups. The standards committees and groups are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. This directory includes four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) Index of committee titles. It can also be used to identify the participation of employers as well as to recognize the contributions of individuals to the often interdisciplinary activity of standards development.

  16. Improving sexuality education: the development of teacher-preparation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M; Goldfarb, Eva S; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L

    2014-06-01

    Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the overwhelming public support for sexuality education instruction. In support of the implementation of the National Sexuality Education Standards, the current effort focuses on better preparing teachers to deliver sexuality education. An expert panel was convened by the Future of Sex Education Initiative to develop teacher-preparation standards for sexuality education. Their task was to develop standards and indicators that addressed the unique elements intrinsic to sexuality education instruction. Seven standards and associated indicators were developed that address professional disposition, diversity and equity, content knowledge, legal and professional ethics, planning, implementation, and assessment. The National Teacher-Preparation Standards for Sexuality Education represent an unprecedented unified effort to enable prospective health education teachers to become competent in teaching methodology, theory, practice of pedagogy, content, and skills, specific to sexuality education. Higher education will play a key role in ensuring the success of these standards. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  17. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of a newly developed shape memory alloy hook in a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the stability provided by a newly developed shape memory alloy hook (SMAH in a cadaveric transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF model.Six human cadaveric spines (L1-S2 were tested in an in vitro flexibility experiment by applying pure moments of ±8 Nm in flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right axial rotation. After intact testing, a TLIF was performed at L4-5. Each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral SMAH (USMAH; bilateral SMAH (BSMAH; unilateral pedicle screws and rods (UPS; and bilateral pedicle screws and rods (BPS. The L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 range of motion (ROM were recorded by a Motion Analysis System.Compared to the other constructs, the BPS provided the most stability. The UPS significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion and lateral bending; the BSMAH significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation; and the USMAH significantly reduced the ROM in flexion and left lateral bending compared with the intact spine (p0.05. Stability provided by the USMAH compared with the UPS was not significantly different. ROMs of adjacent segments increased in all fixed constructs (p>0.05.Bilateral SMAH fixation can achieve immediate stability after L4-5 TLIF in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether the SMAH can achieve fusion in vivo and alleviate adjacent segment degeneration.

  19. Biomechanical Analysis of a Newly Developed Shape Memory Alloy Hook in a Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) In Vitro Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Yuexing; Li, Jiukun; Zhou, Si; Tian, Shunliang; Xiang, Yucheng; Liu, Xingmo; Zheng, Ying; Pan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the stability provided by a newly developed shape memory alloy hook (SMAH) in a cadaveric transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) model. Methods Six human cadaveric spines (L1-S2) were tested in an in vitro flexibility experiment by applying pure moments of ±8 Nm in flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right axial rotation. After intact testing, a TLIF was performed at L4-5. Each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral SMAH (USMAH); bilateral SMAH (BSMAH); unilateral pedicle screws and rods (UPS); and bilateral pedicle screws and rods (BPS). The L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5-S1 range of motion (ROM) were recorded by a Motion Analysis System. Results Compared to the other constructs, the BPS provided the most stability. The UPS significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion and lateral bending; the BSMAH significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation; and the USMAH significantly reduced the ROM in flexion and left lateral bending compared with the intact spine (p0.05). Stability provided by the USMAH compared with the UPS was not significantly different. ROMs of adjacent segments increased in all fixed constructs (p>0.05). Conclusions Bilateral SMAH fixation can achieve immediate stability after L4–5 TLIF in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether the SMAH can achieve fusion in vivo and alleviate adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:25474112

  20. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in

  1. International developments. Research and standardization; Internationale Entwicklungen. Forschung und Standardisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung

    2017-08-01

    The methods and models for the determination of incorporated doses are developed and published by the international radiation protection commission ICRP. The ICRP recommendations were adopted into the international basic safety standards of IAEA and the European Commission The implementation of the safety standards into the national radiation protection regulations yield the legal basis for incorporation surveillance. In Germany this is the Strahlenschutzverordnung and the guideline for the physical radiation protection control for the determination of body doses.

  2. Task group to develop list of environmental standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new task group designed to develop a list of existing and potential standards that are applicable to environmental contamination problems in soil, rock, and groundwater has been established by the American Society for Testing a n d Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee on Geotechnics of Waste Management. The list currently includes over 60 existing and draft ASTM standards from ASTM committees in the areas of site characterization, construction evaluation, and geosynthetics.

  3. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  4. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  5. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs reach a broader geographic and product scope, a series of sophisticated and complex technical and economic analyses have been adopted by different countries in the world to support and enhance these growing S&L programs. The initial supporting techno-economic and impact analyses for S&L development make up a defined framework and process for setting and developing appropriate appliance efficiency standards and labeling programs. This report reviews in-depth the existing framework for standards setting and label development in the well-established programs of the U.S., Australia and the EU to identify and evaluate major trends in how and why key analyses are undertaken and to understand major similarities and differences between each of the frameworks.

  6. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  7. Applying OGC Standards to Develop a Land Surveying Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sofos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is committed to developing quality open standards for the global geospatial community, thus enhancing the interoperability of geographic information. In the domain of sensor networks, the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE initiative has been developed to define the necessary context by introducing modeling standards, like ‘Observation & Measurement’ (O&M and services to provide interaction like ‘Sensor Observation Service’ (SOS. Land surveying measurements on the other hand comprise a domain where observation information structures and services have not been aligned to the OGC observation model. In this paper, an OGC-compatible, aligned to the ‘Observation and Measurements’ standard, model for land surveying observations has been developed and discussed. Furthermore, a case study instantiates the above model, and an SOS implementation has been developed based on the 52° North SOS platform. Finally, a visualization schema is used to produce ‘Web Map Service (WMS’ observation maps. Even though there are elements that differentiate this work from classic ‘O&M’ modeling cases, the proposed model and flows are developed in order to provide the benefits of standardizing land surveying measurement data (cost reducing by reusability, higher precision level, data fusion of multiple sources, raw observation spatiotemporal repository access, development of Measurement-Based GIS (MBGIS to the geoinformation community.

  8. Orientation and Development Strategy of Newly- Built Local Colleges and Universities%新建地方本科高校的定位与发展战略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎

    2011-01-01

    Local colleges and universities are newly built as a result of economic and social development. To keep pace with the development of higher education, newly - built colleges and universities should orientate themselves definitely and set a devel- opment target. Moreover, they should define their vantage points and draw up their own development strategies based on their local situations so as to secure a sustainable development.%新建地方本科高校是经济社会发展的产物。为适应高等教育的发展,新建地方高校必须明确办学定位和发展方向,找准自己的优势.制定具有地方特色的发展战略,以实现学校的可持续发展。

  9. Development of a low-level Ar-37 calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, R M; Bowyer, T W; Day, A R; Fuller, E S; Haas, D A; Hayes, J C; Hoppe, E W; Humble, P H; Keillor, M E; LaFerriere, B D; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Miley, H S; Myers, A W; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A

    2016-01-01

    Argon-37 is an environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level Ar-37 standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in developing a process to generate and quantify low-level Ar-37 standards, which can be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. This paper presents a discussion of the measurement analysis, along with assumptions and uncertainty estimates.

  10. 77 FR 25143 - Announcement of Meeting on “Developing Standard Requirements for Fatigue Performance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... used in industry and developing standard requirements. Consortium planning and standard development... Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) invites interested parties to attend a pre-consortium meeting... National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Meeting on ``Developing...

  11. Mobile robot and mobile manipulator research towards ASTM standards development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Legowik, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Performance standards for industrial mobile robots and mobile manipulators (robot arms onboard mobile robots) have only recently begun development. Low cost and standardized measurement techniques are needed to characterize system performance, compare different systems, and to determine if recalibration is required. This paper discusses work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and within the ASTM Committee F45 on Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles. This includes standards for both terminology, F45.91, and for navigation performance test methods, F45.02. The paper defines terms that are being considered. Additionally, the paper describes navigation test methods that are near ballot and docking test methods being designed for consideration within F45.02. This includes the use of low cost artifacts that can provide alternatives to using relatively expensive measurement systems.

  12. Web accessibility standards and disability: developing critical perspectives on accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewthwaite, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dominant web accessibility standards do not respect disability as a complex and culturally contingent interaction; recognizing that disability is a variable, contrary and political power relation, rather than a biological limit. Against this background there is clear scope to broaden the ways in which accessibility standards are understood, developed and applied. Commentary. The values that shape and are shaped by legislation promote universal, statistical and automated approaches to web accessibility. This results in web accessibility standards conveying powerful norms fixing the relationship between technology and disability, irrespective of geographical, social, technological or cultural diversity. Web accessibility standards are designed to enact universal principles; however, they express partial and biopolitical understandings of the relation between disability and technology. These values can be limiting, and potentially counter-productive, for example, for the majority of disabled people in the "Global South" where different contexts constitute different disabilities and different experiences of web access. To create more robust, accessible outcomes for disabled people, research and standards practice should diversify to embrace more interactional accounts of disability in different settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating accessible experiences is an essential aspect of rehabilitation. Web standards promote universal accessibility as a property of an online resource or service. This undervalues the importance of the user's intentions, expertize, their context, and the complex social and cultural nature of disability. Standardized, universal approaches to web accessibility may lead to counterproductive outcomes for disabled people whose impairments and circumstances do not meet Western disability and accessibility norms. Accessible experiences for rehabilitation can be enhanced through an additional focus on holistic approaches to

  13. Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera for radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Fujimaki, Shu [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yoshihara, Toshihiro [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Vast agricultural and forest areas around the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan were contaminated with radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) after the accident following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. A variety of agricultural studies, such as fertilizer management and plant breeding, have been undertaken intensively for reduction of radiocesium uptake in crops, or, enhancement of uptake in phyto-remediation. In this study, we newly developed a gamma camera specific for plant nutritional research, and performed quantitative analyses on uptake and partitioning of radiocesium in intact plant bodies. In general, gamma camera is a common technology in medical imaging, but it is not applicable to high-energy gamma rays such as emissions from Cs-137 (662 keV). Therefore, we designed our new gamma camera to prevent the penetration and scattering of the high-energy gamma rays. A single-crystal scintillator, Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG), was employed, which has a relatively high density, a large light output, no natural radioactivity and no hygroscopicity. A 44 x 44 matrix of the Ce:GAGG pixels, with dimensions of 0.85 mm x 0.85 mm x 10 mm for each pixel, was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube. This gamma detector unit was encased in a 20-mm-thick tungsten container with a tungsten pinhole collimator on the front. By using this gamma camera, soybean plants (Glycine max), grown in hydroponic solutions and fed with 1-2 MBq of Cs-137, were imaged for 6.5 days in maximum to investigate and visualize the uptake dynamics into/within the areal part. As a result, radiocesium gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding of Cs-137, and then accumulated intensively in the maturing pods and seeds in a characteristic pattern. Our results also demonstrated that this gamma-camera method enables quantitative evaluation of plant ability to absorb, transport

  14. Development of image and information management system for Korean standard brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soon Cheol; Choi, Do Young; Tack, Gye Rae; Sohn, Jin Hun

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a reference for image acquisition for completing a standard brain for diverse Korean population, and to develop database management system that saves and manages acquired brain images and personal information of subjects. 3D MP-RAGE (Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo) technique which has excellent Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) as well as reduces image acquisition time was selected for anatomical image acquisition, and parameter values were obtained for the optimal image acquisition. Using these standards, image data of 121 young adults (early twenties) were obtained and stored in the system. System was designed to obtain, save, and manage not only anatomical image data but also subjects' basic demographic factors, medical history, handedness inventory, state-trait anxiety inventory, A-type personality inventory, self-assessment depression inventory, mini-mental state examination, intelligence test, and results of personality test via a survey questionnaire. Additionally this system was designed to have functions of saving, inserting, deleting, searching, and printing image data and personal information of subjects, and to have accessibility to them as well as automatic connection setup with ODBC. This newly developed system may have major contribution to the completion of a standard brain for diverse Korean population since it can save and manage their image data and personal information.

  15. Development and evaluation of a physically based multiscalar drought index: The Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Zhao, Xining; Jin, Jiming; Wu, Pute

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a new physically based multiscalar drought index, the Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index (SZI), was developed and evaluated, which combines the advantages of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The SZI is based on the water budget simulations produced with a sophisticated hydrological model, and it also includes a multiscalar feature to quantify drought events at different temporal scales taken from SPEI. The Chinese Loess Plateau was selected to evaluate the performance of the SZI. Our evaluation indicates that the SZI accurately captures the onset, duration, and ending of a multiyear drought event through its multiscalar feature, while the PDSI, which lacks this feature, is often unable to describe the evolution of a multiyear drought event. In addition, the variability of the SZI is more consistent with observed streamflow and the satellite normalized difference vegetation index than that of the Standardized Precipitation Index and the SPEI. Although the SPEI includes potential evapotranspiration (PE) as water demand, water demand is often unrealistically estimated based solely on PE, especially over arid and semiarid regions. The improved drought quantification with the SZI is the result of a more reasonable estimation of water demand by including evapotranspiration, runoff, and any change in soil moisture storage. In general, our newly developed SZI is physically based and includes a multiscalar feature, which enables it to provide better information for drought monitoring and identification at different temporal scales.

  16. IMPROVING THE VIRTUAL LEARNING DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES USING XML STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Suss

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Icarning environments and content often lack a common basis for the cxchange of learning materials. This delays, or even hinders, both innovation and delivery of learning tecnology. Standards for platforms and authoring may provide a way to improve interoperability and cooperative development. This article provides an XML-based approach to this problem creaied by the IMS Global Learning Consortium.

  17. Calibration of Nu-Instruments Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu Instruments Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to calibrate the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative calibration approaches, we have concluded that calibration of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for calibrating the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily calibration of the instrument. Application of the calibration method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials

  18. NREL Spectral Standards Development and Broadband Radiometric Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.; Gueymard, C.

    2003-05-01

    We describe a final version of revisions to current ASTM reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance. An NREL-developed graphical user interface for working with the SMARTS2 spectral model has been developed and is being tested. A proposed ASTM reference Ultraviolet (UV) spectra for materials durability is presented. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibration, characterization, and reporting software reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY STANDARDS OF BERBERIS ARISTATA STEM BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ahamad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberis aristata is an important medicinal plant of family Berberidaceae. It is commonly known as Zarishk and Daruhaldi. It is mainly used for the treatment piles, liver diseases and diabetes. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to develop the quality standards for its stem bark. The results of Pharmacognostic standardization of stem bark of B. aristata are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  20. Development of modified method for text recognition in standardized picture

    OpenAIRE

    Касьян, Константин Николаевич; Братчиков, Владимир Владимирович; Шкарупило, Вадим Викторович

    2015-01-01

    Text recognition in images is a very urgent problem in modern search engines. There are many different methods and techniques for text recognition. The paper is a method for text recognition in a standardized image. Standardized image means an image that has the same font, character size, certain writing order, such as the serial number or license plate of the car.In the paper, we developed an improved method for text recognition in the image. The method consists in a preliminary search of th...

  1. The influence of the time of antidotal treatment administration on the potency of newly developed oximes to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    (1) The influence of the time of administration of antidotal treatment consisting of anticholinergic drug (atropine) and newly developed oxime (K027 or K048) on its effectiveness to eliminate tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was studied in mice. (2) The therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of tabun-induced acute poisoning depends on the time of its administration regardless of the choice of the oxime. (3) Our results show that both oximes studied (K027, K048) are able to sufficiently eliminate lethal effects of tabun. Nevertheless, their efficacy significantly decreases when they were administered 5 min after tabun poisoning. (4) The findings support the hypothesis that both newly developed oximes appear to be suitable oximes to counteract acute toxicity of tabun although their ability to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun significantly decreases with prolonged time interval between tabun challenge and antidotal treatment administration.

  2. Developing a standardized cephalometric vocabulary: choices and possible strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randall F; Edgar, Heather; Tatlock, Charles; Kroth, Philip J

    2008-09-01

    The science of cephalometry has been invaluable for guiding orthodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcomes tracking. Though software packages easily calculate most cephalometric measurements, the ability to exchange cephalometric data between software packages is poorly developed. Hindering this effort is the lack of an agreed-upon standard for electronic exchange of cephalometric measurements. Unlike more technological issues, the problem of creating such a standard is one of formalizing decisions already established through historical precedent. Solving this problem will require education, cooperation, and consensus in order to reap the potential improvements to patient care, dental education, and research. The first step in overcoming these remaining issues is awareness. This article reviews those factors that place cephalometric measurements in an excellent position for standardization, outlines those decisions that must be made in order to realize the goal of electronic exchange of cephalometric information, and describes some of the options for these decisions as well as some advantages and disadvantages of each.

  3. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  4. Development of activity standard for {sup 90}Y microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia) and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: lmx@ansto.gov.au; Avci, B. [SIRTeX Medical Limited, Unit F6 Parkview, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia); James, D. [SIRTeX Medical Limited, Unit F6 Parkview, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia); Simpson, B. [CSIR National Metrology Laboratory, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Van Wyngaardt, W.M. [CSIR National Metrology Laboratory, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Cessna, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2005-08-01

    {sup 90}Y microspheres are important therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals used in the treatment of liver cancer through a process known as selective internal radiation therapy. SIR-spheres[reg] is a radiopharmaceutical product that is comprised of {sup 90}Y microspheres suspended in sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection into patients. It is necessary to establish for the SIR-spheres[reg] production the capability of accurately measuring the activity of this product to a traceable national measurement standard. An activity standard for SIR-spheres[reg] was developed from a standard for {sup 90}Y solution, employing a highly quantifiable chemical digestion process. Calibration factors for the manufacturer's ionisation chambers were determined for 1 and 5 ml of the SIR-spheres[reg] product placed in Wheaton vials, for both 34% and 44% of {sup 90}Y microsphere concentration.

  5. A comparison of reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in cyclosarin-and tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil

    2007-06-01

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was evaluated in rats poisoned with tabun or cyclosarin at a lethal dose corresponding to the LD50 value. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase showed that obidoxime is the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the peripheral compartment (blood) although the differences between obidoxime and newly developed oximes were not significant. On the other hand, one of the newly developed oximes (K074) seems to be a significantly more efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the central compartment (brain) than the other studied oximes. In addition, the oxime HI-6 is unable to sufficiently reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that HI-6 is the most efficacious reactivator of cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among the studied oximes in the peripheral (blood) as well as central (brain) compartment although the differences between the oxime HI-6 and other tested oximes in the brain were not significant. Due to their reactivating effects, both newly developed K-oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisoning while the oximes HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute cyclosarin poisonings due to its high potency in reactivating cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral as well as central compartment.

  6. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract tabun-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana

    2007-01-05

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 micro g/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24h and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all oximes studied in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge while two non-treated tabun-poisoned rats died within 2h. Both newly developed oximes combined with atropine seem to be effective antidotes for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisoning although they are not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. The oxime K075 showed a higher neuroprotective efficacy against tabun than K074 according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun challenge. The neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime in combination with atropine is similar to the potency of newly developed oxime K075 but the ability of the oxime HI-6 to counteract tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is significantly lower at 24h as well as 7 days after tabun poisoning. Due to their neuroprotective effects, both newly developed oximes (especially K075) appear to be more suitable oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings than the oxime HI-6.

  7. A comparison of the therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K206, K269) with currently available oximes against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2008-12-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K206, K269) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and eliminating tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies which determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue AChE in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood but lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the diaphragm and brain. Nevertheless, the differences in reactivating efficacy of obidoxime, trimedoxime and K206 was not significant while the potency of K269 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower. Both newly developed oximes were also found to be relatively efficacious in elimination of the lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Their therapeutic efficacy corresponds to the therapeutic potency of obidoxime. The oxime HI-6, relatively efficacious against soman, did not seem to be an adequately effective oxime in reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE and to counteract lethal effects of tabun. Both newly developed oximes (K206, K269) are significantly more efficacious in reactivating tabun-inhibited AChE in rats and to eliminate lethal toxic effects of tabun in mice than the oxime HI-6 but their reactivating and therapeutic potency does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  8. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2009-01-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 μg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored us...

  9. Six Newly Developed Pesticides and Their Synthesis%6个国外新开发的农药品种及其合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一宾

    2015-01-01

    Six pesticides which newly developed abroad and their synthesis were introduced, including three insecticides, one fungicide and two herbicides.%介绍了6个国外最新介绍的农药品种及其合成方法。内杀虫杀螨剂3个,杀菌剂1个,除草剂2个。

  10. Simultaneous detection of 13 viruses involved in meningoencephalitis using a newly developed multiplex PCR Mag-array system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodan; Wu, Rui; Shi, Ming; Zhou, Linfu; Wu, Mengli; Yang, Yining; An, Xinyue; Dai, Wen; Tian, Liang; Zhang, Chen; Ma, Xuejun; Zhao, Gang

    2016-08-01

    The early detection and identification of pathogens in central nervous system viral infections associated with neurological disease increases the survival rate. However, the limitations of current diagnostic methods contribute to a lack of proper diagnosis in 62% of patients. Therefore, a robust method for detecting multiple viruses in a single reaction with high specificity, throughput, and speed is required. A multiplex PCR Mag-Array (MPMA) system was developed that integrates three strategies: chimeric primer design, temperature switch PCR, and MagPlex-TAG techniques. The MPMA was used to amplify 13 target viral sequences simultaneously, with plasmids containing specific viral sequences as standard samples. To evaluate its clinical performance, 177 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested. The MPMA system presented high specificity and efficiency in detecting a control panel of 13 plasmids. Among 177 CSF samples, consistent results were achieved for 19 samples pre-tested using a commercial kit. Viral pathogens were found in 28/138 undiagnosed samples, with herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) being predominant. The 20 non-infectious samples revealed negative results. Compared to sequencing methods, sensitivity for detecting HSV-1 and HSV-2 was 100% and 98.78%, respectively, and specificity was 100% and 98.22%, respectively. A robust MPMA system that can simultaneously and reliably detect 13 meningoencephalitis-associated viruses with high specificity, throughput, and speed has been developed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of the impact of animal and dairy science journals based on traditional and newly developed bibliometric indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesios, C; Abas, Z

    2012-12-01

    Using traditional bibliometric indices such as the well-known journal impact factor (IFAC), as well as other more recently developed measures like the (journal) h-index and modifications, we assessed the impact of most prolific scientific journals in the field of animal and dairy science. To achieve this end, we performed a detailed investigation on the evaluation of journals quality, using a total of 50 journals selected from the category of "Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science" included in the Thomson Reuters' (formerly Institute of Scientific Information, ISI) Web of Science. Our analysis showed that among the top journals in the field are the Journal of Dairy Research, the Journal of Dairy Science, and the Journal of Animal Science. In particular, the Journal of Animal Science, the most productive and frequently cited journal, has shown rapid development, especially in recent years. The majority of the top-tier, highly cited articles are those associated with the description of statistical methodology and the standard chemical analytical methodologies.

  12. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733 and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kassa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733 to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sensory, motor and autonomic nervous functions at 2 hours following tabun challenge. Results: All tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive till the end of experiment. Both newly developed oximes (K727, K733 combined with atropine were able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of lethal poisoning although they did not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Conclusion: The ability of both novel bispyridinium oximes to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly lower than that of trimedoxime. Therefore, the newly developed oximes are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes such as trimedoxime in the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  13. An improvement of cerebral hemodynamics in a newly developed perfusion area evaluated by intra-arterial SPECT following vascular reconstructive surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochide, Ichiro [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and vascular reserve ({Delta}CBF) responding to acetazolamide loading by {sup 133}Xe SPECT. In combination, this study assessed the newly developed region of cerebral perfusion via bypass arteries after surgical vascular reconstruction in 11 hemispheres of 11 patients with atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease and adult onset moyamoya disease. In patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease, the cerebral perfusion from bypass arteries mainly developed in the preoperatively low {Delta}CBF territory. Although rCBF did not significantly alter after vascular reconstruction, preoperatively low {Delta}CBF was significantly improved to the normal range in the promotion of postoperatively newly born perfusion from bypass arteries. In 21 hemispheres of 13 patients with adult onset moyamoya disease, the postoperatively newly born perfusion from bypass arteries was significantly developed in the regions with either preoperative low rCBF or low {Delta}CBF. Although both rCBF and {Delta}CBF were significantly improved after the operation, {Delta}CBF was not restored satisfactorily up to the normal range in contrast to the sufficient increase of rCBF, even where the perfusion from the bypass artery was observed after the reconstructive surgeries. Vascular reconstructive surgeries were beneficial for the improvement of {Delta}CBF in the atherosclerotic arterial occlusive disease and rCBF in the adult-onset moyamoya disease, respectively. (author)

  14. Sustainable Development and Corporate Social Responsibility: Linking Goals to Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Bakardjieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is the core of sustainable development of companies. On one hand, the corporate social responsibility of companies is a prerequisite for sustainable business, on the other - sustainable development sets specific requirements for the development of businesses in the context of increasing requirements to the degree of quality and reliability of financial information. In recent years, sustainable development has become a strategic issue for companies and this trend applies to Bulgarian companies too. Development of non-financial reporting is a very dynamic process, whose peak is the establishment of an integrated system of accountability. Current paper makes analyses of advantages of CSR linking it to the implementation of sustainable development goals through the integrated reporting following the requirements of the standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.

  15. Historical Review of Curricula Reform of Teacher Education and Interpretation of Newly Promulgated Curriculum Standards%教师教育课程改革历史回顾与新颁课程标准解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海钟; 秦积翠; 路宏

    2013-01-01

    Psychology, pedagogy, methodology and teaching practice were the main curricula of normal universities in the 1980s. Class management, modern educational technology, writing skills and Putonghua were added to the curriculum schedule in 1990s. Psychology and pedagogy were being well-established in the course system and standard, while methodology was transformed into subject pedagogy, with educational technology and class management into related studies. In the new century, the professional concept in universities for preschooling, primary and secondary teachers training has developed into teachers education. The newly published curriculum standards of teacher education has realized the specialization, professionalism and practicality of the curriculum, which will lead to a profound change in teachers education.%  20世纪80年代,师范院校各个学科专业体现师范性质的课程是心理学、教育学、教学法三门必修课程加教育实习;20世纪90年代,经过改革,增加了班级管理、现代教育技术选修课程以及三笔字、普通话技能训练课程。其中心理学、教育学始终按照学科理论课程的体系和标准开设,而教学法也演变为学科教育学,甚至教育技术演变为教育技术学,班级管理成为班级管理学。新世纪以来,高等学校培养中学、小学、幼儿园教师的专业理念逐步向教师教育过渡,最近印发的《教师教育课程标准(试行)》实现了教师教育课程的专业化、职业化、实践化变革,由此将会引起教师教育领域的深刻变化。

  16. Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soosaimanickam Maria Packiam; Kathirvelu Baskar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera).Methods:growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera.Results:Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments.Conclusions:PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H.armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India.

  17. General Survey for Lightning Protection Standards Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The introduction of IEC/TC81 Thunderstorms are natural weather phenomena and there are no devices or methods capable of preventing lightning discharges. Lightning flashes striking structures or services entering the structures, or striking earth nearby are hazardous to people, to the structures themselves, their contents and installations, as well as to services.Hence lightning protection is very important for national economic development. The international trade in lightning protection measures integrat ed in plants or buildings is of increasing importance:more than 500 million USD, world wide are estimated today; consequent loss, where protection measures are not provided, is some order of magnitude higher.The number of countries where lightning protection is required either by law or by insurance companies is growing. Some countries have conflicting national rules and many developing countries do not have the relevant international standards, making the need for such standards all the more urgent.

  18. Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations%Open Augmented Reality Standards: Current Activities in Standards- Development Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Perey

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has emerged from research laboratories and is now being accepted in other domains as an attractive way of visualizing information. Before AR can be used in the mass market, there are a number of obstacles that need to be overcome. Several of these can be overcome by adopting open standards. A global grassroots community seeking open, interoperable AR content and experiences began to take shape in early 2010. This community is working collaboratively to reduce the barriers to the flow of data from content provider to AR end user. Standards development organizations and industry groups that provide open interfaces for AR meet regularly to provide updates, identify complementary work, and seek harmonization. The community also identifies deployer and implementer needs, communicates requirements, and discusses emerging challenges that could be resolved with standards. In this article, we describe current activities in international standards-development organizations. We summarize the AR standards gap analysis and shed light on special considerations for using standards in mobile AR.

  19. Trade, Development, and the Political Economy of Public Standards

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a political economy model of public standards in an open economy model. We use the model to derive the political optimum and to analyze different factors that have an influence on this political equilibrium. The paper discusses how the level of development influences the political equilibrium. We also analyze the relation between trade and the political equilibrium and compare this political outcome with the social optimum to identify under which cases ‘under-standardizati...

  20. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  1. Using Standardized Health Consumer Indicators as a Policy Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.

  2. Evaluation of a newly developed mid-infrared sensor for real-time monitoring of yeast fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Robert; Geoerg, Daniel; Staubach, Jens; Raedle, Matthias; Methner, Frank-Juergen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2017-01-02

    A mid-infrared (MIR) sensor using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique has been developed for real-time monitoring in biotechnology. The MIR-ATR sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The suitability of the sensor for practical application was tested during aerobic batch-fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneous monitoring of glucose and ethanol. The performance of the sensor was compared to a commercial Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer by on-line measurements in a bypass loop. Sensor and spectrometer were calibrated by multiple linear regression (MLR) in order to link the measured absorbance in the transmission ranges of the four optical sensor channels to the analyte concentrations. For reference analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied. Process monitoring using the sensor yielded in standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 6.15 g/L and 1.36 g/L for glucose and ethanol. In the case of the FT-MIR spectrometer the corresponding SEP values were 4.34 g/L and 0.61 g/L, respectively. The advantages of optical multi-channel mid-infrared sensors in comparison to FT-MIR spectrometer setups are the compactness, easy process implementation and lower price.

  3. Assessment of H2S in vivo using the newly developed mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sabine; Baeza-Garza, Carlos D; Logan, Angela; Rosa, Tiziana; Wedmann, Rudolf; Prime, Tracy A; Martin, Jack L; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Krieg, Thomas; Filipovic, Milos R; Hartley, Richard C; Murphy, Michael P

    2017-05-12

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced endogenously in vivo and has multiple effects on signaling pathways and cell function. Mitochondria can be both an H2S source and sink, and many of the biological effects of H2S relate to its interactions with mitochondria. However, the significance of mitochondrial H2S is uncertain, in part due to the difficulty of assessing changes in its concentration in vivo Although a number of fluorescent H2S probes have been developed these are best suited to cells in culture and cannot be used in vivo To address this unmet need we have developed a mitochondria-targeted H2S probe, MitoA, which can be used to assess relative changes in mitochondrial H2S levels in vivo MitoA comprises a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation coupled to an aryl azide. The TPP cation leads to the accumulation of MitoA inside mitochondria within tissues in vivo There, the aryl azido group reacts with H2S to form an aryl amine (MitoN). The extent of conversion of MitoA to MitoN thus gives an indication of the levels of mitochondrial H2S in vivo Both compounds can be detected sensitively by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the tissues, and quantified relative to deuterated internal standards. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of MitoA and show that it can be used to assess changes in mitochondrial H2S levels in vivo As a proof of principle we used MitoA to show that H2S levels increase in vivo during myocardial ischemia. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a design thinking case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-06-26

    Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6

  5. Standardized cell samples for midIR technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Rommel, Christina E.; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    The application of midIR spectroscopy towards human cell and tissue samples is impaired by the need for technical solutions and lacking sample standards for technology development. We here present the standardization of stable test samples for the continuous development and testing of novel optical system components. We have selected cell lines representing the major cellular skin constituents keratinocytes and fibroblasts (NIH-3T3, HaCaT). In addition, two skin cancer cell types (A-375 and SK-MEL-28 cells) were analyzed. Cells were seeded on CaF2 substrates and measured dried and under aqueous medium as well as fixated and unfixated. Several independent cell preparations were analyzed with an FTIR spectrometer in the wave number range from 1000 - 4000 cm-1. The obtained data demonstrate that fixed and dehydrated cells on CaF2 can be stored in pure ethanol for several weeks without significant losses in quality of the spectral properties. The established protocol of cell seeding on CaF2 substrates, chemical fixation, dehydration, storage under ethanol and air-drying is suitable for the production of reliable midIR standards. The retrieved spectra demonstrate that fixed cells on CaF2 can be prepared reproducibly; with stable midIR spectral properties over several weeks and properties mimicking reliable unfixed cells. Moreover, the fixated samples on CaF2 show clear differences in the cell type specific spectra that can be identified by principle component analysis. In summary, the standardized cell culture samples on CaF2 substrates are suitable for the development of a midIR device and the optimization of the specific midIR spectra.

  6. Correspondence between symptom development of Colletotrichum graminicola and fungal biomass, quantified by a newly developed qPCR assay, depends on the maize variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihmann, Fabian; Eisermann, Iris; Becher, Rayko; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Hübner, Konstantin; Deising, Holger B; Wirsel, Stefan G R

    2016-05-23

    Penetration attempts of the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum graminicola may activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) on different cultivars of Zea mays to different extent. However, in most events, this does not prevent the establishment of a compatible pathogenic interaction. In this study, we investigate the extent to which the host variety influences PTI. Furthermore, we assess whether visual disease symptoms occurring on different maize varieties reliably reflect fungal biomass development in planta as determined by qPCR and GFP tracing. Employing a set of four maize varieties, which were selected from a panel of 27 varieties, for in-depth assessment of pathogenesis of the wild type strain of C. graminicola, revealed considerable differences in susceptibility as evidenced by symptom severity that decreased from variety Golden Jubilee to Mikado to Farmtop to B73. However, a newly developed qPCR assay and microscopical observation of a GFP-labelled strain showed that disease symptoms are in some instances inconsistent when compared with other indicators of susceptibility. Of the four varieties assessed, either Golden Jubilee, Mikado and B73, or Golden Jubilee, Farmtop and B73 showed a direct correlation between symptom and fungal biomass development. In a pairwise comparison, however, Mikado and Farmtop showed an inverse correlation for these features. The genotype of maize contributes to the severity of symptoms resulting from an infection with C. graminicola. Partially, this may be attributed to the extent of PTI activated in different varieties, as reflected by papilla formation. Furthermore, when evaluating the susceptibility of a variety, it should be considered that symptom severity must not have to reflect the extent of fungal growth in the infected tissue.

  7. Population data on 10 non-CODIS STR loci in Japanese population using a newly developed multiplex PCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamura, H; Ota, M; Fukushima, H

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a newly devised autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems for 10 loci (D1S1656, D2S1353, D8S1132, D12S1090, D14S608, D18S535, D19S253, D20S480, D21S226, and D22S689) unlinked to the core STR loci (non-CODIS loci). Of 252 samples taken from the Japanese population, PCR products ranged in length from 107 bp to 319 bp. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at any of the 10 loci. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the 10 loci were 0.999999999998 and 0.99991, respectively. We conclude that the present multiplex system for the 10 non-CODIS loci represents a powerful tool for forensic applications.

  8. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile applic...... and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6 February 2016.......BACKGROUND: Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile...... application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. METHODS: The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists...

  9. Measurement of left ventricular chamber and myocardial volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Application of a newly developed edge-detection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Hirase, Yoshinori; Sagoh, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hideaki [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software has been reported to demonstrate inaccurate edge detection in the left ventricular chamber in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. In this study we developed a method to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV) and left myocardial volume (LMV) from gated SPECT data using a newly developed edge-detection algorithm, and we compared it with the QGS method of calculating LVV and LMV in a phantom study. Our method gave more accurate measurements LVV and LMV whereas the QGS method underestimated LMV. Compared with QGS LVV and LMV, our method yielded better results in the phantom study. (author)

  10. Radiometric Calibrations, Measurements, and Standards Development at NREL: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Radiometric calibrations, measurements, and standards development at NREL. We describe proposed revisions to current reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance and durability of materials. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibrations reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations. We report a method to quantify the rate of change of broadband radiometer responsivities as a function of integrated exposure to irradiance and thermal energy. The results of applying a vector of calibration factors or responsivities to field data to remove zenith-angle dependent errors in global solar radiation measurements are shown. We report on the relative sensitivity of radiometers to daily versus biweekly cleaning.

  11. Identification of the critical therapeutic entity in secreted Hsp90α that promotes wound healing in newly re-standardized healthy and diabetic pig models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn; Bhatia, Ayesha; Tsen, Fred; Chen, Mei; Wong, Alex K; Woodley, David T; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Chronic and non-healing skin wounds represent a significant clinical, economic and social problem worldwide. Currently, there are few effective treatments. Lack of well-defined animal models to investigate wound healing mechanisms and furthermore to identify new and more effective therapeutic agents still remains a major challenge. Pig skin wound healing is close to humans. However, standardized pig wound healing models with demonstrated validity for testing new wound healing candidates are unavailable. Here we report a systematic evaluation and establishment of both acute and diabetic wound healing models in pigs, including wound-creating pattern for drug treatment versus control, measurements of diabetic parameters and the time for detecting delayed wound healing. We find that treatment and control wounds should be on the opposite and corresponding sides of a pig. We demonstrate a strong correlation between duration of diabetic conditions and the length of delay in wound closure. Using these new models, we narrow down the minimum therapeutic entity of secreted Hsp90α to a 27-amino acid peptide, called fragment-8 (F-8). In addition, results of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal more organized epidermis and dermis in Hsp90α-healed wounds than the control. Finally, Hsp90α uses a similar signaling mechanism to promote migration of isolated pig and human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. This is the first report that shows standardized pig models for acute and diabetic wound healing studies and proves its usefulness with both an approved drug and a new therapeutic agent.

  12. Identification of the critical therapeutic entity in secreted Hsp90α that promotes wound healing in newly re-standardized healthy and diabetic pig models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn O'Brien

    Full Text Available Chronic and non-healing skin wounds represent a significant clinical, economic and social problem worldwide. Currently, there are few effective treatments. Lack of well-defined animal models to investigate wound healing mechanisms and furthermore to identify new and more effective therapeutic agents still remains a major challenge. Pig skin wound healing is close to humans. However, standardized pig wound healing models with demonstrated validity for testing new wound healing candidates are unavailable. Here we report a systematic evaluation and establishment of both acute and diabetic wound healing models in pigs, including wound-creating pattern for drug treatment versus control, measurements of diabetic parameters and the time for detecting delayed wound healing. We find that treatment and control wounds should be on the opposite and corresponding sides of a pig. We demonstrate a strong correlation between duration of diabetic conditions and the length of delay in wound closure. Using these new models, we narrow down the minimum therapeutic entity of secreted Hsp90α to a 27-amino acid peptide, called fragment-8 (F-8. In addition, results of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry analyses reveal more organized epidermis and dermis in Hsp90α-healed wounds than the control. Finally, Hsp90α uses a similar signaling mechanism to promote migration of isolated pig and human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. This is the first report that shows standardized pig models for acute and diabetic wound healing studies and proves its usefulness with both an approved drug and a new therapeutic agent.

  13. Biomechanical Skin Property Evaluation for Wounds Treated With Synthetic and Biosynthetic Wound Dressings and a Newly Developed Collagen Matrix During Healing of Superficial Skin Defects in a Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Engelke, Anne-Sophie; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rothenberger, Jens

    2016-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of superficial wounds such as partial-thickness burns. Treatment of these wounds frequently includes temporary application of wound dressings. The aim of this study was to compare a newly developed collagen matrix with commonly used temporary skin dressings for treatment of partial-thickness skin defects. Through a skin dermatome, 42 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats. The wounds were treated with a synthetic wound dressing (Suprathel, Polymedics Innovations Inc, Woodstock, GA) (n = 14), a biosynthetic skin dressing (Biobrane, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) (n = 14), or a newly developed bovine collagen matrix, Collagen Cell Carrier (Viscofan BioEngineering, Weinheim, Germany) (n = 14). Biomechanical properties of the skin were determined and compared every 10 days over a 3-month period of using the Cutometer MPA 580 (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). As opposed to healthy skin, statistically significant differences were detected between days 10 and 30, and between days 60 and 80, for calculated elasticity (Ue), firmness of skin (R0), and overall elasticity (R8). After 3 months, no statistically significant differences in skin elasticity were detected between the different wound dressings. The presented results give an opportunity to compare the wound dressings used for treatment with respect to skin elasticity and reveal the potential of the bovine collagen matrix in the treatment of superficial skin defects; therefore the results facilitate further evaluation of collagen matrix in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  14. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  15. [Development of laboratory information system--quality standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srenger, Vesna; Stavljenić-Rukavina, Ana; Cvorisćec, Dubravka; Brkljacić, Vera; Rogić, Dunja; Juricić, Ljiljana

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine structural modules of laboratory information system (LIS) for the application of new biomedical and information technologies by utilizing current organizational trends. The method used included definition of structural modules according to significant LIS properties, e.g., a large number of data, automation of analyses and rapid exchange of information, and according to the process of information establishment the collection, organization, selection, synthesis and distribution. Thus, outdated distributed software at the Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis has now been replaced by modular organization. Modules have been developed for the following: data input, online operation of laboratory instruments, preparation of results, compilation of medical documentation on quality assurance based on the application of quality standards, management of finances, and for point of care testing. The method of re-engineering as well as adherence to EN and ISO quality standards were utilized in planning the development of LIS based on the application of new information technologies and in shaping business processes. The application of re-engineering in LIS development results in quality improvement, reduces the cost and time necessary for performance of procedures, and improves relations in organizational structure.

  16. Development of bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Terminalia arjuna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; Kanika Patel; Dhanabal SP

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization ofTerminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) extract.Methods:In the present investigation, parameters such as preliminary phytochemical analysis, total phenol, flavonoid, tannin content, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis byHPTLC method were performed in order to standardization.Results:Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, amino acid and protein.Loss on drying and solubily in water was found to be5.04% and81.10%.Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be10.4% and0.44%.Total tannin content was found to be24.8%.The content of quercetin and rutin inT. arjuna was found to be1.08%w/w and0.16%w/w respectively.Further the level of heavy metal and microrganism were found to be under the limit.Conclusions:These bioanalytical parameters can be used as an important tool for the food scientists, researchers and even the consumers for its standards.

  17. Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Implementing Procedures Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    This implementing procedures document (IPD) was prepared for use in implementing tasks under the standard review plan update and development program (SRP-UDP). The IPD provides comprehensive guidance and detailed procedures for SRP-UDP tasks. The IPD is mandatory for contractors performing work for the SRP-UDP. It is guidance for the staff. At the completion of the SRP-UDP, the IPD will be revised (to remove the UDP aspects) and will replace NRR Office Letter No. 800 as long-term maintenance procedures.

  18. Strengthen Construction of Standardization to Promote Development of Petrochemical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wenhuan

    2006-01-01

    The importance and several principles in the enterprises standardization work were described. The significance of adopting advanced international standardization system and of perfecting the standardization management system was also discussed.

  19. Comparative in vitro anti-tick efficacy of commercially available products and newly developed phyto-formulations against field collected and resistant tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-12-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is considered as one of the most widely distributed tick species ecto-parasitizing on livestock and causes fatal diseases with significant production loss. To address the problem of controlling acaricide resistant tick infestations on animals, attention has been paid to develop eco-friendly phyto-acaricides. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative anti-tick activities of commercially available herbal and chemical products with chemically characterized phyto-formulations developed recently against field ticks and resistant tick lines of R. (B.) microplus. The chemical product Butox(®) Vet was found nearly passive against all the tested resistant tick lines. However, one of the commercial polyherbal product, Zerokeet(®) showed an efficacy (E%) of 41.8-75.4 % ([Formula: see text]) using recommended dilution (1:2) against field ticks and resistant tick lines. However, the other commercial product, Erina(®) EP has very limited efficacy against all the tested tick. In comparison, the newly developed phyto-formulation, NBA/13/B/2 and NAC-01 conferred an E% of 82.4-91.3 % ([Formula: see text]) and 62.3-94.6 % ([Formula: see text]), respectively, against tested resistant ticks. Results indicated higher marketing potentiality of newly developed formulation in the existing tick problem scenario.

  20. The Evaluation of the Potency of Newly Developed Oximes (K727, K733) and Trimedoxime to Counteract Acute Neurotoxic Effects of Tabun in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Kassa; Jana Hatlapatková; Jana Žďárová Karasová

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The ability of two newly developed oximes (K727, K733) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was evaluated and compared with currently available trimedoxime in rats. Methods: The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied combined with atropine on Wistar rats poisoned with tabun at a lethal dose (380 μg/kg i.m.; 90% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by the functional observational battery consisting of 38 measurements of sen...

  1. Effects of Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on a Newly Developed High-fat/Western-style Diet-induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Kuo; Cheung, Connie; Reuhl, Kenneth R.; Liu, Anna Ba; Lee, Mao-Jung; Lu, Yao-Ping; Yang, Chung S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a newly developed high-fat/Western-style diet-induced obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat/Western-style (HFW; 60% energy as fat and lower levels of calcium, vitamin D3, folic acid, choline bitartrate, and fiber) or HFW with EGCG (HFWE; HFW with 0.32% EGCG) diet for 17 wk. As a comparison, two other groups of mice fed a low-fat (LF; 10% energy as fat) ...

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations on an extrusion process for a newly developed ultra-high-carbon lightweight steel for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Yarcu, D.; Kazhai, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study the material flow of a newly developed ultra-high-carbon lightweight steel (uhc-steel) with a high amount of aluminum was investigated in an extrusion process. Cylinder compression tests were performed for material characterization and frictional behaviour was determined by using ring compression tests. Numerical simulations were carried to determine the optimal die geometry as well as to calculate the process loads and dominated stresses in the die occurring during the process. Based on the numerical results, an extrusion process was designed and implemented. Experiments showed that the uhc-steel can be formed by extrusion however it is associated with a high wear rate.

  3. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery. A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery. The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m2 and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients. Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery. PMID:28562535

  4. The socialization process of newly graduated nurses into a clinical setting: role of the clinical nurse educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Lindsay M; Schipper, Linda M

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review and synthesis of the literature related to the socialization of newly graduated nurses. Personal experience and standards frame the clinical nurse educator role in facilitating learner development and socialization. Successful strategies to improve the socialization process of newly graduated nurses from the literature and recommendations for the future are presented.

  5. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkader, Balsam; Leat, Susan Jennifer

    Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart. Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs. Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens' average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71. The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ramathibodi Language Development Questionnaire: A Newly Developed Screening Tool for Detection of Delayed Language Development in Children Aged 18-30 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Wantanakorn, Pornchanok; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2015-08-01

    To develop a parental questionnaire for screening children with delayed language development in primary care settings. Ramathibodi Language Development (RLD) questionnaire was developed and completed by groups of 40 typically developing children age 18 to 30 months old and 30 children with delayed language development. The mean score was significantly lower in the delay language group (6.7 ± 1.9), comparing with the typically developing group (9.6 ± 0.7). The optimal ROC curve cut-off score was 8 with corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 72%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.99). The RLD questionnaire was the promising language developmental screening instrument that easily utilized in well-child examination settings.

  7. Study of Dosimetric and Thermal Properties of a Newly Developed Thermo-brachytherapy Seed for Treatment of Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Bhoj R.

    Studies on the curative effects of hyperthermia and radiation therapy on treatment of cancer show strong evidence of synergistic enhancement when both radiation and hyperthermia treatment modalities are applied simultaneously. A variety of tissue heating approaches developed to date still fail to overcome essential limitations such as inadequate temperature control, temperature non-uniformity, and prolonged time delay between hyperthermia and radiation treatments. We propose a new self-regulating Thermo-brachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent administration of brachytherapy and hyperthermia. The proposed seed is based on the BestRTM Iodine-125 seed model 2301, where the tungsten marker core and the air gap are replaced with ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic core produces heat when subjected to an alternating electromagnetic (EM) field and effectively shuts off after reaching the Curie temperature (TC) of the ferromagnetic material, thus establishing temperature self-regulation. The seed has a ferromagnetic Ni-Cu alloy core having a Curie transition at a temperature of 52 °C. This study summarizes the design and development of the self regulating ferromagnetic core TB seed for the concurrent hyperthermia and brachytherapy treatments. An experimental study of the magnetic properties of the Ni1-xCu x (0.28≤ x ≤0.3) alloys, and the simulation studies of radiation and thermal distribution properties of the seed have been performed. A preliminary experiment for the ferromagnetic induction heating of Ni-Cu needles has been carried out to ensure the practical feasibility of the induction heating. Radiation dose characterizing parameters (dose rate constant and other TG-43 factors) were calculated using the Monte Carlo method. For the thermal characteristics, we studied a model consisting of single or multiple seeds placed in the central region of a cylindrical phantom using a finite-element analysis method

  8. Mechanism Research on Standardized Development of Rural Private Finance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In generalizing the researching conditions of researchers on private finance,the paper introduces the connoted meaning of rural private finance broadly and narrowly.The paper states the forms of rural private finance(including private loaning,private bank,rural private collecting,financing organizations,cooperatives,NGO,small loaning organizations and so on),the relations between rural private finance and rural economic relations,pointing out that it is the combination of the strong and the weak,which may generate benefits with the operation of marketing mechanisms.The paper analyzes the historical causes,supervision causes and cultural causes of rural private finance,discussing mechanisms of standardized development of rural private finance:firstly,standardize the organization management mechanisms,including scaled controlling mechanisms and bank management mechanisms;secondly,complete finance supervision mechanisms;thirdly,moderate government intervention,including affording liberal policy environment and reducing the improper intervention;fourthly,upgrading qualities mechanisms,including cultivating the rural credit culture and improving the quality of regulatory personnel.

  9. Developing standards using the language of teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Bolton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent paper by the author argued that educational standards inhered at least partly in the competence levels of learners, and that these competences mirrored those of their teachers. In the paper, the development of standards through quality teaching and learning were addressed, attempting to show that certain teaching-and-learning features have been linked to learner success across a range of contexts, including secondary school arts and science classrooms and a vocational course across a variety of social class contexts. Evidence was presented for the argument that the explication of evaluation criteria was central in all the teaching-and-learning practices linked to high levels of learner competence in a number of studies, and that five additional features were present in these practices serving to make possible elaboration of the necessary criteria. The current paper presents an in-depth linguistic analysis of some of the ways in which teachers have elaborated evaluation criteria, examining the relationship between instructional and regulative discourse in the classroom and how particular configurations of the two serve to enable clarification of qualities to be assessed, for learners. The paper closes by pointing to some implications for policy and practice.

  10. Development of bioanalytical parameters for the standardization of Zingiber officinale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; S P Dhanabal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization ofZingiber officinale (Z. officinale) extract.Methods:Phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and fingerprint analysis throughHPTLC method were carried out in the present investigation.Moreover quantitative analysis of rutin and quercetin inZ. officinale extract throughHPTLC techniques were also performed in the present investigation.Results:Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, triterpenoid, saponin, flavonoid, amino acid and protein.The total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be0.59% and4.50%.For quantitative analysis throughHPTLC techniques, optimization of solvent system was done and the content of quercetin and rutin in the extract was found to be3.22%(w/w) and0.65%(w/w) respectively.Conclusion:These above mentioned parameters can be used as an important tool for the standardization ofZ. officinale extract.

  11. Development and performance characterization of a new standard mercury manometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, H. M.; Maqsood, M.; Rashid, Haris

    2007-07-01

    A new standard mercury manometer has been developed to calibrate low vacuum gauges in the range from atmospheric pressure to 1mbar. It consists of a cistern that is a small stainless steel container used as mercury reservoir and also as the first Hg column connected to a long glass tube used as the second Hg column. Manometer scale covers the difference in Hg heights in two columns up to the length equivalent to 1000mbars. This is a novel low cost manometer with simple design, compact fabrication, better accuracy, easy operation, low vibration, and thermal stability. In order to evaluate the performance of the equipment, its generated pressures are compared with those of secondary standard, i.e., calibrated capacitance diaphragm gauge, giving the average correction factor 0.998. Different uncertainties of the generated pressures are discussed in detail along with the evaluation of correction factors. The relative uncertainty in the higher pressure side is found to be in the range of 10-4 which is within the limit (≈10-4).

  12. Development of bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; S P Dhanabal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop noval bioanalytical parameters for standardization of Azadiracta indica (A. indica) extract. Methods: In the present investigation, preliminary phytochemical analysis, total phenol, flavonoid, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis through HPTLC method were performed. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid, glycoside, saponin and flavonoid in the extract. Loss on drying, total ash and solubility in water was found to be 4.60%, 5.61% and 91.0%. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.8% and 14.08% w/w. The content of quercetin, rutin and gallic acid in A. indica was found to be 0.93%, 1.22% and 0.33% w/w respectively. Further the level of heavy metal content and microrganism were found to be in the safe level. Conclusions: In future, these bioanalytical parameters could be used as important tool for the standardization of A. indica extract.

  13. Improving Biomarker Development and Assessment: Standards for Study Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziding FENG

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), NCI funded and investigator driven, has the mission to evaluate biomarkers for their clinical utilities in cancer risk prediction, diagnosis, early detection, and prognosis. Abundant cancer biomarkers reported in literature yet few are used in clinics. Therefore, the emphasis of the EDRN is biomarker validation. Although schema for a phased approach to development exists and guidelines are available for study reporting, a coherent and comprehensive set of guideline for a definitive biomarker validation study design have not been delineated.Methods: We proposed PROBE study design, Prospective specimen collec-tion and Retrospective Blinded Evaluation, for pivotal definitive evaluation of the accuracy of a classification biomarker. A detailed formulation of all aspects of the design is provided. Four tables itemize aspects that relate to (i) the Clinical Context; (ii) Performance Criteria; (iii) the Biomarker test; and (iv) Study power and termination. Alternative designs and strategies were contrasted to illustrate the merit of PROBE design.Results: The ideas are applied to studies of biomarkers the intended use of which is for disease diagnosis, screening, or prognosis. Two EDRN valida-tion studies (breast cancer and prostate cancer) were used as examples to elucidate PROBE design.Conclusion: Common biases that pervade the biomarker research literaturewould be eliminated if these rigorous standards were followed closely. We urge the adoption of the design as standard of practice for pivotal evaluation of the classification accuracy ofbiomarkers.

  14. Parsing multiple processes of high temperature impacts on corn/soybean yield using a newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Future agricultural production faces a grand challenge of higher temperature under climate change. There are multiple physiological or metabolic processes of how high temperature affects crop yield. Specifically, we consider the following major processes: (1) direct temperature effects on photosynthesis and respiration; (2) speed-up growth rate and the shortening of growing season; (3) heat stress during reproductive stage (flowering and grain-filling); (4) high-temperature induced increase of atmospheric water demands. In this work, we use a newly developed modeling framework (CLM-APSIM) to simulate the corn and soybean growth and explicitly parse the above four processes. By combining the strength of CLM in modeling surface biophysical (e.g., hydrology and energy balance) and biogeochemical (e.g., photosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen interactions), as well as that of APSIM in modeling crop phenology and reproductive stress, the newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework enables us to diagnose the impacts of high temperature stress through different processes at various crop phenology stages. Ground measurements from the advanced SoyFACE facility at University of Illinois is used here to calibrate, validate, and improve the CLM-APSIM modeling framework at the site level. We finally use the CLM-APSIM modeling framework to project crop yield for the whole US Corn Belt under different climate scenarios.

  15. The Transformation and Development Stages of Newly-built Undergraduate Colleges and Universities%新建本科院校转型发展的阶段性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正林

    2012-01-01

      新建本科院校升本后不仅要明确转型发展的基本方向,而且应对实现目标的阶段性有清晰的把握,从而一步步达到目标。新建本科院校发展一般会经历三个阶段,即“建设合格本科院校”、“培育办学特色”、“创建品牌大学”。%  The newly-built undergraduate colleges and universities should not only identify their fundamental direc⁃tion, but also clearly grasp the different transformation and development stages. According to the transformation and development practice of the newly-built undergraduate colleges and universities, they may experience three stages, namely "building a qualified undergraduate college", "fostering school characteristics" and”creating a brand university".

  16. A comparison of neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Vasina, Libor; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of newly developed oximes (K203, K206) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in combination with atropine in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% LD(50)) were studied. The tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by using a functional observational battery and an automatic measurement of motor activity. The neurotoxicity of tabun was monitored at 24 hours and 7 days following tabun challenge. The results indicate that K203 and obidoxime in combination with atropine allow all tabun-poisoned rats to survive within 7 days following tabun challenge, while 2 nontreated tabun-poisoned rats and 1 tabun-poisoned rat treated with K206 or HI-6 in combination with atropine died within 7 days. Only one of the newly developed oximes (K203) combined with atropine seems to be effective for a decrease in tabun-induced neurotoxicity within 24 hours after tabun sublethal poisoning, although it is not able to eliminate tabun-induced neurotoxicity completely. On the other hand, the neuroprotective efficacy of commonly used oximes (obidoxime and HI-6), as well as one of the new synthesized oximes (K206), is significantly lower in comparison with K203, according to the number of eliminated tabun-induced neurotoxic signs at 24 hours after tabun challenge. Due to its neuroprotective effects, K203 appears to be a suitable oxime for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  17. A comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oxime (obidoxime) in tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, And Young-Sik

    2009-03-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oxime (obidoxime) using functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of atropine alone and atropine combined with one of three bispyridinium oximes (K117, K127, obidoxime) on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (180 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD(50) value) were studied. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored using a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 h following tabun challenge. The results indicated that all tested oximes combined with atropine enabled tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 h following tabun challenge while one tabun-poisoned rats died within 24 h after tabun poisoning when the rats were treated with atropine alone. Newly developed oxime K127 combined with atropine was the most effective in decreasing tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings among all oximes tested. Nevertheless, the differences of neuroprotective efficacy between K127 and obidoxime are not sufficient to replace obidoxime by K127 for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  18. A comparison of reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) in soman, cyclosarin and tabun-poisoned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Jun, Daniel; Karasova, Jana; Bajgar, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-09-25

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase was evaluated in rats poisoned with soman, tabun or cyclosarin at a lethal dose corresponding to their LD(50) value. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of soman-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that only the oxime HI-6 was able to reactivate soman-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral (blood) as well as central (brain) compartment. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that obidoxime is the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the peripheral compartment (blood) while K074 seems to be the most efficacious reactivator of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes in the central compartment (brain). In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of cyclosarin-inhibited blood and brain acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that HI-6 is the most efficacious reactivator of cyclosarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase among studied oximes. Due to their reactivating effects, both newly developed K oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings while the oxime HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute soman and cyclosarin poisonings.

  19. Simultaneous Real-Time Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption and Hydrogen Peroxide Production in Cells Using Our Newly Developed Chip-Type Biosensor Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ankush; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kumi Y.; Suzuki, Makoto; Sugiura, Yamato; Sugai, Tomoya; Tomonori, Amano; Tada, Mika; Kobayashi, Masaki; Matsue, Tomokazu; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms bear its defense mechanism. Immune cells during invasion by foreign body undergoes phagocytosis during which monocyte and neutrophil produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS generated in animal cells are known to be involved in several diseases and ailments, when generated in excess. Therefore, if the ROS generated in cells can be measured and analyzed precisely, it can be employed in immune function evaluation and disease detection. The aim of the current study is to introduce our newly developed chip-type biosensor device with high specificity and sensitivity. It comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes I and II. The counter electrode is a platinum plate while the working electrodes I and II are platinum microelectrode and osmium-horseradish peroxidase modified gold electrode, respectively which acts as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection sensors. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and H2O2 generation were measured in animal cells under the effect of exogenous addition of differentiation inducer, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The results obtained showed considerable changes in reduction currents in the absence and presence of inducer. Our newly developed chip-type biosensor device is claimed to be a useful tool for real-time monitoring of the respiratory activity and precise detection of H2O2 in cells. It can thus be widely applied in biomedical research and in clinical trials being an advancement over other H2O2 detection techniques. PMID:27065878

  20. Prognostic Implications of Newly Developed T-Wave Inversion After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Man-Jong; Jang, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Myung-Dong; Kwon, Sung Woo; Shin, Sung-Hee; Park, Sang-Don; Woo, Seong-Ill; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Kwan, Jun; Park, Keum-Soo

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of newly developed T-wave inversion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. New T-wave inversion was defined as new onset of T-wave inversion after the primary PCI, without negative T waves on the presenting electrocardiogram. The primary end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which consisted of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for heart failure. A total of 271 patients were analyzed and followed up for 24 months in this study. New T-wave inversion was observed in 194 patients (72%), whereas the remaining 77 patients (28%) did not show T-wave inversion after the index PCI. Post-PCI Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 2 or 3 was observed more frequently in patients with new T-wave inversion (97% vs 90%; p = 0.011). The cumulative MACE rate was significantly lower in patients with new T-wave inversion than in those without new T-wave inversion (8% vs 30%; odds ratio 0.197, 95% confidential interval 0.096 to 0.403; p wave inversion was an independent prognostic factor for MACE (hazard ratio 0.297, 95% confidential interval 0.144 to 0.611; p = 0.001). In conclusion, newly developed T-wave inversion after primary PCI was associated with favorable long-term outcome.

  1. Data encryption standard ASIC design and development report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon George; Witzke, Edward L.

    2003-10-01

    This document describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the SNL Data Encryption Standard (DES) ASIC. This device was fabricated in Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory using 0.6 {micro}m CMOS technology. The SNL DES ASIC was modeled using VHDL, then simulated, and synthesized using Synopsys, Inc. software and finally IC layout was performed using Compass Design Automation's CAE tools. IC testing was performed by Sandia's Microelectronic Validation Department using a HP 82000 computer aided test system. The device is a single integrated circuit, pipelined realization of DES encryption and decryption capable of throughputs greater than 6.5 Gb/s. Several enhancements accommodate ATM or IP network operation and performance scaling. This design is the latest step in the evolution of DES modules.

  2. Involving service users in trials: developing a standard operating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bridie Angela; Bedson, Emma; Bell, Philip; Hutchings, Hayley; Lowes, Lesley; Rea, David; Seagrove, Anne; Siebert, Stefan; Smith, Graham; Snooks, Helen; Thomas, Marie; Thorne, Kym; Russell, Ian

    2013-07-17

    Many funding bodies require researchers to actively involve service users in research to improve relevance, accountability and quality. Current guidance to researchers mainly discusses general principles. Formal guidance about how to involve service users operationally in the conduct of trials is lacking. We aimed to develop a standard operating procedure (SOP) to support researchers to involve service users in trials and rigorous studies. Researchers with experience of involving service users and service users who were contributing to trials collaborated with the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health, a registered clinical trials unit, to develop the SOP. Drafts were prepared in a Task and Finish Group, reviewed by all co-authors and amendments made. We articulated core principles, which defined equality of service users with all other research team members and collaborative processes underpinning the SOP, plus guidance on how to achieve these. We developed a framework for involving service users in research that defined minimum levels of collaboration plus additional consultation and decision-making opportunities. We recommended service users be involved throughout the life of a trial, including planning and development, data collection, analysis and dissemination, and listed tasks for collaboration. We listed people responsible for involving service users in studies and promoting an inclusive culture. We advocate actively involving service users as early as possible in the research process, with a minimum of two on all formal trial groups and committees. We propose that researchers protect at least 1% of their total research budget as a minimum resource to involve service users and allow enough time to facilitate active involvement. This SOP provides guidance to researchers to involve service users successfully in developing and conducting clinical trials and creating a culture of actively involving service users in research at all stages. The UK

  3. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jun He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available NIST standard reference material (SRM 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number.

  4. Development of a Low-Level Ar-37 Calibration Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Humble, Paul H.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-03-07

    Argon-37 is an important environmental signature of an underground nuclear explosion. Producing and quantifying low-level 37Ar standards is an important step in the development of sensitive field measurement instruments for use during an On-Site Inspection, a key provision of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. This paper describes progress at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the development of a process to generate and quantify low-level 37Ar standard material, which can then be used to calibrate sensitive field systems at activities consistent with soil background levels. The 37Ar used for our work was generated using a laboratory-scale, high-energy neutron source to irradiate powdered samples of calcium carbonate. Small aliquots of 37Ar were then extracted from the head space of the irradiated samples. The specific activity of the head space samples, mixed with P10 (90% stable argon:10% methane by mole fraction) count gas, is then derived using the accepted Length-Compensated Internal-Source Proportional Counting method. Due to the low activity of the samples, a set of three Ultra-Low Background Proportional-Counters designed and fabricated at PNNL from radio-pure electroformed copper was used to make the measurements in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory. Very low background levels (<10 counts/day) have been observed in the spectral region near the 37Ar emission feature at 2.8 keV. Two separate samples from the same irradiation were measured. The first sample was counted for 12 days beginning 28 days after irradiation, the second sample was counted for 24 days beginning 70 days after irradiation (the half-life of 37Ar is 35.0 days). Both sets of measurements were analyzed and yielded very similar results for the starting activity (~0.1 Bq) and activity concentration (0.15 mBq/ccSTP argon) after P10 count gas was added. A detailed uncertainty model was developed based on the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in

  5. Histone acetyl transferase 1 is essential for mammalian development, genome stability, and the processing of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Ge, Zhongqi; Sirbu, Bianca; Doughty, Cheryl; Agudelo Garcia, Paula A; Schlederer, Michaela; Annunziato, Anthony T; Cortez, David; Kenner, Lukas; Parthun, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Histone acetyltransferase 1 is an evolutionarily conserved type B histone acetyltransferase that is thought to be responsible for the diacetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 on lysines 5 and 12 during chromatin assembly. To understand the function of this enzyme in a complex organism, we have constructed a conditional mouse knockout model of Hat1. Murine Hat1 is essential for viability, as homozygous deletion of Hat1 results in neonatal lethality. The lungs of embryos and pups genetically deficient in Hat1 were much less mature upon histological evaluation. The neonatal lethality is due to severe defects in lung development that result in less aeration and respiratory distress. Many of the Hat1(-/-) neonates also display significant craniofacial defects with abnormalities in the bones of the skull and jaw. Hat1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are defective in cell proliferation and are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. In addition, the Hat1(-/-) MEFs display a marked increase in genome instability. Analysis of histone dynamics at sites of replication-coupled chromatin assembly demonstrates that Hat1 is not only responsible for the acetylation of newly synthesized histone H4 but is also required to maintain the acetylation of histone H3 on lysines 9, 18, and 27 during replication-coupled chromatin assembly.

  6. Bone-Forming Capabilities of a Newly Developed NanoHA Composite Alloplast Infused with Collagen: A Pilot Study in the Sheep Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral or vertical bone augmentation has always been a challenge, since the site is exposed to constant pressure from the soft tissue, and blood supply only exists from the donor site. Although, for such clinical cases, onlay grafting with autogenous bone is commonly selected, the invasiveness of the secondary surgical site and the relatively fast resorption rate have been reported as a drawback, which motivated the investigation of alternative approaches. This study evaluated the bone-forming capability of a novel nanoHA alloplast infused with collagen graft material made from biodegradable polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid versus a control graft material with the same synthesized alloplast without the nanoHA component and collagen infiltration. The status of newly formed bone and the resorption of the graft material were evaluated at 6 weeks in vivo histologically and three dimensionally by means of 3D microcomputed tomography. The histologic observation showed that newly formed bone ingrowth and internal resorption of the block were observed for the experimental blocks, whereas for the control blocks less bone ingrowth occurred along with lower resorption rate of the block material. The three-dimensional observation indicated that the experimental block maintained the external geometry, but at the same time successfully altered the graft material into bone. It is suggested that the combination of numerous factors contributed to the bone ingrowth and the novel development could be an alternative bone grafting choice.

  7. Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Networking and Standardization Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, D E; Callens, N; Wisniewski, A B

    2015-05-01

    Syndromes resulting in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are individually rare. Historically, this fact has hindered both clinical research and the delivery of evidence-based care. Recognizing the need for advancement, members of European and North American medical societies produced policy statements, notably the Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders, which recognize that optimal healthcare in DSD requires multidisciplinary teams in conjunction with networking of treatment centers and continued development of patient registries. This paper summarizes efforts in Europe and the U.S. toward creating networks focused on expanding discovery and improving healthcare and quality of life outcomes in DSD. The objectives and function of registry-based networks (EuroDSD/I-DSD), learning collaboratives (DSD-net), clinical outcomes research (DSD-Life), and networking hybrids (DSD-TRN) are reviewed. Opportunities for, and barriers to standardization in research and care are highlighted in light of practical considerations, for example, limitations in reliably classifying anatomic phenotypes and gaps in behavioral health staffing resources. The role of patient-reported outcomes is considered, with emphasis on integrating patient perspectives, given findings of limited agreement in outcome ratings by healthcare providers and patients. Finally, the characteristics of clinical centers likely to deliver the highest quality outcomes are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 35021 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement; Notice of Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement... development process; communication and interactions between the Commission, the ERO and Regional Entities; and... issues pertaining to the development and enforcement of mandatory Reliability Standards for the...

  9. Field assessment of reproduction-related traits of chironomids using a newly developed emergence platform (E-Board).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Benoît J D; Faburé, Juliette

    2017-03-01

    Further progress in the development of reliable biomonitoring strategies requires to better link effects in aquatic ecological systems to ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants. Among existing tools, in situ bioassays using caging method represent an interesting way to achieve this challenge. However, elaboration of adapted exposure chambers and suitable operating procedures is still required, particularly to assess ecological relevant traits such as those related to the reproduction. In such context, we developed a new device (Emergence board - E-Board) which allows assessing in rivers the development of the Chironomus riparius species from the early fourth instar larvae to the adult stage. The system acts as a suspended matter trap floating in the subsurface of the water equipped of an emergence trap for catching adults. The system was tested in actual field conditions. Its easy handling allowed obtaining data which demonstrated its applicability for assessing the development of the chironomids. Moreover, by adapting energy-based models (DEB) specifically developed in the laboratory for the species C. riparius, we were able to predict the growth pattern and the emergence of chironomids in real environmental conditions. The E-Board represents thus a promising new in situ tool in perspective of evaluation of the quality of the ecosystems.

  10. Developing IEEE medical device standards: a case study, wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Carole C; Zhang, Yuang-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading standards developing organization of global industry standards in a wide-range of industries, including biomedical and healthcare.

  11. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item  Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  12. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  13. Newly developed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Si-Fe biomedical beta titanium alloys with increased strength and enhanced biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Stráský, Josef; Harcuba, Petr; Landa, Michal; Janeček, Miloš; Bačákova, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    Beta titanium alloys are promising materials for load-bearing orthopaedic implants due to their excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, low elastic modulus and moderate strength. Metastable beta-Ti alloys can be hardened via precipitation of the alpha phase; however, this has an adverse effect on the elastic modulus. Small amounts of Fe (0-2 wt.%) and Si (0-1 wt.%) were added to Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta (TNZT) biocompatible alloy to increase its strength in beta solution treated condition. Fe and Si additions were shown to cause a significant increase in tensile strength and also in the elastic modulus (from 65 GPa to 85 GPa). However, the elastic modulus of TNZT alloy with Fe and Si additions is still much lower than that of widely used Ti-6Al-4V alloy (115 GPa), and thus closer to that of the bone (10-30 GPa). Si decreases the elongation to failure, whereas Fe increases the uniform elongation thanks to increased work hardening. Primary human osteoblasts cultivated for 21 days on TNZT with 0.5Si+2Fe (wt.%) reached a significantly higher cell population density and significantly higher collagen I production than cells cultured on the standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy. In conclusion, the Ti-35Nb-7Zr-6Ta-2Fe-0.5Si alloy proves to be the best combination of elastic modulus, strength and also biological properties, which makes it a viable candidate for use in load-bearing implants.

  14. Cytogenetic Evaluation of the Physiological Saline Extract of a Newly Developed Dental Material “ORMO-48”

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanan, P. V.; Mol, Lizzy

    2011-01-01

    The ORMO-48 is a new indigenous material for dental applications, developed by the Dental Products Laboratory of our Institute. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of an indigenously developed dental material in Swiss albino mice. The genotoxic effect was evaluated by micronucleus and chromosomal aberration tests. Two grams of dental material was extracted in 10.0 ml of physiological saline at 70°C for 24 h. The extract was cooled to room temperature and was used...

  15. Bringing Writing Research into the Classroom : The effectiveness of Tekster, a newly developed writing program for elementary students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.P.; Bouwer, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Inspectorate for Education established that the quality of elementary students’ writing is below the desired level, and that the teaching of writing must be improved. The aim of this PhD research was therefore to improve writing education in upper elementary grades by developing an effecti

  16. Determination of Mirtazapine in Human Plasma by HPLC-MS and Bioavailability of Newly Developed Mirtazapine Tablets in Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRong-shan; DINGLi; JIANLong-hai; XIAOHong

    2004-01-01

    Aim To estabhsh a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determination of mirtazapine in human plasma and evaluation of its relative bioavailabihty. Methods After being alkalized by 25% ammonia, mirtazapine in the plasma was extracted with n-hexane. Desloratadine was used as internal standard (IS). Solutes were separated on a C18 column with a mobile phase of methanol-ammonium acetate buffer (pH3.5) (75:25). The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1 mL·min-1. Detection was performed on an electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometer and operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) and positive-ionization mode using target ionsat m/z 266.2 for mirtazapine and m/z 311.2 for the IS. The fragmentor voltage was 90 V. A randomized cross-over study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers. In the two study periods, twenty healthy Chinese male subjects received a single oral dose of mirtazapine 30 mg. Results The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.3-200 ng·mL-1. The limit of quantitation was 0.1 ng·mL-1. The paramneters for mirtazapine test tablet and reference tablet were as follows.. T1/2 ( 24.7±4.1 ) and (23.6±4.3) h, Tmax (1.6±0.8) and (1.5±0.8) h, Cmax (95.9±29.8) and (91.9±26.7) ng·mL-1, respectively. Conclusion The estabhshed HPLC-MS method is rapid, sensitive and specific for the detemtination of mirtazapine in human plasma. The relative bioavailability was 100.0%±10.8%.

  17. The Development and Standardization of Testing Methods for Genetically Modified Organisms and their Derived Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dabing Zhang; Jinchao Guo

    2011-01-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs.This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization.

  18. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization.

  19. The Newly Developed Pesticide in Recent Years%近年新开发的农药品种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一宾

    2011-01-01

    14 new pesticides developed in recent years are introduced,among which 6 products are herbicide,6 products are fungicide,and 2 products are insecticide.%介绍了近年来新开发的14个农药品种,其中indaziflam等6个产品为除草剂,ametoctradin等6个产品为杀菌剂,sulfoxaflor和fluensulfone为杀虫剂。

  20. Developing, evaluating and maintaining a standardized stormwater BMP effectiveness database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, J; Urbonas, B; Jones, J; Strecker, E; Quigley, M; O'Brien, J

    2002-01-01

    The Urban Water Resources Research Council of the American Society of Civil Engineers, under a cooperative agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency, released Version 1.0 of the National Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database to the stormwater management community in 1999. The product included a loaded database of 71 BMPs, as well as data entry software for standardized reporting of BMP test data. In conjunction with the database, the project team developed BMP performance evaluation protocols and applied them to the data contained in the initial database. Since the initial database release, 42 new BMP data sets have been added to the database, which is now accessible via the Internet at www.bmpdatabase.org along with associated data evaluation reports and other project documentation. A national stormwater BMP data clearinghouse continues to screen and post new BMP data to the database, as well as respond to inquiries from the public. An overview of both of the database software and results of the data evaluation are provided in this paper.

  1. Developing quality standards for physical properties of mineral wool plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Berg, van den C.C.; Winkel, van A.

    2014-01-01

    The KIWA certification guidelines for mineral wool products contain standards for slabs and blocks. Propagators would like to introduce quality standards for mineral wool plugs as well. Main concerns were effects of too dense plugs on plant growth, and handling problems with too fluffy or broken

  2. Application of the newly developed 3D transport code r{sup 3}t to selected field cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, A.; Fein, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    To model the transport of contaminants in connexion with long-term safety analyses of repositories for radioactive waste recently the numerical model r{sup 3}t was developed. In the following first applications of r{sup 3}t are presented. The results of modelling of the transport of zinc at the sewage treatment facility in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and of trace elements in the frame work of the in-situ diffusion experiments DI-A and DR at the underground laboratory Mont Terri are shown. (authors)

  3. Detection of virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes in Campylobacter species using newly developed multiplex PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprade, Natacha; Cloutier, Michel; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Villemur, Richard; Khan, Izhar U H

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water. In each mPCR assay, a combination of two or three sets of primer pairs for virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes was used and optimized. Assay 1 was developed for the detection of dnaJ, racR and cdtC genes with expected amplification sizes of 720, 584 and 182bp. Assay 2 generated PCR amplicons for tet(O) and cdtA genes of 559 and 370bp. Assay 3 amplified cdtB ciaB, and pldA genes with PCR amplicon sizes of 620, 527 and 385bp. Assay 4 was optimized for flaA and flaB genes that generated PCR amplicons of 855 and 260bp. The primer pairs and optimized PCR protocols did not show interference and/or cross-amplification with each other and generated the expected size of amplification products for each target VAT gene for the C. jejuni ATCC 33291 reference strain. Overall, all ten target VAT genes were detected at a variable frequency in tested isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. where cdtC, flaB, ciaB, cdtB, cdtA and pldA were commonly detected compared to the flaA, racR, dnaJ and tet(O) genes which were detected with less frequency. The developed mPCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable and sensitive tools for simultaneously assessing potential pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profiling in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The mPCR assays will be useful in diagnostic and analytical settings for routine screening of VAT characteristics of Campylobacter spp. as well as being applicable in epidemiological

  4. The radioactive standard and the development of remote calibration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y

    2003-01-01

    The situation of the radioactive standard and traceability are explained. Application of remote calibration technology based on internet technology is ascribed. In order to support the radioactive standard, a group of measurement instruments are working. It consists of 4 pi beta-gamma simultaneous measurement instrument, 4 pi gamma pressurized ionization chamber with standard source, gamma-ray spectrometer, liquid scintillation counter and charge particle measurement instrument. Their features are explained. The traceability system of radioactive standard in Japan is stated. New e-trace project proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan is explained. It was proved that the ionization system made possible the radioactive standard by e-trace. (S.Y.)

  5. 15 CFR 10.1 - Initiating development of a new standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.1 Initiating development of a new standard. (a... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initiating development of a new... that the development of a Voluntary Product Standard is justified, the Department may initiate...

  6. Characteristic Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells in a Newly Developed Bilateral Coculture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of cancer cells has been implicated in cancer development and progression. Cancer-associated fibroblast constitutes a major stromal component of the microenvironment. To analyze interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts, we have developed a new bilateral coculture system using a two-sided microporous collagen membrane. Human normal skin fibroblasts were cocultured with three different human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC1937. After coculture, mRNA was extracted separately from cancer cells and fibroblasts and applied to transcriptomic analysis with microarray. Top 500 commonly up- or downregulated genes were characterized by enrichment functional analysis using MetaCore Functional Analysis. Most of the genes upregulated in cancer cells were downregulated in fibroblasts while most of the genes downregulated in cancer cells were upregulated in fibroblasts, indicating that changing patterns of mRNA expression were reciprocal between cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, breast cancer cells commonly increased genes related to mitotic response and TCA pathway while fibroblasts increased genes related to carbohydrate metabolism including glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glucose transport, indicating that fibroblasts support cancer cell proliferation by supplying energy sources. We propose that the bilateral coculture system using collagen membrane is useful to study interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells by mimicking in vivo tumor microenvironment.

  7. Feasibility and Effects of Newly Developed Balance Control Trainer for Mobility and Balance in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hyun; Byun, Seung Deuk; Kim, Chul Hyun; Go, Jin Young; Nam, Hyeon Uk; Huh, Jin Seok

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and effects of balance training with a newly developed Balance Control Trainer (BCT) that applied the concept of vertical movement for the improvements of mobility and balance in chronic stroke patients. Method Forty chronic stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group (n=20) underwent training with a BCT for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks, in addition to concurrent conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) underwent only conventional therapy for 4 weeks. All participants were assessed by: the Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), 10-meter Walking Test (10mWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Korean Modified Barthel Index (MBI), and Manual Muscle Test (MMT) before training, and at 2 and 4 weeks of training. Results There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except knee extensor power at 2 weeks of treatment, and in all parameters except MBI which showed further statistically significant progress in the experimental group over the next two weeks (p<0.05). Statistically significant improvements on all measurements were observed in the experimental group after 4 weeks total. Comparing the two groups at 2 and 4 weeks of training respectively, 10mWT, TUG, and BBS showed statistically more significant improvements in the experimental group (p<0.05). Conclusion Balance training with a newly developed BCT is feasible and may be an effective tool to improve balance and gait in ambulatory chronic stroke patients. Furthermore, it may provide additional benefits when used in conjunction with conventional therapies. PMID:22977778

  8. Measurements of CCN-concentrations in the European alpine aerosol using a newly developed static thermal diffusion counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzenberger, R.; Giebl, H.; Berner, A.; Kromp, R.; Reischl, G.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Puxbaum, H.

    2000-08-01

    The CCN counter developed at the University of Vienna operates on the principle of a static thermal diffusion chamber. Since 1997, it was used to obtain CCN concentrations in the European alpine background aerosol during intensive measurement campaigns. The 1997 campaign was performed on Mt. Sonnblick (3104 m a.s.l.), while in 1999 and 2000, intensive campaigns were performed on Mt. Rax (1644 m a.s.l.). CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation were found to be comparable ar both sites and also comparable to earlier measurements performed with a commercial CCN counter (DH Associates) on Mt. Sonnblick. Simultaneous measurements of CCN concentration, aerosol number size distribution (measured with a differential mobility particle spectrometer) and cloud liquid water content provided insights into the aerosol/cloud dynamics on Mt. Rax

  9. Detection of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive neurons in the rat lateral septal nucleus by a newly developed antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, Arturo; Yajeya, Javier; Gonzalez, Noelia; Husson, Marianne; Geffard, Michel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The available immunohistochemical techniques have documented restricted distribution of vitamins in the mammalian brain. The aim of the study was to develop a highly specific antiserum directed against pantothenic acid to explore the presence of this vitamin in the mammalian brain. According to ELISA tests, the anti-pantothenic acid antiserum used showed a good affinity (10-8 M) and specificity. The antiserum was raised in rabbits. Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the mapping of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive structures was carried out in the rat brain. Pantothenic acid-immunoreactive perikarya were exclusively found in the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus. These cells were generally small, round, fusiform or pyramidal and showed 2-3 long (50-100 μm) immunoreactive dendrites. Any immunoreactive axons containing pantothenic acid were detected. The very restricted anatomical distribution of the pantothenic acid suggests that this vitamin could be involved in some specific neurophysiological mechanisms.

  10. Targeted therapies in cancer - challenges and chances offered by newly developed techniques for protein analysis in clinical tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, K; Wolff, C; Gündisch, S; Berg, D; Becker, Kf

    2010-12-19

    In recent years, new anticancer therapies have accompanied the classical approaches of surgery and radio- and chemotherapy. These new forms of treatment aim to inhibit specific molecular targets namely altered or deregulated proteins, which offer the possibility of individualized therapies.The specificity and efficiency of these new approaches, however, bring about a number of challenges. First of all, it is essential to specifically identify and quantify protein targets in tumor tissues for the reasonable use of such targeted therapies. Additionally, it has become even more obvious in recent years that the presence of a target protein is not always sufficient to predict the outcome of targeted therapies. The deregulation of downstream signaling molecules might also play an important role in the success of such therapeutic approaches. For these reasons, the analysis of tumor-specific protein expression profiles prior to therapy has been suggested as the most effective way to predict possible therapeutic results. To further elucidate signaling networks underlying cancer development and to identify new targets, it is necessary to implement tools that allow the rapid, precise, inexpensive and simultaneous analysis of many network components while requiring only a small amount of clinical material.Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) is a promising technology that meets these requirements while enabling the quantitative measurement of proteins. Together with recently developed protocols for the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, RPPA may provide the means to quantify therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers in the near future and reliably screen for new protein targets.With the possibility to quantitatively analyze DNA, RNA and protein from a single FFPE tissue sample, the methods are available for integrated patient profiling at all levels of gene expression, thus allowing optimal patient stratification for

  11. Targeted therapies in cancer - challenges and chances offered by newly developed techniques for protein analysis in clinical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Malinowsky, C Wolff, S Gündisch, D Berg, KF Becker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new anticancer therapies have accompanied the classical approaches of surgery and radio- and chemotherapy. These new forms of treatment aim to inhibit specific molecular targets namely altered or deregulated proteins, which offer the possibility of individualized therapies.The specificity and efficiency of these new approaches, however, bring about a number of challenges. First of all, it is essential to specifically identify and quantify protein targets in tumor tissues for the reasonable use of such targeted therapies. Additionally, it has become even more obvious in recent years that the presence of a target protein is not always sufficient to predict the outcome of targeted therapies. The deregulation of downstream signaling molecules might also play an important role in the success of such therapeutic approaches. For these reasons, the analysis of tumor-specific protein expression profiles prior to therapy has been suggested as the most effective way to predict possible therapeutic results. To further elucidate signaling networks underlying cancer development and to identify new targets, it is necessary to implement tools that allow the rapid, precise, inexpensive and simultaneous analysis of many network components while requiring only a small amount of clinical material.Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA is a promising technology that meets these requirements while enabling the quantitative measurement of proteins. Together with recently developed protocols for the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, RPPA may provide the means to quantify therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers in the near future and reliably screen for new protein targets.With the possibility to quantitatively analyze DNA, RNA and protein from a single FFPE tissue sample, the methods are available for integrated patient profiling at all levels of gene expression, thus allowing optimal patient stratification

  12. Test of newly developed conceptual hydrological model for simulation of rain-on-snow events in forested watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-min QU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual hydrological model that links the Xin’anjiang hydrological model and a physically based snow energy and mass balance model, described as the XINSNOBAL model, was developed in this study for simulating rain-on-snow events that commonly occur in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The resultant model was applied to the Lookout Creek Watershed in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon, and its ability to simulate streamflow was evaluated. The simulation was conducted at 24-hour and one-hour time scales for the period of 1996 to 2005. The results indicated that runoff and peak discharge could be underestimated if snowpack accumulation and snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions were not taken into account. The average deterministic coefficient of the hourly model in streamflow simulation in the calibration stage was 0.837, which was significantly improved over the value of 0.762 when the Xin’anjiang model was used alone. Good simulation performance of the XINSNOBAL model in the WS10 catchment, using the calibrated parameter of the Lookout Creek Watershed for proxy-basin testing, demonstrates that transplanting model parameters between similar watersheds can provide a useful tool for discharge forecasting in ungauged basins.

  13. Enhancement of azo dye Acid Orange 7 removal in newly developed horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Heng-Chong; Lim, Poh-Eng; Seng, Chye-Eng; Mohd Nawi, Mohd Asri; Adnan, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal subsurface-flow (HSF) constructed wetland incorporating baffles was developed to facilitate upflow and downflow conditions so that the treatment of pollutants could be achieved under multiple aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions sequentially in the same wetland bed. The performances of the baffled and conventional HSF constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, in the removal of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) were compared at the hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 5, 3 and 2 days when treating domestic wastewater spiked with AO7 concentration of 300 mg/L. The planted baffled unit was found to achieve 100%, 83% and 69% AO7 removal against 73%, 46% and 30% for the conventional unit at HRT of 5, 3 and 2 days, respectively. Longer flow path provided by baffled wetland units allowed more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes, microbes and micro-aerobic zones resulting in relatively higher oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and enhanced performance as kinetic studies revealed faster AO7 biodegradation rate under aerobic condition. In addition, complete mineralization of AO7 was achieved in planted baffled wetland unit due to the availability of a combination of aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic conditions.

  14. Evaluation on newly developed high resolution of surface solar radiation from MTSAT observations for the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.; Yang, K.; Tang, W.; Qin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Neither surface measurement nor existing remote sensing products of the Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) can meet the application requirements of hydrological and land process modeling in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). High resolution (hourly; 0.1⁰) of SSR estimates have been derived recently from the geostationary satellite observations - the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT). This SSR estimation is based on updating an existing physical model, the UMD-SRB (University of Maryland Surface Radiation Budget) which is the basis of the well-known GEWEX-SRB model. In the updated framework introduced is the high-resolution Global Land Surface Broadband Albedo Product (GLASS) with spatial continuity. The developed SSR estimates are demonstrated at different temporal resolutions over the TP and are evaluated against ground observations and other satellite products from: (1) China Meteorological Administration (CMA) radiation stations in TP; (2) three TP radiation stations contributed from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research; (3) and the universal used satellite products (i.e. ISCCP-FD, GEWEX-SRB) in relatively low spatial resolution (0.5º-2.5º) and temporal resolution (3-hourly, daily, or monthly).

  15. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  16. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Maruo

    Full Text Available Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors.

  17. Newly developed paleomagnetic map of the Easternmost Mediterranean joined with tectono-structural analysis unmask geodynamic history of this region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Katz, Youri

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive magnetic-paleomagnetic analysis of physical-geological models developed for the Easternmost Mediterranean (northern part of the Sinai plate) accompanied by gravity and seismic data examination enabled the detection of a zone of inverse magnetization of submeridional strike with a total volume exceeding 120,000 km3. Such a large zone must correspond to the prolonged period of inverse polarity in the Earth's magnetic field history. We suggest that this inversely magnetized thick block of the Earth's crust corresponds to the known Kiama hyperzone. A paleomagnetic map constructed on the basis of abovementioned geophysical data analysis combined with detailed examination of structural, radiometric, petrological, facial, paleogeographical and some other data indicates that to the west of the Kiama zone is situated the Jalal zone, and to the east - Illawarra, Omolon and Gissar zones. Discovery of the Kiama paleomagnetic zone combined with tectonogeodynamical analysis and paleobiographical data examination indicates that the Earth's oceanic crust blocks may have been shifted by transform faults from the eastern part of the Tethys Ocean to their modern position in the Easternmost Mediterranean. Analysis of potential geophysical fields and seismological maps integrated with tectonostructural examination show the isolation of the northern part of Sinai plate from other terranes. For the first time formation-paleogeographical maps of Triassic and Jurassic for the Easternmost Mediterranean have been compiled and their tectono-geodynamical explanation has been given. The obtained data create a basis for reconsidering tectonic zonation, paleogeodynamical reconstructions and searching for economic deposits in this region.

  18. Standards for Teacher Research: Developing Standards for Teacher-Research in TESOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1997-01-01

    Argues for a view of teacher research that, regardless of its highly contextualized and particularistic foci, is consistent with and meets the evaluative standards that are applied to research in general. The article also maintains that teacher-research should be sensitive to ethical issues and serve to strengthen relationships between research…

  19. Standards for Teacher Research: Developing Standards for Teacher-Research in TESOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1997-01-01

    Argues for a view of teacher research that, regardless of its highly contextualized and particularistic foci, is consistent with and meets the evaluative standards that are applied to research in general. The article also maintains that teacher-research should be sensitive to ethical issues and serve to strengthen relationships between research…

  20. Pharmacokinetic advantages of a newly developed tacrolimus oil-in-water-type emulsion via the enteral route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, T; Kazui, T; Suzuki, Y; Hashimoto, H; Suzuki, K; Muhammad, B A

    1999-03-01

    We developed an oleic acid oil-in-water (o/w)-type emulsion of a new tacrolimus formulation that presented an improvement in the delivery of the drug for oral absorption. This investigation was undertaken to assess a sustained release drug delivery system and selective drug transfer into the lymphatic system. The whole blood concentration profiles after oral administration at a dose of 2 mg/kg and bone marrow, spleen, liver, lung, small intestine, kidney, brain, and whole blood distribution after oral administration at a dose of 1 mg/kg of o/w emulsion formulation of tacrolimus (O/W group) were compared with those of commercially available formulation (T group) in the rat. The mean diameter of the o/w emulsion droplets was 0.47 microm immediately after preparation. The tacrolimus entrapping efficiency of o/w emulsion was 71.3+/-5.0% in 12 h and did not change for 2 d. The area under the whole blood concentration-time curve (AUC) in the O/W group was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that in the T group. In contrast, the values of constant elimination rate and total clearance in the O/W group were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those in the T group, with a comparative bioavailability of 115.9%. The tissue concentration of tacrolimus in the O/W group was significantly higher levels in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, lung, and small intestine, and significantly lower in the brain and kidney, relative to the T group. The o/w emulsion of tacrolimus may be an improved dosage form via the enteral route.

  1. Validity of the Special Needs Education Assessment Tool (SNEAT), a Newly Developed Scale for Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Aiko; Han, ChangWan; Kwon, HaeJin; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The improvement of the quality of life (QOL) of children with disabilities has been considered important. Therefore, the Special Needs Education Assessment Tool (SNEAT) was developed based on the concept of QOL to objectively evaluate the educational outcome of children with disabilities. SNEAT consists of 11 items in three domains: physical functioning, mental health, and social functioning. This study aimed to verify the reliability and construct validity of SNEAT using 93 children collected from the classes on independent activities of daily living for children with disabilities in Okinawa Prefecture between October and November 2014. Survey data were collected in a longitudinal prospective cohort study. The reliability of SNEAT was verified via the internal consistency method and the test-pretest method; both the coefficient of Cronbach's α and the intra-class correlation coefficient were over 0.7. The validity of SNEAT was also verified via one-way repeated-measures ANOVA and the latent growth curve model. The scores of all the items and domains and the total scores obtained from one-way repeated-measures ANOVA were the same as the predicted scores. SNEAT is valid based on its goodness-of-fit values obtained using the latent growth curve model, where the values of comparative fit index (0.983) and root mean square error of approximation (0.062) were within the goodness-of-fit range. These results indicate that SNEAT has high reliability and construct validity and may contribute to improve QOL of children with disabilities in the classes on independent activities of daily living for children with disabilities.

  2. Validation of a Newly Developed Equation for Estimating Serum Apolipoprotein B: Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Surrogate Markers in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Dai; Hwang, You Cheol; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Cheol Young

    2017-09-01

    Many clinical guidelines recommend apolipoprotein B (apoB) measurement, particularly in subjects with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. Recently, we developed a new equation to estimate serum apoB (apoBE). We validated the clinical relevance of apoBE and compared the performance of the equation with conventional lipid measurements and direct measurement of apoB. Study subjects were recruited from patients who visited the Health Screening Center at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital between January and December 2009 for routine medical examinations (n=78125). For analysis of coronary calcium score, we recruited study subjects from the same institution between January 2007 and December 2010 (n=16493). apoBE was significantly correlated with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive level {r=0.18 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.19]} in partial correlation analysis adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. apoBE was associated with a Framingham risk score indicating more than moderate risk (10-year risk ≥10%), the presence of microalbuminuria, and the presence of coronary artery calcium in multivariate logistic regression analysis. These associations were comparable to those of directly-measured serum apoB [odds ratio per 1 SD 3.02 (2.75-3.27) vs. 2.70 (2.42-3.02) for a Framingham risk score indicating more than moderate risk, 1.31 (1.21-1.41) vs. 1.35 (1.25-1.45) for the presence of microalbuminuria, and 1.33 (1.26-1.41) vs. 1.31 (1.23-1.38) for the presence of coronary calcium score respectively]. These findings were also consistently observed in subgroup analysis for subjects with type 2 diabetes. The associations between cardiovascular surrogate markers and apoBE were comparable to those of directly-measured apoB.

  3. Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body by using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Fujimaki, Shu

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new gamma camera specifically for plant nutritional research and successfully performed live imaging of the uptake and partitioning of (137)Cs in intact plants. The gamma camera was specially designed for high-energy gamma photons from (137)Cs (662 keV). To obtain reliable images, a pinhole collimator made of tungsten heavy alloy was used to reduce penetration and scattering of gamma photons. A single-crystal scintillator, Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12, with high sensitivity, no natural radioactivity, and no hygroscopicity was used. The array block of the scintillator was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube to obtain accurate images. The completed gamma camera had a sensitivity of 0.83 count s(-1) MBq(-1) for (137)Cs with an energy window from 600 keV to 730 keV, and a spatial resolution of 23.5 mm. We used this gamma camera to study soybean plants that were hydroponically grown and fed with 2.0 MBq of (137)Cs for 6 days to visualize and investigate the transport dynamics in aerial plant parts. (137)Cs gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding, and then accumulated preferentially and intensively in growing pods and seeds; very little accumulation was observed in mature leaves. Our results also suggested that this gamma-camera method may serve as a practical analyzing tool for breeding crops and improving cultivation techniques resulting in low accumulation of radiocesium into the consumable parts of plants.

  4. Policy Development by the People: The Navajo Child Care Standards Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Coleen

    1980-01-01

    Traces the development of the Navajo Child Care Standards Project and also the Model Law and Regulations for Navajo Foster Care Providers. Describes the successful involvement of Indian Parents in the development of tribal standards for foster child care. (AN)

  5. Determination of newly synthesized lipoic acid-niacin dimer in rat plasma by UPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: assay development, validation and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Gao, Jingwen; Jiang, Yiming; Huang, Ping; Xie, Yuhui; Pi, Rongbiao; Zhu, Shuzhen; Yao, Meicun

    2014-02-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine the newly synthesized compound lipoic acid-niacin dimer (N2L) in plasma. Plasma samples were precipitated by methanol using tetrahydropalmatine as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 (2.1 × 50 mm i.d., 1.7 µm) column; the mobile phase contains methanol and buffer solution (water with 0.5% formic acid and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate). Multiple reaction monitoring (m/z 353.9 → 148.6 for N2L and m/z 356.0 → 192.0 for internal standard) was performed for detection and quantification. The method was validated to be rapid, specific, accurate and precise over the concentration range of 1-750 ng/mL; N2L was not stable on the bench-top or during freeze-freeze-thaw cycles in plasma, but was stable in the stock solution and after preparation in the autosampler for 24 h. The utility of the assay was confirmed by pharmacokinetic study of N2L in rats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  7. IKZF1 expression is a prognostic marker in newly diagnosed standard-risk multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide and intensive chemotherapy: a study of the German Myeloma Study Group (DSMM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönke, J; Kuchenbauer, F; Kull, M; Teleanu, V; Bullinger, L; Bunjes, D; Greiner, A; Kolmus, S; Köpff, S; Schreder, M; Mügge, L-O; Straka, C; Engelhardt, M; Döhner, H; Einsele, H; Bassermann, F; Bargou, R; Knop, S; Langer, C

    2017-01-20

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory compound with high clinical activity in multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide binding to the Cereblon (CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase results in targeted ubiquitination and degradation of the lymphoid transcription factors Ikaros (IKZF1) and Aiolos (IKZF3) leading to growth inhibition of multiple myeloma cells. Recently, Basigin (BSG) was identified as another protein regulated by CRBN that is involved in the activity of lenalidomide. Here, we analyzed the prognostic value of IKZF1, IKZF3, CRBN and BSG mRNA expression levels in pretreatment plasma cells from 60 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma uniformly treated with lenalidomide in combination with intensive chemotherapy within a clinical trial. We found that IKZF1 mRNA expression levels are significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Patients in the lowest quartile (Q1) of IKZF1 expression had a superior PFS compared with patients in the remaining quartiles (Q2-Q4; 3-year PFS of 86 vs 51%, P=0.01). This translated into a significant better overall survival (100 vs 74%, P=0.03). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant impact of IKZF1, IKZF3 and BSG expression levels on PFS in cytogenetically defined standard-risk but not high-risk patients. Our data suggest a prognostic role of IKZF1, IKZF3 and BSG expression levels in lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma.Leukemia advance online publication, 20 January 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.384.

  8. Dosimetric and thermal properties of a newly developed thermobrachytherapy seed with ferromagnetic core for treatment of solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Parsai, E. Ishmael; Shvydka, Diana; Feldmeier, John; Subramanian, Manny [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Best Medical International, Inc., Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Studies of the curative effects of hyperthermia and radiation therapy on treatment of cancer show a strong evidence of a synergistic enhancement when both radiation and hyperthermia modalities are applied simultaneously. Varieties of tissue heating approaches developed up to date still fail to overcome such essential limitations as an inadequate temperature control, temperature nonuniformity, and prolonged time delay between hyperthermia and radiation treatments. The authors propose a new self-regulating thermobrachytherapy seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent administration of brachytherapy and hyperthermia. Methods: The proposed seed is based on the BEST Medical, Inc., Seed Model 2301-I{sup 125}, where tungsten marker core and the air gap are replaced with a ferromagnetic material. The ferromagnetic core produces heat when subjected to alternating electromagnetic (EM) field and effectively shuts off after reaching the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of the ferromagnetic material thus realizing the temperature self-regulation. The authors present a Monte Carlo study of the dose rate constant and other TG-43 factors for the proposed seed. For the thermal characteristics, the authors studied a model consisting of 16 seeds placed in the central region of a cylindrical water phantom using a finite-element partial differential equation solver package ''COMSOL Multiphysics.''Results: The modification of the internal structure of the seed slightly changes dose rate and other TG-43 factors characterizing radiation distribution. The thermal modeling results show that the temperature of the thermoseed surface rises rapidly and stays constant around T{sub C} of the ferromagnetic material. The amount of heat produced by the ferromagnetic core is sufficient to raise the temperature of the surrounding phantom to the therapeutic range. The phantom volume reaching the therapeutic temperature range increases with

  9. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  10. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  11. An investigation of deformation and fluid flow at subduction zones using newly developed instrumentation and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Alison Louise

    Detecting seafloor deformation events in the offshore convergent margin environment is of particular importance considering the significant seismic hazard at subduction zones. Efforts to gain insight into the earthquake cycle have been made at the Cascadia and Costa Rica subduction margins through recent expansions of onshore GPS and seismic networks. While these studies have given scientists the ability to quantify and locate slip events in the seismogenic zone, there is little technology available for adequately measuring offshore aseismic slip. This dissertation introduces an improved flow meter for detecting seismic and aseismic deformation in submarine environments. The value of such hydrologic measurements for quantifying the geodetics at offshore margins is verified through a finite element modeling (FEM) study in which the character of deformation in the shallow subduction zone is determined from previously recorded hydrologic events at the Costa Rica Pacific margin. Accurately sensing aseismic events is one key to determining the stress state in subduction zones as these slow-slip events act to load or unload the seismogenic zone during the interseismic period. One method for detecting seismic and aseismic strain events is to monitor the hydrogeologic response to strain events using fluid flow meters. Previous instrumentation, the Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter which measures flow rates through the sediment-water interface, can detect transient events at very low flowrates, down to 0.0001 m/yr. The CAT meter performs well in low flow rate environments and can capture gradual changes in flow rate, as might be expected during ultra slow slip events. However, it cannot accurately quantify high flow rates through fractures and conduits, nor does it have the temporal resolution and accuracy required for detecting transient flow events associated with rapid deformation. The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) developed for this purpose is an

  12. Analyses to support development of risk-informed separation distances for hydrogen codes and standards.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Houf, William G. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA; Fluer, Larry (Fluer, Inc., Paso Robels, CA); Middleton, Bobby

    2009-03-01

    The development of a set of safety codes and standards for hydrogen facilities is necessary to ensure they are designed and operated safely. To help ensure that a hydrogen facility meets an acceptable level of risk, code and standard development organizations are tilizing risk-informed concepts in developing hydrogen codes and standards.

  13. Standards in Action. Using National Standards for Human Resource Management and Development in Further Education. 1. Laying the Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This booklet is designed to assist British further education college managers responsible for quality assurance, human resources management (HRM), human resources development (HRD), corporate development, strategic planning, staffing/personnel, and curriculum in using national standards for HRM and HRD in further education. A synopsis, users'…

  14. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS FOR FRONT OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-01-01

    ...) of training and development for employees and managers. General hotel management, particularly human resource management, is fully responsible for the development and implementation of the program (standard...

  15. Make Standardization Better Serve Scientific Development National Standardization Working Conference Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    National Standardization Working Conference was held in Beijing from February 23 to 24,2012.AQSIQ Minister Zhi Shuping,MOST Vice Minister Cao Jianlin,and MIIT Vice Minister Yang Xueshan attended the meeting and delivered speeches.SAC Administrator Chen Gang made the working report.SAC Vice Administrator Sun Xiaokang made the summary report of the meeting.SAC Vice Administrator Shi Baoquan,Sun Bo,Fang Xiang,and Chief Engineer Yu Xinli were also present at the meeting.

  16. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  17. Simultaneous Development of Sci-Tech Innovation and Technical Standards for Electric Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zijian

    2012-01-01

    Chinese standards system of electric vehicles was initiated in 1998.Along with the large-scale science and technology innovation and R&D in 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan period,this standards system has experienced the development process from the adoption of the international standards and advanced foreign standards to the independent research,development and revision of standards.Nowadays around 50 standards concerning electric vehicles have been developed,and the system is almost complete with the same progressing pace as the international ones.

  18. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  19. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Kin Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  20. Establishment of highly specific and quantitative immunoassay systems for staphylococcal enterotoxin A, B, and C using newly-developed monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takanori; Terano, Yoshitake; Shibata, Tadayoshi; Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Kuzuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kohyama, Erina; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) activities remain after boiling or treating with proteases. The main symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea, are caused by the ingestion of SEs. Among SEs, SEA has been reported to be the major and most toxic protein. A highly specific and simple assay system is required to diagnose staphylococcal food poisoning. Therefore, the development of a suitable assay system is strongly anticipated. In this study, we have established a highly specific and sensitive avidin-biotin sandwich ELISA (ABS-ELISA) system for SEA, SEB, and SEC1 using newly-developed monoclonal antibodies. The linearity of these systems obtained was in the range of 0.78-25 ng/ml for each SE, and furthermore, the lower concentrations of SEs could also be detected. The recoveries of SEs from murine serum, skim milk solution, and raw milk were found to be over 90%, suggesting that our systems could detect SEs without any interventions, such as these from milk or serum proteins. We were also able to quantify SEs in 22 specimens of culture supernatants of S. aureus isolated in past occurrences. Our established system should be very useful not only in the clinical field but also in various fields of investigation because of its quantifi-cation and simplicity in detecting SEs.

  1. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  2. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  3. Murine CD4 T cells produce a new form of TGF-β as measured by a newly developed TGF-β bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoku Oida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that T cells do not produce active TGF-β since active TGF-β as measured in supernatants by ELISA without acidification is usually not detectable. However, it is possible that active TGF-β from T cells may take a special form which is not detectable by ELISA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a TGF-β bioassay which can detect both soluble and membrane-bound forms of TGF-β from T cells. For this bioassay, 293T cells were transduced with (caga(12 Smad binding element-luciferase along with CD32 (Fc receptor and CD86. The resulting cells act as artificial antigen presenting cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and produce luciferase in response to biologically active TGF-β. We co-cultured pre-activated murine CD4(+CD25(- T cells or CD4(+CD25(+ T cells with the 293T-caga-Luc-CD32-CD86 reporter cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and IL-2. CD4(+CD25(- T cells induced higher luciferase in the reporter cells than CD4(+CD25(+ T cells. This T cell-produced TGF-β is in a soluble form since T cell culture supernatants contained the TGF-β activity. The TGF-β activity was neutralized with an anti-mouse LAP mAb or an anti-latent TGF-β/pro-TGF-β mAb, but not with anti-active TGF-β Abs. An anti-mouse LAP mAb removed virtually all acid activatable latent TGF-β from the T cell culture supernatant, but not the ability to induce TGF-β signaling in the reporter cells. The induction of TGF-β signaling by T cell culture supernatants was cell type-specific. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A newly developed 293T-caga-Luc-CD32-CD86 reporter cell bioassay demonstrated that murine CD4 T cells produce an unconventional form of TGF-β which can induce TGF-β signaling. This new form of TGF-β contains LAP as a component. Our finding of a new form of T cell-produced TGF-β and the newly developed TGF-β bioassay system will provide a new avenue to investigate T cell function of the immune system.

  4. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute toxic effects of tabun and cyclosarin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Humlicek, Vojtech

    2008-01-01

    The potency of newly developed oximes (K074, K075) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, and HI-6) to counteract tabun or cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of trimedoxime and both newly developed oximes (K074, K075) was significantly higher than the potency of obidoxime and the oxime HI-6 in the case of acute tabun poisonings. On the other hand, the oxime HI-6 was significantly more efficacious than other studied oximes when mice were intoxicated with cyclosarin. The findings support the hypothesis that the therapeutic efficacy of oximes depends on the type of nerve agent. Due to their therapeutic efficacy, both newly developed K oximes can be considered to be promising oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings, while the oxime HI-6 is still the most promising oxime for the treatment of acute cyclosarin poisonings due to its high potency to counteract cyclosarin-induced acute toxic effects.

  5. Standards and Development : Perspectives from Kenya’s Horticultural Export Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Otieno (Gloria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines perspectives on standards and development in Kenya’s horticulture sector. The debate on standards and development is at the forefront of global policy discussions. The proliferation of trade standards is often seen as a threat to poor countries that will diminish

  6. Standards and Development : Perspectives from Kenya’s Horticultural Export Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Otieno (Gloria)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines perspectives on standards and development in Kenya’s horticulture sector. The debate on standards and development is at the forefront of global policy discussions. The proliferation of trade standards is often seen as a threat to poor countries that will diminish

  7. Standards life cycle and a methodolgy and infrastructure for standards development and implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR is assisting Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) to develop an infrastructure that supports the business of a statistical organisation, including data stores and tools for streamlining statistics production. The poster proposes a good...

  8. Performance Comparison of Two Newly Developed Bimetallic (X-Mo/Al2O3, X=Fe or Co) Catalysts for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the two newly developed bimetallic catalysts based on the precursor, Mo/Al2O3, was com-pared for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The structures of the precursor and the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spec-trometry (ICP-AES), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The activity of Fe-Mo and Co-Mo catalysts was compared in a ifxed bed reactor at different temperatures. It is shown that the Co-Mo catalyst has higher CO2 conversion at all temperature level. The time-on-stream (TOS) analysis of the activity of catalysts for the RWGS reaction was carried out over a continuous period of 60 h for both catalysts. The Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good stability within a period of 60 h, however, the Co-Mo/Al2O3 is gradually deactivated after 50 h of reaction time. Existence of Fe2(MoO4)3 phase in Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst makes this catalyst more stable for RWGS reaction.

  9. Characterization of PCBs from computers and mobile phones, and the proposal of newly developed materials for substitution of gold, lead and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervišević, Irma; Minić, Duško; Kamberović, Željko; Ćosović, Vladan; Ristić, Mirjana

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed parts of printed circuit board (PCB) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens of mobile phones and computers, quantitative and qualitative chemical compositions of individual components, and complete PCBs were determined. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods were used to determine the temperatures of phase transformations, whereas qualitative and quantitative compositions of the samples were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses. The microstructure of samples was studied by optical microscopy. Based on results of the analysis, a procedure for recycling PCBs is proposed. The emphasis was on the effects that can be achieved in the recycling process by extraction of some parts before the melting process. In addition, newly developed materials can be an adequate substitute for some of the dangerous and harmful materials, such as lead and arsenic are proposed, which is in accordance with the European Union (EU) Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS) directive as well as some alternative materials for use in the electronics industry instead of gold and gold alloys.

  10. A Simple X-ray Spectrometer and PC-based Data Acquisition System for Newly Developed X-ray Source Based on Laser Compton Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wen; XU Wang; PAN Qiang-yan; XU Yi; FAN Gong-tao; FAN Guang-wei; YANG Li-feng; LI Yong-jiang; YAN Zhe; XU Ben-ji

    2009-01-01

    A simple X-ray spectrometer and a PC-Based Data Acquisition System(DAS) have been developed newly in Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics(SINAP),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) for the measurement of the X-ray source generated using laser Compton scattering.The system consists of liquid nitrogen cooled high resolution Si(Li) detector,electronics and a DAQ.The Si(Li) detector was designed and made by Center of Advanced Instruments in SINAP,CAS,it allows us to measure X-rays with the energy up to 60 keV and the energy resolution(FWHM) of 184 eV at 5.9 keV.We measured the system uncertainty was 0.2 eV and time drifting of detector was 0.05% both at 5.9 keV.The DAQ was based on Object-Oriented software LabVIEW 7.1,it has data on-line analysis and original data saved functions.

  11. Newly developed stepwise electroless deposition enables a remarkably facile synthesis of highly active and stable amorphous Pd nanoparticle electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kee Chun; Tan, Desmond C L; Vo, Thang D T; Khezri, Bahareh; Su, Haibin; Webster, Richard D; Sato, Hirotaka

    2014-04-09

    This paper reports on highly active and stable amorphous Pd nanoparticle electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction. The amorphous catalysts were synthesized by a remarkably facile and quick electroless deposition process newly developed in this study (process time <5 min). An electrode substrate (glassy carbon, carbon cloth) was sequentially dipped for 10 s into two separate solutions of a reducing agent (sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2)) and Pd ions to deposit amorphous Pd nanoparticles containing phosphorus (Pd-P). By repeating the deposition cycles, the specific and mass activities of the Pd nanoparticles can be actively tuned. Owing to the nanoscale amorphous nature, the obtained Pd-P nanoparticle electrocatalysts exhibited superior specific and mass activities compared with crystalline Pd nanoparticles synthesized by another reducing agent (N2H4) and commercial Pt-loaded carbon (Pt/C) and Pd-loaded carbon (Pd/C). The specific and mass activities of the amorphous Pd-P nanoparticles were over 4.5 times and 2.6 times higher than previously reported values of Pd and Pt catalysts.

  12. Imaging of Hydrophilicity and its Inhomogeneity on a Titanium Dioxide Film Exposed to Ultraviolet Irradiation Using a Newly Developed Near-Infrared Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Ichiro; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Furukawa, Daiki; Ishigaki, Mika; Goto, Takeyoshi; Morishima, Tetsu; Okuno, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-11-01

    This study has investigated hydrophilicity changes and their inhomogeneity of TiO2 films on Pyrex glasses by near-infrared (NIR) spectral imaging. Near-infrared spectra of TiO2 films in the 9000-4000 cm(-1) region were measured using a newly developed NIR camera named Compovision. A band in the 5400-4800 cm(-1) region, which is assigned to a combination (ν2 + ν3) mode of bending (ν2) and antisymmetric stretching (ν3) modes of the H2O molecule, was clearly identified and its intensity increased with time in the air. It is interesting that the increased rate rose with ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation (300-400 nm, 1 mW cm(-2)) compared to without UV light irradiation. This result suggested that the hydrophilicity of TiO2 was enhanced about twice upon the UV light irradiation. Moreover, the NIR images clarified spatial distributions of the hydrophilicity on the TiO2 surface with a significantly wide area (20 × 40 mm) and a high speed (within 5 s for one image). This rapid imaging system enabled us to detect the hydrophilicity change during only 1 min. The potential of this camera is quite superior, not only for basic research, but also for diverse industrial applications.

  13. Identification of striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel calmodulin target by a newly developed genome-wide screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Yusui; Denda, Miwako; Sakane, Kyohei; Ogusu, Tomoko; Takahashi, Sumio; Magari, Masaki; Kanayama, Naoki; Morishita, Ryo; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    To search for novel target(s) of the Ca(2+)-signaling transducer, calmodulin (CaM), we performed a newly developed genome-wide CaM interaction screening of 19,676 GST-fused proteins expressed in human. We identified striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) as a novel CaM target and characterized its CaM binding ability and found that the Ca(2+)/CaM complex interacted stoichiometrically with the N-terminal region (Ala13-Gln35) of STARS in vitro as well as in living cells. Mutagenesis studies identified Ile20 and Trp33 as the essential hydrophobic residues in CaM anchoring. Furthermore, the CaM binding deficient mutant (Ile20Ala, Trp33Ala) of STARS further enhanced its stimulatory effect on SRF-dependent transcriptional activation. These results suggest a connection between Ca(2+)-signaling via excitation-contraction coupling and the regulation of STARS-mediated gene expression in muscles.

  14. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia and implications for vaccination of children living in developing and newly industrialized countries: A systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E.; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review evaluated the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children <6 y of age within 90 developing and newly industrialized countries. Literature searches (1990–2011), based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CAB Global Health, WHO, UNICEF, country-specific websites, conferences, health-technology-assessment agencies, and the reference lists of included studies, yielded 8,734 records; 62 of 340 studies were included in this review. The highest incidence rate among included studies was 0.51 episodes/child-year, for children <5 y of age in Bangladesh. The highest prevalence was in Chinese children <6 months of age (37.88%). The main bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the main viral pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and rhinovirus. Community-acquired pneumonia remains associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Improved and efficient surveillance and documentation of the epidemiology and burden of community-acquired pneumonia across various geographical regions is warranted. PMID:27269963

  15. Development of a New Departure Aversion Standard for Light Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) have recently established new light aircraft certification rules that introduce significant changes to the current regulations. The changes include moving from prescriptive design requirements to performance-based standards, transferring many of the acceptable means of compliance out of the rules and into consensus standards. In addition, the FAA/EASA rules change the performance requirements associated with some of the more salient safety issues regarding light aircraft. One significant change is the elimination of spin recovery demonstration. The new rules now call for enhanced stall warning and aircraft handling characteristics that demonstrate resistance to inadvertent departure from controlled flight. The means of compliance with these changes in a safe, cost-effective manner is a challenging problem. This paper discusses existing approaches to reducing the likelihood of departure from controlled flight and introduces a new approach, dubbed Departure Aversion, which allows applicants to tailor the amount of departure resistance, stall warning, and enhanced safety equipment to meet the new proposed rules. The Departure Aversion approach gives applicants the freedom to select the most cost-effective portfolio for their design, while meeting the safety intent of the new rules, by ensuring that any combination of the selected approaches will be at a higher equivalent level of safety than today's status quo.

  16. Information draft on the development of air standards for acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is a colourless liquid with a faintly sweet and pungent odour. It is widely used as a chemical intermediate in a variety of industrial and commercial products such as acrylic and modacrylic fibres, plastics, styrene-acrylonitrile, nitrile rubber resins, and acrylamide. Although not currently produced in Canada, acrylonitrile is used in the manufacture of industrial and commercial products. Acrylonitrile levels around end-use plants have been found to be significantly higher than at producing facilities. Almost all releases of acrylonitrile are to the atmosphere and one facility is responsible for all releases in Ontario. Human exposure is through air, water and food. Acrylonitrile is absorbed by inhalation, through the mouth and to some extent through the skin. Exposure at concentrations of 7 to 45 microgram/cubic meter for 20 to 45 minutes leads to irritation of the mucous membranes, nausea, headaches, and irritability. Low-grade anaemia, leukocytosis, kidney irritation and mild jaundice have also been observed. Children are more sensitive than adults. Acrylonitrile is classified as probable human carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The current ambient air quality criterion (AAQC) in Ontario is 100 microgram/cubic metre and the half-hour interim point of impingement (POI) standard is 300 microgram/cubic meter. Review of world-wide literature showed the existence of standards in several American states. Cancer unit risks estimates have been made by the US Environmental Protection Agency as well as by the World Health Organization. 63 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  17. [Development studies of lyophilized standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcengiz, Erkan; Unver, Derya; Cayan, H Hüseyin; Atakan Ablay, Pinar; Kanik, Esin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine components were prepared as the formulations of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) for children, diphtheria-tetanus (Td) for adults, and tetanus toxoid (TT), respectively. Alhydrogel-adsorbed vaccines prepared to contain the stabilizing substances were lyophilized and the immunogenicity tests were carried out both in vivo and in vitro. The potencies of the tetanus component of the vaccines were obtained by the lethal challenge test in mice. The values were found as 144.86 IU/ml for lyophilized adsorbed (LA)-DTP, 116.5 IU/ml for LA-DT, 98.25 IU/ml for LA-Td and 96.2 IU/ml for LA-TT. Anti-tetanus IgG and anti-diphteria IgG levels determined by ELISA method were found high in the sera taken from the mice immunized with the above-mentioned vaccines. Anti-B.pertussis fimbria IgG antibody levels were also high by both ELISA and microagglutination tests. The test preparations were then compared to adsorbed liquid vaccines and it was shown that the components were quite stable in the lyophilized formulations. It was concluded that the formulations prepared in this study can be used as standard vaccines after being calibrated against World Health Organization standards.

  18. Assessing Young Children's Moral Development: A Standardized and Objective Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    A paired-comparisons measure of distributive justice development, the Distributive Justice Scale (DJS), was developed and validated in four studies. Pictures were drawn to represent the different stages of distributive justice for a given dilemma and the DJS was scored by selecting the child's preferred stage via the picture comparisons for each…

  19. Using Collaborative Course Development to Achieve Online Course Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ining Tracy; Saj, Tami; Hamilton, Doug

    2010-01-01

    The issue of quality is becoming front and centre as online distance education moves into the mainstream of higher education. Many believe collaborative course development is the best way to design quality online courses. This research uses a case study approach to probe into the collaborative course development process and the implementation of…

  20. Development of Standard Approach for Sickle Blade Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. A. Noordin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sickle blade used in the motorised palm cutter known as “CANTAS” provides fast, easy and safe pruning and harvesting for those hard to reach applications. Jariz Technologies Company is experiencing problem in the consistency of sickle blade which was supplied by various blade manufacturers. Identifying the proper blade material with a certain hardness value would produce a consistent as well as long lasting sickle blade. A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP in the manufacturing of the sickle blades was suggested to ensure a consistent blade. From this study, the optimum temperature for hardening and tempering of SUP 9 had been identified as 850 °C for hardening and 480 °C for tempering. The final hardness after heat treatment for SUP 9 was around 55HRC.

  1. Effects of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on newly developed high-fat/Western-style diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kuo; Cheung, Connie; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Liu, Anna Ba; Lee, Mao-Jung; Lu, Yao-Ping; Yang, Chung S

    2011-11-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on newly developed high-fat/Western-style diet-induced obesity and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat/Western-style (HFW; 60% energy as fat and lower levels of calcium, vitamin D(3), folic acid, choline bitartrate, and fiber) or HFW with EGCG (HFWE; HFW with 0.32% EGCG) diet for 17 wks. As a comparison, two other groups of mice fed a low-fat diet (LF; 10% energy as fat) and high-fat diet (HF; 60% energy as fat) were also included. The HFW group developed more body weight gain and severe symptoms of metabolic syndrome than the HF group. The EGCG treatment significantly reduced body weight gain associated with increased fecal lipids and decreased blood glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels compared to those of the HFW group. Fatty liver incidence, liver damage, and liver triglyceride levels were also decreased by the EGCG treatment. Moreover, the EGCG treatment attenuated insulin resistance and levels of plasma cholesterol, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukin-6 (IL-6), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Our results demonstrate that the HFW diet produces more severe symptoms of metabolic syndrome than the HF diet and that the EGCG treatment can alleviate these symptoms and body fat accumulation. The beneficial effects of EGCG are associated with decreased lipid absorption and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Developing Standard Exercises and Statistics to Measure the Impact of Cyber Defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DEVELOPING STANDARD...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPING STANDARD EXERCISES AND STATISTICS TO MEASURE THE IMPACT OF CYBER...experimental data. This research develops an experimental framework and statistics for testing and measuring the efficacy of cyber mitigation methods

  3. Developments in metastatic pancreatic cancer: Is gemcitabine still the standard?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Er Ying; Li-Ming Zhu; Bi-Xia Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 15 years,we have seen few therapeutic advances for patients with pancreatic cancer,which is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States.Currently,only about 6% of patients with advanced disease respond to standard gemcitabine therapy,and median survival is only about 6 mo.Moreover,phase Ⅲ trials have shown that adding various cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapeutic agents to gemcitabine has failed to improve overall survival,except in cases in which gemcitabine combined with erlotinib show minimal survival benefit.Several metaanalyses have shown that the combination of gemcitabine with either a platinum analog or capecitabine may lead to clinically relevant survival prolongation,especially for patients with good performance status.Meanwhile,many studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic modulation of gemcitabine by fixed-dose administration,and metabolic or transport enzymes related to the response and toxicity of gemcitabine.Strikingly,a phase Ⅲ trial in 2010 showed that,in comparison to gemcitabine alone,the FOLFIRINOX regimen in patients with advanced disease and good performance status,produced better median overall survival,median progression-free survival,and objective response rates.This regimen also resulted in greater,albeit manageable toxicity.

  4. Development of Standards for Textiles and Clothing Postsecondary Programs. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Home Economics Education.

    A project was conducted to validate program standards and performance standards for four postsecondary occupational areas--fashion merchandising, fashion design, apparel, and window treatment services. Returns from 117 questionnaires from postsecondary institutions in fifty states were used to develop program standards statements and to provide…

  5. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  6. Improving Sexuality Education: The Development of Teacher-Preparation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elissa M.; Goldfarb, Eva S.; Russell, Susan; Seabert, Denise; Wallen, Michele; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teaching sexuality education to support young people's sexual development and overall sexual health is both needed and supported. Data continue to highlight the high rates of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, among young people in the United States as well as the…

  7. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) against tabun in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Kuca, Kamil; Musilek, Kamil

    2010-07-01

    The potency of newly developed reactivators of nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (K347, K628) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, the oxime HI-6), using in vivo methods. Studies that determined the percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetycholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of both newly developed oximes is comparable with the oxime HI-6, but it is significantly lower than the reactivating effects of obidoxime. The monopyridinium oxime, K347, was also found to be able to reduce lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice, while the therapeutic efficacy of another newly developed bispyridinium oxime, K628, was negligible. The therapeutic efficacy of K347 was higher than the potency of the oxime, HI-6, but it was lower than the therapeutic effects of obidoxime. Thus, the reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) was not more effective then currently available oximes, and therefore, they are not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes (especially obidoxime) for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  8. 10-GHz return-to-zero pulse source tunable in wavelength with a single- or multiwavelength output based on four-wave mixing in a newly developed highly nonlinear fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, A. T.; Oxenlowe, L.; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, a novel scheme for a wavelength-tunable pulse source (WTPS) is proposed and characterized. It is based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a newly developed highly nonlinear fiber between a return-to-zero (RZ) pulsed signal at a fixed wavelength and a continuous wave probe tunable...... the WTPS compared to the original RZ pulses is negligible....

  9. The morphological development of newly inundated intertidal areas: the mechanisms driving the early evolution of an estuarine environment designed and constructed by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan; Burgess, Heidi; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Intertidal saltmarsh and mudflat habitats are of global importance due to the ecosystem, economic and cultural services they provide. These services include wildlife habitat provision and species diversity, immobilisation of pollutants and protection from coastal flooding. Saltmarsh and mudflat environments are, however, being lost and degraded due to erosion caused by rising sea levels and increased storminess. These losses are exacerbated by anthropogenic influences including land reclamation, increased coastal development and the construction of coastal flood defences which prevent the landwards migration of saltmarsh and mudflat environments, resulting in coastal squeeze. To compensate for saltmarsh and mudflat losses areas of the coastal hinterland are being inundated by breaching defences and constructing new defences inland, thus extending or constructing new estuarine environments; a processes known as de-embankment or managed realignment. Morphological engineering and landscaping within managed realignment sites prior to site inundation varies depending on the aims of the scheme. However, there is a shortage of data on the morphological evolution within these sites post site inundation impeding the ability of coastal engineers to effectively design and construct future sites. To date there has been a focus on the colonisation of marine macro fauna and flora within newly inundated managed realignment sites, which can be relatively rapid and easily quantified. Little is known of the morphological evolution in response to altered sedimentary processes, its driving mechanisms and therefore the success and ecological sustainability of these sites. This study evaluates the post-inundation morphological development of the largest open coast managed realignment site in Europe, at Medmerry on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Inundated in September 2013, the Medmerry Managed Realignment Site consists of a mosaic of former agricultural land and areas of lower

  10. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  11. Evaluation of a newly developed piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet system for liver resection in a surviving swine animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Chikashi; Nakano, Toru; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Sato, Chiaki; Yamada, Masato; Kawagishi, Naoki; Tominaga, Teiji; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2016-01-25

    Preservation of the hepatic vessels while dividing the parenchyma is key to achieving safe liver resection in a timely manner. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of a newly developed, piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) for liver resection in a surviving swine model. Ten domestic pigs underwent liver resection. Parenchymal transection and vessel skeletonization were performed using the ADPJ (group A, n = 5) or an ultrasonic aspirator (group U, n = 5). The water jet was applied at a frequency of 400 Hz and a driving voltage of 80 V. Physiological saline was supplied at a flow rate of 7 ml/min. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their short-term complications were examined and compared between the two groups. No significant complications, such as massive bleeding, occurred in either group during the surgical procedures. The transection time per transection area was significantly shorter in group A than in group U (1.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.5 min/cm(2), respectively, P = 0.03). Blood loss per transection area was not significantly different between groups A and U (9.3 ± 4.2 vs. 11.7 ± 2.3 ml/cm(2), P = 0.6). All pigs in group A survived for 7 days. No postoperative bleeding or bile leakage was observed in any animal at necropsy. The present results suggested that the ADPJ reduces transection time without increasing blood loss. ADPJ is a safe and feasible device for liver parenchymal transection.

  12. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishidha Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. Aims: The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS, and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Settings and Design: Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar′s test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. Results: The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (<0.05 before pulpectomy procedure. Conclusions: The FAPS can prove to be a pragmatic tool in spotting the fear among young children. This test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  13. Mechanical and physical behavior of newly developed functionally graded materials and composites of stainless steel 316L with calcium silicate and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataollahi Oshkour, Azim; Pramanik, Sumit; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yau, Yat Huang; Tarlochan, Faris; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the structural, physical and mechanical behavior of composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) made of stainless steel (SS-316L)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and SS-316L/calcium silicate (CS) employing powder metallurgical solid state sintering. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the sintering at high temperature led to the reaction between compounds of the SS-316L and HA, while SS-316L and CS remained intact during the sintering process in composites of SS-316L/CS. A dimensional expansion was found in the composites made of 40 and 50 wt% HA. The minimum shrinkage was emerged in 50 wt% CS composite, while the maximum shrinkage was revealed in samples with pure SS-316L, HA and CS. Compressive mechanical properties of SS-316L/HA decreased sharply with increasing of HA content up to 20 wt% and gradually with CS content up to 50 wt% for SS-316L/CS composites. The mechanical properties of the FGM of SS-316L/HA dropped with increase in temperature, while it was improved for the FGM of SS-316L/CS with temperature enhancement. It has been found that the FGMs emerged a better compressive mechanical properties compared to both the composite systems. Therefore, the SS-316L/CS composites and their FGMs have superior compressive mechanical properties to the SS-316L/HA composites and their FGMs and also the newly developed FGMs of SS-316L/CS with improved mechanical and enhanced gradation in physical and structural properties can potentially be utilized in the components with load-bearing application.

  14. Characterization of regulatory mechanism of Poncirus trifoliata microRNAs on their target genes with an integrated strategy of newly developed PPM-RACE and RLM-RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Song, Changnian; Han, Jian; Leng, Xiangpeng; Kibet, Korir Nicholas; Mu, Qian; Kayesh, Emrul; Fang, Jinggui

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation that involved various biological and metabolic processes. Many extensive studies have been done in model plant species, to discover miRNAs' regulating expression of their target genes and analyze their functions. But, the function of Poncirus trifoliata miRNAs has not been properly investigated. In this study, we employed the RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) and the newly developed method called poly (A) polymerase-mediated 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (PPM-RACE), which mapped the cleavage site of target mRNAs and detected expression patterns of cleaved fragments that could in turn indicate the regulatory functions of the miRNAs on their target genes. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal expression levels of target genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR, with exhibiting different expression trends from their corresponding miRNAs, thus indicating the cleavage mode of miRNAs on their target genes. The expression patterns of miRNAs, their target mRNAs and cleaved target mRNAs in different organs of juvenile and adult trifoliate orange were studied. The results showed that the expression of miRNAs and their target mRNAs was in a trade-off trend. When the miRNA expression was high, its corresponding target mRNA expression was low, while the cleaved target mRNA expression was high; when the miRNA expression was low, its target mRNA expression was high, while the expression of cleaved target mRNAs follows that of the miRNA. The validation of the cleavage site of target mRNAs and the detection of expression patterns of cleaved fragments can further broaden the knowledge of small RNA-mediated regulation in P. trifoliate.

  15. Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist Compound1m on sleep/wake states in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi eEtori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins (also known as hypocretins, which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, orexin 1 (OX1R and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R. In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA, and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m, and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light period, C1m did not show a significant change in sleep/wakefulness states in the light period, whereas suvorexant slightly but significantly increased the sleep time. We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that although OX1R-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in promoting wakefulness, OX1R-mediated pathway also plays an additional role. OX1R-mediated pathway also plays a role in suppression of REM sleep. Fos-immunostaining showed that both compounds affected the activity of arousal-related neurons with different patterns. These results suggest partly overlapping and partly distinct roles of orexin receptors in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

  16. Development of water quality standards criteria. [for consumables (spacecrew supplies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were made of volatile organic compounds in water supplies collected at various stages of processing in the space station prototype vacuum compression distillation unit to evaluate the process and the product water. Additional evaluation was made of specific ingredients required to adequately enhance the taste of the reclaimed water. A concept for the in-flight addition of these ingredients was developed. Revisions to previously recommended potable water criteria and specifications are included.

  17. Newly developed ulcer-like projection (ULP) in aortic intramural haematoma on follow-up CT: is it different from the ULP seen on the initial CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Y.M. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.B. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seojb@amc.seoul.kr; Lee, Y.K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bungdang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Bundang-gu, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chae, E.J. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-W.; Lim, T.-H. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Aim: To show whether the clinical and radiological features of newly developed ulcer-like projections (nULPs) in an aortic intramural haematoma (IMH) on follow-up computed tomography (CT) images, are different from those of the initial ULPs (iULPs) on the initial CT images. Materials and methods: A review of the radiological database revealed 98 patients with IMH with at least two follow-up CT examinations with a follow-up period of more than 1 month. The patients were divided into four groups: patients without iULPs or nULPs throughout the follow-up periods (group A); patients with iULPs on the initial CT images (group B); patients with nULPs on follow-up CT images but without iULPs on the initial CT images (group C); and patients with both iULPs and nULPs (group D). The type of IMH, aortic diameter, thickness of the haematoma, and complications were analysed. The clinical and CT findings and complications in the four groups were compared. Results: Forty-two patients had no iULPs nor nULPs (group A); 27 patients had 45 iULPs on the initial CT images (group B); 16 patients had 17 nULPs on follow-up CT images without any ULP on the initial CT images (group C); and 21 nULPs developed in 13 patients with iULPs (group D). There was no significant difference in the demographic or initial CT findings in the four groups. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of complications between groups B (59.3%), group C (62.5%), and group D (69.2%; p = 0.830), but there was a significant difference in the incidence of complications between the patients without any ULPs (21.5% in group A) and those with ULPs (62.5% in groups B, C, and D). Conclusion: There were no significant differences in the CT findings or complications between the patients with iULPs and nULPs. Regardless of the developing time of the ULPs, the incidence of complications of IMH in patients with ULPs was higher than that in those without ULPs. Careful and regular follow-up CT examinations are needed

  18. Promote the Sustainable Development of Meteorological Instrument through Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Zhonghuan TIG Co.,Ltd.(formerly Tianjin Meteorological Instrument Factory) is a scientific research and production base specialized in the R&D,manufacturing of a variety of meteorological and environmental monitoring instrumentation and integration of relevant systems and service with the strong support of military meteorological system and the China Meteorological Administration.By paying attention to technological progress,the company has focused on the development of diversified,systematic,intelligent and universal sensors,the integration of high-end systems,and fine processing.

  19. An evaluation of therapeutic and reactivating effects of newly developed oximes (K156, K203) and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-01-20

    The potency of newly developed monoxime bispyridinium compounds (K156, K203) in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6) using in vivo methods. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of newly developed oxime K203 is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood and higher than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in diaphragm and brain, where the difference in reactivating efficacy of obidoxime, trimedoxime and K203 is significant. On the other hand, the potency of newly developed K156 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is comparable with obidoxime or trimedoxime in diaphragm and brain. It is significantly lower than the reactivating efficacy of trimedoxime and obidoxime in blood. Moreover, both newly developed oximes were found to be relatively efficacious in the reduction of lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Especially, the oxime K203 is able to decrease the acute toxicity of tabun nearly two times. The therapeutic efficacy of K156 and K203 corresponds to their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, especially in diaphragm and brain. In contrast to obidoxime and trimedoxime, the oxime HI-6 is not effective in reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetycholinesterase and in reducing tabun lethality. While the oxime K156 does not improve the reactivating and therapeutic effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime, the newly developed oxime K203 is markedly more effective in reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in rats, especially in brain, and in reducing lethal toxic effects of tabun in mice and, therefore, it is suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of acute tabun

  20. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  1. The Plan for Development of Standards on the Utilization of Seawater Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, the Standardization Administration of China, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology of P. R. China and the State Oceanic Administration have jointly worked out and printed and distributed the Plan for Development of Standards on the Utilization of Seawater.

  2. Year 3 of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: Professional Development for Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Nancy; McIntosh, Shelby; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2013-01-01

    Timely, ongoing, and effective professional development for teachers and principals will be critical to the successful implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). These voluntary state-developed standards in mathematics and English language arts (ELA) outline the knowledge and skills that students in grades kindergarten through 12…

  3. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  4. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  5. 15 CFR 996.11 - Development of standards for a hydrographic product or class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assurance Program for Hydrographic Products § 996.11 Development of standards for a hydrographic product or... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of standards for a hydrographic product or class. 996.11 Section 996.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  6. 15 CFR 996.12 - Development of standards compliance tests for a hydrographic product or class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Assurance Program for Hydrographic Products § 996.12 Development of standards compliance tests for... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of standards compliance tests for a hydrographic product or class. 996.12 Section 996.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade...

  7. Alignment of Teacher-Developed Curricula and National Standards in Qatar's National Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Zaki, Eman; Allen, Nancy; Al Mula, Badria; Al Mutawaha, Fatma; Al Bin Ali, Hessa; Kerr, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which teacher developed curriculum was aligned with the national standards in Qatar. Three sources of data included teacher response to a questionnaire, teacher interviews and expert rating of the alignment of teacher-developed materials with curriculum standards. A survey and interview questions measured…

  8. Developing content standards for teaching research skills using a delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.

    2008-01-01

    The increased attention for teacher assessment and current educational reforms ask for procedures to develop adequate content standards. For the development of content standards on teaching research skills, a Delphi method based on stakeholders’ judgments has been designed and tested. In three round

  9. 75 FR 39244 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement; Further Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement... pertaining to the development of mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the Regional Entities as previously announced.\\1\\ \\1\\...

  10. Standard Reference Development of nuclear material for Tensile and Hardness Test Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Y. S.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Baik, S. J.; Chun, Y. B.; Kim, K. H.; Hong, K. P.; Ryu, W. S

    2007-12-15

    Standard reference is a official approved data such a coefficient of physics, approved material properties, and etc., which should be analyzed and evaluated by scientific method to acquire official approval for accuracy and credibility of measured data and information. So it could be used broadly and continuously by various fields of nation and society. It is classified to effective standard reference, verified standard reference, and certified standard reference. There are sixteen fields in designated standard references such a physical chemistry field, material field, metal field, and the others. The standard reference of neutron irradiated nuclear structural material is classified to metal field. This report summarized the whole processes about data collection, data production, data evaluation and the suggestion of details evaluation technical standard for tensile and hardness properties, which were achieved by carry out the project 'nuclear material standard reference development' as a result.

  11. Development of a New Growth Standard for Breastfed Chinese Infants: What Is the Difference from the WHO Growth Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jenjen; Feng, Weiwei; Xu, Yiqun; Xu, Tao; Tang, He; Wang, Huishan; Pan, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    in head circumference, with the exception of a few age points during the first two to four months on the upper two percentile curves.Our data suggested the growth curves for breastfed infants in China were significantly different in comparison with those based on the WHO standards. The adoption of the WHO infant growth standards among Chinese infants, as well as the methods used in the development of such growth standards in China, need careful and coordinated consideration. PMID:27977706

  12. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT, Tuberculin (PPD skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3% took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2% of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028, as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6% of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8% of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033. After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7% were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1% became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001, and while 55/126 (43.7% were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7% became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001. A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001. These results show that: a Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  13. In-Vitro Evaluation of Coronary Stents and 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography Using a Newly Developed Model of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, T.; Scheuermann, T.; Ulzheimer, S.; Mohrs, O.K.; Kuehling, M.; Albrecht, P.E.; Voigtlaender, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Schmermund, A. (Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt (DE))

    2008-02-15

    Background: Stent implantation is the predominant therapy for non-surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease. However, despite substantial advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary imaging, a reliable detection of coronary in-stent restenosis is currently not possible. Purpose: To examine the ability of 64-detector-row CT to detect and to grade in-stent stenosis in coronary stents using a newly developed ex-vivo vessel phantom with a realistic CT density pattern, artificial stenosis, and a thorax phantom. Material and Methods: Four different stents (Liberte and Lunar ROX, Boston Scientific; Driver, Medtronic; Multi-Link Vision, Guidant) were examined. The stents were placed on a polymer tube with a diameter of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 mm. Different degrees of stenosis (0%, 30%, 50%, 70-80%) were created inside the tube. For quantitative analysis, attenuation values were measured in the non-stenotic vessel outside the stent, in the non-stenotic vessel inside the stent, and in the stenotic area inside the stent. The grade of stenosis was visually assessed by two observers. Results: All stents led to artificial reduction of attenuation, the least degree of which was found in the Liberte stent (11.3+-10.2 HU) and the Multi-Link Vision stent (17.6+-17.9 HU; P 0.25). Overall, the non-stenotic vessel was correctly diagnosed in 55.5%, the low-grade stenosis in 58.3%, the intermediate stenosis in 63.8%, and the high-grade stenosis in 80.5%. In the 3.0-, 3.5-, and 4.0-mm vessels, in none of the cases was a non-stenotic or low-grade stenotic vessel misdiagnosed as intermediate or high-grade stenosis. The average deviation from the real grade of stenosis was 0.40 for the Liberte stent, 0.46 for the Lunar ROX stent, 0.45 for the Driver stent, and 0.58 for the Multi-Link Vision stent. Conclusion: Our ex-vivo data show that non-stenotic stents and low-grade in-stent stenosis can be reliably differentiated from intermediate and

  14. The Role of Geospatial and Sensor Web Standards for Development of Tsunami Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Percivall, G.; Reed, C.

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward monitoring and predicting tsunamis depends in a very large degree to development and adoption of global and inter-disciplinary standards for encoding and exchange of crucial information that could come from a rapidly evolving technology framework, and that can be readily adopted and implemented by developed and developing nations alike. There are many standards bodies that can and do come into play, so this is not just a matter of overcoming institutional barriers among the many stakeholders, but also negotiation of responsibility and authority among standards development organizations (SDOs) as well. In this presentation, we will provide a survey of the relevant standards bodies, standards activities, and examples of usage in recent years. There are many activities underway which have good potential for convergency and synergy. Through greater awareness of each other's efforts, we can help that along.

  15. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS FOR FRONT OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific requirements of modern consumer-tourists, competition, new sciences and technology have led to the emergence of new products and services in a modern hotel business as well as prescription of training and development standards for employees and managers in the hotel groups and independent hotels of higher rank. Every serious hotel, in order to survive on the tourist market, must have a separate program (standard of training and development for employees and managers. General hotel management, particularly human resource management, is fully responsible for the development and implementation of the program (standard of training and development of employees and managers. In this paper, I will write about the basic features of modern hospitality and fundamental stages of training and development of hotel employees and managers. In a particular part, I will write about front office department and training and development standards of front office employees and managers.

  16. Software Development Standard and Software Engineering Practice: A Case Study of Bangladesh

    CERN Document Server

    Begum, Zerina; Hafiz, Mohd Zulfiquar; Islam, Md Saiful; Shoyaib, Md; 10.3329/jbas.v32i2.2432

    2010-01-01

    Improving software process to achieve high quality in a software development organization is the key factor to success. Bangladeshi software firms have not experienced much in this particular area in comparison to other countries. The ISO 9001 and CMM standard has become a basic part of software development. The main objectives of our study are: 1) To understand the software development process uses by the software developer firms in Bangladesh 2) To identify the development practices based on established quality standard and 3) To establish a standardized and coherent process for the development of software for a specific project. It is revealed from this research that software industries of Bangladesh are lacking in target set for software process and improvement, involvement of quality control activities, and standardize business expertise practice. This paper investigates the Bangladeshi software industry in the light of the above challenges.

  17. China to Develop Rules for Composing a Standards System for Enterprise Energy Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ April 11, 2007, SAC announced a survey on a standards system for enterprise energy efficiency. According to the announcement, "Rules for the Composing of a Standards System for Enterprise Energy Efficiency" shall be developed based on the results of the survey. The rules are designed to better manage energy efficiency through standards and to give advice to companies on energy efficiency. In this way, China will be able to assist companies in energy efficiency on a more professional, strict, and comprehensive basis.

  18. Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations, Volume II. [CD-ROMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Staff Development Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The second volume of "Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations" builds on the work that began with the first volume published in 2003. An Innovation Configuration map is a device that identifies and describes the major components of a new practice such as the standards and details of how it would look in…

  19. Adherence to Standards in the Development of E-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacek, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent user interface standards are necessary with the development of e-learning courseware, as they are the glue that binds the users' experience with their expectations. For example, the user controls for video playback were standardized many years ago, and we all benefit knowing a right-facing triangle signifies a play function, while dual…

  20. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Jung, Won Dea; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME and ANS PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME and ANS HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  1. Development of A Standard Method for Human Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Jae Whan

    2005-12-15

    According as the demand of risk-informed regulation and applications increase, the quality and reliability of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been more important. KAERI started a study to standardize the process and the rules of HRA (Human Reliability Analysis) which was known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of PSA. The study made progress as follows; assessing the level of quality of the HRAs in Korea and identifying the weaknesses of the HRAs, determining the requirements for developing a standard HRA method, developing the process and rules for quantifying human error probability. Since the risk-informed applications use the ASME PSA standard to ensure PSA quality, the standard HRA method was developed to meet the ASME HRA requirements with level of category II. The standard method was based on THERP and ASEP HRA that are widely used for conventional HRA. However, the method focuses on standardizing and specifying the analysis process, quantification rules and criteria to minimize the deviation of the analysis results caused by different analysts. Several HRA experts from different organizations in Korea participated in developing the standard method. Several case studies were interactively undertaken to verify the usability and applicability of the standard method.

  2. Proposed methodology and infrastructure for standards development and implementation within a national statistical agency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available and tools for streamlining the process of statistical production. Standards are the building blocks that would allow for integration. To address this, one of the five DMID sub-projects is Standards Development, for which we have proposed a good practice...

  3. Second Language Teacher Education in Canada: The Development of Professional Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, John

    2005-01-01

    The institution of professional standards for Adult ESL is one of the most influential developments in Canadian second language teacher education in recent years. As a major innovation in practice and values, this initiative has interesting implications not only for the content of the standards themselves, but also for the process by which the…

  4. Adherence to Standards in the Development of E-Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacek, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent user interface standards are necessary with the development of e-learning courseware, as they are the glue that binds the users' experience with their expectations. For example, the user controls for video playback were standardized many years ago, and we all benefit knowing a right-facing triangle signifies a play function, while dual…

  5. Perceived Importance of District Developed Teacher Evaluation Standards and Criteria as Measured by Teacher Values Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jan Ellen Pfeiffer

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a PK-12 public school district board of education approved a teacher evaluation tool developed by a volunteer team of teachers and administrators. The Learning Based Teacher Evaluation (LBTE) was constructed with six broad standards and fifteen specific criteria. The standards and criteria were assumed important to professional practice,…

  6. Malaysian Ergonomics Standards-Its Development, Awareness and Implementation- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnah MOHD YUSUFF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ergonomics standards play an important role in product and system design as it can improve their usability; provide comfort and safety for the users. The number of musculoskeletal diseases has increased in recent years in Malaysia. However, the awareness and importance of ergonomics in Malaysia is still very low among the industries. Many ergonomics standards have been adopted by SIRIM Berhad under the purview of Department of Standards Malaysia (STANDARDS MALAYSIA. However, the take-up has been slow.Method: This paper examined the role of SIRIM Berhad in developing the standards, involvement at international levels and other government agencies in promoting Ergonomics. Ergonomics awareness seminars were arranged in three localities, representing three regions, not only to disseminate information on ergonomics and standards available but also to solicit inputs from stakeholders on the problems in developing and adoption of the standards.Results: Most of the stakeholders were not aware of the standards, do not know how to implement it, and do not have people who are knowledgeable in ergonomics. Since it is not mandatory, no conscious efforts were directed towards it. The lack of research in the various areas has also hindered the development of MS standards.Conclusion: Standards are important in determining at least the minimum requirement for safety, health and comfort of workers. Creating awareness on the importance of ergonomics should be given some priority and this can be seen by the recent encouraging developments in Malaysia in the field of Ergonomics. Keywords: Standards, Ergonomics, Malaysian, Awareness

  7. A comparison of the therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of newly developed oximes (K117, K127) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jung, Young-Sik

    2008-01-01

    The potency of newly developed bispyridinium compounds (K117, K127) to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, oxime HI-6) by using in vivo methods. A study that determined the percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of newly developed oxime K127 is comparable with obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood but lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the diaphragm and brain. The potency of another newly developed K117 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase is comparable with obidoxime or trimedoxime in the diaphragm, but it is significantly lower than the reactivating potency of trimedoxime and obidoxime in the blood and brain. The oxime, K127, was also found to be relatively effective in reducing lethal toxic effects in tabun-poisoned mice. Its therapeutic efficacy is consistent with the therapeutic potency of obidoxime. On the other hand, the potency of the oxime, K117, to reduce acute toxicity of tabun is significantly lower compared to trimedoxime and obidoxime. The therapeutic efficacy of K117 and K127 corresponds to their potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase, especially in the diaphragm and brain. Contrary to obidoxime and trimedoxime, the oxime, HI-6, is not an effective oxime in the reactivation of tabun-inhibited acetycholinesterase and in reducing the lethal effects of tabun. The reactivating and therapeutic potency of both newly developed oximes does not prevail over the effectiveness of currently available obidoxime and trimedoxime and, therefore, they are not suitable for their replacement of commonly used oximes for the treatment of acute tabun poisoning.

  8. Enantioselective allylation of imines catalyzed by newly developed (-)-β-pinene-based π-allylpalladium catalyst: an efficient synthesis of (R)-α-propylpiperonylamine and (R)-pipecolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rodney A; Nallasivam, Jothi L

    2012-10-14

    A newly developed π-allylpalladium with a (-)-β-pinene framework and an isobutyl side chain catalyzed the enantioselective allylation of imines in good yields and enantioselectivities (20 examples, up to 98% ee). An efficient enantioselective synthesis of the (R)-α-propyl piperonylamine part of DMP 777, a human leukocyte elastase inhibitor and (R)-pipecolic acid have been achieved as a useful application of this methodology.

  9. Planning and managing the development of the protoMIRAX balloon experiment by using ECSS standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Júnior, Valdivino; Braga, Joao

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present a tailoring of the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) standards in order to plan and manage the development of the balloon-borne high energy astrophysics experiment protoMIRAX. ECSS standards are supported and have been used by several space agencies in Europe and also at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) in Brazil to develop space applications. Our approach is to develop a balloon system based on a set of standards used for critical satellite applications, aiming to obtain not only the success of the protoMIRAX experiment but also to test in near-space environment several subsystems that can be reused in INPE's satellite missions. We show our tailoring taking into account the main ECSS disciplines related to management, such as project planning and implementation and risk management, and discuss the current status of development of the protoMIRAX experiment.

  10. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  11. A comparison of the potency of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) and currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) to counteract acute neurotoxic effects of Tabun in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jirí; Karasová, Jana Zdarová; Tesarová, Sandra; Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    The ability of newly developed oximes (K347, K628) to reduce tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms was compared with currently available oximes (obidoxime, HI-6) using a functional observational battery. The neuroprotective effects of the oximes studied (K347, K628, obidoxime, HI-6) combined with atropine on rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose (220 microg/kg i.m.; 80% of LD50 value) were evaluated. Tabun-induced neurotoxicity was monitored by a functional observational battery and automatic measurement of motor activity at 24 hours following tabun challenge. The results indicate that all tested oximes combined with atropine enable tabun-poisoned rats to survive 24 hours following tabun challenge. Both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) combined with atropine are able to decrease tabun-induced neurotoxicity in the case of sublethal poisonings but they do not eliminate all tabun-induced acute neurotoxic signs and symptoms. Their ability to decrease the tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity is higher than that of the oxime HI-6 and it is slightly slower than the neuroprotective efficacy of obidoxime. As the neuroprotective potency of both newly developed oximes (K347, K628) is not as high as the potency of obidoxime, they are not a suitable replacement for obidoxime for the treatment of acute tabun poisonings.

  12. An integrated methodology to develop a standard for landslide early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal Fathani, Teuku; Karnawati, Dwikorita; Wilopo, Wahyu

    2016-09-01

    Landslides are one of the most widespread and commonly occurring natural hazards. In regions of high vulnerability, these complex hazards can cause significant negative social and economic impacts. Considering the worldwide susceptibility to landslides, it is necessary to establish a standard for early warning systems specific to landslide disaster risk reduction. This standard would provide guidance in conducting landslide detection, prediction, interpretation, and response. This paper proposes a new standard consisting of seven sub-systems for landslide early warning. These include risk assessment and mapping, dissemination and communication, establishment of the disaster preparedness and response team, development of an evacuation map, standardized operating procedures, installation of monitoring and warning services, and the building of local commitment to the operation and maintenance of the entire program. This paper details the global standard with an example of its application from Central Java, one of 20 landslide-prone provinces in Indonesia that have used this standard since 2012.

  13. A Taxonomy of E-Health Standards to Assist System Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Emma; Krishnan, Padmanabhan; Finnie, Gavin

    Building e-health systems requires a good understanding of the range and characteristics of many relevant standards. These standards play an important role in the promotion of coordination amongst the key players in the technical and administrative areas of the e-health arena. Many entities including government, information technology professional bodies and medical organizations have developed a large number of e-health standards initiatives. Because of this broad range of initiatives, we propose a classification of standards to simplify the process to find out relevant information. The main objective is to facilitate the retrieval of e-health standards information by limiting the searching of classes or categories based on the applicability that the standards have in particular domains. Thus, we offer a framework to classify documents “standards” by assigning them to a predetermined set of categories and domains.

  14. [Development of a software standardizing optical density with operation settings related to several limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zuo-Heng; Wan, Cheng; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Hai-Wei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a software that can be used to standardize optical density to normalize the procedures and results of standardization in order to effectively solve several problems generated during standardization of in-direct ELISA results. The software was designed based on the I-STOD method with operation settings to solve the problems that one might encounter during the standardization. Matlab GUI was used as a tool for the development. The software was tested with the results of the detection of sera of persons from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas. I-STOD V1.0 (WINDOWS XP/WIN 7, 0.5 GB) was successfully developed to standardize optical density. A serial of serum samples from schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas were used to examine the operational effects of I-STOD V1.0 software. The results indicated that the software successfully overcame several problems including reliability of standard curve, applicable scope of samples and determination of dilution for samples outside the scope, so that I-STOD was performed more conveniently and the results of standardization were more consistent. I-STOD V1.0 is a professional software based on I-STOD. It can be easily operated and can effectively standardize the testing results of in-direct ELISA.

  15. The Development of a Standard Database System for Republic of Korea Army’s Personnel Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    for ROK Army personnel management ? Which data items should be incorporated in a database? Which tecnique should be applied to design data- bases using a...iD-Ri33 499 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD DATABASE SYSTEM FOR i/i REPUBLIC OF KOREA ARMY’S PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California . THESIS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARD DATABASE SYSTEM FOR REPUBLIC OF KOREA ARMY’S PERSONNEL MANAGE

  16. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS FOR FRONT OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN MODERN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Batinić

    2014-01-01

    Specific requirements of modern consumer-tourists, competition, new sciences and technology have led to the emergence of new products and services in a modern hotel business as well as prescription of training and development standards for employees and managers in the hotel groups and independent hotels of higher rank. Every serious hotel, in order to survive on the tourist market, must have a separate program (standard) of training and development for employees...

  17. Using Standardized Patients in Nursing Education: Effects on Students' Psychomotor Skill Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmasoglu, Senay; Dinç, Leyla; Elçin, Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of using standardized patients for the psychomotor skills development of nursing students. The performance of the experimental group in blood pressure measurement was significantly higher than that of the control group; however, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to their administration of subcutaneous injections. The results indicated that standardized patients can be integrated into nursing education for developing psychomotor skills of students.

  18. Basic Ideas on the Development of Safe Service Life Standard for Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    GB/T 21097.1 General Rules about the Safe Service Life and Recycling of Household and Similar Electrical Appliances has been promulgated and implemented.The development of the standard has gone through a few main stages,including basic framework,fundamental requirements,supplementation of details and actual implementation.In China,the safety standards for household appliances are basically identical with IEC 60335 standards and cover a wide range of products.Basically,the standards have got in line with international level and have been identically applied for several years.However,there have been no corresponding standards or specific rules concerning the safe service life of household appliances in the international community including industrially developed countries.

  19. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1976-05-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The Directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC Index of committee titles. The Directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  20. The most recent worldwide and Chinese technical standards and development trends for cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-cheng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Technical standards are important documents for the development, application and expansion of any engineering material. In the casting industry, technical standards are the premise for producing high quality castings and they provide tools for inspection and acceptance of castings, and aid both the purchaser and the producer. In this paper, the most recent worldwide and Chinese technical standards for SG iron, ADI, CGI and heat resisting iron castings are described. It can be seen that these Chinese national standards have reached the level of world-class standards. This will be beneficial for enhancing the Chinese foundry industry, improving Chinese casting quality and aid the supply of good quality castings to China’s own industry. It is also good for the international buyer to source castings in China, and for the Chinese casting producer to export castings to other parts of the world. Current development trends for cast irons are also discussed.

  1. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1977-03-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC index of committee titles. The directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  2. 75 FR 36385 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement Supplemental Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement... Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement July 6, 2010 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Agenda 10 a.m. Commissioners... perspectives on certain issues pertaining to the development and enforcement of mandatory Reliability...

  3. Development of job standards for clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jae; Seo, Jung-Sook; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Mi-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hye; Ju, Dal-Lae; Wie, Gyung-Ah; Lee, Song-Mi; Cha, Jin-A; Sohn, Cheong-Min

    2015-04-01

    Dyslipidemia has significantly contributed to the increase of death and morbidity rates related to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical nutrition service provided by dietitians has been reported to have a positive effect on relief of medical symptoms or reducing the further medical costs. However, there is a lack of researches to identify key competencies and job standard for clinical dietitians to care patients with dyslipidemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the job components of clinical dietitian and develop the standard for professional practice to provide effective nutrition management for dyslipidemia patients. The current status of clinical nutrition therapy for dyslipidemia patients in hospitals with 300 or more beds was studied. After duty tasks and task elements of nutrition care process for dyslipidemia clinical dietitians were developed by developing a curriculum (DACUM) analysis method. The developed job standards were pretested in order to evaluate job performance, difficulty, and job standards. As a result, the job standard included four jobs, 18 tasks, and 53 task elements, and specific job description includes 73 basic services and 26 recommended services. When clinical dietitians managing dyslipidemia patients performed their practice according to this job standard for 30 patients the job performance rate was 68.3%. Therefore, the job standards of clinical dietitians for clinical nutrition service for dyslipidemia patients proposed in this study can be effectively used by hospitals.

  4. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  5. Potential of a newly developed high-speed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovision) in polymer industrial analyses: monitoring crystallinity and crystal evolution of polylactic acid (PLA) and concentration of PLA in PLA/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Nishii, Takashi; Mizuno, Fumiaki; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate a new high-speed hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) camera named Compovision. Quantitative analyses of the crystallinity and crystal evolution of biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), and its concentration in PLA/poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends were investigated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. This NIR camera can measure two-dimensional NIR spectral data in the 1000-2350 nm region obtaining images with wide field of view of 150 × 250 mm(2) (approximately 100  000 pixels) at high speeds (in less than 5 s). PLA with differing crystallinities between 0 and 50% blended samples with PHB in ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and pure films of 100% PLA and PHB were prepared. Compovision was used to collect respective NIR spectra in the 1000-2350 nm region and investigate the crystallinity of PLA and its concentration in the blends. The partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the crystallinity of PLA were developed using absorbance, second derivative, and standard normal variate (SNV) spectra from the most informative region of the spectra, between 1600 and 2000 nm. The predicted results of PLS models achieved using the absorbance and second derivative spectra were fairly good with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 6.1% and a determination of coefficient (R(2)) of more than 0.88 for PLS factor 1. The results obtained using the SNV spectra yielded the best prediction with the smallest RMSE of 2.93% and the highest R(2) of 0.976. Moreover, PLS models developed for estimating the concentration of PLA in the blend polymers using SNV spectra gave good predicted results where the RMSE was 4.94% and R(2) was 0.98. The SNV-based models provided the best-predicted results, since it can reduce the effects of the spectral changes induced by the inhomogeneity and the thickness of the samples. Wide area crystal evolution of PLA on a plate where a temperature slope of 70-105 °C had occurred was also

  6. Latest developments in the iLids performance standard: from multiple standard camera views to new imaging modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, K. H.; Nilski, A. J.; Sillett, I. M.

    2009-09-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (iLids) is the UK Government's standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The first four iLids scenarios were released in November 2006 and annual evaluations for these four scenarios began in 2007. The Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB), in partnership with the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI), has also developed a fifth iLids Scenario; Multiple Camera Tracking (MCT). The fifth scenario data sets were made available in November 2008 to industry, academic and commercial research organizations The imagery contains various staged events of people walking through the camera views. Multiple Camera Tracking Systems (MCTS) are expected to initialise on a specific target and be able to track the target over some or all of the camera views. HOSDB and CPNI are now working on a sixth iLids dataset series. These datasets will cover several technology areas: • Thermal imaging systems • Systems that rely on active IR illumination The aim is to develop libraries that promote the development of systems that are able to demonstrate effective performance in the key application area of people and vehicular detection at a distance. This paper will: • Describe the evaluation process, infrastructure and tools that HOSDB will use to evaluate MCT systems. Building on the success of our previous automated tools for evaluation, HOSDB has developed the MCT evaluation tool CLAYMORE. CLAYMORE is a tool for the real-time evaluation of MCT systems. • Provide an overview of the new sixth scenario aims and objectives, library specifications and timescales for release.

  7. Development of Standards and Criteria for Accreditation of Baccalaureate Nursing Education Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Heui Ahn

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accreditation is to ensure that the education provided by an institution of higher education meets an acceptable level of quality. This study developed standards and criteria for accreditation of baccalaureate nursing education programs, by comparing accreditation in South Korea and in the United States, and validating standards and criteria. A main comparative analysis was made between Nursing League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC standards, Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE standards for accreditation of baccalaureate nursing education programs, and Korean Accreditation Board of Nursing standards for accreditation of nursing education programs. The research team developed and validated standards and criteria for South Korean baccalaureate nursing education programs. Using the results of the analysis, revisions are proposed to standards for accreditation of baccalaureate nursing education programs, and categorized into 24 criteria and six domains: mission and governance, curriculum and teaching-learning practices, students, faculty, resources, effectiveness. Further studies are required to refine the standards and criteria and make them sophisticated enough to be applied globally.

  8. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  9. Development of standard method performance requirements for biological threat agent detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Scott G; Brunelle, Sharon L; Davenport, Matthew G

    2011-01-01

    Standards and third-party testing are necessary to demonstrate the performance and limitations of biological threat agent (biothreat) detection technologies to allow appropriate response actions by end-users and responders. In order to address this need, the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate has funded AOAC INTERNATIONAL to develop standards and perform conformity assessment. AOAC formed the Stakeholder Panel on Agent Detection Assays to develop consensus performance criteria (standard method performance requirements; SMPRs) for methods that detect biothreats. This paper documents the development of the first five biothreat SMPRs, including the voluntary consensus process, the components of an SMPR, the use of SMPRs in developing validation protocols, and a description of the development efforts and considerations for each of the current SMPRs.

  10. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  11. Analysis of Ordering Process in an Al-Li Alloy by a Newly Developed Method of Degree of Order Determination Using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sengo; Nakai, Kiyomichi; Ohmori, Yasuya

    2012-12-01

    Ordering processes of an Al-11.7 at. pct Li alloy in the early stage of aging have been investigated quantitatively by means of a newly proposed technique to determine the degree of order in a nanoscale area by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After solid solution treatment at 833 K (560 °C) for 1.8 ks, the specimen was quenched into iced brine. The specimen exhibited congruent ordering. It was continuously heated at a rate of 0.17 Ks-1 (0.17 °C s-1). During heating to 673 K (400 °C), the reactions occurred in the following sequences: progress of the congruent ordering, partition of Li atoms around the antiphase domain boundaries, phase separation into Li-rich and Li-lean regions toward equilibria, and dissolution of δ' phase.

  12. The Transitional Development and Team Construction of Newly-established Undergraduate Colleges and Universities%新建本科院校转型发展与队伍建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许霆

    2012-01-01

      新建本科院校在新建期普遍面临着转型发展的要求,其中重要的任务就是要解决好转型发展中的队伍建设问题。针对这批高校普遍忽视教师队伍建设的问题,提出其教师队伍建设的双重要求,即一方面要有传统大学教师的学术价值观和学术水平,另一方面要有转型大学教师的创业精神和实践应用能力;针对这批高校相对忽视管理队伍建设,提出其管理队伍持续地学习培训、战略地素质提升的课题,重点要解决好管理队伍创业的核心能力问题,使之真正成为学校科学发展的“强有力的驾驭核心”。%  Newly-established undergraduate colleges and universities are generally faced with the requirements of their transitional development in the process of their establishment. And one of the most important tasks is to solve a problem of team construction in the transitional development. In view of the fact that this batch of colleges and universities generally neglect the issue of the construction of teachers, this paper puts forward the dual require⁃ments of teachers’construction. On one hand, university teachers should have traditional academic values and aca⁃demic standards. On the other hand, they should have the entrepreneurial spirit and practical application. Besides, in view of the fact that the batch of colleges and universities relatively neglect the issue of the management of teacher’construction, the paper puts forward the topic of the continued learning and training and enhancing the quality strategically in the management of the team, aiming at solving the problem of the entrepreneurial core com⁃petencies in the management of the team and making it a genuine“strong driving core”of the scientific develop⁃ment of colleges and universities.

  13. [Thoughts and strategies of developing an international standard of nomenclature and location of auricular acupuncture points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li-Qun; Zhao, Bai-Xiao

    2011-02-01

    The new development on the international standard of nomenclature and location of auricular acupoints (AAP) was stated in this paper. The similarities and differences of the auricular acupuncture system in various countries were compared in this paper in order to provide suggestions and strategies for international standard of no menclature and location of AAP. In this paper, the international standard of AAP as a common language for international academic exchanges, the guidance for beginners and a basis for further research was mentioned. There were similarities and differences in the nomenclature and location of AAP in China and abroad. It was worthwhile to clarify the similarities and differences in order to promote the process of international standard of AAP. The five basic principles for the international standard of AAP are the basic research of auricular anatomy, the total auricular acupuncture points, principles for nomenclature, the practicality and the accuracy.

  14. End-of-life experiential learning for newly licensed nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Joellen; Thirlwell, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    Many newly licensed nurses begin their careers with limited knowledge and experience in end-of-life care. Findings from a literature review and a learning needs assessment of newly licensed nurses at a comprehensive cancer center guided the development of an 8-hour educational program on end-of-life care. An experiential learning approach was used to foster confidence and develop knowledge and skills in delivery of end-of-life care by newly licensed nurses. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Standardization to Boost the Sustainable Development of MetstarWeather Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The standardization of China's New Generation of Doppler Weather Radar (hereinafter referred to as CINRAD radar) is an important technical support for the development of CINRAD radar and also an important indicator of the industry development level.Beijing Metstar Radar Co.,Ltd.(hereinafter refened to as Metstar),as a navigator of CINRAD radar,has,for a long time,attached great importance to standardization to enhance the enterprise's operation & management level,improve the quality of products,cultivate the image of brand,train the backbone personnel and facilitate the sustainable development of weather radar.

  16. Promoting Coordinated Development of Community-Based Information Standards for Modeling in Biology: The COMBINE Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Nickerson, David P; Bader, Gary D; Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Demir, Emek; Garny, Alan; Golebiewski, Martin; Myers, Chris J; Schreiber, Falk; Waltemath, Dagmar; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE) is a consortium of groups involved in the development of open community standards and formats used in computational modeling in biology. COMBINE's aim is to act as a coordinator, facilitator, and resource for different standardization efforts whose domains of use cover related areas of the computational biology space. In this perspective article, we summarize COMBINE, its general organization, and the community standards and other efforts involved in it. Our goals are to help guide readers toward standards that may be suitable for their research activities, as well as to direct interested readers to relevant communities where they can best expect to receive assistance in how to develop interoperable computational models.

  17. Dynamic change and influence of osteoporotic back pain with vertebral fracture on related activities and social participation: evaluating reliability and validity of a newly developed outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Tokuhide; Akai, Masami; Endo, Naoto; Fujino, Keiji; Iwaya, Tsutomu

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to record the clinical course of osteoporosis over time in Japanese women. We hypothesized that successful control of acute pain associated with osteoporosis will allow better treatment for health-related problems. To confirm this working hypothesis, we developed the Japan Questionnaire for Osteoporotic Pain (JQ22) to measure health status associated with osteoporosis. We examined the validity and reliability of the JQ22 compared with the current gold standard scale for back pain, the Roland Morris questionnaire (RDQ). A total of 125 women who were more than 65 years old, had an acute back pain episode, and had a fragile vertebral fracture confirmed by X-ray and clinical signs, participated in this study. The psychometric analyses for validity and reliability were tested for the JQ22 and the RDQ. The time course up to 6 weeks was observed by investigating both changes in pain characteristics and its influence on related activities and social participation. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.979 and 0.919 for the JQ22 and RDQ, respectively. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the JQ22 items were separated into four domains, which were sequentially arranged at the baseline and subsequently changed. This structure reflected osteoporotic back characteristics covering a range from pain to social activities. The JQ22 was shown to be a valid and reliable scale for patient-based measurement of osteoporotic back pain. It also revealed both changes in pain characteristics and the influence of pain on related activities and participation.

  18. Development of standards for chemical and biological decontamination of buildings and structures affected by terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Hay, A.W.M. [Leeds Univ., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are no suitable standards for determining levels of safety when reoccupying a building that has been recommissioned following a biological or chemical attack. For that reason, this study focused on developing clean-up standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after acts of terrorism. Several parameters must be assessed when determining the course of action to decontaminate toxic agents and to rehabilitate facilities. First, the hazardous substance must be positively identified along with the degree of contamination and information on likely receptors. Potential exposure route is also a key consideration in the risk assessment process. A key objective of the study was to develop specific guidelines for ascertaining and defining clean. In particular, standards for chemical and biological agents that pose a real or potential risk for use as agents of terrorism will be developed. The selected agents for standards development were ammonia, fentanyl, malathion, mustard gas, potassium cyanide, ricin, sarin, hepatitis A virus, and bacillus anthracis. The standards will be developed by establishing the relationship between the amount of exposure and expected health effects; assessing real and potential risks by identifying individuals at risk and consideration of all exposure routes; and, characterizing the risk to determine the potential for toxicity or infectivity. For non-carcinogens, this was done through the analysis of other known guidelines. Cancer-slope factors will be considered for carcinogens. The standards will be assessed in the laboratory using animal models. The guidelines and standards are intended for first-responders and are scheduled for development by the end of 2006. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  20. Functional Competency Development Model for Academic Personnel Based on International Professional Qualification Standards in Computing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumthong, Suwut; Piriyasurawong, Pullop; Jeerangsuwan, Namon

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a functional competency development model for academic personnel based on international professional qualification standards in computing field and examines the appropriateness of the model. Specifically, the model consists of three key components which are: 1) functional competency development model, 2) blended training…

  1. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  2. Supporting the Standards: A Master's Degree Program for K-12 Teacher Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, William; Brame, Roderic

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Master of Science in Teaching Earth Science graduate program. Describes some changes it has undergone in the past 30 years due to the development of standards and competency tests. Concludes that participation in this Master's-level professional development program has positively impacted enrollment figures, teacher understanding of…

  3. 75 FR 40819 - Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement; Notice Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Standards Development and NERC and Regional Entity Enforcement... Commission held a Commissioner-led technical conference to explore issues pertaining to the development...

  4. Development of the primary measurement standard for gaseous radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Lee, M K; Ahn, J K

    2012-09-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed a primary system for the activity standardization of gaseous radon-222, based on the defined solid angle counting method. The size of adsorbed radon is determined by a Cyclone Storage Phosphor System, and a buffer chamber is introduced between the measurement chamber and the source for the purpose of gas purification. The measured activity of gaseous radon-222 and its associated measurement uncertainty obtained using the system are presented.

  5. Novel single/multiple wavelength RZ pulsesource based on Four-Wave Mixing in newly developed Highly Non-linear Fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Clausen, Anders; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2000-01-01

    A tuneable RZ-pulsesource over the entire EDFA gain bandwidth is proposed. The pulses show good performance in a transmission-experiment over 160 km Standard Single Mode Fibre and multiplexing/demultiplexing experiments. Expandable to a multiple RZ pulsesource.......A tuneable RZ-pulsesource over the entire EDFA gain bandwidth is proposed. The pulses show good performance in a transmission-experiment over 160 km Standard Single Mode Fibre and multiplexing/demultiplexing experiments. Expandable to a multiple RZ pulsesource....

  6. Development of gold standard ion-selective electrode-based methods for fluoride analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mier, E A; Cury, J A; Heilman, J R; Katz, B P; Levy, S M; Li, Y; Maguire, A; Margineda, J; O'Mullane, D; Phantumvanit, P; Soto-Rojas, A E; Stookey, G K; Villa, A; Wefel, J S; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M; Zero, D T; Zhang, W; Zohouri, V

    2011-01-01

    Currently available techniques for fluoride analysis are not standardized. Therefore, this study was designed to develop standardized methods for analyzing fluoride in biological and nonbiological samples used for dental research. A group of nine laboratories analyzed a set of standardized samples for fluoride concentration using their own methods. The group then reviewed existing analytical techniques for fluoride analysis, identified inconsistencies in the use of these techniques and conducted testing to resolve differences. Based on the results of the testing undertaken to define the best approaches for the analysis, the group developed recommendations for direct and microdiffusion methods using the fluoride ion-selective electrode. Initial results demonstrated that there was no consensus regarding the choice of analytical techniques for different types of samples. Although for several types of samples, the results of the fluoride analyses were similar among some laboratories, greater differences were observed for saliva, food and beverage samples. In spite of these initial differences, precise and true values of fluoride concentration, as well as smaller differences between laboratories, were obtained once the standardized methodologies were used. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.90 to 0.93, for the analysis of a certified reference material, using the standardized methodologies. The results of this study demonstrate that the development and use of standardized protocols for F analysis significantly decreased differences among laboratories and resulted in more precise and true values. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after...

  8. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  9. Teachers’ Professional Development in the Framework of the New Federal State Educational Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Sidenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a contradiction between the great demand for teachers’ professional development, induced by the new Federal State Educational Standards, and the lack of relevant training programs for school teachers. The author has conducted a survey to assess teachers’ readiness for innovative activity required by the new educational standards. The survey reveals that 97% of teachers denote either difficulty or disapproval of imple- menting the above standards. Investigating the reasons for teachers’ negative attitude, the author puts forward a hypothesis of their insufficient motivation and commitment. In theoretical part of the research teachers’ motivation is considered as a goal, intention, necessity, and personal quality that can be developed. As a result, a method of teachers’ motivation development is suggested actuating the motivation mechanism of achievements. The method is based on the project technique facilitating teachers’ professional and individual goal-setting ability. The program modules for teachers’ further training and prospective results are given. 

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING OF CHINA NATIONAL SERVICE STANDARD OF 2005-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the prime task of "readjusting industrial structure, energetically developing service industry, completing service standards and promoting service level", which are raised in the 10th Five-Year Plan Outline of National Economy and Social Development, Standardization Administration of China( SAC ), National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Construction of P.R.C,Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Culture of the People's Republic of China, the People's Bank of China, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R.C (AQSIQ), the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, State General Administration of Sport, National Tourism Administration, China Seismological Bureau, China Meteorological Administration, China Insurance Regulatory Commission, State Post Bureau, State Cultural Relics, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine Bureau, China National Technical Committee 264 on Service of Standardization Administration of China, China Consumers'Association and China National Institute of Standardization had compiled and officially ratified the Development Planning of National Service Standard2005-2008 by the end of 2005.

  11. Sustainable development induction in organizations: a convergence analysis of ISO standards management tools' parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Fabrício Kurman; Pereira, Vera Lúciaduarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are part of an environment in which they are pressured to meet society's demands and acting in a sustainable way. In an attempt to meet such demands, organizations make use of various management tools, among which, ISO standards are used. Although there are evidences of contributions provided by these standards, it is questionable whether its parameters converge for a possible induction for sustainable development in organizations. This work presents a theoretical study, designed on structuralism world view, descriptive and deductive method, which aims to analyze the convergence of management tools' parameters in ISO standards. In order to support the analysis, a generic framework for possible convergence was developed, based on systems approach, linking five ISO standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 31000 and ISO 26000) with sustainable development and positioning them according to organization levels (strategic, tactical and operational). The structure was designed based on Brundtland report concept. The analysis was performed exploring the generic framework for possible convergence based on Nadler and Tushman model. The results found the standards can contribute to a possible sustainable development induction in organizations, as long as they meet certain minimum conditions related to its strategic alignment.

  12. Medical Device Plug-and-Play (MD PnP) Interoperability Standardization Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    www.mdpnp.org/MD_FIRE.html Page 2 of 9 Contacts: If you have any questions about this document, please feel free to contact: Medical...can’t let me know if my patient is having a critical event," says Dr. Jesse Ehrenfeld, a Mass. General anesthesiologist. The administration of pain ...Part II as a NWIP to an SDO (Standards Development Organization) Open Clinical Platform DevelopmentDevelop prototype hardware and software

  13. A basic study for development of environmental standard review plan of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; You, Young Woo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-12-15

    In this study is performed a basic study to be ready for the development and detail analysis of NUREG-1555 ESRP. As a fundamental research for literature survey and development of draft review plan, review and translation of NUREG-1555 published by NRC, and which is applied to licensing procedure of Nuclear Power Plants are included. These provided the basic information for the developments of the environmental standard review plan.

  14. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  15. The Development Standard Agreement Influences on National and International Business Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindawati Cindawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing business traffic either nationally or internationally forces the business practices to establish a standard agreement to secure the products and to protect the buyer from any risks. The standard agreement successfully meets the demand of international trade which urgently need the high speed and the accuracy. The objective of this research is to find out how does the development of agreement affect to the commerce practices and what are the requirements of standard agreement in accordance with the right and obligation. A qualitative method is applied in searching data of business practices. This study uses a normative research which guides the rule of law or determines some business standards and norms. The finding of this study show that the development of agreement strongly affects to the commerce practices, and standar agreement is urgently needed by business practices as a guideline to perform business traffic as smooth as buyer and seller expect, then both seller and buyer should know the three alternative way used as the procedures of standard agreement, namely; contract signing, notification document agreement, and notification by bulletin board. At last, a standard agreement could be accepted as legal agreement corresponding to willingness and trustworthy.

  16. Standards Development for the U.S. National Geologic Map Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, D. R.; Berg, T. M.; Stamm, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Nation's state geological surveys (under authority of the Association of American State Geologists) are mandated by Congress to provide a National Geologic Map Database (NGMDB) of standardized geoscience information that can be used to address societal issues and improve our base of scientific knowledge. Over the past decade, the NGMDB project has addressed its mandate by providing: 1) basic information and services that enable users to find available geoscience information; 2) a venue for development of community-based standards that are promoting broader public use of geoscience map information and more effective interoperability among the Nation's geological surveys; and 3) a research and development environment in which we are building a distributed database system to archive and serve the Nation's geologic map information. The NGMDB is addressing its mission in an incremental fashion, by building "support" databases and standards, and by working toward the long-term goal of the distributed system. Products currently available to serve the geoscience community and the general public are: the U.S. Geologic Names Lexicon ("GEOLEX"), which is a standard reference for the Nation's stratigraphic nomenclature; the Geoscience Map Catalog and Image Library, which helps people find and view 70,000 published geoscience maps and related products; and various standards, which are the subject of this paper. In cooperation with other U.S. and Canadian agencies, and with the IUGS Commission for the Management and Application of Geoscience Information ("CGI"), the NGMDB project is defining standards that include: a science terminology; a conceptual data model; a physical implementation of the data model in ArcGIS; a FGDC-endorsed standard for map symbols and patterns and for descriptions of locational accuracy of geologic features in the field; and a GML-based exchange standard to promote interoperability among data providers to the NGMDB

  17. Accounting and Co-constructing: The Development of a Standard for Electronic Health Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , despite the standard having been conceived and developed in a process of co-construction with clinicians, clinicians did not find it adequate for their work. The analysis argues this was the result of the model of work embedded in the standard coming from a stance from without practice. Subsequently...... a flip-over effect took place in which the model of work became a model for work. Hence, the paper argues that co-constructing processes should not only include users as representatives of a profession, but strive to produce experiences and knowledge from within practice....... for electronic health records on the basis of an application prototype test build on that standard. The analysis shows that inscribed in the standard is an ambition to make staff and health care services more accountable at the cost of more work, loss of overview and fragmentation of patient cases. Significantly...

  18. Study on Pyrolysis of Newly Developed Copolyester PETG by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%裂解气相色谱-质谱法研究新型共聚酯PETG的热分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻爱芳; 钱和生

    2004-01-01

    Poly (ethylene glycol-co-cyclohexane 1,4-dimethanol terephthalate) (PETG) is a newly developed copolyester. The thermal degradation of PETG was investigated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (PY-GC/MS). The pyrolytic gas of PETG at temperatures 300 C, 400 C ,500 C,600 C and 700 C were identified, respectively. The results showed that the pyrolysis products are very different at diferent pyrolysis temperature. At 600 C, the pyrolysis products of PETG were characteristic of PETG composition, which can be used to determine the polymer chemical structure.

  19. Novel single/multiple wavelength RZ pulsesource based on Four-Wave Mixing in newly developed Highly Non-linear Fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Clausen, Anders; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2000-01-01

    A tuneable RZ-pulsesource over the entire EDFA gain bandwidth is proposed. The pulses show good performance in a transmission-experiment over 160 km Standard Single Mode Fibre and multiplexing/demultiplexing experiments. Expandable to a multiple RZ pulsesource....

  20. Emerging developments in the standardized chemical characterization of indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Sascha; Hösen, Elisabeth; Tanabe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the special characteristics of indoor air pollution make closed environments quite different from outdoor environments, the conceptual ideas for assessing air quality indoors and outdoors are similar. Therefore, the elaboration of International Standards for air quality characterization in view of controlling indoor air quality should resort to this common basis. In this short review we describe the possibilities of standardization of tools dedicated to indoor air quality characterization with a focus on the tools permitting to study the indoor air chemistry. The link between indoor exposure and health as well as the critical processes driving the indoor air quality are introduced. Available International Standards for the assessment of indoor air quality are depicted. The standards comprise requirements for the sampling on site, the analytical procedures, and the determination of material emissions. To date, these standardized procedures assure that indoor air, settled dust and material samples are analyzed in a comparable manner. However, existing International Standards exclusively specify conventional, event-driven target-screening using discontinuous measurement methods for long-lived pollutants. Therefore, this review draws a parallel between physico-chemical processes in indoor and outdoor environments. The achievements in atmospheric sciences also improve our understanding of indoor environments. The community of atmospheric scientists can be both ideal and supporter for researchers in the area of indoor air quality characterization. This short review concludes with propositions for future standardization activities for the chemical characterization of indoor air quality. Future standardization efforts should focus on: (i) the elaboration of standardized measurement methods and measurement strategies for online monitoring of long-lived and short-lived pollutants, (ii) the assessment of the potential and the limitations of non