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Sample records for newly developed method

  1. Conventional and improved cytotoxicity test methods of newly developed biodegradable magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Yu-Chan; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Kim, Young-Yul

    2015-11-01

    Unique biodegradable property of magnesium has spawned countless studies to develop ideal biodegradable orthopedic implant materials in the last decade. However, due to the rapid pH change and extensive amount of hydrogen gas generated during biocorrosion, it is extremely difficult to determine the accurate cytotoxicity of newly developed magnesium alloys using the existing methods. Herein, we report a new method to accurately determine the cytotoxicity of magnesium alloys with varying corrosion rate while taking in-vivo condition into the consideration. For conventional method, extract quantities of each metal ion were determined using ICP-MS and the result showed that the cytotoxicity due to pH change caused by corrosion affected the cell viability rather than the intrinsic cytotoxicity of magnesium alloy. In physiological environment, pH is regulated and adjusted within normal pH (˜7.4) range by homeostasis. Two new methods using pH buffered extracts were proposed and performed to show that environmental buffering effect of pH, dilution of the extract, and the regulation of eluate surface area must be taken into consideration for accurate cytotoxicity measurement of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

  2. A Newly Developed Method for Computing Reliability Measures in a Water Supply Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability model of a water supply network has beens examined. Its main features are: a topology that can be decomposed by the so-called state factorization into a (relativelysmall number of derivative networks, each having a series-parallel structure (1, binary-state components (either operative or failed with given flow capacities (2, a multi-state character of the whole network and its sub-networks - a network state is defined as the maximal flow between a source (sources and a sink (sinks (3, all capacities (component, network, and sub-network have integer values (4. As the network operates, its state changes due to component failures, repairs, and replacements. A newly developed method of computing the inter-state transition intensities has been presented. It is based on the so-called state factorization and series-parallel aggregation. The analysis of these intensities shows that the failure-repair process of the considered system is an asymptotically homogenous Markov process. It is also demonstrated how certain reliability parameters useful for the network maintenance planning can be determined on the basis of the asymptotic intensities. For better understanding of the presented method, an illustrative example is given. (original abstract

  3. A new detection method for a newly revealed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachecka, Aneta; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Paleolog, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa destructor mite has recently displayed an ever increasing resistance to new drugs, contributing to CCD proliferation. This work was aimed at determining new viable methods for identifying the pyrethroid resistance of V. destructor and DNA methylation in resistant and sensitive mites. DNA was extracted from Varroa mites. Nucleotide changes in the DNA of pyrethroid-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive, and control mites were identified with polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in the case of five mitochondrial gene fragments. More bands were observed in the drug-resistant mites than in the other two groups. Sequencing confirmed these observations. Decreased global DNA methylation levels were observed in the pyrethroid-resistant mites. There exists a previously undescribed mechanism of pyrethroid resistance development in Varroa mites. The PCR-SSCP methods can be considered and further developed as useful tools for detecting V. destructor resistance.

  4. Comparison of a newly developed binary typing with ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing methods for Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Jianhong; Xu, Kaiyue; Tian, Tiantian; Yang, Jing; Qiang, Cuixin; Shi, Dongyan; Wei, Honglian; Sun, Suju; Cui, Qingqing; Li, Ruxin; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Bixing

    2018-02-24

    Clostridium difficile is the causative pathogen for antibiotic-related nosocomial diarrhea. For epidemiological study and identification of virulent clones, a new binary typing method was developed for C. difficile in this study. The usefulness of this newly developed optimized 10-loci binary typing method was compared with two widely used methods ribotyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in 189 C. difficile samples. The binary typing, ribotyping and MLST typed the samples into 53 binary types (BTs), 26 ribotypes (RTs), and 33 MLST sequence types (STs), respectively. The typing ability of the binary method was better than that of either ribotyping or MLST expressed in Simpson Index (SI) at 0.937, 0.892 and 0.859, respectively. The ease of testing, portability and cost-effectiveness of the new binary typing would make it a useful typing alternative for outbreak investigations within healthcare facilities and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a versatile in vitro method for understanding the migration of Fasciola hepatica newly excysted juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campos, Andres; Baird, Alan W; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode that causes serious losses to livestock producers, and also zoonotic disease. The limitations of chemotherapy for the control of fasciolosis have led to significant interest in the development of vaccines to protect cattle and sheep from infection. However, relatively few studies have concentrated on the mechanisms of invasion of the gut by newly excysted juvenile liver flukes (NEJ) and the host response triggered by this event. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model to study invasion by NEJ, while also reducing the requirement for challenge infections of experimental animals. Fasciola hepatica metacercariae were excysted in vitro and placed into compartments containing rat distal jejunal sheets. Variations in incubation medium, chamber size and incubation temperature were used to identify optimal conditions for NEJ migration across the gut. Histological examination showed increased migration until 120 min post-incubation. The use of RPMI, without gassing at 39 °C, as the incubation medium was found to be optimal, with 40·5% of NEJ migrating after 150 min. This study describes a readily-reproducible method for studying the migration of F. hepatica NEJ within the definitive host. It will be useful for identifying potential drug and vaccine targets.

  6. Validation of newly developed and redesigned key indicator methods for assessment of different working conditions with physical workloads based on mixed-methods design: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebers, Falk; Brandstädt, Felix; Schust, Marianne; Serafin, Patrick; Schäfer, Andreas; Gebhardt, Hansjürgen; Hartmann, Bernd; Steinberg, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. The assessment of work tasks with physical workloads is crucial to estimate the work-related health risks of exposed employees. Three key indicator methods are available for risk assessment regarding manual lifting, holding and carrying of loads; manual pulling and pushing of loads; and manual handling operations. Three further KIMs for risk assessment regarding whole-body forces, awkward body postures and body movement have been developed de novo. In addition, the development of a newly drafted combined method for mixed exposures is planned. All methods will be validated regarding face validity, reliability, convergent validity, criterion validity and further aspects of utility under practical conditions. Methods and analysis As part of the joint project MEGAPHYS (multilevel risk assessment of physical workloads), a mixed-methods study is being designed for the validation of KIMs and conducted in companies of different sizes and branches in Germany. Workplaces are documented and analysed by observations, applying KIMs, interviews and assessment of environmental conditions. Furthermore, a survey among the employees at the respective workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires, interviews and physical examinations. It is intended to include 1200 employees at 120 different workplaces. For analysis of the quality criteria, recommendations of the COSMIN checklist (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) will be taken into account. Ethics and dissemination The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the German Medical Professional Code and the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the German Federal Data Protection Act. The design of the study was approved by ethics committees. We intend to publish the validated KIMs in 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at international meetings and disseminated

  7. Validation of newly developed and redesigned key indicator methods for assessment of different working conditions with physical workloads based on mixed-methods design: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klussmann, Andre; Liebers, Falk; Brandstädt, Felix; Schust, Marianne; Serafin, Patrick; Schäfer, Andreas; Gebhardt, Hansjürgen; Hartmann, Bernd; Steinberg, Ulf

    2017-08-21

    The impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is considerable. The assessment of work tasks with physical workloads is crucial to estimate the work-related health risks of exposed employees. Three key indicator methods are available for risk assessment regarding manual lifting, holding and carrying of loads; manual pulling and pushing of loads; and manual handling operations. Three further KIMs for risk assessment regarding whole-body forces, awkward body postures and body movement have been developed de novo. In addition, the development of a newly drafted combined method for mixed exposures is planned. All methods will be validated regarding face validity, reliability, convergent validity, criterion validity and further aspects of utility under practical conditions. As part of the joint project MEGAPHYS (multilevel risk assessment of physical workloads), a mixed-methods study is being designed for the validation of KIMs and conducted in companies of different sizes and branches in Germany. Workplaces are documented and analysed by observations, applying KIMs, interviews and assessment of environmental conditions. Furthermore, a survey among the employees at the respective workplaces takes place with standardised questionnaires, interviews and physical examinations. It is intended to include 1200 employees at 120 different workplaces. For analysis of the quality criteria, recommendations of the COSMIN checklist (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) will be taken into account. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the German Medical Professional Code and the Declaration of Helsinki as well as the German Federal Data Protection Act. The design of the study was approved by ethics committees. We intend to publish the validated KIMs in 2018. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at international meetings and disseminated to actual users for practical application. © Article

  8. A newly developed spinal simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, R; Watson, M J

    2000-11-01

    A number of studies indicate poor intra-therapist and inter-therapist reliability in the performance of graded, passive oscillatory movements to the lumbar spine. However, it has been suggested that therapists can be trained to be more consistent in their performance of these techniques if given reliable quantitative feedback. The intention of this study was to develop equipment, analogous to the lumbar spine that could be used for both teaching and research purposes. Equipment has been updated and connected to a personal IBM compatible computer. Custom designed software allows concurrent and accurate feedback to students on their performance and in a form suitable for advanced data analysis using statistical packages. The uses and implications of this equipment are discussed. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  9. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orito, N.; Umekage, S.; Sato, K.; Kawauchi, S.; Tanaka, H.; Sakai, E.; Tanaka, T.; Kikuchi, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be KD = 2.25×10-9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  10. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.; Hofer, S.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    Introduction: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  11. Preliminary results using a newly developed projection method to visualize vascular anatomy prior to DIEP flap breast reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelink, S.L.; Hameeteman, M.; Hoogeveen, Y.L.; Slump, C.H.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Schultze Kool, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction, computed tomography angiography (CTA) is currently considered as the gold standard in preoperative imaging for this procedure. Unidirectional Doppler ultrasound (US) is frequently used; however, this method

  12. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method.

  13. Intra-molecular electron communication, spectroscopic and conformational stability of the newly developed urethane modified polyetheramide coatings: Computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Akintayo, Cecilia O; Akintayo, Emmanuel T; Conradie, Jeanet

    2017-11-01

    There have been constant research efforts towards the development of new and thermally stable resins, containing properties to outdoor usage, such as high quality of adhesion, as well as resistance to water and acid, amongst others. In this computational study, the spectroscopic properties were calculated, also the intramolecular electronic communication, susceptibility, as well as conformational changes in two monomers of potential resins, namely Albiziabenth oil polyetheramide (ABOPEtA) and urethanated Albiziabenth oil polyetheramide (UABOPEtA), as well as their precursor, namely hydroxylethyl albiziabenth oil amide (HEABOA). Many of these computed properties clearly show that the urethane linkage group in UABOPEtA acts as a strong electron withdrawing group, consequently causing the rest of the molecule to be more nucleophilic. This leads to an increase in the stability of UABOPEtA, as compared the rest of the molecules, as evidenced by an increase in the intramolecular energy of interaction, as well as negative values of the polarizability exaltation index (Γ). Further UABOPEtA is also associated with higher non-linear optical properties, in terms of the hyperpolarizabilities (β) and increased aromaticity, than for molecules ABOPEtA and HEABOA. The conformational folding of molecule UABOPEtA is characterized by larger values of the bisphenol-A linkage bond angle C⋯C⋯C, contrary to the angle observed in molecule ABOPEtA. This is a direct effect of hiding the urethane unit in the cleft of the folded UABOPEtA, which clearly leads to an increase in the hydrophobicity of UABOPEtA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of oligo-N-glycolylneuraminic acid residues in mammal-derived glycoproteins by a newly developed immunochemical reagent and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, C; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y

    1998-01-30

    The occurrence of the alpha2-->8-linked oligomeric form of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (oligo-Neu5Gc) residues in mammalian glycoproteins was unequivocally demonstrated using a newly developed anti-oligo/poly-Neu5Gc monoclonal antibody as well as by chemical and biochemical methods. First, the antibody, designated mAb.2-4B, which specifically recognized oligo/poly-Neu5Gc with a degree of polymerization of >2, was developed by establishing a hybridoma cell line from P3U1 myeloma cells fused with splenocytes from an MRL autoimmune mouse immunized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated oligo/poly-Neu5Gc. Second, oligo-Neu5Gc was shown to occur in glycoproteins derived from pig spleen by Western blot analysis using mAb.2-4B, which was also confirmed by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the product of periodate oxidation/reduction/acid hydrolysis of the purified glycopeptide fractions and by TLC and 600-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis of their mild acid hydrolysates. Finally, the ubiquitous occurrence of oligo-Neu5Gc chains as glycoproteinaceous components in Wistar rat tissue was immunochemically indicated. This is the first example demonstrating the diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure in mammalian glycoproteins, where only poly-N-acetylneuraminic acid is known to occur. Such diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure also implicates a diverged array of biological functions of this glycan unit in glycoproteins.

  15. Improved leucoreduction of red blood cell units prepared after a 24-h hold with the platelet-rich plasma method using newly developed filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, L; Beauséjour, A; Jacques, A; de Grandmont, M J; Lemieux, R; Grégoire, Y; Ducas, E; Boucher, G

    2008-05-01

    A previous study indicated that the extension of whole blood (WB) storage from 8 to 24 h at 20-24 degrees C before the processing of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-depleted red blood cell (RBC) units had a negative effect on the efficacy of leucoreduction filters. In this study, we further characterized the phenomenon and tested the leucoreduction capacity of two newly developed filters. Whole blood was stored at 20-24 degrees C and processed at 4-h intervals between 8 and 24 h postcollection. Components were leucoreduced before storage. Efficacy of novel filters to leucoreduce 24-h-hold PRP-depleted RBC units was also evaluated. Using a conventional filter, the mean residual white blood cell (WBC) counts in leucoreduced PRP-depleted RBCs were comparable in units prepared within 12 h from collection but gradually increased upon extended preprocessing storage from 0.36 +/- 0.03 at 12 h to 0.46 +/- 0.21, 0.76 +/- 0.54 and 1.72 +/- 1.76 x 10(6) per unit at 16, 20 and 24 h, respectively. However, the mean residual WBC content in 24-h-hold RBCs was reduced to 0.60 +/- 0.39 x 10(6) and 0.46 +/- 0.13 x 10(6) per units using RC2D and the prototypes B-1582 rev B filters, respectively. For PRP-depleted RBC units, the extension of the WB room temperature storage from 8 to 24 h before processing is likely to require the introduction of newly developed filters having an increased leucoreduction capacity in order to meet the maximal residual WBC guideline in the RBCs.

  16. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  17. Development of methods for the field evaluation of Oobius agrili (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in North America, a newly introduced egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Michael D. Ulyshen; Juli R. Gould; Roy. Van Driesche

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted in forested plots near Lansing, Michigan in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the newly introduced egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for control of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). To measure parasitism by

  18. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-21

    rinse adhesive together with a low‑viscosity resin composite. This multistep application is complex and precise and contains many critical and. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering materials between ...

  19. Parametric Modal Study and Optimization of the Floor Pan of a B-Segment Automotive Using a Hybrid Method of Taguchi and a Newly Developed MCDM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Shojaeefard

    Full Text Available Abstract The floor pan is an important component that connects the front and rear segments of the automotive underbody structure. Global stiffness and NVH characteristics of BIW are highly dependent to shape, thickness and mass of the body panels and could be evaluated by modal characteristics of these panels. The feeling of solidness and comfort of passengers in an automotive is also dependent to the modal behavior of the underbody components as well as the floor pan. On the other hand, it is desired to reduce the total mass of the floor pan, in order to have a lighter vehicle with better fuel economy and emission standards. In this paper, the effect of geometrical parameters on natural frequency and total mass of the floor pan of a conventional B-Segment automotive body is investigated using finite element simulation. The finite element model is verified using an experimental test on the floor pan. Taguchi L 16 orthogonal array is used to design the numerical experiments. Subsequently, S/N ratio analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of each design variable on the output functions. The panel's thickness is determined to have the most contribution in affecting the natural frequency and weight using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The best combination of geometrical variables which leads to the trade-off results is then figured out by a new multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method developed in this study. Accuracy of this method is verified by comparing the trade-off results with TOPSIS, as a conventional MCDM method.

  20. Developing and evaluating a foundation preceptorship programme for newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde-Johnston, Carol

    2017-06-14

    In 2014, an innovative, three-tiered foundation preceptorship programme for newly qualified nurses was developed in Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The programme was to be mandatory for newly qualified nurses commencing Band 5 posts in the trust, and has a structured curriculum that integrates skills development, preceptorship and clinical supervision. Aim To evaluate the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust foundation preceptorship programme for newly qualified nurses commencing Band 5 posts in the trust. Method Data were collected through questionnaires and focus groups with newly qualified nurses and nurse managers in the trust. Findings Respondents indicated the foundation preceptorship programme had positive value and improved the experience of newly qualified nurses during their first year of clinical practice. Newly qualified nurses wished to regularly reflect with experienced nurses and obtain feedback on their practice from clinical experts to develop their clinical skills. A professionally-regulated agreed percentage of preceptor-preceptee supervision time may enhance preceptorship standards. Conclusion The foundation preceptorship programme had several benefits for newly qualified nurses and nurse managers, and their feedback on the programme was positive. The development and evaluation of the foundation preceptorship programme may inform the future education and training of newly qualified nurses during their first year in clinical practice.

  1. Dependency in elderly people newly diagnosed with cancer - A mixed-method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Thomé, Bibbi; Thomsen, Thordis

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study, based on data from an empirical investigation, combines quantitative and qualitative approaches in a mixed-method design to explore dependency in elderly people newly diagnosed with cancer. METHODS AND SAMPLE: 101 elderly people newly diagnosed with cancer were included...... in the quantitative part, with 16 in the qualitative part. A questionnaire concerning quality of life and dependency issues was developed. For the qualitative part, open-ended interviews were conducted to get closer to the experience of dependency. RESULTS: Combining the two methods was seen as complementary...

  2. Comparison between a newly developed PC-based Doppler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the accuracy of the resistance index (RI) of flow velocity waveforms of the umbilical artery measured using a newly developed PC-based continuous wave Doppler device (Umbiflow) with regard to systematic and random variations when compared with a commercial standard (Vasoflow). Design.

  3. Erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.; Voss, H.P.; Ruben, J.L.; Jager, D.J.; Vieira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the erosion effect of a newly developed soft drink available in 3 different flavours is compared with the erosion effect of some common soft drinks. Several basic parameters of the soft drinks were determined: pH, titratable acidity, and the calcium as well as phosphate

  4. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Junji; Hernandez, Rene Arturo Marquez; Sunagawa, Hiroko; Fujita, Tadashi; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tsuka, Natsumi; Koseki, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yayoi; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Abedini, Sara; Tanne, Kazuo

    2009-07-03

    The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Orchiectomy (ORX) and ovariectomy (OVX) were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA) were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan), low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co.,) and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%). Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  5. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107

  6. A newly developed accelerator to convert thorium to uranium-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, T.

    2014-01-01

    For constructing a sustainable society, low-carbon energy sources and low-carbon automobiles are required. In addition to the use of nuclear power, renewable energy such as wind-mills and solar power are used as low-carbon energy sources. Electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid vehicle (HV) are expected to be used as low-carbon automobiles. Essential raw material in order to fabricate these machineries is rare-earth elements (REE). In these few years, rare-earth supply has been unstable due to China’s monopoly in its production. China’s monopoly of rare-earth production was caused by loss of market competitiveness of other countries that needed to spend cost for taking care of “thorium” which occurred as by-product of rare-earth refining. Thorium can be used as nuclear fuel but thorium is merely fertile. Therefore, additional supply of fissile material is necessary to use thorium. As a result, there are no countries that separate and store thorium as valuable except India. The authors have studied (1) molten-salt reactor (MSR) as a utilizing technology of thorium, (2) implementation capacity of thorium MSR supported by a supply of plutonium from spent uranium fuel and (3) international framework to protect environment from thorium which occurs as by-product of rare-earth refining. Available implementation capacity of thorium MSR by using all plutonium based on the prediction of IEA’s uranium fuel cycle is only 392 GW at 2050. This capacity of thorium MSR requires 76 thousand tonnes of thorium but total amount of thorium occurring as by-product of rare-earth reaches to 444 thousand tonnes. If there is no use of thorium, it could be abandoned to environment illegally. The authors are considering a new framework to protect environment by giving an incentive of storing thorium by adding value to these excess thorium. A newly developed accelerator neutron source is a method to add value to thorium. Spallation reaction has been known as neutron source which uses high

  7. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  8. Applicability of newly developed 610MPa class heavy thickness high strength steel to boiler pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Norihiko; Kaihara, Shoichiro; Ishii, Jun [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Kajigaya, Ichiro [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Totsuka, Takehiro; Miyazaki, Takashi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Corp., Aioi (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Construction of a 350 MW Class PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) boiler plant is under planning in Japan. Design temperature and pressure of the vessel are maximum 350 C and 1.69 MPa, respectively. As the plate thickness of the vessel exceeds over 100 mm, high strength steel plate of good weldability and less susceptible to reheat cracking was required and developed. The steel was aimed to satisfy the tensile strength over 610 MPa at 350 C after postweld heat treatment (PWHT), with good notch toughness. The authors investigated the welding performances of the newly developed steel by using 150 mm-thick plate welded by pulsed-MAG and SAW methods. It was confirmed that the newly developed steel and its welds possess sufficient strength and toughness after PWHT, and applicable to the actual pressure vessel.

  9. A Newly Proposed Method to Predict Optimum Occlusal Vertical Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuichiro; Shimizu, Mariko; Katada, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    Establishing the optimum occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in prosthetic treatment is an important clinical procedure. No methods are considered to be scientifically accurate in determining the reduced OVD in patients with missing posterior teeth. The purpose of this study was to derive a new formula to predict the lower facial height (LFH) using cephalometric analysis. Fifty-eight lateral cephalometric radiographs of Japanese clinical residents (mean age, 28.6 years) with complete natural dentition were used for this study. Conventional skeletal landmarks were traced. Not only the LFH, but six angular parameters and four linear parameters, which did not vary with reduced OVD, were selected. Multiple linear regression analysis with a stepwise forward approach was used to develop a prediction formula for the LFH using other measured parameters as independent variables. The LFH was significantly correlated with Gonial angle, SNA, N-S, Go-Me, Nasal floor to FH, Nasal floor to SN, and FH to SN. By stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the following formula was obtained: LFH (degree) = 65.38 + 0.30* (Gonial angle; degree) - 0.49* (SNA; degree) - 0.41* (N-S; mm) + 0.21* (Go-Me; mm) - 15.45* (Nasal floor to FH; degree) + 15.22* (Nasal floor to SN; degree) - 15.40* (FH to SN; degree). Within the limitations of this study for one racial group, our prediction formula is valid in every LFH range (37 to 59°), and it may also be applicable to patients in whom the LFH deviated greatly from the average. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Challenges on innovations of newly-developed safety analysis codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yanhua [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Zhang, Hao [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing (China). Beijing Future Science and Technology City

    2016-05-15

    With the development of safety analysis method, the safety analysis codes meet more challenges. Three challenges are presented in this paper, which are mathematic model, code design and user interface. Combined with the self-reliance safety analysis code named COSINE, the ways of meeting these requirements are suggested, that is to develop multi-phases, multi-fields and multi-dimension models, to adopt object-oriented code design ideal and to improve the way of modeling, calculation control and data post-processing in the user interface.

  11. Guidelines for developing certification programs for newly generated TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.; Geoffrion, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    These guidelines were prepared with direction from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Management Program in support of the DOE effort to certify that newly generated TRU wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The guidelines provide instructions for generic Certification Program preparation for TRU-waste generators preparing site-specific Certification Programs in response to WIPP requirements. The guidelines address all major aspects of a Certification Program that are necessary to satisfy the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria and their associated Compliance Requirements and Certification Quality Assurance Requirements. The details of the major element of a Certification Program, namely, the Certification Plan, are described. The Certification Plan relies on supporting data and control documentation to provide a traceable, auditable account of certification activities. Examples of specific parts of the Certification Plan illustrate the recommended degree of detail. Also, a brief description of generic waste processes related to certification activities is included

  12. A newly developed borehole flowmeter technology for heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive borehole flowmeter tests were performed at 37 fully-screened wells on a one-hectare test site to characterize the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field of an alluvial aquifer with a σ lnK of 4.7. During the site investigations, several major advancements with respect to borehole flowmeter technology were developed. The milestones included: (1) the development of a field-durable electromagnetic borehole flowmeter with a lower detection limit of 0.1 l/min; (2) the realization of the importance of the pumping rate with respect to the calculated value for the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity; and (3) an evaluation of alternative methods for calculating the depth-averaged hydraulic conductivity. The predicted three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field was compared to the results of 10 small-scale (3 to 7 m) tracer tests, information about the depositional history of the aquifer, and the results of three large-scale aquifer tests. The hydraulic conductivity data predict the major features of the tracer breakthrough curves, maps the outline of a former river meander in an aerial photograph, and leads to a geometric mean consistent with the average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. (Author) (14 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.)

  13. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  14. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-07

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  15. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  16. High acceptability of a newly developed urological practical skills training program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.H. de; Luijk, S.J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Wagner, C.; Schout, B.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benefits of simulation training are widely recognized, but its structural implementation into urological curricula remains challenging. This study aims to gain insight into current and ideal urological practical skills training and presents the outline of a newly developed skills

  17. High acceptability of a newly developed urological practical skills training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.; van Luijk, S.J.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Wagner, C.; Schout, B.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Benefits of simulation training are widely recognized, but its structural implementation into urological curricula remains challenging. This study aims to gain insight into current and ideal urological practical skills training and presents the outline of a newly developed skills

  18. Mapping subsurface in proximity to newly-developed sinkhole along roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    MS&T acquired electrical resistivity tomography profiles in immediate proximity to a newly-developed sinkhole in Nixa Missouri : The sinkhole has closed a well-traveled municipal roadway and threatens proximal infrastructure. The intent of this inves...

  19. Effect of newly developed pigments and ultraviolet absorbers on the color change of pigmented silicone elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit G Kheur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The newly developed pigment led to increased color stability as compared to commercially available pigments. Addition of UV stabilizer, Chimassorb led to a further reduction in color change of the pigmented elastomer.

  20. Clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled release morphine sulphate suppository in patients with cancer pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, F.; Meijler, W.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; Visser, Jan; Proost, J.H.

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of a newly developed controlled-release suppository (MSR) with MS Contin tablets (MSC) in cancer patients with pain. Methods: In a double-blind, randomised, two-way crossover trial, 25 patients with cancer pain were selected with a

  1. Chemical and Sensorial Evaluation of a Newly Developed Bean Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ana; Correia, Paula; Gonçalves, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with nutritional properties as well as appealing organoleptic qualities. The product, a jam, was prepared with the beans’ cooking water combined with fresh apple or carrot, without the addition of any conservatives. Three different jams were produced: bean and carrot, bean and apple and bean, apple and cinnamon. The developed products underwent a sensorial...

  2. Bonding performance of two newly developed self‑adhering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of four resin materials on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a ceramic core material to dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty molar teeth were embedded in a self‑curing acrylic resin. All specimens were randomly divided into four groups of teeth, each according to the resin cement used ...

  3. The Development Needs of Newly Appointed Senior School Leaders in the Western Cape South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelius Jansen van Vuuren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role that senior school leaders play in school leadership teams to ensure effective strategic leadership in schools has been the subject of intense discussion for many years. Crucial to this debate is the establishment of professional learning and leadership approaches for newly appointed senior school leaders. Recommendations for policy and practice highlight the importance of appropriate, multifaceted, developmental support initiatives for newly appointed school leaders. In many countries, including South Africa, a teaching qualification and, in most cases, extensive teaching experience is the only requirement for being appointed as a senior school leader in a school. This tends to suggest that no further professional development is required for newly appointed school leaders, the problem addressed in this paper. This paper reports on the main findings of the perceived development needs of newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa, and suggests that school leaders occupy a unique and specialist role in education, which requires relevant and specific preparation to support effective leadership. The respondents of this study report a lack of contextualised training and support before and after their appointment in their new roles creating unique development needs. This paper, therefore, employs a mixed-method approach to gather data to understand the perceived needs of twenty newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  4. Assessing Wetland Health Using a Newly Developed Land Cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half of the wetlands in South Africa have been degraded or lost due to economic activities, urban developments and poor wetland management. Reversing the trend would require the participation of a wide range of actors in addition to scientists. A case has been made for a citizen science approach in order to.

  5. Construction of Steel Pipe Sheet Piles with Newly Developed Joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H-joint in steel pipe sheet piles (SPSP) is introduced and developed, the joint is made by welding a cylindrical steel pile on either side of an H steel section, welding is continuous along their lengths therefore it is completely waterproof with high strength; the two connected piles are installed simultaneously hence short ...

  6. Assessing wetland health using a newly developed land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half of the wetlands in South Africa have been degraded or lost due to economic activities, urban developments and poor wetland management. Reversing the trend would require the participation of a wide range of actors in addition to scientists. A case has been made for a citizen science approach in order to ...

  7. Newly developed electrical steel for high-frequency use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsubara, M.; Sadahiro, K.; Kondo, O.; Takamiya, T.; Honda, A.

    2002-04-01

    For high-frequency appliances, a new magnetic material was developed, and its properties were investigated and compared with conventional electrical steel and 6.5% Si steel. The new material has extremely low iron loss at high frequencies over 5 kHz as well as 6.5% Si steel, which was obtained by increasing electric resistivity, or by reducing its eddy current loss. Generally, increasing resistivity makes steels brittle and deteriorates their workability. However, the developed material showed a good workability with the effect of Cr addition. This material has a good property of pulse response, and also showed an excellent performance for power electronics device using an active filter operated at 15 kHz.

  8. Mechanical and tribological properties of newly developed Tribaloy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Liu, R.; Patnaik, P.C.; Yao, M.X.; Wu, X.J.

    2007-01-01

    Outstanding combination of mechanical, wear and corrosion performance has been achieved in Laves intermetallic materials, termed Tribaloy alloys. In these two-phase alloys the solid solution provides high mechanical strength and fracture toughness while the Laves intermetallic phase offers excellent wear resistance. However, conventional Tribaloy alloys usually have low tensile strength and fracture toughness compared with ductile materials due to the large volume fraction of Laves phase, which has limited their application in many cases. The present research is aimed at developing advanced Tribaloy alloys with increasing ductility. Two new cobalt base alloys were developed in this research. The specimens were fabricated with a centrifugal casting technique. The material characterization was performed using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), indentation and ball-on-disc tribological techniques

  9. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  10. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtani, Junji; Hernandez, Rene Arturo Marquez; Sunagawa, Hiroko; Fujita, Tadashi; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tsuka, Natsumi; Koseki, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yayoi; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Abedini, Sara; Tanne, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a new...

  11. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tani, Mamoru; Kobashi, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  12. A newly developed precise and sensitive radioimmunoassay for clonidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndts, D.; Struck, C.J.; Staehle, H.

    1979-01-01

    A new precise and sensitive radioimmunoassay for clonidine has been developed. Synthesis and analysis of the hapten (4-carboxy-clonidine; St 1984) as well as antibody production in rabbits are described in detail. At a final dilution of 1:1000 the resulting immune serum binds 50% of a tritiated clonidine standard containing 1 ng of clonidine. The detection limit of the presented radioimmunoassay for clonidine is 0.1 ng/ml. The coefficient of variation did not exceed 4.3% for any of 7 standard determinations with 5 replicates. There was no relevant crossreactivity of inactive clonidine metabolites apart from 4-OH-clonidine. To avoid any errors from cross-reaction clonidine was selectively and quantitatively extracted into diethylether from unknown plasma samples. Following concentration of the extracts even such low concentrations as 20 pg of clonidine/ml plasma were detectable. With the radioimmunoassay applied in pharmacokinetic studies a maximal clonidine concentration in blood plams of healthy human volunteers was determined to 0.6 ng/ml 1.5 h after oral administration of 150 μg. (orig.) [de

  13. Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Groenvold, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing. Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5......) Graves' disease (n = 6), thyroid eye-disease (n = 6), and primary hypothyroidism (n = 10). The questionnaire was revised successively. Six iterative rounds of interviews were conducted. Identified problems were categorized according to Tourangeau's four-stage model. Results Problems were identified 126...... times in 43 of the 99 tested items, four of the 15 introductions, and four of the five response categories. Fifty-four problems involved comprehension, one retrieval, 23 judgment, 28 response, and 20 were not applicable to the four-stage model. Among all problems identified, 18 concerned attribution, i...

  14. Assessing College Students' Perceptions of a Case Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge Using a Newly Developed Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Syh-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing professional development for college teachers has been much emphasized. However, previous research on learning environments has seldom addressed college students' perceptions of teachers' PCK. This study aimed to evaluate college students' perceptions of a physics teacher's PCK development using a newly developed instrument and workshop…

  15. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Kim, Y.-S.; Park, H.-S.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.; Lee, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  16. Investigation of various reconstruction parameters for algebraic reconstruction technique in a newly developed chest digital tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Park, H.-S.; Lee, Y.; Seo, C.-W.; Kim, H.-J.

    2017-08-01

    Chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) is a promising new modality that provides 3D information by reconstructing limited projection views. CDT systems have been developed to improve the limitations of conventional radiography such as image degradation and low sensitivity. However, the development of reconstruction methods is challenging because of the limited projection views within various angular ranges. Optimization of reconstruction parameters for various reconsturction methods in CDT system also is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) method, and to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction parameters for our newly developed CDT system. We designed ART method with 41 projection views over an angular range of ±20°. To investigate the effect of reconstruction parameters, we measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), artifact spread function (ASF), and quality factor (QF) using LUNGMAN phantom included tumors. We found that the proper choice of reconstruction parameters such as relaxation parameter, initial guess, and number of iterations improved the quality of reconstructed images from the same projection views. Optimal values of ART relaxation parameter with uniform (UI) and back-projection (BP) initial guesses were 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. BP initial guess improved image quality in comparison with UI initial guess, in terms of providing a higher CNR and QF values with a faster speed. CNR and QF values improved with increasing number of iteration. Particularly, ART method with BP initial guess (when β = 0.6) after 3-terations provide satisfactory reconstructed image. In conclusion, the use of ART method with proper reconstruction parameters provided better image quality than FBP method as well as conventional radiography. These results indicated that the ART method with optimal reconstruction parameters could improve image quality for nodule detection using the CDT system.

  17. A longitudinal, mixed methods investigation of newly qualified nurses' workplace stressors and stress experiences during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Yvonne; Terry, Louise M; Curzio, Joan

    2017-11-01

    To investigate transition in newly qualified nurses through an exploration of their stressors and stress experiences during their first 12 months postqualifying. Globally, thousands of new nurses qualify annually. They are crucial for the profession and healthcare service delivery. Work-related stress has multiple serious consequences, yet there is a lack of robust, empirical evidence that directly analyses newly qualified nurses and the stress they feel and experience in the workplace. Understanding what causes newly qualified nurses' stress is vital to retaining and nurturing this vital component of the workforce. Longitudinal, explanatory sequential mixed methods, cohort study. At the point of qualification (n = 288), 6 months postqualifying (n = 107) and 12 months postqualifying (n = 86), newly qualified nurses completed the Nursing Stress Scale, with 14 completing a one-to-one interview at 12 months postqualifying. Data were collected from 2010 - 2012. Inferential statistics, "thematic analysis" and "side-by-side comparisons in a discussion" were used for analysis. Workload was consistently the highest reported stressor with inadequate staffing and managing multiple role demands given as explanations. Incivility within the workplace was a noted stressor. Conversely, being part of "a good team" provided a civil, supportive, facilitative work environment. Entering nurse education with previous healthcare experience had a mediating effect on the reported frequency of stressors. Newly qualified nurses encounter multiple work-related stressors over their first 12 months postqualifying, which are intrinsically entwined with their transition. Employing organizations need to be more proactive in managing their workload and addressing workplace incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Newly Developed Techniques on Polycondensation, Ring-Opening Polymerization and Polymer Modification: Focus on Poly(Lactic Acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunzi; Daoud, Walid A.; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-01-01

    Polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization are two important polymer synthesis methods. Poly(lactic acid), the most typical biodegradable polymer, has been researched extensively from 1900s. It is of significant importance to have an up-to-date review on the recent improvement in techniques for biodegradable polymers. This review takes poly(lactic acid) as the example to present newly developed polymer synthesis techniques on polycondensation and ring-opening polymerization reported in the recent decade (2005–2015) on the basis of industrial technique modifications and advanced laboratory research. Different polymerization methods, including various solvents, heating programs, reaction apparatus and catalyst systems, are summarized and compared with the current industrial production situation. Newly developed modification techniques for polymer properties improvement are also discussed based on the case of poly(lactic acid). PMID:28773260

  19. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  20. Color coverage of a newly developed system for color determination and reproduction in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dozic, A.; Voit, N.F.A.; Zwartser, R.; Khashayar, G.; Aartman, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A newly developed system for color determination and reproduction is logically arranged and systematically combines a few components to acquire its broad color range. The objective was to evaluate color coverage of human teeth with the range of the new system and to compare it with other

  1. Newly Developed Sarcopenia as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Patients who Underwent Liver Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Young Jeon

    Full Text Available The relationship between a perioperative change in sarcopenic status and clinical outcome of liver transplantation (LT is unknown. We investigated whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status were associated with the survival of patients.This retrospective study was based on a cohort of 145 patients from a single transplant center who during a mean of 1 year after LT underwent computed tomography imaging evaluation. The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle of LT patients was compared with that of age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether post-LT sarcopenia and changes in sarcopenic status affect post-LT survival.The mean age at LT of the 116 male and 29 female patients was 50.2 ± 7.9 years; the mean follow-up duration was 51.6 ± 32.9 months. All pre-LT patients with sarcopenia still had sarcopenia 1 year after LT; 14 (15% patients had newly developed sarcopenia. The mean survival duration was 91.8 ± 4.2 months for non-sarcopenic patients and 80.0 ± 5.2 months for sarcopenic patients (log-rank test, p = 0.069. In subgroup analysis, newly developed sarcopenia was an independent negative predictor for post-LT survival (hazard ratio: 10.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-80.93, p = 0.024.Sarcopenia in LT recipients did not improve in any of the previously sarcopenic patients and newly developed within 1 year in others. Newly developed sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality. Newly developed sarcopenia can be used to stratify patients with regard to the risk of post-LT mortality.

  2. Two newly developed methods for the radioactive labeling of tetanus toxins with substances emitting beta-rays and the usefulness of the compounds thus obtained in radioimmunoassays to determine tetanus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Eppler, T.

    1986-01-01

    Described are two methods to label tetanus toxins using either 14C-formaldehyde or succinimidyl-3H- propionate as radioactive tracers. The question as to whether the labeled compounds thus obtained can be introduced into RIAs for the detection of tetanus antibodies is also discussed. The immunoreactivity of 3H-toxin is not perceptibly changed by the labeling procedure. The compound can be compared to 125I-labeled toxin, although it suffers no adverse effects from long-term due to autoradiolysis. (TRV) [de

  3. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10 4 per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g -1 ) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  4. Verification of gamma knife based fractionated radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Singh, Manmohan Jit; Agarwal, Deepak; Garg, Ajay; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Pratik; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study is to verify the Gamma Knife Extend™ system (ES) based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom. Methods: Phantoms are extensively used to measure radiation dose and verify treatment plan in radiotherapy. A human upper body shaped phantom with thorax was designed to simulate fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using Extend™ system of Gamma Knife. The central component of the phantom aids in performing radiological precision test, dosimetric evaluation and treatment verification. A hollow right circular cylindrical space of diameter 7.0 cm was created at the centre of this component to place various dosimetric devices using suitable adaptors. The phantom is made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic material. Two sets of disk assemblies were designed to place dosimetric films in (1) horizontal (xy) and (2) vertical (xz) planes. Specific cylindrical adaptors were designed to place thimble ionization chamber inside phantom for point dose recording along xz axis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were used to analyze and map radiation field. The focal precision test was performed using 4 mm collimator shot in phantom to check radiological accuracy of treatment. The phantom head position within the Extend™ frame was estimated using encoded aperture measurement of repositioning check tool (RCT). For treatment verification, the phantom with inserts for film and ion chamber was scanned in reference treatment position using X-ray computed tomography (CT) machine and acquired stereotactic images were transferred into Leksell Gammaplan (LGP). A patient treatment plan with hypo-fractionated regimen was delivered and identical fractions were compared using EBT3 films and in-house MATLAB codes. Results: RCT measurement showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.265 mm (range 0.223 mm–0.343 mm). Gamma index analysis across fractions exhibited close agreement between LGP and film

  5. A computer literacy scale for newly enrolled nursing college students: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Increasing application and use of information systems and mobile technologies in the healthcare industry require increasing nurse competency in computer use. Computer literacy is defined as basic computer skills, whereas computer competency is defined as the computer skills necessary to accomplish job tasks. Inadequate attention has been paid to computer literacy and computer competency scale validity. This study developed a computer literacy scale with good reliability and validity and investigated the current computer literacy of newly enrolled students to develop computer courses appropriate to students' skill levels and needs. This study referenced Hinkin's process to develop a computer literacy scale. Participants were newly enrolled first-year undergraduate students, with nursing or nursing-related backgrounds, currently attending a course entitled Information Literacy and Internet Applications. Researchers examined reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis. The final version of the developed computer literacy scale included six constructs (software, hardware, multimedia, networks, information ethics, and information security) and 22 measurement items. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale possessed good content validity, reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. This study also found that participants earned the highest scores for the network domain and the lowest score for the hardware domain. With increasing use of information technology applications, courses related to hardware topic should be increased to improve nurse problem-solving abilities. This study recommends that emphases on word processing and network-related topics may be reduced in favor of an increased emphasis on database, statistical software, hospital information systems, and information ethics.

  6. [Diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in the context of newly developed psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenboeck, Alexander; Friedrich, Fabian; Hinterbuchinger, Barbara; Litvan, Zsuzsa; Mossaheb, Nilufar

    2016-12-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome (clinically also known as velocardiofacial or DiGeorge syndrome) is the most common human microdeletion syndrome and can be associated with a multitude of clinical features. In this article we report the case of a 22-year-old patient from Austria who was diagnosed with previously unknown 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in the context of newly developed psychosis. Using this case as an example, we then discuss the implications of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome for clinical psychiatric practice.

  7. The effectiveness of newly developed written asthma action plan in improvement of asthma outcome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai

    2017-09-17

    Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.

  8. High acceptability of a newly developed urological practical skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Anna H; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Hendrikx, Ad J M; Koldewijn, Evert L; Wagner, Cordula; Schout, Barbara M A

    2015-09-04

    Benefits of simulation training are widely recognized, but its structural implementation into urological curricula remains challenging. This study aims to gain insight into current and ideal urological practical skills training and presents the outline of a newly developed skills training program, including an assessment of the design characteristics that may increase its acceptability. A questionnaire was sent to the urology residents (n = 87) and program directors (n = 45) of all Dutch teaching hospitals. Open- and close-ended questions were used to determine the views on current and ideal skills training and the newly developed skills training program. Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 residents and 15 program directors. All interviews were audiotaped, fully transcribed, and thereafter analyzed. Response was 87.4% for residents and 86.7% for program directors. Residents appeared to be still predominantly trained 'by doing'. Structured practical skills training in local hospitals takes place according to 12% of the residents versus 44% of the program directors (p skills training program (p = 0.51). 'Structured scheduling', 'use of peer teaching' and 'high fidelity models' were indicated as design characteristics that increase its acceptability. Current urological residency training consists of patient-related 'learning by doing', although more practice on simulation models is desired. The acceptability of implementing the presented skills-training program is high. Design characteristics that increase its acceptability are structured scheduling, the use of peer teaching and high fidelity models.

  9. Implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for artificial vision in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Kamei, Motohiro; Nishida, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yasuo; Fujikado, Takashi; Ozawa, Motoki; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical procedures involved in the implantation of a newly developed direct optic nerve electrode device for inducing artificial vision. The electrode device comprised seven wire stimulation electrodes and a return electrode (diameter 50 μm), one manipulation rod (diameter 100 μm), and a cylindrical silicone board (diameter 2.0 mm). The stimulation electrodes and the manipulation rod protruded through the board to allow implantation of the electrode tips into the optic disc of the rabbit eye. The surgical procedures required to insert the device into the vitreous cavity and implant the device into the optic disc were evaluated. When the electrodes were stimulated, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were recorded at the visual cortex. The electrode device was inserted into the vitreous cavity with no damage using a trocar through a scleral incision. The device was easily manipulated using vitreoretinal forceps in the vitreous cavity, and the electrode tips were implanted into the optic disc in a single insertion after vitrectomy. When electrical stimulation was applied, EEPs were recorded from all electrode pairs. The newly developed electrode device was inserted into the eye and implanted into the optic nerve disc smoothly and safely, suggesting that these surgical procedures are useful for our artificial vision system.

  10. Pressure drop performance evaluation for test assemblies with the newly developed top and bottom nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Park, N. K.; Su, J. M.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, J. N.; Kim, K. T.

    2003-01-01

    To perform the hydraulic test for the newly developed top and bottom nozzles, two kinds of test assemblies were manufactured i. e. one is the test assembly which has the newly developed top and bottom nozzles and the other is Guardian test assembly which is commercially in mass production now. The test results show that the test assembly with one top nozzle and two bottom nozzles has a greater pressure loss coefficient than Guardian test assembly by 60.9% and 90.4% at the bottom nozzle location. This cause is due to the debris filtering plate for bottom nozzle to improve a filtering efficiency aginst foreign material. In the region of mid grid and top nozzle, there is no difference in pressure loss coefficient between the test assemblies since the componet features in these regions are very similar or same each other. The loss coefficients are 14.2% and 21.9% for model A and B respectively in the scale of test assembly, and the value would be within the 10% in the scale of real fuel assembly. As a result of hydraulic performance evaluation, model A is superior to model B

  11. A simple and rapid identification method for newly emerged porcine Deltacoronavirus with loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. Results In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 101 copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine kobuvirus (PKoV, porcine astrovirus (PAstV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, classic swine fever virus (CSFV, and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2. By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192, this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1–2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. Conclusions The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.

  12. Muscle Attenuation Is Associated With Newly Developed Hypertension in Men of African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Zmuda, Joseph M; Kuipers, Allison L; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Youk, Ada O; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-05-01

    Increased ectopic adipose tissue infiltration in skeletal muscle is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. We evaluated whether change in skeletal muscle adiposity predicts subsequent development of hypertension in men of African ancestry, a population sample understudied in previous studies. In the Tobago Health Study, a prospective longitudinal study among men of African ancestry (age range 40-91 years), calf intermuscular adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle attenuation were measured with computed tomography. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or receiving antihypertensive medications. Logistic regression was performed with adjustment for age, insulin resistance, baseline and 6-year change in body mass index, baseline and 6-year change in waist circumference, and other potential confounding factors. Among 746 normotensive men at baseline, 321 (43%) developed hypertension during the mean 6.2 years of follow-up. Decreased skeletal muscle attenuation was associated with newly developed hypertension after adjustment for baseline and 6-year change of body mass index (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]) or baseline and 6-year change of waist circumference (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD, 1.3 [1.0-1.6]). No association was observed between increased intermuscular adipose tissue and hypertension. Our novel findings show that decreased muscle attenuation is associated with newly developed hypertension among men of African ancestry, independent of general and central adiposity and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to adjust for inflammation, visceral and other ectopic adipose tissue depots, and to confirm our findings in other population samples. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  14. Study on a newly developed pre-arrival transmission system for earthquake information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamura, Masamitsu; Moroi, Takafumi; Takahashi, Katsuya; Obo, Naoto

    1995-01-01

    Considering the difficulty of precise and short-term earthquake prediction, a concept of earthquake detection near the epicenter and pre-arrival information transmission has been proposed since 20 years ago. In order to explore the possibility of application of such concept to practical use for earthquake hazard mitigation, a observation network has been newly developed. In the system, the occurrence of an earthquake is detected at an observation site near the epicenter at first, then the observed ground motion is analyzed quickly and the necessary predicted information such as the intensity of ground shaking, frequency contents and waveforms of the event could be rapidly transmitted before the coming of strong ground motion at a site. When such information could be transferred to important facilities such as nuclear power plants, it seems to be useful for the emergency response countermeasures for the earthquake hazard mitigation. (author)

  15. Experimental Study of the Interactions and Dynamics at Interfaces Using Newly Developed AFM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongshi

    Compared to the bulk properties of material, our fundamental understanding of the interactions and dynamics at the liquid-air, liquid-solid, and even solid-solid interfaces are still very limited. The lack of progress is partially because the interfacial interactions are extremely sensitive to the nanoscale distance at which the measurements are made, and the interfacial dynamics are easily disturbed by defects and impurities at the interface. Well-controlled experimental systems with tunable interfacial properties together with surface-sensitive experimental tools and analysis methods are needed for the study of the interactions and dynamics at interfaces. Over the past 30 years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become one of the most important tools for the study of interfaces. In this thesis, I present the development of new AFM probes and techniques and their applications in the investigation of novel interfacial phenomena and understanding of the underlying physics. Three interesting problems are studied at different interfaces. In the first experiment, we carry out direct AFM measurements of capillary force hysteresis (CFH) and relaxation of a circular moving contact line (MCL) formed on a long micron-sized hydrophobic glass fiber intersecting a liquid-air interface. The measured CFH and contact line (CL) relaxation show an asymmetric speed dependence in the advancing and receding directions. A unified model based on force-assisted barrier crossing is developed to find the effective energy barrier Eb and size lambda associated with the defects on the fiber surface. The experiment demonstrates that the pinning (relaxation) and depinning dynamics of the CL can be described by a common microscopic framework, and the advancing and receding CLs are in influenced by two different sets of relatively non-wetting and wetting defects on the fiber surface. The second experiment studies the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity

  16. Measurement of left ventricular chamber and myocardial volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Application of a newly developed edge-detection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Hirase, Yoshinori; Sagoh, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hideaki [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software has been reported to demonstrate inaccurate edge detection in the left ventricular chamber in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. In this study we developed a method to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV) and left myocardial volume (LMV) from gated SPECT data using a newly developed edge-detection algorithm, and we compared it with the QGS method of calculating LVV and LMV in a phantom study. Our method gave more accurate measurements LVV and LMV whereas the QGS method underestimated LMV. Compared with QGS LVV and LMV, our method yielded better results in the phantom study. (author)

  17. Determination of reference intervals for urinary steroid profiling using a newly validated GC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Buitenwerf, Edward; Pranger, Alle T; Riphagen, Ineke J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Kerstens, Michiel N; Kema, Ido P

    2017-11-27

    Urinary steroid profiling (USP) is a powerful diagnostic tool to asses disorders of steroidogenesis. Pre-analytical factors such as age, sex and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) may affect steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. In general, USP reference intervals are not adjusted for these variables. In this study we aimed to establish such reference intervals using a newly-developed and validated gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection method (GC-MS/MS). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged 20-79 years, stratified into six consecutive decade groups each containing 20 males and 20 females, were included. None of the subjects used medications. In addition, 40 women aged 20-39 years using OCP were selected. A GC-MS/MS assay, using hydrolysis, solid phase extraction and double derivatization, was extensively validated and applied for determining USP reference intervals. Androgen metabolite excretion declined with age in both men and women. Cortisol metabolite excretion remained constant during life in both sexes but increased in women 70-79 years of age. Progesterone metabolite excretion peaked in 30-39-year-old women and declined afterwards. Women using OCP had lower excretions of androgen metabolites, progesterone metabolites and cortisol metabolites. Method validation results met prerequisites and revealed the robustness of the GC-MS/MS method. We developed a new GC-MS/MS method for USP which is applicable for high throughput analysis. Widely applicable age and sex specific reference intervals for 33 metabolites and their diagnostic ratios have been defined. In addition to age and gender, USP reference intervals should be adjusted for OCP use.

  18. Genetic Methods to Identify and Manipulate Newly born Neurons in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru eImayoshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although mammalian neurogenesis is mostly completed by the perinatal period, new neurons are continuously generated in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Since the discovery of adult neurogenesis, many extensive studies have been performed on various aspects of adult neurogenesis, including proliferation and fate-specification of adult neural stem cells, and the migration, maturation and synaptic integration of newly born neurons. Furthermore, recent research has shed light on the intensive contribution of adult neurogenesis to olfactory-related and hippocampus-mediated brain functions. The field of adult neurogenesis progressed tremendously thanks to technical advances that facilitate the identification and selective manipulation of newly born neurons among billions of pre-existing neurons in the adult central nervous system. In this review, we introduce recent advances in the methodologies for visualizing newly generated neurons and manipulating neurogenesis in the adult brain. Particularly, the application of site-specific recombinases and Tet inducible system in combination with transgenic or gene targeting strategy is discussed in further detail.

  19. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Newly developed biodegradable stents for benign gastrointestinal tract stenoses: a preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohiko; Takahashi, Masashi; Nitta, Norihisa; Furukawa, Akira; Andoh, Akira; Saito, Yasuharu; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    We developed an Ultraflex-type stent by knitting polylactic acid monofilaments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stent's clinical usefulness for treating benign stenoses in the gastrointestinal tract. The radial force of the biodegradable stent was compared with those of commercially available metallic stents. The measured radial force of the new biodegradable stent was higher than that of commercially available metallic stents. The biodegradable stents were applied in 2 patients with benign gastrointestinal stenoses. The first patient was a 19-year-old female with esophageal stenosis, due to drinking of caustic potash in an attempt to commit suicide. The second patient was a 75-year-old male who had a stenosis at the anastomotic site after esophageal cancer resection. In both cases, the placement of the stent was performed successfully, and the patients' complaints improved immediately after stent placement. There were no complications during stent placement. The stenosis had not recurred at the six-month follow-up examination. In conclusion, the newly developed biodegradable stents were useful in treating benign stenoses of the alimentary tract. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Ten Key Steps to Developing a Programme of University Mentoring for Newly Enrolled Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Casado-Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer mentoring or tutoring is an educational guidance method that is growing in universities around the world. Directed at the integration of students over the first year of university studies, it is based on the support and guidance that a more experienced student offers to a recently enrolled fellow student. It is a recent process in Spain which started a little over a decade ago, but each course brings more experiences. This article, derived from research, seeks to identify a series of key steps and ideas to implement this type of programme. The summary of the proposals stems from three main sources: a the experience and assessment of the Mentoring Programme at the University of Burgos; b the review of the peer mentoring programs implemented at 35 Spanish universities; and c the review, comparison and adaptation of formal mentoring to the university according to Perrone (2003.  The outcomes may be especially useful for those universities that wish to start mentoring programmes, and as a source of reflection and comparison for those with greater experience. We believe that special attention should be given on increasing and improving participation in the mentoring of newly enrolled students and on monitoring and assessing the whole process.

  2. GEM simulation methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment

  3. Physico-mechanical and thermal characteristics of commercially available and newly developed dental flowable composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalak, Hakan; Canbay, C. Aksu; Yiğit, Oktay; Altin, Serdar

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the structural stability, thermal conductivity, thermal analysis, materials' homogeneity of newly developed flowable composites. 6 different dental flowable composite resins; Grandio Flow (GF), Charisma Flow (CF), Tetric N Flow (TNF), Clearfil Majesty Flow (CMF),3M Filtek Ultimate Flow (3MFU), Voco Amaris Flow (VFA) were used. Restorations were made in standard teflon molds and the materials were light-cured for 20s in a 6 mm × 2 mm teflon mould. After polymerization, samples were kept in distilled water at 37 °C/24 h .It was found that the composites have multiphase component such as metallic dopant and organic binder. The XRD investigation showed that there was a broad halo in the pattern which indicates the organic section in the composites. The FTIR results indicate the bond structure of the composites. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of the composites were found below to 5 mW/K value depending on the type of the composites, which are low enough for dental application. The micro-hardness of the samples was analyzed and the result was compared.

  4. Functional Evaluation and Characterization of a Newly Developed Silicone Oil-Free Prefillable Syringe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Keisuke; Nakamura, Koji; Yamashita, Arisa; Abe, Yoshihiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro; Kanazawa, Yukie; Funatsu, Kaori; Yoshimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of a newly developed silicone oil-free (SOF) syringe system, of which the plunger stopper is coated by a novel coating technology (i-coating™), was assessed. By scanning electron microscopy observations and other analysis, it was confirmed that the plunger stopper surface was uniformly covered with the designed chemical composition. A microflow imaging analysis showed that the SOF system drastically reduced both silicone oil (SO) doplets and oil-induced aggregations in a model protein formulation, whereas a large number of subvisible particles and protein aggregations were formed when a SO system was used. Satisfactory container closure integrity (CCI) was confirmed by means of dye and microorganism penetration studies. Furthermore, no significant difference between the break loose and gliding forces was observed in the former, and stability studies revealed that the SOF system could perfectly show the aging independence in break loose force observed in the SO system. The results suggest that the introduced novel SOF system has a great potential and represents an alternative that can achieve very low subvisible particles, secure CCI, and the absence of a break loose force. In particular, no risk of SO-induced aggregation can bring additional value in the highly sensitive biotech drug market. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:1520–1528, 2014 PMID:24643749

  5. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Dairaku, M.; Sato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yokoyama, K.; Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-10-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J—EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 × 3 mm 2. As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux.

  6. Erosion of newly developed CFCs and Be under disruption heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Duwe, R.; Bolt, H.; Roedig, M.

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the erosion under disruption heat loads is very important to the lifetime prediction of divertor armour tiles of next fusion devices such as ITER. In particular, erosion data on CFCs (carbon fiber reinforced composites) and beryllium (Be) as the armour materials is urgently required in the ITER design. For CFCs, high heat flux experiments on the newly developed CFCs with high thermal conductivity have been performed under the heat flux of around 800-2000 MW/m 2 and the pulse length of 2-5 ms in JAERI electron beam irradiation systems (JEBIS). As a result, the weight losses of B 4 C doped CFCs after heating were almost same to those of the non doped CFC up to 5 wt% boron content. For Be, we have carried out our first disruption experiments on S65/C grade Be specimens in the Juelich divertor test facility in hot cells (JUDITH) facility as a frame work of the J-EU collaboration. The heating conditions were heat loads of 1250-5000 MW/m 2 for 2-8 ms, and the heated area was 3 x 3 mm 2 . As a result, the protuberances of the heated area of Be were observed under the lower heat flux. (orig.)

  7. A newly validated and characterized spectrophotometric method for determination of a three water pollutants metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Marwa E.; Frag, Eman Y. Z.; Mohamed, Mona A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple, fast and accurate spectrophotometric method had been developed to determine lead (II), chromium (III) and barium (II) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples using thoron (THO) as a reagent forming colored complexes. It was found that the formed complexes absorbed maximally at 539, 540 and 538 nm for Pb(II)-THO, Cr(III)-THO and Ba(II)-THO complexes, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions for these complexes had been studied carefully. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1-35, 1-70, and 1-45 μg mL- 1 for Pb (II), Cr(III) and Ba(II) ions with THO reagent, respectively. Different parameters such as linearity, selectivity, recovery, limits of quantification and detection, precision and accuracy were also evaluated in order to validate the proposed method. The results showed that, THO was effective in simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Ba(III) ions in pure forms and in spiked water samples. Also, the results of the proposed method were compared with that obtained from atomic absorption spectrometry. The isolated solid complexes had been characterized using elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), IR, mass spectrometry and TD-DFT calculations. Their biological activities were investigated against different types of bacteria and fungi organisms.

  8. Engineering fluorescent proteins towards ultimate performances: lessons from the newly developed cyan variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mérola, Fabienne; Erard, Marie; Fredj, Asma; Pasquier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    New fluorescent proteins (FPs) are constantly discovered from natural sources, and submitted to intensive engineering based on random mutagenesis and directed evolution. However, most of these newly developed FPs fail to achieve all the performances required for their bioimaging applications. The design of highly optimised FP-based reporters, simultaneously displaying appropriate colour, multimeric state, chromophore maturation, brightness, photostability and environmental sensitivity will require a better understanding of the structural and dynamic determinants of FP photophysics. The recent development of cyan fluorescent proteins (CFPs) like mCerulean3, mTurquoise2 and Aquamarine brings a different view on these questions, as in this particular case, a step by step evaluation of critical mutations has been performed within a family of spectrally identical and evolutionary close variants. These efforts have led to CFPs with quantum yields close to unity, near single exponential emission decays, high photostability and complete insensitivity to pH, making them ideal choices as energy transfer donors in FRET and FLIM imaging applications. During this process, it was found that a proper amino-acid choice at only two positions (148 and 65) is sufficient to transform the performances of CFPs: with the help of structural and theoretical investigations, we rationalise here how these two positions critically control the CFP photophysics, in the context of FPs derived from the Aequorea victoria species. Today, these results provide a useful toolbox for upgrading the different CFP donors carried by FRET biosensors. They also trace the route towards the de novo design of FP-based optogenetic devices that will be perfectly tailored to dedicated imaging and sensing applications. (topical review)

  9. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-01-01

    , healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living...... application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. METHODS: The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists...... with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. RESULTS...

  10. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  11. Thermal infrared data of active lava surfaces using a newly-developed camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. O.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Our ability to acquire accurate data during lava flow emplacement greatly improves models designed to predict their dynamics and down-flow hazard potential. For example, better constraint on the physical property of emissivity as a lava cools improves the accuracy of the derived temperature, a critical parameter for flow models that estimate at-vent eruption rate, flow length, and distribution. Thermal infrared (TIR) data are increasingly used as a tool to determine eruption styles and cooling regimes by measuring temperatures at high temporal resolutions. Factors that control the accurate measurement of surface temperatures include both material properties (e.g., emissivity and surface texture) as well as external factors (e.g., camera geometry and the intervening atmosphere). We present a newly-developed, field-portable miniature multispectral thermal infrared camera (MMT-Cam) to measure both temperature and emissivity of basaltic lava surfaces at up to 7 Hz. The MMT-Cam acquires emitted radiance in six wavelength channels in addition to the broadband temperature. The instrument was laboratory calibrated for systematic errors and fully field tested at the Overlook Crater lava lake (Kilauea, HI) in January 2017. The data show that the major emissivity absorption feature (around 8.5 to 9.0 µm) transitions to higher wavelengths and the depth of the feature decreases as a lava surface cools, forming a progressively thicker crust. This transition occurs over a temperature range of 758 to 518 K. Constraining the relationship between this spectral change and temperature derived from this data will provide more accurate temperatures and therefore, more accurate modeling results. This is the first time that emissivity and its link to temperature has been measured in situ on active lava surfaces, which will improve input parameters of flow propagation models and possibly improve flow forecasting.

  12. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Newly Developed Dexibuprofen Sustained Release Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Selvadurai

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling has emerged as a major tool in clinical pharmacology to optimize drug use by designing rational dosage forms and dosage regimes. Quantitative representation of the dose-concentration-response relationship should provide information for the prediction of the level of response to a certain level of drug dose. This paper describes the experimental details of the preformulation study, tablet manufacture, optimization, and bioanalytical methods for the estimation of dexibuprofen in human plasma. The hydrophilic matrix was prepared with xanthen gum with additives Avicel PH 102. The effect of the concentration of the polymer and different filler, on the in vitro drug release, was studied. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, C max, T max, T 1/2, and elimination rate constant (K el) were determined from the plasma concentration of both formulations of test (dexibuprofen 300 mg) and reference (dexibuprofen 300 mg tablets). The merits of PK-PD in the development of dosage forms and how PK-PD model development necessitates the development of new drugs and bio analytical method development and validation are discussed. The objectives of the present study, namely, to develop and validate the methods to estimate the selected drugs in the biological fluids by HPLC, the development of in vitro dissolution methods, and PK-PD model development have been described. PMID:23316393

  14. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Dojiri, Shigeru; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1988-10-01

    The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs

  15. Examination of in vivo gelatinolytic activity in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue using newly developed in situ zymography and image analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, W; Uzuki, M; Nishida, J; Shimamura, T; Sawai, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in vivo gelatinolytic activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium using a newly developed in situ zymography (ISZ) method and pathological image analyzer, and to evaluate the relationship between this activity and several features on RA. A total of 8 samples of synovium were obtained from RA patients during surgery, and 8 samples from osteoarthritis (OA) patients were examined as controls. Furthermore, total 14 samples of syovium were obtained for comparison among radiographical classifications as Larsen grade (4 cases of grade III, 5 cases of grade IV and 5 cases of grade V). These specimens were frozen with OCT compound immediately after surgery. Frozen sections were applied to a newly developed gelatin-coated FIZ film (Fuji Film Co.Tokyo.Japan) designed for use ISZ, and incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 hours. Using an image analyzer (image processor for analytical pathology; IPAP), two variables were measured as indicators of in vivo gelatynolytic activity: optical density of gelatinolyzed area (ODG), and ratio of gelatinolyzed area (RGA). Also, we investigated the relationship between these indicators and the following variables: radiographic changes (Larsen grades), clinical data (C-reactive protein concentration), histological score of synovial tissue (modified Rooney's score), and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 (assessed by immunohistochemistry). RA synovium had significantly higher RGA and lower ODG than OA, indicating higher gelatinolytic activity in RA. Synovium from cases with Larsen grade IV or V had significantly lower ODG than cases with grade III, but there was no significant difference in RGA between grades. There was no significant correlation between gelatinolytic activity (ODG or RGA) and either CRP or modified Rooney's Histological Score. The results of ISZ indicate that the gelatinolyzed areas were mainly localized in the

  16. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [Federal Institute of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana [Coimbra Health School, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  17. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Antonio Carvalho; Santos, Joana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT

  18. Application of a newly developed software program for image quality assessment in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius Linhares; Santos, António Carvalho; Paulo, Graciano; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Santos, Joana

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply a newly developed free software program, at low cost and with minimal time, to evaluate the quality of dental and maxillofacial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, CQP-IFBA, was scanned in 3 CBCT units with 7 protocols. A macro program was developed, using the free software ImageJ, to automatically evaluate the image quality parameters. The image quality evaluation was based on 8 parameters: uniformity, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), spatial resolution, the artifact index, geometric accuracy, and low-contrast resolution. The image uniformity and noise depended on the protocol that was applied. Regarding the CNR, high-density structures were more sensitive to the effect of scanning parameters. There were no significant differences between SNR and CNR in centered and peripheral objects. The geometric accuracy assessment showed that all the distance measurements were lower than the real values. Low-contrast resolution was influenced by the scanning parameters, and the 1-mm rod present in the phantom was not depicted in any of the 3 CBCT units. Smaller voxel sizes presented higher spatial resolution. There were no significant differences among the protocols regarding artifact presence. This software package provided a fast, low-cost, and feasible method for the evaluation of image quality parameters in CBCT.

  19. Do Chasms Exist Between Developing, Newly Developed, and Developed Countries When It Comes to Adopting ICT Technology?: The Case of South Korea and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hoon Yang; Sang-Gun Lee; Jae Kyung Kim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine if a difference exists in adopting or diffusing information and communication technology (ICT) between developing and newly developed countries. To analyze the problem, the authors use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) suggested by Venkatesh et al. (2003), which consists of effort expectancy, performance expectancy, and social influence. The authors also use innovation diffusion functions, made up of introduction, growth, maturit...

  20. Exploring Content Validity of Shore Handwriting Screening and Newly Developed Score Sheet With Pre-Kindergarten Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise K. Donica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limited tools exist to measure handwriting readiness skills of pre-kindergarten students. This study was a preliminary exploration of content validity of the Shore Handwriting Screening (SHS and the newly developed Score Sheet with the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2 in 4- and 5-year-old pre-kindergarten students. Because socioeconomic status (SES is known to impact handwriting skills, data from two different socioeconomic groups were collected. Method: Students from a Lower SES group (n = 36 and a Higher SES group (n = 14 completed the SHS and fine motor composite of the BOT-2. Pearson’s correlation was used to compare scores on the two assessments within the two groups. Results: SHS overall percentage scores were compared to standard scores and composite scores of the BOT-2. SHS scores displayed moderate to high correlation with fine manual control portions of the BOT-2 for the Lower SES group and low to moderate correlation for the same portion in the Higher SES group. Conclusion: SHS and the Score Sheet correlate to fine and visual-motor skill subtests on the fine manual control portions of the BOT-2, which supports the need for further research on the reliability and validity of the Score Sheet for use in practice.

  1. Feasibility of Rehabilitation Training With a Newly Developed, Portable, Gait Assistive Robot for Balance Function in Hemiplegic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical feasibility of a newly developed, portable, gait assistive robot (WA-H, ‘walking assist for hemiplegia’) for improving the balance function of patients with stroke-induced hemiplegia. Methods Thirteen patients underwent 12 weeks of gait training on the treadmill while wearing WA-H for 30 minutes per day, 4 days a week. Patients' balance function was evaluated by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FMAS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT), and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) before and after 6 and 12 weeks of training. Results There were no serious complications or clinical difficulties during gait training with WA-H. In three categories of BBS, TUGT, and the balance scale of SPPB, there was a statistically significant improvement at the 6th week and 12th week of gait training with WA-H. In the subscale of balance function of FMAS, there was statistically significant improvement only at the 12th week. Conclusion Gait training using WA-H demonstrated a beneficial effect on balance function in patients with hemiplegia without a safety issue. PMID:28503449

  2. Clinical Application of Newly Developed Custom-made Mouthpiece for Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Toshiaki; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    To describe a method for customizing scuba diving mouthpieces, to examine their usability, and to assess divers' satisfaction with their use. A rational method for fabricating custom-made mouthpieces for scuba diving was developed. Twenty scuba divers agreed to use a custom-made mouthpiece for at least 4 weeks. After mouthpiece use, participants completed an 11-item questionnaire. Custom-made mouthpieces had significantly lower scores for all items on the questionnaire except uncomfortable sensation, indicating that they were more comfortable than ready-made mouthpieces. It can be concluded that these novel custom-made mouthpieces for scuba diving offer greater comfort than ready-made mouthpieces.

  3. Lamp system with a single second-lens newly designed by using the least square method for 4 LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae Heung; Ryu, Jae Myung; Hong, Chun Gang

    2014-05-01

    It is common for many companies to use multiple LEDs to enhance the brightness of a LED lamp and, in general, four LEDs are used in the LED lamp systems. Moreover, the second-lens must be used to obtain a straight uniform illumination from LED lights. Where four LEDs are used, four second-lenses are also assembled conventionally and those four units of second-lenses are manufactured from a single mold and assembled together with the LEDs. However, this study introduces a new method of using the Least Square Method to get a uniform illumination with the divergence angle of 40 degrees with a new single injection molded lens. Thanks to this optical design with a single lens, the assembling process of LED lamp system was simplified by eliminating the complicated assembly procedure. Also, the uniformity of illumination of this newly designed lamp system was less than 14.1%.

  4. A rapid and efficient newly established method to detect COL1A1–PDGFB gene fusion in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Shimizu, Akira; Okada, Etsuko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Motegi, Sei-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed new method to rapidly identify COL1A1–PDGFB fusion in DFSP. ► New PCR method using a single primer pair detected COL1A1–PDGFB fusion in DFSP. ► This is the first report of DFSP with a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. -- Abstract: The detection of fusion transcripts of the collagen type 1α1 (COL1A1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFB) genes by genetic analysis has recognized as a reliable and valuable molecular tool for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). To detect the COL1A1–PDGFB fusion, almost previous reports performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using multiplex forward primers from COL1A1. However, it has possible technical difficulties with respect to the handling of multiple primers and reagents in the procedure. The objective of this study is to establish a rapid, easy, and efficient one-step method of PCR using only a single primer pair to detect the fusion transcripts of the COL1A1 and PDGFB in DFSP. To validate new method, we compared the results of RT-PCR in five patients of DFSP between the previous method using multiplex primers and our established one-step RT-PCR using a single primer pair. In all cases of DFSP, the COL1A1–PDGFB fusion was detected by both previous method and newly established one-step PCR. Importantly, we detected a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. The newly developed method is valuable to rapidly identify COL1A1–PDGFB fusion transcripts in DFSP.

  5. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (p, α) at 17.9 MeV and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 74; Issue 6. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (, ) at 17.9 MeV and (, ) at 22.3 MeV reaction cross-sections. Eyyup Tel Abdullah Aydin E Gamze Aydin Abdullah Kaplan Ömer Yavaş İskender A Reyhancan. Research Articles Volume 74 Issue 6 June ...

  6. Basic and clinical evaluation of our newly developed radiographic orthopantomography in studying the TMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Sumio

    1987-03-01

    Temporomandibular arthrosis has been reported in many fields: oral surgery, dental prosthetics, otolaryngology, radiology, psychosomatic medicine etc... Roentgenographic examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular arthrosis. There have been studies on various types of roentgenography of the temporomandibular joint, but because its anatomical morphology is so complicated that it is difficult to obtain an adequate roentgenograph. Thus, no definite method of roentgenography has been clearly established. We developed a new method of roentgenography that takes advantage of the characteristics of orthopantomography, and analyzed our results statistically. The following results were obtained: 1) As conditions for roentgenography, the optimal tube voltage was 60 -- 75 KVp, but this varied according to sex and age; the optimal tube current was 15 mA. 2) The optimal position of the head in the anteroposterior position was 10 mm in front of the standard point, and that in the vertical position was the central part of the film. 3) The optimal position of the head was reached when the OM line was horizontal. 4) On the basis of the data obtained from these basic experiments, images from standard roentgenography were compared statistically with those from the modified method of Schuller in patients with temporomandibular arthrosis. There was a significant difference between the images. These results demonstrated that this method of roentgenography may be useful in standardizing X-ray procedures, provides images of temporomandibular arthrosis of high reproductive quality, suggesting that this method may be adequate for more definitive diagnoses.

  7. A basic and clinical evaluation of our newly developed radiographic orthopantomography in studying the TMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Sumio

    1987-01-01

    Temporomandibular arthrosis has been reported in many fields: oral surgery, dental prosthetics, otolaryngology, radiology, psychosomatic medicine etc... Roentgenographic examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of temporomandibular arthrosis. There have been studies on various types of roentgenography of the temporomandibular joint, but because its anatomical morphology is so complicated that it is difficult to obtain an adequate roentgenograph. Thus, no definite method of roentgenography has been clearly established. We developed a new method of roentgenography that takes advantage of the characteristics of orthopantomography, and analyzed our results statistically. The following results were obtained: 1) As conditions for roentgenography, the optimal tube voltage was 60 ∼ 75 KVp, but this varied according to sex and age; the optimal tube current was 15 mA. 2) The optimal position of the head in the anteroposterior position was 10 mm in front of the standard point, and that in the vertical position was the central part of the film. 3) The optimal position of the head was reached when the OM line was horizontal. 4) On the basis of the data obtained from these basic experiments, images from standard roentgenography were compared statistically with those from the modified method of Schuller in patients with temporomandibular arthrosis. There was a significant difference between the images (P < 0.01). These results demonstrated that this method of roentgenography may be useful in standardizing X-ray procedures, provides images of temporomandibular arthrosis of high reproductive quality, suggesting that this method may be adequate for more definitive diagnoses. (author)

  8. Detection of Ureaplasma diversum in cattle using a newly developed PCR-based detection assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos Cardoso, M; Blanchard, A; Ferris, S; Verlengia, R; Timenetsky, J; Florio Da Cunha, R A

    2000-03-15

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with different clinical manifestations including bovine vulvitis, endometritis, salpingitis, spontaneous abortion and infertility. Because the isolation of this ureaplasma from clinical samples is difficult, there is a need for improved detection methods. We developed a PCR assay based on amplification of a region of the gene encoding 16S rRNA. The specificity of the amplification was verified by sequence analysis. Female bovine vaginal swabs (n=168) were collected and the presence of U. diversum evaluated by both culture methods and by the PCR assay. Culture was positive for 60 samples (35.7%), and PCR-specific amplification was obtained for 89 samples (52.9%). These results indicated a high prevalence of U. diversum in the selected animals and the higher sensitivity of this PCR assay as compared to culture.

  9. Newly Emerging Drugs of Abuse and Their Detection Methods: An ACLPS Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wheeler, Sarah E; Venkataramanan, Raman; Rymer, Jacqueline A; Pizon, Anthony F; Lynch, Michael J; Tamama, Kenichi

    2018-01-29

    Illicit drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. Drug overdose has become the leading cause of injury-related deaths since 2008 due to the recent surge of opioid overdose by heroin, controlled prescription drugs, and nonmethadone synthetic opioids. Synthetic designer drugs such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") and synthetic cannabinoids ("Spice" and "K2") continue to emerge and attract recreational users. The emergence of new drugs of abuse poses a steep challenge for clinical toxicology laboratories. Limited information about the emerging drugs and their metabolism, "rebranding" of the illicit drugs, and a lack of Food and Drug Administration-approved screening methods for these drugs contribute to this difficulty. Here we review detection methods that can aid in identifying emerging drugs of abuse. One promising approach is the utilization of untargeted drug screening by mass spectrometry. Historically, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been the gold standard. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry offer improved detection capability of new drugs with simplified sample preparation, making it the new standard. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Application of newly developed Fluoro-QC software for image quality evaluation in cardiac X-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Lopez, G; Geambastiani, P; Ubeda, C

    2018-05-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is a valuable tool for the continuous production of optimal quality images. The aim of this paper is to assess a newly developed automatic computer software for image quality (IR) evaluation in fluoroscopy X-ray systems. Test object images were acquired using one fluoroscopy system, Siemens Axiom Artis model (Siemens AG, Medical Solutions Erlangen, Germany). The software was developed as an ImageJ plugin. Two image quality parameters were assessed: high-contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The time between manual and automatic image quality assessment procedures were compared. The paired t-test was used to assess the data. p Values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Fluoro-QC software generated faster IQ evaluation results (mean = 0.31 ± 0.08 min) than manual procedure (mean = 4.68 ± 0.09 min). The mean difference between techniques was 4.36 min. Discrepancies were identified in the region of interest (ROI) areas drawn manually with evidence of user dependence. The new software presented the results of two tests (HCSR = 3.06, SNR = 5.17) and also collected information from the DICOM header. Significant differences were not identified between manual and automatic measures of SNR (p value = 0.22) and HCRS (p value = 0.46). The Fluoro-QC software is a feasible, fast and free to use method for evaluating imaging quality parameters on fluoroscopy systems. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cellular localization of debromohymenialdisine and hymenialdisine in the marine sponge Axinella sp. using a newly developed cell purification protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue-Fan; Qu, Yi; Cao, Xu-Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Sponges (Porifera), as the best known source of bioactive marine natural products in metazoans, play a significant role in marine drug discovery and development. As sessile filter-feeding animals, a considerable portion of the sponge biomass can be made of endosymbiotic and associated microorganisms. Understanding the cellular origin of targeted bioactive compounds from sponges is therefore important not only for providing chemotaxonomic information but also for defining the bioactive production strategy in terms of sponge aquaculture, cell culture, or fermentation of associated bacteria. The two alkaloids debromohymenialdisine (DBH) and hymenialdisine (HD), which are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors with pharmacological activities for treating osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease, have been isolated from the sponge Axinella sp. In this study, the cellular localization of these two alkaloids was determined through the quantification of these alkaloids in different cell fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). First, using a differential centrifugation method, the dissociated cells were separated into different groups according to their sizes. The two bioactive alkaloids were mainly found in sponge cells obtained from low-speed centrifugation. Further cell purifications were accomplished by a newly developed multi-step protocol. Four enriched cell fractions (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were obtained and subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, cytochemical staining, and HPLC quantification. Compared to the low concentrations in other cell fractions, DBH and HD accounted for 10.9% and 6.1%, respectively, of dry weight in the C1 fraction. Using the morphological characteristics and cytochemical staining results, cells in the C1 fraction were speculated to be spherulous cells. This result shows that DBH and HD in Axinella sp. are located in sponge cells and mostly stored in spherulous cells.

  12. Investigation of the drying airflow at a newly developed dryer geometry for mixed flow grain dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Scaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-flow dryer has been a matter of investigation many times regarding drying efficiency, dryer control, and performance enhancement over the past years. However, there is still considerable demand for optimization in terms of energy efficiency and homogeneity of drying. In order to analyze the specific energy consumption and the homogeneity of the drying process, different thermodynamic process conditions have been investigated for the conventional MFD design using numerical and experimental methods. Based on the results obtained, a novel dryer design has been developed. With this, a considerable increase of efficiency is expected. As the fluid dynamic analysis of the first design draft revealed, further development is required until scaling-up and transfer into practice will be possible. While homogeneous airflow conditions could be demonstrated in the core flow region in the center of the dryer, the configuration must be optimized in the near wall regions.

  13. [Newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board using hydrochloric acid/n-butylamine/copper sulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Cui, Zhao-Jie; Yao, Ya-Wei

    2010-12-01

    A newly leaching method of copper from waste print circuit board was established by using hydrochloric acid-n-butylamine-copper sulfate mixed solution. The conditions of leaching were optimized by changing the hydrochloric acid, n-butylamine, copper sulfate,temperature and other conditions using copper as target mimics. The results indicated that copper could be leached completely after 8 h at 50 degrees C, hydrochloric acid concentration of 1.75 mol/L, n-butylamine concentration of 0.25 mol/L, and copper sulfate mass of 0.96 g. Under the conditions, copper leaching rates in waste print circuit board samples was up to 95.31% after 9 h. It has many advantages such as better effects, low cost, mild reaction conditions, leaching solution recycling.

  14. Association Between Manual Loading and Newly Developed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Subjects With Physical Disabilities: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    To identify the association between body composition and newly developed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to search for the best probabilistic cutoff value of associated factors to predict subjects with physical disabilities developing new CTS. Longitudinal. University-affiliated medical center. Subjects with physical disabilities (N=47; mean age ± SD, 42.1±7.7y). Not applicable. Median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were measured at the initial and follow-up tests (interval >2y). Total and regional body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the initial test. Leg lean tissue percentage was calculated to delineate each participant's manual loading degree during locomotion. Leg lean tissue percentage is the lean tissue mass of both legs divided by body weight. Based on median SNCV changes, we divided all participants into 3 groups: subjects with bilateral CTS (median SNCV value normative ulnar SNCV value >37.8m/s) in the initial test (n=10), subjects with newly developed CTS in the follow-up test (n=8), and subjects without additional CTS in the follow-up test (n=27). Eight of 35 subjects not having bilateral CTS initially developed new CTS (8.8% per year; mean follow-up period, 2.6y). Leg lean tissue percentage was associated with the probability of newly developed CTS (adjusted odds ratio, .64; P12% were less likely to have developed new CTS at the follow-up test (sensitivity, .75; specificity, .85; area under the curve, .88; Pphysical disabilities. Therefore, a preventive program for those subjects at risk can start early. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of newly developed cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation with a novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yul Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no safe and effective standard method for glans penis augmentation. Furthermore, there has been scant research on glans penis augmentation due to a poor understanding of glans anatomy, technical difficulty, and a lack of suitable substances for augmentation. Cross-linked dextran gel is a newly developed filler for soft-tissue augmentation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of using a novel technique to inject cross-linked dextran gel for glans penis augmentation during a 24-week follow-up study. This prospective, single-arm, multicenter study enrolled twenty healthy adult men who underwent glans penis augmentation between June and August 2013. Cross-linked dextran gel was injected into the glans penis using a simple and easy technique. The sizes of the glans penis and individual satisfaction were assessed. Any adverse event was also reported. A total of 18 individuals were analyzed; two of them were lost to follow-up. The mean procedure time and injected volume were about 30 min and 6.6 ± 0.9 ml, respectively. The mean surface areas of the glans at baseline and 24 weeks were 20.0 ± 3.5 cm2 and 33.6 ± 5.4 cm2 , respectively, representing a mean increase of 68.7% ± 14.0% (P < 0.001. Sixteen individuals (88.9% were satisfied with the outcomes, and none were dissatisfied. There were no serious adverse events during the study. Cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation was easy and showed a significant augmentative effect on the glans penis, good durability, and was well tolerated without serious adverse events. Therefore, cross-linked dextran gel injection may be an effective, new technique for glans penis augmentation.

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of a Newly Developed Shape Memory Alloy Hook in a Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF) In Vitro Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Yuexing; Li, Jiukun; Zhou, Si; Tian, Shunliang; Xiang, Yucheng; Liu, Xingmo; Zheng, Ying; Pan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the stability provided by a newly developed shape memory alloy hook (SMAH) in a cadaveric transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) model. Methods Six human cadaveric spines (L1-S2) were tested in an in vitro flexibility experiment by applying pure moments of ±8 Nm in flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right axial rotation. After intact testing, a TLIF was performed at L4-5. Each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral SMAH (USMAH); bilateral SMAH (BSMAH); unilateral pedicle screws and rods (UPS); and bilateral pedicle screws and rods (BPS). The L3–L4, L4–L5, and L5-S1 range of motion (ROM) were recorded by a Motion Analysis System. Results Compared to the other constructs, the BPS provided the most stability. The UPS significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion and lateral bending; the BSMAH significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation; and the USMAH significantly reduced the ROM in flexion and left lateral bending compared with the intact spine (p0.05). Stability provided by the USMAH compared with the UPS was not significantly different. ROMs of adjacent segments increased in all fixed constructs (p>0.05). Conclusions Bilateral SMAH fixation can achieve immediate stability after L4–5 TLIF in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether the SMAH can achieve fusion in vivo and alleviate adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:25474112

  17. Infrared surface analysis using a newly developed thin-sample preparation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naoto; Nishiyama, Itsuo; Kishima, Yoshio; Iida, Katsuhiko; Mori, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    We developed a new sampling system, the Nano Catcher, for measuring the surface chemical structure of polymers or industrial products and we evaluated the performance of the system. The system can directly pick up surface species whose depth is on the order of approximately 100 nm and can easily provide a sample for a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) system without the necessity of passing it over to a measurement plate. The FT-IR reflection data obtained from the Nano Catcher were compared with those obtained using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method and sampling by hand. Chemical structural analysis of a depth region from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers can be directly performed using this system. Such depths are beyond the scope of conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ATR methods. We can expect the use of the Nano Catcher system to lead to a great improvement in the detection of signals of surface species in these depth regions.

  18. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of newly marketed medications: methodological challenges and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, S; Gagne, J J; Glynn, R J; Ruhl, M; Rassen, J A

    2011-12-01

    Comparative-effectiveness research (CER) aims to produce actionable evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of medical products and interventions as they are used outside of controlled research settings. Although CER evidence regarding medications is particularly needed shortly after market approval, key methodological challenges include (i) potential bias due to channeling of patients to the newly marketed medication because of various patient-, physician-, and system-related factors; (ii) rapid changes in the characteristics of the user population during the early phase of marketing; and (iii) lack of timely data and the often small number of users in the first few months of marketing. We propose a mix of approaches to generate comparative-effectiveness data in the early marketing period, including sequential cohort monitoring with secondary health-care data and propensity score (PS) balancing, as well as extended follow-up of phase III and phase IV trials, indirect comparisons of placebo-controlled trials, and modeling and simulation of virtual trials.

  19. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  20. Clinical usefulness of a newly-developed head and neck surface coil for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Morio; Kogure, Takashi; Hayashi, Sanshin

    1995-01-01

    To obtain correct diagnosis at early stages of cervical lymph node swelling, especially cases with suspected epipharyngeal carcinoma, and cerebral arterial sclerotic diseases, high-quality MR images visualizing the entire head and neck structures and vessels are of crucial importance. When obtaining images of head and neck regions using a head coil, signal intensity (SI) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of regions below the hypopharynx are weakened. Moreover, when obtaining images of head and neck regions using an anterior neck coil, SI and SNR of upper regions of epipharynx are also weakened. In an attempt to solve these problems, we developed a new head and neck surface coil for MR imaging. With this new coil we were able to obtain better images (153 cases) from regions below the hypopharynx to the upper regions of the epipharynx in the same time as images obtained using the head coil and anterior neck coil. 2D TOF MR angiographic images (11 cases) obtained by the head and neck surface coil are superior to 2D TOF angiographic images obtained by the anterior neck coil. MR images obtained with this improved method are valuable in the evaluation and management of head and neck region disease. (author)

  1. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  2. Newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles: biosafety and apoptosis induction in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M., E-mail: ielsherbiny@Zewailcity.edu.eg; Salih, Ehab [Zewail City of Science and Technology, Center for Materials Science (Egypt); Yassin, Abdelrahman M. [Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Biopharmaceutical Product Research Department (Egypt); Hafez, Elsayed E. [City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Plant Protection and Biomolecular Diagnosis Department (Egypt)

    2016-07-15

    The present study reports the biosafety assessment, the exact molecular effects, and apoptosis induction of newly developed chitosan-silver hybrid nanoparticles (Cs–Ag NPs) in HepG2 cells. The investigated hybrid NPs were green synthesized using Cs/grape leaves aqueous extract (Cs/GLE) or Cs/GLE NPs as reducing and stabilizing agents. The successful formation of Cs/GLE NPs and Cs–Ag hybrid NPs has been confirmed by UV–Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, and HRTEM. From the TEM analysis, the prepared Cs/GLE NPs are uniform and spherical with an average size of 150 nm, and the AgNPs (5–10 nm) were formed mainly on their surface. The UV–Vis spectra of Cs–Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at about 450 nm confirming their formation. The synthesized Cs–Ag NPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes. The cytotoxicity patterns, the antiproliferative activities, and the possible mechanisms of anticancer activity at molecular level of the newly developed Cs–Ag hybrid NPs were investigated. Cytotoxicity patterns of all the preparations demonstrated that the nontoxic treatment concentrations are ranged from 0.39 to 50 %, and many of the newly prepared Cs–Ag hybrid NPs showed high anticancer activities against HpG2 cells, and induced cellular apoptosis by downregulating BCL2 gene and upregulating P53.Graphical Abstract.

  3. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in treated normal-tension glaucoma: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Jeong; Kim, Martha; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung; Kim, Seok Hwan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the risk and risk factors for newly developed visual impairment in treated patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) followed up on for 10 years. Patients with NTG, who did not have visual impairment at the initial diagnosis and had undergone intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering treatment for more than 7 years, were included on the basis of a retrospective chart review. Visual impairment was defined as either low vision (0.05 [20/400] ≤ visual acuity (VA) visual field (VF) visual impairment, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and generalized linear mixed effects models were utilized. During the 10.8 years mean follow-up period, 20 eyes of 16 patients were diagnosed as visual impairment (12 eyes as low vision, 8 as blindness) among 623 eyes of 411 patients. The cumulative risk of visual impairment in at least one eye was 2.8% at 10 years and 8.7% at 15 years. The risk factors for visual impairment from treated NTG were worse VF mean deviation (MD) at diagnosis and longer follow-up period. The risk of newly developed visual impairment in the treated patients with NTG was relatively low. Worse VF MD at diagnosis and longer follow-up period were associated with development of visual impairment. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Laser distance measurement using a newly developed composite-type optical fiberscope for fetoscopic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Takeshi; Oka, Kiyoshi; Naganawa, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio

    2010-10-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a condition of twins disproportionately sharing blood by the communicating vessels in the shared placenta and resulting in the significantly high fetal and perinatal mortality rate. Fetoscopic laser surgery is performed to block these communicating vessels. It is difficult, however, to perceive the distance from the tip of the fetoscope to the placental surface with only a two-dimensional fetoscopic view. When the distance is too short it causes excessive irradiation and even the risk of inadvertent damage to the placenta. On the other hand, not only target vessels but also adjacent tissues can be irradiated when it is too long. We have developed a composite-type optical fiberscope (COF) that was able to observe the target area and also to perform laser irradiation at the same time. In this paper, we studied a method to estimate the distance from the tip of the COF to the target area. We combined the COF with a laser blood-flow meter. Using laser light from the meter, we measured the total amount of light received ("REFLEX") and estimated the relation between the "REFLEX" value and the laser irradiation distance. Further in vivo experiments were subsequently carried out using porcine mesenteric blood vessels. The results showed that the distance and the "REFLEX" value were inversely proportional, irrespective of the experimental environment (e.g. in air, water and amniotic fluid-like solution) and the target object. In the in vivo experiments, we quantitatively measured the distance within an accuracy of ±1 mm (approximately 10%). In conclusion, our new system was able to measure the distance in vivo enabling a surgeon to safely and effectively perform laser irradiation at a suitable distance. The system can be used not only for fetoscopic surgery but also for general endoscopic surgery.

  5. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C. P.; Sancho-Serra, Maria del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. PMID:26967714

  6. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, P.J.; Sider, L.; Silverman, J.M.; Dahlgren, J.; Harber, P.; Bunn, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that although the International Labour Office (ILO) standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT (HRTC) readings for screening of pneumoconiosis. An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT. Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were interpreted by using an ILO-based standard form developed by the authors for this project. With the newly developed HRCT form, individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency

  7. Development of ODL in a Newly Industrialized Country according to Face-to-Face Contact, ICT, and E-Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marinda van Zyl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of unqualified and under-qualified in-service teachers are holding back socio-economical development in South Africa, a newly industrialized country. Open and distance learning (ODL provides an innovative strategy and praxis for developing and newly industrialized countries to reach their educational and socio-economical objectives through professional development and training. In order to examine factors which affect the success of ODL offered by the North-West University in South Africa, a qualitative and quantitative research approach is used. Factors examined include face-to-face classroom contact, the implementation and use of ICTs, and e-readiness. The relationships between these factors are also discussed. A questionnaire was administered to 87 teacher-students in four Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE programs to collect quantitative data regarding aspects of their classes and the e-readiness of students. This data was qualitatively elaborated upon by three semi-structured, open-ended focus-group interviews. Besides descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank-order correlations (r were determined between variables pertaining to negative feelings towards face-to-face classroom contact, ODL as students’ choice of delivery mode, and students’ positive attitude towards information and communication technology (ICT. Combined quantitative and qualitative findings were used to evaluate the effectiveness of contact classes as well as the e-readiness of students towards the attainment of ODL development Phase D. This phase refers to UNESCO’s description of ICT implementation, integration, and use. Relationships (Spearman’s rank-order correlations between ODL, as teacher-students’ choice of educational delivery mode, and aspects of their e-readiness suggest that the e-readiness of teacher-students is implicit to their choice of ODL as educational delivery mode for professional development.

  8. Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera for radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawachi, Naoki; Yin, Yong-Gen; Suzui, Nobuo; Ishii, Satomi; Fujimaki, Shu [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Yoshihara, Toshihiro [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Watabe, Hiroshi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, 6-3Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20 Daiko-Minami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Vast agricultural and forest areas around the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan were contaminated with radiocesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) after the accident following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. A variety of agricultural studies, such as fertilizer management and plant breeding, have been undertaken intensively for reduction of radiocesium uptake in crops, or, enhancement of uptake in phyto-remediation. In this study, we newly developed a gamma camera specific for plant nutritional research, and performed quantitative analyses on uptake and partitioning of radiocesium in intact plant bodies. In general, gamma camera is a common technology in medical imaging, but it is not applicable to high-energy gamma rays such as emissions from Cs-137 (662 keV). Therefore, we designed our new gamma camera to prevent the penetration and scattering of the high-energy gamma rays. A single-crystal scintillator, Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 2}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 12} (Ce:GAGG), was employed, which has a relatively high density, a large light output, no natural radioactivity and no hygroscopicity. A 44 x 44 matrix of the Ce:GAGG pixels, with dimensions of 0.85 mm x 0.85 mm x 10 mm for each pixel, was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube. This gamma detector unit was encased in a 20-mm-thick tungsten container with a tungsten pinhole collimator on the front. By using this gamma camera, soybean plants (Glycine max), grown in hydroponic solutions and fed with 1-2 MBq of Cs-137, were imaged for 6.5 days in maximum to investigate and visualize the uptake dynamics into/within the areal part. As a result, radiocesium gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding of Cs-137, and then accumulated intensively in the maturing pods and seeds in a characteristic pattern. Our results also demonstrated that this gamma-camera method enables quantitative evaluation of plant ability to absorb, transport

  9. THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY TEST: NEW EVIDENCE FROM NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyyaz Zeren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.

  10. Relationships of wear resistance to phase composition and mechanical properties of newly developed high-nitrogen iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.; Blinov, V.M.; Kosytina, M.V.; Filippov, M.A.; Khadyev, M.S.; Nemirovskij, Yu.R.; Belozerova, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Comparative tests for resistance against abrasive wear are performed using newly developed high-nitrogen (0.424-1.281 % N) chromium (14.93-23.85 % Cr) laboratory steel melts and commercial steel 110G13L. A layer-by-layer analysis of phase composition in the steels being tested are carried out in the direction from the surface into the base metal. The abrasive wear resistance of all steels is shown to be dependent on the development of martensitic transformation in the layer contacting with abrasive particles, as well as on the degree of strain hardening of the austenite of the layer. The laboratory steels after hardening and tempering in a wide temperature range essentially surpasses the steel 110G13L in wear resistance. The results obtained confirm the possibility of the use of high-nitrogen chromium steels as substitutes for steel 110G13L [ru

  11. Consumer study and sensorial evaluation of a newly developed spicy strawberry syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Lima, Maria João; Pato, Lúcia; Correia, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Costa, Elisa; Santos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The potential beneficial effects of strawberry allied to those of chilly in many aspects of human health lead to the development of a spicy strawberry syrup. The work included the development of the product, including formulation, processing and industrialization aspects, chemical and sensorial analyses as well as a consumer study, of which some will be analysed in the present manuscript. The sensorial evaluation was performed with a panel of 25 tasters, of which 17 were women and 8 men. T...

  12. Effect of Soaking and Boiling on Anti-nutritional Factors, Oligosaccharide Contents and Protein Digestibility of Newly Developed Bambara Groundnut Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaposi Adeleke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly developed Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. seeds (Accessions No: TVSU 5 – Bambara Groundnut White (BGW and TVSU 146 – Bambara Groundnut Brown (BGB were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA, Nigeria, planted and harvested. The effects of processing methods (soaking and boiling on anti-nutritional factors and oligosaccharides content and protein digestibility of BGW and BGB compared with Bambara groundnut commercial (BGC seeds were investigated. Soaking and boiling significantly reduced the anti-nutritional factors of the samples and the effect increased as processing time was elongated. Sample BGC had lower anti-nutritional factors than BGW and BGB after soaking for 48 h. Tannin contents of the samples were reduced drastically by 99 % throughout the soaking periods. Greatest loss in raffinose level was observed in BGB (59% and BGW (50% after boiling for 60 min compared with BGC (43%. The loss in stachyose content of the samples varies with processing and BGC (59% had greatest loss after boiling for 60 min while soaking for 48 h reduced that of BGB and BGW by 57 and 35%, respectively. Boiling for 60 min increased the in vitro protein digestibility of BGB (89.34 % compared with BGW (87.48% and BGC (82.89%. Overall, the results demonstrated that soaking and boiling of newly developed Bambara groundnut seeds could improve the nutritive quality of the seeds.

  13. First derivative emission spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of LCZ696, a newly approved FDA supramolecular complex of valsartan and sacubitril in tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Marwa A A; Galal, Shereen M; Korany, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Aya R

    2017-12-01

    LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan, Entresto™) is a therapy lately approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) as a heart failure therapy. It is claimed to decrease the mortality rate and hospitalization for patients with chronic heart failure. This study is considered as the first report to investigate the fluorimetric behavior of sacubitril in addition to pursuing all the different conditions that may affect its fluorescence. Various conditions were studied, for example studying the effects of organized media, solvents and pH, which may affect the fluorescence behavior of sacubitril. For the simultaneous determination of the newly approved supramolecular complex of valsartan (VAL) and sacubitril (SAC) in their tablets, a sensitive and simple first derivative spectrofluorimetric method was developed. The method involved the measurement of native fluorescence at 416 nm and 314 nm (λ ex 249 nm) for VAL and SAC, respectively. The first (D1) derivative technique was applied to the emission data to resolve a partial overlap that appeared in their emission spectra. The proposed method was successfully applied for the assay of the two drugs in their supramolecular complex LCZ696 with no interference from common pharmaceutical additives. International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines were followed in order to validate the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Successful Strategy to Integrate Sex and Gender Medicine into a Newly Developed Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Sabine; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gross, Manfred; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Peters, Harm

    2015-12-01

    A new modular, outcome-based, interdisciplinary curriculum was introduced for undergraduate medical education at one of the largest European medical faculties. A key stated institutional goal was to systematically integrate sex and gender medicine and gender perspectives into the curriculum in order to foster adequate gender-related knowledge and skills for future doctors concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and research of diseases. A change agent was integrated directly into the curriculum development team to facilitate interactions with all key players of the curricular development process. The gender change agent established a supporting organizational framework of all stakeholders, and developed a 10-step approach including identification, selection, placing relevant sex and gender medicine-related issues in the curricular planning sessions, counseling of faculty members, and monitoring of the integration achieved. With this approach, quantitatively sex and gender medicine-related content was widely integrated throughout all teaching and learning formats and from early basic science to later clinical modules (94 lectures, 33 seminars, and 16 practical courses). Gender perspectives involve 5% of the learning objectives and represent an integral part of the assessment program. Qualitatively, the relevance of gender (sociocultural) differences was combined with sex (biological) differences in disease manifestation throughout the curriculum. The appointment of a change agent facilitates the development of systematic approaches that can be a key and serve as practice models to successfully integrate new overarching curricular perspectives and dimensions--in this case sex and gender medicine--into a new medical curriculum.

  15. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peijie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC, horizontal squeeze casting (HSC is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity filling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve filling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve filling velocity. Finally, two specific applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  16. Neutron dosimetry by UV and IR spectrophotometry of the newly developed dyed ECE tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Sadeghi Bajd, S.

    1990-01-01

    New, large and high-contrasted dyed ECE recoil tracks have been successfully developed. The chief reason for this development has been the provision of large photon-absorbing sites on a non-absorbing unaffected polymer surface for UV and IR spectrophotometry. In this approach, ECE recoil tracks in polycarbonate were dyed using our optimised conditions; sensitisation in 20% by weight acrylic acid at 75 0 C for 3.5 h and dyeing in 3% by weight eosin at 95 0 C for 4 h. Spectrophotometry by UV and IR, track counting and optical densitometry were applied to the samples. These preliminary studies showed some promise for UV absorbance measurements for routine large-scale applications. the results of which are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. The shielding properties of the newly developed container for transport of samples contaminated with CBRN substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisera, O.; Kares, J.

    2014-01-01

    A container for transport of environmental samples to the analytical laboratory is being developed as part of the development of system for collection and transport of samples contaminated with chemical, biological, radioactive and nuclear (CBRN) substances after CBRN incidents. The proposed system corresponds with current requirements of NATO publication AEP-66. The proposed container will meet the requirements of mechanical stability and tightness for the packaging of the chemical, biological and radioactive substances. Verification of shielding properties and satisfaction of requirements of radiation protection during transport of potentially relatively high active samples was the aim of this part of research. The results, together with a wall thickness of the inner steel container, the inner lining and the outer transport package, give excellent assumption that the radiation protection requirements for the proposed container and transport package will be satisfied. (authors)

  18. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  19. Use of a newly developed active thermal neutron detector for in-phantom measurements in a medical LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodogni, R.; Sanchez-Doblado, F.; Pola, A.; Gentile, A.; Esposito, A.; Gomez-ros, J. M.; Pressello, M. C.; Lagares, J. I.; Terron, J. A.; Gomez, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work a newly developed active thermal neutron detector, based on a solid state analog device, was used to determine the thermal neutron fluence in selected positions of a simplified human phantom undergoing radiotherapy with a 15 MV LINAC. The results are compared with TLD, the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation and with measurements indirectly performed with a digital device, located far from the phantom, inside the treatment room. In this work only TLD comparison is presented. Since active neutron instruments are usually affected by systematic deviations when used in a pulsed field with large photon background, the new detector offered in this work may represent an innovative and useful tool for neutron evaluations in accelerator-based radiotherapy. (Author)

  20. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the etching and optical properties of a newly developed nuclear track detector called (PNADAC) homopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, P.C. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: pckalsi@barc.gov.in; Nadkarni, V.S. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403206 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-09-15

    In the present work, we have determined the bulk-etch rates of a newly developed track detector called poly-[N-allyloxycarbonyl diethanolamine-bis allylcarbonate] (PNADAC) homopolymer at different temperatures to deduce its activation energy. The energy of activation is found to be (1.02{+-}0.04) eV. This compares very well with the values of activation energy reported in the literature for the most commonly used nuclear track detectors. The effects of gamma irradiation on this new detector in the dose range of 4.7-14.5 Mrad have also been studied using UV-visible spectroscopic technique. The optical band gaps of the unirradiated and the gamma-irradiated detectors determined from the UV-visible spectra were found to decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation.

  2. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  3. Newly identified patterns of Pax2 expression in the developing mouse forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason John O

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of specific markers expressed in different regions of the developing nervous system provides a useful tool for the study of mouse mutants. One such marker, the transcription factor Pax2, is expressed at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and in the cerebellum, spinal cord, retina, optic stalk, and optic chiasm. We recently described a group of diencephalic cells that express Pax2 as early as embryonic day (E 10.5, and become part of the eminentia thalami by E11.5. The discovery of this previously undescribed cell population prompted us to examine Pax2 protein expression in the developing mouse forebrain in more detail. Results We determined the expression pattern of Pax2 in the forebrain of wild type mouse embryos between E10.5 and postnatal day (P 15. Pax2 expression was detected in the septum of the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, eminentia thalami and in the subfornical organ. To evaluate Pax2 as a marker for septal cells, we examined Pax2 expression in Pax6Sey/Sey mutants, which have an enlarged septum. We found that Pax2 clearly marks a population of septal cells equivalent to that seen in wild types, indicating its utility as a marker of septal identity. These cells did not express the GABAergic marker calbindin nor the cholinergic marker choline acetyltransferase and were not detectable after P15. Conclusion Pax2 is expressed in populations of cells within the developing septum, hypothalamus, and eminentia thalami. It seems especially useful as a marker of the telencephalic septum, because of its early, strong and characteristic expression in this structure. Further, its expression is maintained in the enlarged septum of Pax6Sey/Sey mutants.

  4. Some Recent Developments on Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant and Newly Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Solomon, Laura J

    2016-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes and immediate and longer-term adverse health outcomes among exposed offspring. Developing more effective smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women has been a public-health priority for more than thirty years. We review developments over the past three years (2012-15) on the use of financial incentives to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women. We searched the literature for reports on primary and secondary analyses and reviews of controlled trials on this topic published in peer-reviewed journals using the search engine PubMed, reviewed bibliographies of published articles, and consulted expert colleagues. The search revealed several important developments, with the following three being especially noteworthy. First, the review identified four new randomized controlled trials, three of which further supported the efficacy of this treatment approach. One of the three trials supporting efficacy also included the first econometric analysis of this treatment approach showing financial incentives with pregnant smokers to be highly cost-effective. Second, two Cochrane reviews were published during this 3-year period covering the more recent and earlier efficacy trials. Meta-analyses in both reviews supported the efficacy of the approach. Lastly, the first effectiveness trial was reported demonstrating that financial incentives increased abstinence rates above control levels when implemented by obstetrical clinic staff in a large urban hospital working with community tobacco interventionists. Overall, t here is a growing and compelling body of evidence supporting the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation among pregnant women.

  5. Steam oxidation behavior of high strength newly developed ferritic/martensitic steels at 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, Alina; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Gutierrez, Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Mayr, Peter [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Spiradek-Hahn, Krystina [Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH (AIT), Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    The efficiency of thermal power plants is currently limited by the strength and the oxidation resistance of the commercially available ferritic steels. The higher operating pressures and temperatures, essential to increase efficiency, impose important requirements on the materials from both the mechanical and chemical stability perspective. For instance, a creep rupture strength of 100 MPa after 100.000 hours at 650 C has been defined as the target for new steel development. Moreover, steam oxidation resistance is required as otherwise, at temperatures higher than 600 C, the resulting thick oxide scales will spall, causing blockage on bends as well as overheating of heat exchangers due to a thermal insulation effect, erosion of down-stream components and loss of cross-section in critical components such as blades. It has been shown that in general, a Cr wt. % higher than 9 is required for acceptable oxidation rates at 650 C, but such high Cr content results in a reduction of the creep strength. As an exception, several 9 wt. % steels developed by Abe which also containing Si and Mn, exhibit resistance to steam oxidation but only after having been subjected to a pre-oxidation heat treatment at 650 C for many hours. Substantial efforts are being carried out in Europe, North America and Japan attempting to design and produce steels with these properties. The steam oxidation behavior of high strength new alloys, such as CB2 and FT7 steels developed within the frame of European COST Actions 522 and 536, as well as of a NIMS developed B containing 9Cr3W3CoVNb (NPM) martensitic steel, was studied by exposing these materials to pure flowing steam in the laboratory for periods of time in excess of 10,000 h at 650 C. CB2 and FT7 have similar creep strength to P92 whereas NPM reaches 21,000 h at 100 MPa exceeding by far that of P92 according to the ECCC values. (orig.)

  6. Development Of A New Method For Aircraft Maintainability Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut YILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important topics in aircraft design is to define aircraft maintainability allocation which is a process to identify the allowable maximum task time for each aircraft component or system. Traditional methods are mostly experimental and out of design office’s control. In this study, an improved method has been developed to create an alternative method for experimental ones. For this purpose, as a first step an existing methodology developed for maintenance allocation has been improved by using a different technic. Improved method shows that newly established correlation between aircraft systems and task times has very high coefficient of determination compare to the existing method. At the second phase of the study several quantitative analysis have been performed by examining more than 1000 maintenance tasks which are accepted as standard maintenance actions by aviation industry, coming from Maintenance Steering Group methodology and six weight factors have been established for the new method. By using feed forward artificial neural networks for newly identified weight factors, maintenance task allocations has been established. Results shows that newly proposed method can be applicable for any maintenance process during early design stage

  7. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  8. First experiments with a newly developed high-pressure/high-temperature cell for neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, K.; Depmeier, W.; Strobel, J.; Vogt, T.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the well known and widely used piston cylinder high pressure cell of the McWhan type, a new high-pressure/high-temperature cell for angle dispersive neutron powder diffraction has been developed. A pressure/temperature range of simultaneously 1.5 GPa and 500 o C is aimed at. Up to now two test experiments with the cell on D2B of the ILL with calcite as sample could be performed. The maximum, non simultaneous pressures and temperatures reached so far, amount to about 0.75 GPa and 400 o C, respectively. The characteristics of the cell construction and first experimental experiences and results are reported. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  9. Clinical Practicability of a Newly Developed Real-time Digital Kymographic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Sung, Eui-Suk; Bae, In-Ho; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lee, Yeon-Woo

    2017-12-22

    A digital kymogram shows real images of vocal fold vibration. However, DKG is difficult to use in clinical practice because the recorded image cannot be seen instantaneously after examination, as considerable encoding time is required to visualize a digital kymogram. In addition, frame-by frame analysis should be implemented to evaluate high-speed videoendoscopy data, but is time- and labor-intensive. The purpose of the study was to validate the clinical practicability of a real-time multislice digital kymographic system developed by the authors. We analyzed the promptness and accuracy of the examination before and after intracordal injections in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To assess the clinical applicability of this system, six patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were selected. Real-time DKG was performed before and immediately after intracordal injection. We observed changes in the digital kymogram after the intracordal injection. Using this system, 10 scanning lines and up to five vertical pixel row could be obtained in real time, and the maximum acquisition time for the DKG image was 10 seconds. A digital kymogram of the patients could be instantaneously acquired, and whether the intracordal injection was appropriate or not. This article is the first validation study after the development of the real-time multislice digital kymographic system. Our system may be a promising tool in clinical practice for immediate assessment of the vibratory patterns of the vocal cords. More research is necessary for further clinical validation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Newly invented biobased materials from low-carbon, diverted waste fibers: research methods, testing, and full-scale application in a case study structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julee A Herdt; John Hunt; Kellen Schauermann

    2016-01-01

    This project demonstrates newly invented, biobased construction materials developed by applying lowcarbon, biomass waste sources through the Authors’ engineered fiber processes and technology. If manufactured and applied large-scale the project inventions can divert large volumes of cellulose waste into high-performance, low embodied energy, environmental construction...

  11. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  12. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  13. Production of Ethanol From Newly Developed and Improved Winter Barley Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Brooks, Wynse S; Griffey, Carl A; Toht, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Winter barley has attracted strong interest as a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production in regions with mild winter climate such as the mid-Atlantic and northeastern USA. Ten recently developed and improved winter barley cultivars and breeding lines including five hulled and five hull-less lines were experimentally evaluated for potential ethanol production. The five hulled barley lines included three released cultivars (Thoroughbred, Atlantic, and Secretariat) and two breeding lines (VA09B-34 and VA11B-4). The five hull-less lines also included three released cultivars (Eve, Dan, and Amaze 10) and two breeding lines (VA08H-65 and VA13H-34). On the average, the hull-less barley cultivars produced more ethanol per unit mass because of their higher starch and β-glucan contents. However, since the hulled barley cultivars had higher agronomic yield, the potential ethanol production per acre of land for the two types were approximately equal. Among the ten cultivars tested, the hull-less cultivar Amaze 10 was the best one for ethanol production. The ethanol yield values obtained for this cultivar were 2.61 gal per bushel and 292 gal per acre.

  14. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  15. Radiological study on newly developed composite corn advance lines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunle Olatunji, Michael; Bemigho Uwatse, Onosohwo; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Amin, Y. M.; Faruq, G.

    2014-12-01

    Owing to population growth, there has been high demand for food across the world, and hence, different agricultural activities such as use of phosphate fertilizers, recycling of organic matters, etc, have been deployed to increase crop yields. In Malaysia, a total of nine composite corn advance lines have been developed at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya and are being grown under different conditions with a bid to meet the average daily human need for energy and fiber intake. To this end, the knowledge of radioactivity levels in these corn advance lines are of paramount importance for the estimation of possible radiological hazards due to its consumption. Hence, the radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in the corn have been determined using HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations in the corn ranged from 0.05 to 19.18 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, from 0.10 to 3.22 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and from 26.4 to 129 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In order to ascertain the radiological safety of the population regarding maize consumption, the daily intakes of these radionuclides as well as the annual effective dose were estimated. The total effective dose obtained due to the ingestion of radionuclides via maize consumption is 15.39 μSv y-1, which is less than the international recommendations.

  16. A newly developed MR simulation system for intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a prototype system for a magnetic resonance (MR) simulation to accurately estimate radiation doses to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Six patients with cervical cancer underwent MR simulation prior to intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy using Co-60 sources. Tandem and ovoid applicators filled with tap-water were placed in the uterine cavity and vaginal fornix, then MR imaging examinations were performed. Frontal and lateral images of maximum intensity projection (MIP) of applicators generated from a data set of half-Fourier single shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) images were chosen for processing by the treatment planning computer system. Then, isodose curves on the coronal or sagittal plane of the tandem section were superimposed on corresponding T2-weighted images derived from a turbo spin-echo technique. Doses to the tumor, the posterior wall of the urinary bladder, the anterior wall of the rectum, and the urethra were read from isodose curves superimposed on the T2-weighted sagittal image. Phantom experiments were done to evaluate geometrical errors. The possible distortion of the lattice image on the phantom was small. This system promises to be useful in customizing the dose distribution corresponding to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. (author)

  17. A newly developed MR simulation system for intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebe, Kazuyu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a prototype system for a magnetic resonance (MR) simulation to accurately estimate radiation doses to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Six patients with cervical cancer underwent MR simulation prior to intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy using Co-60 sources. Tandem and ovoid applicators filled with tap-water were placed in the uterine cavity and vaginal fornix, then MR imaging examinations were performed. Frontal and lateral images of maximum intensity projection (MIP) of applicators generated from a data set of half-Fourier single shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) images were chosen for processing by the treatment planning computer system. Then, isodose curves on the coronal or sagittal plane of the tandem section were superimposed on corresponding T2-weighted images derived from a turbo spin-echo technique. Doses to the tumor, the posterior wall of the urinary bladder, the anterior wall of the rectum, and the urethra were read from isodose curves superimposed on the T2-weighted sagittal image. Phantom experiments were done to evaluate geometrical errors. The possible distortion of the lattice image on the phantom was small. This system promises to be useful in customizing the dose distribution corresponding to the tumor and surrounding normal tissues. (author)

  18. Absorbed and effective dose from newly developed cone beam computed tomography in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Nyeong; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a lower dose and cost alternative to conventional CT, promising to revolutionize the practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the absolved and effective doses of Implagraphy and VCT (Vatech Co., Hwasung, Korea) and compare them with those of panoramic radiography. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed at 27 sites throughout the layers of Female ART Head and Neck Phantom for dosimetry. Implagraphy, VCT units, and Planmeca Proline XC panoramic unit were used for radiation exposure. Radiation weighted doses and effective doses were measured and calculated using 1990 and 2005 ICRP tissue weighting factors. Effective doses in Sv (ICRP 2005, ICRP 1990) were 90.19, 61.62 for Implagraphy at maxillay molar area, 123.20, 90.02 for Implagraphy at mandibular molar area, 183.55, 139.26 for VCT and 40.92, 27.16 for panoramic radiography. Effective doses for VCT and Implagraphy were only about 2.2 to 4.5 times greater than those for panoramic radiography. VCT and Implagraphy, CBCT machines recently developed in Korea, showed moderately low effective doses

  19. Absorbed and effective dose from newly developed cone beam computed tomography in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Nyeong; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides a lower dose and cost alternative to conventional CT, promising to revolutionize the practice of oral and maxillofacial radiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the absolved and effective doses of Implagraphy and VCT (Vatech Co., Hwasung, Korea) and compare them with those of panoramic radiography. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed at 27 sites throughout the layers of Female ART Head and Neck Phantom for dosimetry. Implagraphy, VCT units, and Planmeca Proline XC panoramic unit were used for radiation exposure. Radiation weighted doses and effective doses were measured and calculated using 1990 and 2005 ICRP tissue weighting factors. Effective doses in Sv (ICRP 2005, ICRP 1990) were 90.19, 61.62 for Implagraphy at maxillay molar area, 123.20, 90.02 for Implagraphy at mandibular molar area, 183.55, 139.26 for VCT and 40.92, 27.16 for panoramic radiography. Effective doses for VCT and Implagraphy were only about 2.2 to 4.5 times greater than those for panoramic radiography. VCT and Implagraphy, CBCT machines recently developed in Korea, showed moderately low effective doses.

  20. Safety evaluation of a newly-developed dietary fiber: resistant glucan mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Norihisa; Hirai, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Resistant glucan mixture (RGM), a water-soluble dietary fiber produced by the random polymerization of glucose with activated carbon as a catalyst at a high temperature, has been recently developed by our group. There has been little physiological and safety research into RGM and therefore we now present our research into its safety. A reverse mutation assay indicated that RGM is not mutagenic either with or without metabolic activation. We conducted a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rats. Male and female rats fed either a 3% or 5% w/w RGM diet had no muddy or watery stools, and there was no RGM-related death in any group. Although some parameters in the 3% and 5% w/w groups were significantly different from those in the control group, these changes were not due to any toxicity from RGM. The results indicated that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of RGM was 3.3 and 3.9 g/kg body weight (BW) per day in male and female rats, respectively. We then studied the gastrointestinal effects of RGM in healthy adult humans. Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as gurgling sounds, flatus and tenesmus, were mild and transient. In men and women, the maximum no-effect dose for diarrhea was more than 0.9 g RGM /kg BW. The results of our current safety assessment studies suggest that RGM is safe for human consumption.

  1. CIMI simulations with newly developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Sibeck, David G.; Kang, Suk-Bin; Balikhin, Michael A.; Fok, Mei-Ching; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Komar, Colin M.; Kanekal, Shrikanth G.; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    2017-09-01

    Numerical simulation studies of the Earth's radiation belts are important to understand the acceleration and loss of energetic electrons. The Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (CIMI) model considers the effects of the ring current and plasmasphere on the radiation belts to obtain plausible results. The CIMI model incorporates pitch angle, energy, and cross diffusion of electrons, due to chorus and plasmaspheric hiss waves. These parameters are calculated using statistical wave distribution models of chorus and plasmaspheric hiss amplitudes. However, currently, these wave distribution models are based only on a single-parameter, geomagnetic index (AE) and could potentially underestimate the wave amplitudes. Here we incorporate recently developed multiparameter chorus and plasmaspheric hiss wave models based on geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters. We then perform CIMI simulations for two geomagnetic storms and compare the flux enhancement of MeV electrons with data from the Van Allen Probes and Akebono satellites. We show that the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with multiparameter wave models resemble the observations more accurately than the relativistic electron fluxes calculated with single-parameter wave models. This indicates that wave models based on a combination of geomagnetic index and solar wind parameters are more effective as inputs to radiation belt models.

  2. A newly developed removable dental device for fused 3-D MRI/Meg imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuboki, Takuo; Clark, G.T.; Akhtari, M.; Sutherling, W.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently 3-D imaging techniques have been used to shed light on the role of abnormal brain functions in such conditions as nocturnal bruxism and orofacial pain. In order to achieve precise 3-D image fusion between magnetic resonance images (MRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we developed a removable dental device which attaches rigidly to the teeth. Using this device, correlation of MEG and MRI data points was achieved by the co-registration of 3 or more fiducial points. Using a Polhemus 3-space digitizer the locations of the points were registered on MEG and then a small amount of high-water-content material was placed at each point for registering these same points on MRI. The mean reproducibility of interpoint distances, determined for 2 subjects, was between 0.59 and 0.82 mm. Using a Monte Carlo statistical analysis we determined that the accuracy of a posterior projection from the fiducial points to any point within the strata of the brain is ±3.3 mm. The value of this device is that it permits reasonably precise and repeatable co-registration of these points and yet it is easily removed and replaced by the patient. Obviously such a device could also be adapted for use in diagnosis and analysis of brain functions related with other various sensory and motor functions (e.g., taste, pain, clenching) in maxillofacial region using MRI and MEG. (author)

  3. Immobilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes in a newly developed sulfur polymer cement (Spc) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Husain, A.I.; El-Gammal, B.

    2005-01-01

    of the test. Static leach tests were conducted using the IAEA standard method. The leach index of the prepared materials towards the

  4. Differential phenotyping of Brucella species using a newly developed semi-automated metabolic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appel Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A commercial biotyping system (Taxa Profile™, Merlin Diagnostika testing the metabolization of various substrates by bacteria was used to determine if a set of phenotypic features will allow the identification of members of the genus Brucella and their differentiation into species and biovars. Results A total of 191 different amines, amides, amino acids, other organic acids and heterocyclic and aromatic substrates (Taxa Profile™ A, 191 different mono-, di-, tri- and polysaccharides and sugar derivates (Taxa Profile™ C and 95 amino peptidase- and protease-reactions, 76 glycosidase-, phosphatase- and other esterase-reactions, and 17 classic reactions (Taxa Profile™ E were tested with the 23 reference strains representing the currently known species and biovars of Brucella and a collection of 60 field isolates. Based on specific and stable reactions a 96-well "Brucella identification and typing" plate (Micronaut™ was designed and re-tested in 113 Brucella isolates and a couple of closely related bacteria. Brucella species and biovars revealed characteristic metabolic profiles and each strain showed an individual pattern. Due to their typical metabolic profiles a differentiation of Brucella isolates to the species level could be achieved. The separation of B. canis from B. suis bv 3, however, failed. At the biovar level, B. abortus bv 4, 5, 7 and B. suis bv 1-5 could be discriminated with a specificity of 100%. B. melitensis isolates clustered in a very homogenous group and could not be resolved according to their assigned biovars. Conclusions The comprehensive testing of metabolic activity allows cluster analysis within the genus Brucella. The biotyping system developed for the identification of Brucella and differentiation of its species and biovars may replace or at least complement time-consuming tube testing especially in case of atypical strains. An easy to handle identification software facilitates the

  5. A newly developed dispersal metric indicates the succession of benthic invertebrates in restored rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Sundermann, Andrea; Stoll, Stefan; Haase, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a fundamental role in the riverine benthic invertebrate colonization of new habitats that emerges following flash floods or restoration. However, an appropriate measure of dispersal capacity for benthic invertebrates is still lacking. The dispersal of benthic invertebrates occurs mainly during the aquatic (larval) and aerial (adult) life stages, and the dispersal of each stage can be further subdivided into active and passive modes. Based on these four possible dispersal modes, we first developed a metric (which is very similar to the well-known and widely used saprobic index) to estimate the dispersal capacity for 802 benthic invertebrate taxa by incorporating a weight for each mode. Second, we tested this metric using benthic invertebrate community data from a) 23 large restored river sites with substantial improvements of river bottom habitats dating back 1 to 10years, b) 23 unrestored sites very close to the restored sites, and c) 298 adjacent surrounding sites (mean±standard deviation: 13.0±9.5 per site) within a distance of up to 5km for each restored site in the low mountain and lowland areas of Germany. We hypothesize that our metric will reflect the temporal succession process of benthic invertebrate communities colonizing the restored sites, whereas no temporal changes are expected in the unrestored and surrounding sites. By applying our metric to these three river treatment categories, we found that the average dispersal capacity of benthic invertebrate communities in the restored sites significantly decreased in the early years following restoration, whereas there were no changes in either the unrestored or the surrounding sites. After all taxa had been divided into quartiles representing weak to strong dispersers, this pattern became even more obvious; strong dispersers colonized the restored sites during the first year after restoration and then significantly decreased over time, whereas weak dispersers continued to increase

  6. Evaluation of a regional chemistry transport model using a newly developed regional OMI NO2 retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Lam, Y. F.; Cheung, H. M.; Hartl, A.; Fung, J. C. H.; Chan, P. W.; Wenig, M. O.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate a high-resolution chemistry transport model (CTM) (3 km x 3 km spatial resolution) with the new Hong Kong (HK) NO2 retrieval developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on-board the Aura satellite. The three-dimensional atmospheric chemistry was modelled in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China by the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system from October 2006 to January 2007. In the HK NO2 retrieval, tropospheric air mass factors (AMF) were recalculated using high-resolution ancillary parameters of surface reflectance, NO2 profile shapes and aerosol profiles of which the latter two were taken from the CMAQ simulation. We also tested four different aerosol parametrizations. Ground level measurements by the PRD Regional Air Quality Monitoring (RAQM) network were used as additional independent measurements. The HK NO2 retrieval increases the NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) by (+31 ± 38) %, when compared to NASA's standard product (SP2), and reduces the mean bias (MB) between satellite and ground measurements by 26 percentage points from -41 to -15 %. The correlation coefficient r is low for both satellite datasets (r = 0.35) due to the high spatial variability of NO2 concentrations. The correlation between CMAQ and the RAQM network is low (r ≈ 0.3) and the model underestimates the NO2 concentrations in the north-western model domain (Foshan and Guangzhou). We compared the CMAQ NO2 time series of the two main plumes with our regional OMI NO2 product. The model overestimates the NO2 VCDs by about 15 % in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, while the correlation coefficient is satisfactory (r = 0.56). In Foshan and Guangzhou, the correlation is low (r = 0.37) and the model underestimates the VCDs strongly (MB = -40 %). In addition, we estimated that the OMI VCDs are also underestimated by about 10 to 20 % in Foshan and Guangzhou because of the influence of the model parameters on the AMF. In this study

  7. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  8. DDOT MXD+ method development report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Mixed-use development has become increasingly common across the country, including Washington, D.C. : However, a straightforward and empirically validated method for evaluating the traffic impacts of such : projects is still needed. The data presente...

  9. Accumulation of operational history through emulation test to meet proven technology requirement for newly developed I and C technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong Cheol, Shin; Sung Kon, Kang; Han Seong, Son

    2006-01-01

    As new advanced digital I and C technology with potential benefits of higher functionality and better cost effectiveness is available in the market, NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new equipment shows many cases of reliability problems. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, nuclear power plant operators want proven technology for I and C systems. This paper presents an approach for the emulation of operational history through which a newly developed technology becomes a proven technology. One of the essential elements of this approach is the feedback scheme of running the new equipment in emulated environment, gathering equipment failure, and correcting the design(and test bed). The emulation of environment includes normal and abnormal events of the new equipment such as reconfiguration of control system due to power failure, plant operation including full spectrum of credible scenarios in an NPP. Emulation of I and C equipment execution mode includes normal operation, initialization and termination, abnormal operation, hardware maintenance and maintenance of algorithm/software. Plant specific simulator is used to create complete profile of plant operational conditions that I and C equipment is to experience in the real plant. Virtual operating crew technology is developed to run the simulator scenarios without involvement of actual operators

  10. Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - A newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Dames, Sibylle; Heinrich, Manuel; Ziegler, Matthias; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The MUSAD was developed as a diagnostic observational instrument in an interactional music framework. It is based on the ICD-10/DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was designed to assess adults on a lower level of functioning, including individuals with severe language impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument. Calculations were based on a consecutive clinical sample of N=76 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) suspected of ASD. Objectivity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were calculated and a confirmatory factor analysis was applied to verify a reduced and optimized test version. The structural model showed a good fit, while internal consistency of the subscales was excellent (ω>.92). Item difficulties ranged between .04≤pi≤.82 and item-total correlation from .21 to .85. Objectivity was assessed by comparing the scorings of two external raters based on a subsample of n=12; interrater agreement was .71 (ICC 2, 1). Reliability was calculated for four test repetitions: the average ICC (3, 1) was .69. Convergent ASD measures correlated significantly with the MUSAD, while the discriminant Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) showed no significant overlap. Confirmation of factorial structure and acceptable psychometric properties suggest that the MUSAD is a promising new instrument for diagnosing ASD in adults with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Newly developed quantitative transactivation system shows difference in activation by Vitis CBF transcription factors on DRE/CRT elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassuth, Annette; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Xiao, Huogen; Moody, Michelle A; Carlow, Chevonne E

    2014-01-01

    Agroinfiltration-based transactivation systems can determine if a protein functions as a transcription factor, and via which promoter element. However, this activation is not always a yes or no proposition. Normalization for variation in plasmid delivery into plant cells, sample collection and protein extraction is desired to allow for a quantitative comparison between transcription factors or promoter elements. We developed new effector and reporter plasmids which carry additional reporter genes, as well as a procedure to assay all three reporter enzymes from a single extract. The applicability of these plasmids was demonstrated with the analysis of CBF transcription factors and their target promoter sequence, DRE/CRT. Changes in the core DRE/CRT sequence abolished activation by Vitis CBF1 or Vitis CBF4, whereas changes in the surrounding sequence lowered activation by Vitis CBF1 but much less so for Vitis CBF4. The system also detected a reduction in activation due to one amino acid change in Vitis CBF1. The newly developed effector and reporter plasmids improve the ability to quantitatively compare the activation on two different promoter elements by the same transcription factor, or between two different transcription factors on the same promoter element. The quantitative difference in activation by VrCBF1 and VrCBF4 on various DRE/CRT elements support the hypothesis that these transcription factors have unique roles in the cold acclimation process.

  12. Cytological Evaluation and REBA HPV-ID HPV Testing of Newly Developed Liquid-Based Cytology, EASYPREP: Comparison with SurePath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Soo; Gong, Gyungyub; Sohn, Jin Hee; Ryu, Ki Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Khang, Shin Kwang; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Yong-Man; Kang, Chang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a newly-developed EASYPREP liquid-based cytology method in cervicovaginal specimens and compare it with SurePath. Cervicovaginal specimens were prospectively collected from 1,000 patients with EASYPREP and SurePath. The specimens were first collected by brushing for SurePath and second for EASYPREP. The specimens of both methods were diagnosed according to the Bethesda System. Additionally, we performed to REBA HPV-ID genotyping and sequencing analysis for human papillomavirus (HPV) on 249 specimens. EASYPREP and SurePath showed even distribution of cells and were equal in cellularity and staining quality. The diagnostic agreement between the two methods was 96.5%. Based on the standard of SurePath, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EASYPREP were 90.7%, 99.2%, 94.8%, and 98.5%, respectively. The positivity of REBA HPV-ID was 49.4% and 95.1% in normal and abnormal cytological samples, respectively. The result of REBA HPV-ID had high concordance with sequencing analysis. EASYPREP provided comparable results to SurePath in the diagnosis and staining quality of cytology examinations and in HPV testing with REBA HPV-ID. EASYPREP could be another LBC method choice for the cervicovaginal specimens. Additionally, REBA HPV-ID may be a useful method for HPV genotyping.

  13. Gait training with the newly developed 'LokoHelp'-system is feasible for non-ambulatory patients after stroke, spinal cord and brain injury. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, Susanna; Mehrholz, Jan; Husak-Sotomayor, Tanya; Schmalohr, Dieter

    2008-07-01

    being low-to-exhausting. They rarely experienced discomfort, which was mostly related to difficulties with the BWS-System. Training intensity had to be adjusted in one patient who complained of knee pain. Locomotion training with the newly developed 'LokoHelp'-system is feasible in severely affected patients after brain injury, stroke and spinal cord injury. In addition, our results indicate that the described alternative method of gait training may decrease the exertion needed by therapists to carry out the training.

  14. Quantification of Newly Discovered Anti-Cancer Drug Enzalutamide in Bulk and Synthetic Mixture by Stability Indicating TLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhalotiya, Usmangani K; Prajapati, Dharmendra J; Prajapati, Minesh D; Patel, Jalpa U; Desai, Jaineel

    2017-10-27

    Objective A impressionable, discriminatory and precise stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of of Enzalutamide in bulk and synthetic mixture. Method The method engaged HPTLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase while the solvent system was ethyl acetate: toluene (4.5:5.5, v/v). The Rf value of enzalutamide was detected to be 0. 39 ± 0. 005 and the densitometric analysis were carried out in absorbance mode at 246 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots presented a virtuous linear relationship for enzalutamide over a concentration range of 20 - 1000ng/band. Results The limit of detection and limit of quantification for enzalutamide was found to be 9.05 and 27.43ng/band. Enzalutamide was imperilled to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation, dry heat degradation and photolytic degradation. The degraded product peaks were well resolved from the pure drug peak with substantial difference in their Rf values. Conclusion Stressed samples were assayed using developed TLC technique. Suggested method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of enzalutamide in synthetic mixture. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. The Development Needs of Newly Appointed Senior School Leaders in the Western Cape South Africa: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nelius Jansen van Vuuren

    2017-01-01

    The essential role that senior school leaders play in school leadership teams to ensure effective strategic leadership in schools has been the subject of intense discussion for many years. Crucial to this debate is the establishment of professional learning and leadership approaches for newly appointed senior school leaders. Recommendations for policy and practice highlight the importance of appropriate, multifaceted, developmental support initiatives for newly appointed sch...

  16. The ecological and construct validity of a newly developed measure of executive function: the Virtual Library Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renison, Belinda; Ponsford, Jennie; Testa, Renee; Richardson, Barry; Brownfield, Kylie

    2012-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) assessment paradigms have the potential to address the limited ecological validity of pen and paper measures of executive function (EF) and the pragmatic and reliability issues associated with functional measures. To investigate the ecological validity and construct validity of a newly developed VR measure of EF, the Virtual Library Task (VLT); a real life analogous task--the Real Library Task (RLT); and five neuropsychological measures of EF were administered to 30 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 healthy Controls. Significant others for each participant also completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), which is a behavioral rating scale of everyday EF. Performances on the VLT and the RLT were significantly positively correlated indicating that VR performance is similar to real world performance. The TBI group performed significantly worse than the Control group on the VLT and the Modified Six Elements Test (MSET) but the other four neuropsychological measures of EF failed to differentiate the groups. Both the MSET and the VLT significantly predicted everyday EF suggesting that they are both ecologically valid tools for the assessment of EF. The VLT has the advantage over the MSET of providing objective measurement of individual components of EF.

  17. Titania sol-gel coatings containing silver on newly developed TiSi alloys and their antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkavcová, Diana; Novák, Pavel; Fialová, Iva; Černý, Martin; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš; Helebrant, Aleš

    2017-07-01

    New materials with appropriate mechanical properties and an antibacterial effect are constantly being sought for orthopedic and dental applications. The aim of this study was to investigate newly developed TiSi alloys coated with titania sol-gel containing silver. Titanium alloys with 5 or 10wt% of silicon were prepared by vacuum arc remelting and dip-coated with titania sol containing either AgNO 3 or Ag 3 PO 4 in two concentrations. The size and distribution of the particles in the layer were evaluated, as well as layer compactness (SEM). The antibacterial effect (against E. coli and S. epidermidis) and cytotoxicity (towards L929 and U-2 OS cell lines) of these materials were then tested. Despite cracking of the coatings after firing, the coatings demonstrated very good antibacterial effects against both E. coli and S. epidermidis after 24h of interaction. None of the tested materials were toxic to both cell lines. Collectively, our results suggest that these materials are promising candidates for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Load-Bearing Capacity and Retention of Newly Developed Micro-Locking Implant Prosthetic System: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce the newly developed micro-locking implant prosthetic system and to evaluate the resulting its characteristics. To evaluate load-bearing capacity, 25 implants were divided into five groups: external-hexagon connection (EH, internal-octagon connection (IO, internal-hexagon connection (IH, one-body implant (OB, micro-locking implant system (ML. The maximum compressive load was measured using a universal testing machine (UTM according to the ISO 14801. Retention was evaluated in two experiments: (1 a tensile test of the structure modifications of the components (attachment and implant and (2 a tensile test after cyclic loading (total 5,000,000 cycles, 100 N, 2 Hz. The load-bearing capacity of the ML group was not significantly different from the other groups (p > 0.05. The number of balls in the attachment and the presence of a hexagonal receptacle did not show a significant correlation with retention (p > 0.05, but the shape of the retentive groove in the implant post had a statistically significant effect on retention (p < 0.05. On the other hand, the retention loss was observed during the initial 1,000,000 cycles, but an overall constant retention was maintained afterward. Various preclinical studies on this novel micro-locking implant prosthetic system should continue so that it can be applied in clinical practice.

  19. Application of a newly developed CCD for spectral-width measurements of a 53 eV germanium laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunemi, H. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Nomoto, S. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Hayashida, K. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Miyata, E. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Murakami, H. (Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Earth and Space Science); Kato, Y. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Yuan, G. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Murai, K. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Kodama, R. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering); Daido, H. (Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    We report the application of a soft X-ray CCD for X-ray laser experiments. A newly developed CCD which has a thinned protection layer (SiO[sub 2]) of about 0.2 [mu]m was attached to a grazing incidence spectrometer with a resolving power of 16000 in order to measure high-resolution spectra of a germanium soft X-ray laser. Clear spectra have been recorded with a high sensitivity in the energy range between 51 eV (240 A) and 55 eV (225 A). In addition to the two strong lasing lines at 236 A and 232 A, more than 20 weak spontaneous emission lines have been recorded in this energy range. The spectral width of the 236 A lasing line is approximately 20.5 mA at the full width at half maximum. It is shown that this direct X-ray detection system has a spatial resolution of about 1/10 of the CCD pixel size in this spectral measurement. (orig.)

  20. UCSD SORT Test (U-SORT): Examination of a newly developed organizational skills assessment tool for severely mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiznado, Denisse; Mausbach, Brent T; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    The present investigation examined the validity of a new cognitive test intended to assess organizational skills. Participants were 180 middle-aged or older participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants' organizational skills were measured using our newly developed University of California, San Diego Sorting Test (U-SORT), a performance-based test of organizational ability in which subjects sort objects (e.g., battery, pens) from a "junk drawer" into "keep" versus "trash" piles. Significant correlations between U-SORT scores and theoretically similar constructs (i.e. functional capacity, cognitive functioning, and clinical symptoms) were acceptable (mean r = 0.34), and weak correlations were found between U-SORT scores and theoretically dissimilar constructs (e.g., health symptoms, social support, gender; mean r = 0.06 ). The correlation between assessment scores provides preliminary support for the U-SORT test as a brief, easily transportable, reliable, and valid measure of functioning for this population.

  1. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  2. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  3. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  4. Development of a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chol Yong

    1992-01-01

    The primary/objective of this study was to develop a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia. To accomplish the objective, key factors having an impact upon these hotel chains were identified using the Delphi Technique.

  5. Development of a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chol Yong

    1992-01-01

    The primary/objective of this study was to develop a framework for identification of political environmental issues faced by multinational hotel chains in newly industrialized countries in Asia. To accomplish the objective, key factors having an impact on these hotels chains were identified using the Delphi Technique.

  6. A compilation of consumers' stories: the development of a video to enhance medication adherence in newly transplanted kidney recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jac Kee; Crawford, Kimberley; Manias, Elizabeth; Williams, Allison

    2016-04-01

    To describe the design, development and evaluation of a consumer-centred video, which was underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and it was created to educate newly transplanted kidney recipients about the importance of medication adherence. Kidney transplantation is a treatment whereby medication adherence is critical to ensure long-term kidney graft success. To date, many interventions aimed to improve medication adherence in kidney transplantation have been conducted but consumers remain largely uninvolved in the interventional design. Qualitative sequential design. Twenty-two participants who had maintained their kidney transplant for at least 8 months and three participants who had experienced a kidney graft loss due to non-adherence were interviewed from March-May 2014 in Victoria, Australia. These interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers and were used to guide the design of the story plot and to identify storytellers for the video. The first draft of the video was evaluated by a panel of seven experts in the field, one independent educational expert and two consumers using Lynn's content validity questionnaire. The content of the video was regarded as highly relevant and comprehensive, which achieved a score of >3·7 out of a possible 4. The final 18-minute video comprised 15 sections. Topics included medication management, the factors affecting medication adherence and the absolute necessity of adherence to immunosuppressive medications for graft survival. This paper has demonstrated the feasibility of creating a consumer-driven video that supports medication adherence in an engaging way. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  8. Biomechanical analysis of a newly developed shape memory alloy hook in a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the stability provided by a newly developed shape memory alloy hook (SMAH in a cadaveric transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF model.Six human cadaveric spines (L1-S2 were tested in an in vitro flexibility experiment by applying pure moments of ±8 Nm in flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right axial rotation. After intact testing, a TLIF was performed at L4-5. Each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral SMAH (USMAH; bilateral SMAH (BSMAH; unilateral pedicle screws and rods (UPS; and bilateral pedicle screws and rods (BPS. The L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 range of motion (ROM were recorded by a Motion Analysis System.Compared to the other constructs, the BPS provided the most stability. The UPS significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion and lateral bending; the BSMAH significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation; and the USMAH significantly reduced the ROM in flexion and left lateral bending compared with the intact spine (p0.05. Stability provided by the USMAH compared with the UPS was not significantly different. ROMs of adjacent segments increased in all fixed constructs (p>0.05.Bilateral SMAH fixation can achieve immediate stability after L4-5 TLIF in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether the SMAH can achieve fusion in vivo and alleviate adjacent segment degeneration.

  9. Newly developed hardness testing system, "Cariotester": measurement principles and development of a program for measuring Knoop hardness of carious dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akihiko; Nakashima, Syozi; Nikaido, Toru; Sugawara, Toyotaro; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Momoi, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    We previously discovered that when a cone-shaped indenter coated with paint was pressed into an object, the paint disappeared in accordance with the depth of the indentation. Based on this fact, we developed the Cariotester, a portable system for measuring the Knoop hardness (KHN) of carious dentin. The Cariotester is composed of a handpiece with an indenter, a microscope, and a computer. In this system, the painted indenter is forced into the material with a 150-gf load, and the indentation depth (CT depth) is obtained from the paint disappearance. The CT depth by the Cariotester and the KHN by a microhardness tester were determined at 14 dentin regions. From the data, a program was created to convert the CT depth of the carious dentin into the KHN. As a result, if the CT depth is measured with this system, the KHN of carious dentin can be displayed in real time.

  10. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption. PMID:26517827

  11. Enhancement of Treatment Efficiency of Recalcitrant Wastewater Containing Textile Dyes Using a Newly Developed Iron Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 Heterogeneous Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Asghar, Anam; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.

  12. Preliminary experiment with a newly developed double balloon, double lumen catheter for extracorporeal life support vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Taisuke; Ichinose, Keisuke; Tanimoto, Hironari; Yoshitake, Atsushi; Sakanashi, Yuji; Tashiro, Masafumi; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2003-01-01

    Recently, venovenous extracorporeal life support (VVECLS) using a double lumen catheter has been clinically used to avoid neurologic complications in the treatment of respiratory failure for neonates. However, recirculation, which is a limiting factor for oxygen delivery, still exists, and thus it does not contribute to oxygenation of the patient. We developed a newly designed double lumen catheter with a double balloon (DBDL) catheter for ECLS vascular access and performed two animal preliminary experiments in normal and hypoxic dog models (normal ventilation and one lung ventilation experiments) to investigate whether the DBDL catheter could prevent recirculation and maintain oxygen delivery to systemic circulation. The DBDL catheter (JCT Co., Hiroshima, Japan) of 15 Fr was fabricated from silicone. It consists of two lumens for drainage and return of blood with two balloons (distal and proximal balloons) that prevent oxygenated blood mixing with unoxygenated blood. VVECLS using a DBDL catheter was performed in 13 mongrel dogs (8 dogs for normal ventilation experiment weighing 12.9 +/- 1.6 kg [mean +/- SD], 5 dogs for one lung ventilation experiment weighing 16.6 +/- 2.5 kg [mean +/- SD]) under anesthesia in the two experiments. The bypass flow ranged from 10-40 ml/kg per minute in the normal ventilation experiment. VVECLS in the one lung ventilation experiment was performed with maximal bypass flow for 6 hours (ranged from 25.2 +/- 8.0-28.3 +/- 8.7 ml/kg per minute at balloon inflation and deflation). Recirculation and oxygen transfer of artificial lung with or without balloon inflation during VVECLS were studied. Recirculation decreased with balloon inflation at varied bypass flows during VVECLS in the normal ventilation experiment (varied from 1.5 +/- 14.6-12.8 +/- 16.7%) and for 6 hours after VVECLS initiation in the one lung ventilation experiment (varied from 12.2 +/- 12.2-19.2 +/- 6.5%). In particular, the values at 3 and 6 hours were significantly lower

  13. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  14. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  15. Test beam evaluation of newly developed n-in-p planar pixel sensors for use in a high radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K., E-mail: kimihiko@hep.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Yamaguchi, D.; Motohashi, K. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Unno, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Study, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Jinnouchi, O. [Institute of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Altenheiner, S. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Blue, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bomben, M. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Butter, A. [LAL, University Paris-Sud (France); CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cervelli, A. [Universität Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Sidlerstrasse 55, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Crawley, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ducourthial, A. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Laboratoire de physique nucléaire et de hautes energies (LPNHE), Univ. Paris-UMPC, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Univ. Paris Diderot (France); Gisen, A. [Experimentelle Physik IV, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Hagihara, M. [Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8751 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    Radiation-tolerant n-in-p planar pixel sensors have been under development in cooperation with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). This is geared towards applications in high-radiation environments, such as for the future Inner Tracker (ITk) placed in the innermost part of the ATLAS detector in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) experiment. Prototypes of those sensors have been produced, irradiated, and evaluated over the last few years. In the previous studies, it was reported that significant drops in the detection efficiency were observed after irradiation, especially under bias structures. The bias structures are made up of poly-Si or Al bias rails and poly-Si bias resistors. The structure is implemented on the sensors to allow quality checks to be performed before the bump-bonding process, and to ensure that charge generated in floating pixels due to non-contacting or missing bump-bonds is dumped in a controlled way in order to avoid noise. To minimize the efficiency drop, several new pixel structures have been designed with bias rails and bias resistors relocated. Several test beams have been carried out to evaluate the drops in the detection efficiency of the new sensor structures after irradiation. Newly developed sensor modules were irradiated with proton-beams at the Cyclotron and Radio-Isotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University to see the effect of sensor-bulk damage and surface charge-up. An irradiation with γ-rays was also carried out at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Center, with the goal of decoupling the effect of surface charge-up from that of bulk damage. Those irradiated sensors have been evaluated with particle beams at DESY and CERN. Comparison between different sensor structures confirmed significant improvements in minimizing efficiency loss under the bias structures after irradiation. The results from γ-irradiation also enabled cross-checking the results of a semiconductor technology simulation program (TCAD). - Highlights: • The

  16. Characterization of PCBs from computers and mobile phones, and the proposal of newly developed materials for substitution of gold, lead and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervišević, Irma; Minić, Duško; Kamberović, Željko; Ćosović, Vladan; Ristić, Mirjana

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed parts of printed circuit board (PCB) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens of mobile phones and computers, quantitative and qualitative chemical compositions of individual components, and complete PCBs were determined. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods were used to determine the temperatures of phase transformations, whereas qualitative and quantitative compositions of the samples were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses. The microstructure of samples was studied by optical microscopy. Based on results of the analysis, a procedure for recycling PCBs is proposed. The emphasis was on the effects that can be achieved in the recycling process by extraction of some parts before the melting process. In addition, newly developed materials can be an adequate substitute for some of the dangerous and harmful materials, such as lead and arsenic are proposed, which is in accordance with the European Union (EU) Restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS) directive as well as some alternative materials for use in the electronics industry instead of gold and gold alloys.

  17. Effects of IY-81149, a newly developed proton pump inhibitor, on gastric acid secretion in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, D; Chae, J B; Park, C W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, E J; Huh, I H; Kim, D Y; Cho, K D

    2001-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of IY-81149 (2-[[(4-methoxy-3-methyl)-2- pyridinyl]methyl-sulfinyl]-5-(1H-pyrol-1-yl)-1H-benzimidazole, CAS 172152-36-2), a newly developed proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on gastric acid secretion were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In rabbit parietal cell preparation, IY-81149 irreversibly inhibited H+/K(+)-ATPase in dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of pump inhibitory activity of 6.0 x 10(-6) mol/l and that of omeprazole (CAS 73590-58-6) was 1 x 10(-4) mol/l at pH 7.4. On cumulation of 14C-aminopyrine in histamine stimulated parietal cells, the IC50 of IY-81149 was 9.0 x 10(-9) mol/l and that of omeprazole was 1.9 x 10(-8) mol/l. The inhibition rates of IY-81149 and omeprazole at a concentration of 1 x 10(-9) mol/l in human parietal cells were 137% and 64%, respectively. In pylorus-ligated rats, IY-81149 showed a 2-3 times stronger inhibitory activity than omeprazole against gastric acid secretion. The ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole administered intraduodenally was 1.6 mg/kg and 3.8 mg/kg. In the case of oral administration, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 1.94 mg/kg and 5.64 mg/kg, respectively. But after 24 h administration, the anti-secretory activity of IY-81149 was lower than that of omeprazole at all doses tested. In anesthetized rats, IY-81149 dose-dependently increased gastric pH which was lowered by histamine infusion. In the case of i.v. injection, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 1.2 and 1.4 mg/kg and in the case of i.d. administration, the ED50 of IY-81149 and omeprazole was 3.9 and 4.1 mg/kg, respectively. IY-81149 also significantly inhibited pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. Its ED50 was 2.1 mg/kg and that of omeprazole was 3.5 mg/kg with i.d. administration. In the case of i.v. injection, IY-81149 was equipotent to omeprazole. IY-81149 also inhibited gastric acid secretion strongly in fistular rats. The ED50 of IY-81149 administered intraduodenally was 0.43 mg/kg and that of omeprazole was 0.68 mg

  18. Performance evaluation of the newly developed volumetric strainmeter for the ocean borehole observatory in Nankai Seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, K.; Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Kinoshita, M.

    2011-12-01

    .4 Hz microseisms (amplitude 0.15 nstrain) and earthquake with magnitude 5.3 (amplitude 0.38 nstrain) were recorded in the strain data, corresponding with microseisms (amplitude 140 nrad.(X), 180 nrad.(Y)) and earthquake (amplitude 650 nrad.(X), 1350 nrad.(Y)) recorded in tiltmeter installed next to the strainmeter. Further, in order to evaluate strain change associated with pore pressure change, we have conducted the pressure test by pressurizing the bottom section of the borehole. As a result, the strain value decreased (dilatation) after the pressurizing and then increased (compression) with gradual pressure decay, which may be caused by the opening effect of the borehole wall around the bottom. However, the additional tests are needed to explain the relation between the strain data and the pore pressure change. In this presentation, we will introduce the newly constructed observatory in Kamioka mine for the development of long term borehole monitoring system and show the results of the performance evaluation of the borehole volume strainmeter.

  19. Field assessment of reproduction-related traits of chironomids using a newly developed emergence platform (E-Board).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Benoît J D; Faburé, Juliette

    2017-03-01

    Further progress in the development of reliable biomonitoring strategies requires to better link effects in aquatic ecological systems to ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants. Among existing tools, in situ bioassays using caging method represent an interesting way to achieve this challenge. However, elaboration of adapted exposure chambers and suitable operating procedures is still required, particularly to assess ecological relevant traits such as those related to the reproduction. In such context, we developed a new device (Emergence board - E-Board) which allows assessing in rivers the development of the Chironomus riparius species from the early fourth instar larvae to the adult stage. The system acts as a suspended matter trap floating in the subsurface of the water equipped of an emergence trap for catching adults. The system was tested in actual field conditions. Its easy handling allowed obtaining data which demonstrated its applicability for assessing the development of the chironomids. Moreover, by adapting energy-based models (DEB) specifically developed in the laboratory for the species C. riparius, we were able to predict the growth pattern and the emergence of chironomids in real environmental conditions. The E-Board represents thus a promising new in situ tool in perspective of evaluation of the quality of the ecosystems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Factors associated with intended and effective settlement of nursing students and newly graduated nurses in a rural setting after graduation: a mixed-methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Amélie; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Mbemba, Gisèle Irène Claudine; Côté, José; Paré, Guy; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Duplàa, Emmanuel; Courcy, François

    2013-03-01

    To identify factors that influence the initial plan and final decision to choose a rural area as first employment location in final-year nursing students or newly graduated nurses. We conducted a mixed-methods review of the literature, including both published and gray literature, using established criteria. Two reviewers performed data extraction of relevant information independently. We retrieved empirical studies from the following databases: PubMED, Embase, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), The Cochrane Library, Business Source Premier (EBSCO), ERIC, Proquest and PsychInfo. We also searched for empirical studies in the technical and gray literature and reviewed journals related to rural health. Additionally, we conducted searches in websites such as the Center for Health Workforce Planning and Analysis, as well as Google and Google Scholar search engines. Of the 523 studies thus screened, 15 were included for data extraction. We identified more than 40 factors associated with initial plans and final decision to settle in a rural area among nursing graduates. Only limited literature is currently available on the factors associated with the intention of nursing students or newly graduated nurses of practicing in rural areas and on the relationship between intention and effective behavior. This review highlights the needs for further research in this field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes in the development of brood and newly emerged workers and drones of the Carniolan honeybee, Apis mellifera carnica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Farjan, Marek; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The activity of glycogen Phosphorylase and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, glucoamylase, trehalase, and sucrase was studied in the development of the Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica Pollman (Hymenoptera: Apidae), from newly hatched larva to freshly emerged imago of worker and drone. Phosphorolytic degradation of glycogen was significantly stronger than hydrolytic degradation in all developmental stages. Developmental profiles of hydrolase activity were similar in both sexes of brood; high activity was found in unsealed larvae, the lowest in prepupae followed by an increase in enzymatic activity. Especially intensive increases in activity occurred in the last stage of pupae and newly emerged imago. Besides α-amylase, the activities of other enzymes were higher in drone than in worker broods. Among drones, activity of glucoamylase was particularly high, ranging from around three times higher in the youngest larvae to 13 times higher in the oldest pupae. This confirms earlier suggestions about higher rates of metabolism in drone broods than in worker broods.

  2. Development of a new disintegration method for orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakutani, Ryo; Muro, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tadashi

    2010-07-01

    Recently, the focus has been on the importance of assessing the oral disintegrative properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). In particular, in the development stages and the quality control field of ODT products, a physical assessment method which easily measures oral disintegrative properties is desired. For this reason, we developed a new disintegration test method (Kyoto-model disintegration method or KYO method), which is useful to predict the oral disintegrative properties of an ODT easily, and examined the availability of the method. In the KYO method, ODT samples were classified in terms of their water permeability, and a moderate water volume was decided. Subsequently, the disintegrative properties were assessed with the newly proposed method. For 25 commercial prescription ODTs used as samples, a good correlation was shown between the results of a human sensory test by five healthy male volunteers and the results using the KYO method. Furthermore, the KYO method could evaluate time-dependent changes in ODT samples. On the other hand, no correlation was observed between the Japanese Pharmacopeia disintegration test and the human sensory test. These results suggested that the KYO method reflected the disintegration nature of the ODTs in the oral cavity, and could easily be applied to development stages and the quality control field of ODT products.

  3. Prognostic value of three different methods of MGMT promoter methylation analysis in a prospective trial on newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Christians

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation in the promoter region of the MGMT gene encoding the DNA repair protein O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is among the most important prognostic factors for patients with glioblastoma and predicts response to treatment with alkylating agents like temozolomide. Hence, the MGMT status is widely determined in most clinical trials and frequently requested in routine diagnostics of glioblastoma. Since various different techniques are available for MGMT promoter methylation analysis, a generally accepted consensus as to the most suitable diagnostic method remains an unmet need. Here, we assessed methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP as a qualitative and semi-quantitative method, pyrosequencing (PSQ as a quantitative method, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA as a semi-quantitative method in a series of 35 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioblastoma tissues derived from patients treated in a prospective clinical phase II trial that tested up-front chemoradiotherapy with dose-intensified temozolomide (UKT-05. Our goal was to determine which of these three diagnostic methods provides the most accurate prediction of progression-free survival (PFS. The MGMT promoter methylation status was assessable by each method in almost all cases (n = 33/35 for MSP; n = 35/35 for PSQ; n = 34/35 for MS-MLPA. We were able to calculate significant cut-points for the continuous methylation signals at each CpG site analysed by PSQ (range, 11.5 to 44.9% and at one CpG site assessed by MS-MLPA (3.6% indicating that a dichotomisation of continuous methylation data as a prerequisite for comparative survival analyses is feasible. Our results show that, unlike MS-MLPA, MSP and PSQ provide a significant improvement of predicting PFS compared with established clinical prognostic factors alone (likelihood ratio tests: p<0.001. Conclusively, taking into consideration prognostic value

  4. Development and testing of a mobile application to support diabetes self-management for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a design thinking case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F

    2017-06-26

    Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6

  5. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  6. Developing the Business Modelling Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; Shishkov, B; Shishkov, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Currently, business modelling is an art, instead of a science, as no scientific method for business modelling exists. This, and the lack of using business models altogether, causes many projects to end after the pilot stage, unable to fulfil their apparent promise. We propose a structured method to

  7. Evaluation of a newly developed real-time PCR for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis and discrimination from T. asinigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanandh, J; George, L V; Wernery, U; Sasse, J

    2003-09-24

    A 'culture-LightCycler PCR' assay has been developed for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM) in horses. The primers and hybridisation probes were derived from the 16S rDNA sequence. Their specificity was determined in two closely related organisms and six commensal bacteria of the genital tract. The assay was specific for T. equigenitalis and discriminates T. asinigenitalis isolates. It also avoids misidentifications of morphologically and phenotypically similar organisms. The sensitivity was evaluated in comparison to a standard bacteriological culture method. It detected T. equigenitalis in 10 of 52 samples that had not been identified bacteriologically. The results indicated that the assay had a greater sensitivity. This is the first real-time PCR for the detection of T. equigenitalis and avoids PCR carry-over contamination. The 'culture-LightCycler PCR' assay is specific, sensitive and reproducible, and can be used effectively for the detection of T. equigenitalis infections.

  8. Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Hee Choi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeBrain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP were investigated.MethodsSixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]; group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty; and group III (incidental or normal findings. Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed.ResultsBrain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74% with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30% with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88% with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT, and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01 and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05 than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05.ConclusionEarlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up.

  9. [Formaldehyde-reducing efficiency of a newly developed dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in the gross anatomy laboratory room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koh; Oba, Jun

    2010-03-01

    In compliance with health and safety management guidelines against harmful formaldehyde (FA) levels in the gross anatomy laboratory, we newly developed a dissection-table-connected local ventilation system in 2006. The system was composed of (1) a simple plenum-chambered dissection table with low-cost filters, (2) a transparent vinyl flexible duct for easy mounting and removal, which connects the table and the exhaust pipe laid above the ceiling, and (3) an intake creating a downward-flow of air, which was installed on the ceiling just above each table. The dissection table was also designed as a separate-component system, of which the upper plate and marginal suction inlets can be taken apart for cleaning after dissection, and equipped with opening/closing side-windows for picking up materials dropped during dissection and a container underneath the table to receive exudate from the cadaver through a waste-fluid pipe. The local ventilation system dramatically reduced FA levels to 0.01-0.03 ppm in the gross anatomy laboratory room, resulting in no discomforting FA smell and irritating sensation while preserving the student's view of room and line of flow as well as solving the problems of high maintenance cost, sanitation issues inside the table, and working-inconvenience during dissection practice. Switching ventilation methods or power-modes, the current local ventilation system was demonstrated to be more than ten times efficient in FA reduction compared to the whole-room ventilation system and suggested that 11 m3/min/table in exhaust volume should decrease FA levels in both A- and B-measurements to less than 0.1 ppm in 1000 m3 space containing thirty-one 3.5%-FA-fixed cadavers.

  10. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  11. Mass screening for celiac disease from the perspective of newly diagnosed adolescents and their parents: A mixed-method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosén Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass screening for celiac disease (CD as a public health intervention is controversial. Prior to implementation, acceptability to the targeted population should be addressed. We aimed at exploring adolescents' and parents' experiences of having the adolescents' CD detected through mass screening, and their attitudes towards possible future mass screening. Methods All adolescents (n = 145 with screening-detected CD found in a Swedish school-based screening study, and their parents, were invited to this study about one year after diagnosis. In all, 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 31 adolescents and 43 parents. Written narrative was completed by 91 adolescents (63% and 105 parents (72%, and questionnaires returned by 114 parents (79%. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. In addition, narratives and questionnaire data allowed for quantified measures. Results Adolescents and parents described how they agreed to participate "for the good of others," without considering consequences for themselves. However, since the screening also introduced a potential risk of having the disease, the invitation was regarded as "an offer hard to resist." For the majority, receiving the diagnosis was described as "a bolt of lightning," but for some it provided an explanation for previous health problems, and "suddenly everything made sense." Looking back at the screening, the predominant attitude was "feeling grateful for being made aware," but some adolescents and parents also expressed "ambivalent feelings about personal benefits." Among parents, 92% supported future CD screening. The most common opinion among both adolescents and parents was that future CD mass screening should be "a right for everyone" and should be offered as early as possible. However, some argued that it should be "only for sufferers" with symptoms, whereas others were "questioning the benefits" of CD mass screening. Conclusions Although the

  12. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  13. Embedding methods: application and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Correlated-wavefunction/density functional theory (CW/DFT) embedding methods aim to combine the formally exact correlation treatment in CW methods with the high efficiency of DFT. By partitioning a system into a cluster and its environment, each part can be treated independently. Different embedding schemes have been proposed. The density-based scheme searches for a global embedding potential mediating the interaction on the DFT level. The potential can then be used in CW calculations, e.g., to investigate hot-electron assisted H2 dissociation on Al and Au surfaces. Experimentally, optical excitations of plasmons efficiently create the required hot electrons. The embedded CW calculations validates that the hot electrons play a key role. However, this method neglects the back-action of the cluster on the environment. To solve this problem, a potential-based scheme has been proposed [J. Chem. Phys., 135, 194104 (2011)] that allows for a self-consistent combination of different ab-initio methods. Such an embedding potential thus goes beyond the DFT level. The heterogeneity involved poses various numerical challenges. We report on efforts to construct appropriate basis sets and pseudopotentials as well as to optimize the numerical procedure.

  14. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  15. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  16. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  17. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  18. Calibration of Nu-Instruments Noblesse multicollector mass spectrometers for argon isotopic measurements using a newly developed reference gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M.A.; Grove, M.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The greatest challenge limiting 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements is the availability of appropriate standard gasses to intercalibrate detectors. In particular, use of zoom lens ion-optics to steer and focus ion beams into a fixed detector array (i.e., Nu Instruments Noblesse) makes intercalibration of multiple detectors challenging because different ion-optic tuning conditions are required for optimal peak shape and sensitivity at different mass stations. We have found that detector efficiency and mass discrimination are affected by changes in ion-optic tuning parameters. Reliance upon an atmospheric Ar standard to calibrate the Noblesse is problematic because there is no straightforward way to relate atmospheric 40Ar and 36Ar to measurements of 40Ar and 39Ar if they are measured on separate detectors. After exploring alternative calibration approaches, we have concluded that calibration of the Noblesse is best performed using exactly the same source, detector, and ion-optic tuning settings as those used in routine 40Ar/39Ar analysis. To accomplish this, we have developed synthetic reference gasses containing 40Ar, 39Ar and 38Ar produced by mixing gasses derived from neutron-irradiated sanidine with an enriched 38Ar spike. We present a new method for calibrating the Noblesse based on use of both atmospheric Ar and the synthetic reference gasses. By combining atmospheric Ar and synthetic reference gas in different ways, we can directly measure 40Ar/39Ar, 38Ar/39Ar, and 36Ar/39Ar correction factors over ratios that vary from 0.5 to 460. These correction factors are reproducible to better than ??0.5??? (2?? standard error) over intervals spanning ~24h but can vary systematically by ~4% over 2weeks of continuous use when electron multiplier settings are held constant. Monitoring this variation requires daily calibration of the instrument. Application of the calibration method to 40Ar/39Ar multicollection measurements of widely used sanidine reference materials

  19. Nuclear methods in national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings of the First National Conference on Nuclear Methods held at Kongo Conference Hotel Zaria from 2-4 September 1993, contains the full text of about 30 technical papers and speeches of invited dignitaries presented at the conference. The technical papers are original or review articles containing results and experiences in nuclear and related analytical techniques. Topics treated include neutron generator operation and control, nuclear data, application of nuclear techniques in environment, geochemistry, medicine, biology, agriculture, material science and industries. General topics in nuclear laboratory organization and research experiences were also covered. The papers were fully discussed during the conference and authors were requested to make changes in the manuscripts where necessary. However, they were further edited. The organizing committee wishes to thank all authors for their presentation and cooperation in submitting their manuscripts promptly and the participants for their excellent contribution during the conference

  20. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of oxygen consumption and hydrogen peroxide production in cells using our newly developed chip-type biosensor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush ePrasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All living organisms bear its defense mechanism. Immune cells during invasion by foreign body undergoes phagocytosis during which monocyte and neutrophil produces reactive oxygen species (ROS. The ROS generated in animal cells are known to be involved in several diseases and ailments, when generated in excess. Therefore, if the ROS generated in cells can be measured and analyzed precisely, it can be employed in immune function evaluation and disease detection. The aim of the current study is to introduce our newly developed chip-type biosensor device with high specificity and sensitivity. It comprises of counter electrode and working electrodes I and II. The counter electrode is a platinum plate while the working electrodes I and II are platinum microelectrode and osmium-horseradish peroxidase modified gold electrode, respectively which acts as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection sensors. Simultaneous measurement of oxygen consumption and H2O2 generation were measured in animal cells under the effect of exogenous addition of differentiation inducer, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The results obtained showed considerable changes in reduction currents in the absence and presence of inducer. Our newly developed chip-type biosensor device is claimed to be a useful tool for real-time monitoring of the respiratory activity and precise detection of H2O2 in cells. It can thus be widely applied in biomedical research and in clinical trials being an advancement over other H2O2 detection techniques.

  1. Bringing Writing Research into the Classroom : The effectiveness of Tekster, a newly developed writing program for elementary students

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, M.P.; Bouwer, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Inspectorate for Education established that the quality of elementary students’ writing is below the desired level, and that the teaching of writing must be improved. The aim of this PhD research was therefore to improve writing education in upper elementary grades by developing an effective teaching program for writing, including professional development for teachers, and tools for the assessment of writing. Building on the findings of previous research, we developed and tested Tek...

  2. Efficacy of Intra-articular Injection of a Newly Developed Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) Versus Hyaluronic Acid on Pain and Function of Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Ahangar, Azadeh Gharooee; Abadi, Porya Hassan; Mojgani, Parviz; Ahangar, Omid Gharooi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Knee osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injection of a newly developed plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) versus hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain and function of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: In this single-blinded randomized clinical trial, patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of knee were assigned to receive 2 intra-articular injections of our newly developed PRGF in 3 weeks or 3 weekly injections of HA. Our primary outcome was the mean change from baseline until 2 and 6 months post intervention in scores of visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Lequesne index. We used analysis of variance for repeated-measures statistical test. Results: A total of 69 patients entered final analysis. The mean age of patients was 58.2 ± 7.41 years and 81.2% were women. In particular, total WOMAC index decreased from 42.9 ± 13.51 to 26.8 ± 13.45 and 24.4 ± 16.54 at 2 and 6 months in the newly developed PRGF group (within subjects P = .001), and from 38.8 ± 12.62 to 27.8 ± 11.01 and 27.4 ± 11.38 at 2 and 6 months in the HA group (within subjects P = .001), respectively (between subjects P = .631). There was no significant difference between PRGF and HA groups in patients’ satisfaction and minor complications of injection, whereas patients in HA group reported significantly lower injection-induced pain. Conclusions: In 6 months follow up, our newly developed PRGF and HA, both are effective options to decrease pain and improvement of function in patients with symptomatic mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. PMID:29051707

  3. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (p, α) at 17.9 MeV and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More recently, new empirical formulas have been developed including the neutron non-elastic cross-section σne for 14–15 MeV neutron-induced reaction cross-sections. Tel et al suggested using these new experimental data to develop a new empirical formula for the cross-sections of the (n, p) reactions [19]. This formula ...

  4. In-Vitro Evaluation of Coronary Stents and 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography Using a Newly Developed Model of Coronary Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, T.; Scheuermann, T.; Ulzheimer, S.; Mohrs, O.K.; Kuehling, M.; Al brecht, P.E.; Voigtlaender, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Schmermund, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Stent implantation is the predominant therapy for non-surgical myocardial revascularization in patients with coronary artery disease. However, despite substantial advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary imaging, a reliable detection of coronary in-stent restenosis is currently not possible. Purpose: To examine the ability of 64-detector-row CT to detect and to grade in-stent stenosis in coronary stents using a newly developed ex-vivo vessel phantom with a realistic CT density pattern, artificial stenosis, and a thorax phantom. Material and Methods: Four different stents (Liberte and Lunar ROX, Boston Scientific; Driver, Medtronic; Multi-Link Vision, Guidant) were examined. The stents were placed on a polymer tube with a diameter of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 mm. Different degrees of stenosis (0%, 30%, 50%, 70-80%) were created inside the tube. For quantitative analysis, attenuation values were measured in the non-stenotic vessel outside the stent, in the non-stenotic vessel inside the stent, and in the stenotic area inside the stent. The grade of stenosis was visually assessed by two observers. Results: All stents led to artificial reduction of attenuation, the least degree of which was found in the Liberte stent (11.3±10.2 HU) and the Multi-Link Vision stent (17.6±17.9 HU; P 0.25). Overall, the non-stenotic vessel was correctly diagnosed in 55.5%, the low-grade stenosis in 58.3%, the intermediate stenosis in 63.8%, and the high-grade stenosis in 80.5%. In the 3.0-, 3.5-, and 4.0-mm vessels, in none of the cases was a non-stenotic or low-grade stenotic vessel misdiagnosed as intermediate or high-grade stenosis. The average deviation from the real grade of stenosis was 0.40 for the Liberte stent, 0.46 for the Lunar ROX stent, 0.45 for the Driver stent, and 0.58 for the Multi-Link Vision stent. Conclusion: Our ex-vivo data show that non-stenotic stents and low-grade in-stent stenosis can be reliably differentiated from intermediate and

  5. Production of enzymes by a newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 in solid state fermentation on agricultural by-products: The evaluation of substrate pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Abdalla Ali; Grbavčić, Sanja; Šekuljica, Nataša; Stefanović, Andrea; Jakovetić Tanasković, Sonja; Luković, Nevena; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2017-03-01

    Study on potential of different agro-industrial waste residues for supporting the growth of newly isolated Bacillus sp. TMF-1 strain under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was conducted aiming to produce several industrially valuable enzymes. Since the feasibility of the initial study was confirmed, further objectives included evaluation of several pretreatments of the studied agricultural by-products (soybean meal, sunflower meal, maize bran, maize pericarp, olive oil cake and wheat bran) on the microbial productivity as means of enhancing the yields of produced proteases, α-amylases, cellulases and pectinases. Among acid/alkaline treatment, ultrasound and microwave assisted methods, chemical treatments superiorly affected most of the studied substrates. Highest yields of produced proteases (50.5IUg -1 ) and α-amylases (50.75IUg -1 ) were achieved on alkaline treated corn pericarp. Alkaline treatment also promoted the secretion of cellulases on maize bran (1.19IUg -1 ). Highest yield of pectinases was obtained on untreated soybean meal (64.90IUg -1 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone-Forming Capabilities of a Newly Developed NanoHA Composite Alloplast Infused with Collagen: A Pilot Study in the Sheep Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral or vertical bone augmentation has always been a challenge, since the site is exposed to constant pressure from the soft tissue, and blood supply only exists from the donor site. Although, for such clinical cases, onlay grafting with autogenous bone is commonly selected, the invasiveness of the secondary surgical site and the relatively fast resorption rate have been reported as a drawback, which motivated the investigation of alternative approaches. This study evaluated the bone-forming capability of a novel nanoHA alloplast infused with collagen graft material made from biodegradable polylactic acid/polyglycolic acid versus a control graft material with the same synthesized alloplast without the nanoHA component and collagen infiltration. The status of newly formed bone and the resorption of the graft material were evaluated at 6 weeks in vivo histologically and three dimensionally by means of 3D microcomputed tomography. The histologic observation showed that newly formed bone ingrowth and internal resorption of the block were observed for the experimental blocks, whereas for the control blocks less bone ingrowth occurred along with lower resorption rate of the block material. The three-dimensional observation indicated that the experimental block maintained the external geometry, but at the same time successfully altered the graft material into bone. It is suggested that the combination of numerous factors contributed to the bone ingrowth and the novel development could be an alternative bone grafting choice.

  7. An investigation of deformation and fluid flow at subduction zones using newly developed instrumentation and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Alison Louise

    Detecting seafloor deformation events in the offshore convergent margin environment is of particular importance considering the significant seismic hazard at subduction zones. Efforts to gain insight into the earthquake cycle have been made at the Cascadia and Costa Rica subduction margins through recent expansions of onshore GPS and seismic networks. While these studies have given scientists the ability to quantify and locate slip events in the seismogenic zone, there is little technology available for adequately measuring offshore aseismic slip. This dissertation introduces an improved flow meter for detecting seismic and aseismic deformation in submarine environments. The value of such hydrologic measurements for quantifying the geodetics at offshore margins is verified through a finite element modeling (FEM) study in which the character of deformation in the shallow subduction zone is determined from previously recorded hydrologic events at the Costa Rica Pacific margin. Accurately sensing aseismic events is one key to determining the stress state in subduction zones as these slow-slip events act to load or unload the seismogenic zone during the interseismic period. One method for detecting seismic and aseismic strain events is to monitor the hydrogeologic response to strain events using fluid flow meters. Previous instrumentation, the Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter which measures flow rates through the sediment-water interface, can detect transient events at very low flowrates, down to 0.0001 m/yr. The CAT meter performs well in low flow rate environments and can capture gradual changes in flow rate, as might be expected during ultra slow slip events. However, it cannot accurately quantify high flow rates through fractures and conduits, nor does it have the temporal resolution and accuracy required for detecting transient flow events associated with rapid deformation. The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) developed for this purpose is an

  8. Multi-compartmental transdermal patch for simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs: formulation and evaluation of newly developed novel dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Venugopal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the formulation of multi-compartmental transdermal patches for simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs: aceclofenac and serratiopeptidase. Methods: The patch was prepared by simple solvent casting method using hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K100M as matrix forming agent and dimethyl sulphoxide as permeation enhancer. The prepared transdermal patch was evaluated by physiochemical parameters and in- vitro diffusion studies. Results: The multi-compartmental transdermal patch showed sustained drug release over the period of 12 h. Conclusions: Multicompartmental transdermal patches shows better bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy and very economic as compared with other dosage forms.

  9. IoT System Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giray, G.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Tüzün, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is generally believed that the application of methods plays an important role in developing quality systems. A development method is mainly necessary for structuring the process in producing largescale and complex systems that involve high costs. Similar to the development of other systems, it is

  10. Method development and validations: characterization of critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method development and validations: characterization of critical elements in the development of pharmaceuticals. ... International Journal of Health Research ... Although a thorough validation cannot rule out all potential problems, the process of method development and validation should address the most common ones.

  11. Quality of life in newly diagnosed children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and differences from typically developing children: a study of child and parent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Rotsika, V; Skevington, S; Papaevangelou, S; Malliori, M; Tomaras, V; Kokkevi, A

    2013-07-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of school children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and their parents is scarce. The present study explores QoL deficits in newly diagnosed children with SpLD and their parents, in comparison to a similar age group of typically developing children. Possible associations between parental and child QoL were statistically explored in both groups of children. 70 newly diagnosed children with SpLD [International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria] (38 boys, 32 girls, mean age 10.1 years) and a control group of 69 typically developing children of the same age (40 boys, 29 girls, mean age 10.6 years) were recruited. Children were of normal intelligence quotient, attending mainstream schools. Their parents were also recruited so a child's scores could be associated with corresponding parental scores (mother or father). Children's QoL was assessed by the German questionnaire for measuring quality of life in children and adolescents (KINDL(R) ) questionnaire and parental QoL by World Health Organization Quality of Life brief questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) of the World Health Organization. Children with SpLD in comparison to typically developing children reported according to the KINDL(R) measurement poorer emotional well-being, lower self-esteem and satisfaction in their relationships with family and friends. Surprisingly, school functioning was not reported by these children as an area of concern. Parents of children with SpLD indicated experiencing lower satisfaction in the WHOQOL-BREF domains of social relationships and environment. Correlational and regression analysis with parental-child QoL scores provided evidence that in the SpLD group, parental scores on WHOQOL-BREF social relationships and psychological health domains could be predictors of the child's emotional well-being, satisfaction with family, friends and school functioning. Stepwise regression analysis verified the effect of parents' WHOQOL-BREF social

  12. Moral counselling: a method in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jack; Leget, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method of moral counselling developed in the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen (The Netherlands). The authors apply insights of Paul Ricoeur to the non-directive counselling method of Carl Rogers in their work of coaching patients with moral problems in health care. The developed method was shared with other health care professionals in a training course. Experiences in the course and further practice led to further improvement of the method.

  13. A newly developed tool for intra-tracheal temperature and humidity assessment in laryngectomized individuals: the Airway Climate Explorer (ACE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuur, J.K.; Muller, S.H.; Jongh, F.H.C.; Horst, M.J. van der; Shehata, M.; Leeuwen, J. van; Sinaasappel, M.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a postlaryngectomy airway climate explorer (ACE) for assessment of intratracheal temperature and humidity and of influence of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs). Engineering goals were within-device condensation prevention and fast response time characteristics.

  14. Bringing Writing Research into the Classroom : The effectiveness of Tekster, a newly developed writing program for elementary students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.P.; Bouwer, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Inspectorate for Education established that the quality of elementary students’ writing is below the desired level, and that the teaching of writing must be improved. The aim of this PhD research was therefore to improve writing education in upper elementary grades by developing an

  15. Five comorbidities reflected the health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the newly developed COMCOLD index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, Anja; Muggensturm, Patrick; Putcha, Nirupama; Siebeling, Lara; Zoller, Marco; Boyd, Cynthia M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Puhan, Milo A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify those comorbidities with greatest impact on patient-reported health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to develop a comorbidity index that reflects their combined impact. We included 408 Swiss and Dutch primary care patients with

  16. Development of an mHealth Application for Women Newly Diagnosed with Osteoporosis without Preceding Fractures: A Participatory Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn Jakobsen, Pernille; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Søndergaard, Jens; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Clemensen, Jane

    2018-02-13

    mHealth is a useful tool to improve health outcome within chronic disease management. However, mHealth is not implemented in the field of postmenopausal osteoporosis even though it is a major worldwide health challenge. Therefore, this study aims to design and develop an mHealth app to support women in self-management of osteoporosis when they are diagnosed without preceding fractures. Participatory design is conducted in three phases. Based on identified needs in the first phase, a prototype is designed and developed in an iterative process in the second phase before the mHealth app is tested in the third phase. This paper focuses on the user activities in phase two and describes how a team of researchers, women, physicians, healthcare professionals, and app designers are involved in the participatory design process. The study shows that participatory design is a viable approach when developing an mHealth app for women with asymptomatic osteoporosis. Results obtained from the workshops and laboratory tests demonstrate the importance of feedback from users in the iterative process, as well as the participation of users and app designers in workshops and laboratory tests to enable mutual learning when developing new mHealth solutions. The regular member-checks and involvement of users helped to identify challenges associated with providing healthcare services through an app.

  17. Survival and phenology of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) reared on a newly developed artificial diet free of host material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody A. Keena; Hannah Nadel; Juli. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The final phase in the development of an artificial diet that contains no ash host material and the phenology of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Bupresidae) on that diet are documented. A diet containing powdered ash phloem exists, but host material introduces potential variability and contamination, and the cost and...

  18. Development of Denitrifying and Nitrifying Bacteria and Their Co-occurrence in Newly Created Biofilms in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, T. N.; Martí Roca, E.; Pinay, G.; Merbt, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms play a pivotal role on nutrient cycling in streams, which ultimately dictates the export of nutrients to downstream ecosystems. The extent to which biofilms influence the concentration of dissolved nutrients, oxygen and pH in the water column may be determined by the composition of the microbial assemblages and their activity. Evidence of biological interactions among bacteria and algae are well documented. However, the development, succession and co-occurence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria remain poorly understood. These bacteria play a relevant role on the biogeochemical process associated to N cycling, and their relative abundance can dictate the fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in streams. In particular, previous studies indicated that nitrifiers are enhanced in streams receiving inputs from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents due to both increases in ammonium concentration and inputs of nitrifiers. However, less is known about the development of denitrifiers in receiving streams, although environmental conditions seem to favor it. We conducted an in situ colonization experiment in a stream receiving effluent from a WWTP to examine how this input influences the development and co-occurrence of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. We placed artificial substrata at different locations relative to the effluent and sampled them over time to characterize the developed biofilm in terms of bulk measurements (organic matter content and algae) as well as in terms of abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers (using qPCR). The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of denitrifiers and nitrifiers in relation to the developed organic matter, dissolved oxygen and pH and the biomass accrual in stream biofilms under the influence of nutrients inputs from WWTP effluent. Ultimately, the results provide insights on the potential role of nitrifiers and denitrifiers on N cycling in WWTP effluent receiving

  19. Five comorbidities reflected the health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the newly developed COMCOLD index

    OpenAIRE

    Frei, Anja; Muggensturm, Patrick; Putcha, Nirupama; Siebeling, Lara; Zoller, Marco; Boyd, Cynthia M; ter Riet, Gerben; Puhan, Milo A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aimed to identify those comorbidities with greatest impact on patient-reported health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to develop a comorbidity index that reflects their combined impact. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING We included 408 Swiss and Dutch primary care patients with COPD from the International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) in this cross-sectional anal...

  20. Characterization and application of newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, T; Seki, Y; Kameyama, Y; Kikkawa, Y; Wada, K

    2016-12-19

    The Ezo red fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki), a subspecies endemic to Hokkaido island, Japan, is a known host species for the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. To develop tools for molecular ecological studies, we isolated 28 microsatellite regions from the genome of Ezo red fox, and developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers. These markers were characterized using 7 individuals and 22 fecal samples of the Ezo red fox. The number of alleles for these markers ranged from 1 to 7, and the observed heterozygosity, estimated on the basis of the genotypes of 7 individuals, ranged from 0.29 to 1.00. All markers, except DvNok5, were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05), and no linkage disequilibrium was detected among these loci, except between DvNok14 and DvNok28 (P = 0.01). Moreover, six microsatellite loci were successfully genotyped using feces-derived DNA from the Ezo red fox. The markers developed in our study might serve as a useful tool for molecular ecological studies of the Ezo red fox.

  1. Relationship of carbohydrates and lignin molecular structure spectral profiles to nutrient profile in newly developed oats cultivars and barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada; Refat, Basim; Lei, Yaogeng; Louzada-Prates, Mariana; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile. Results showed that NDF, ADF and CHO were greater (P 0.05) for oat and barley grains as well as non-structural CHO. However, cellulosic compounds peak area and height were greater (P regressions were determined to predict nutrient supply by using lignin and CHO molecular profiles. It was concluded that although there were some differences between oat and barley grains, CDC Nasser and CDC Meredith presented similarities related to chemical and molecular profiles, indicating that CDC Meredith barley could be replaced for CDC Nasser as ruminant feed. The FTIR was able to identify functional groups related to CHO molecular spectral in oat and barley grains and FTIR-ATR results could be used to predict nutrient supply in ruminant livestock systems.

  2. Newly Developed Biocompatible Material: Dispersible Titanium-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Suitable for Antibacterial Coating on Intravascular Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuzono, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Masatoshi; Azuma, Yoshinao; Iwasaki, Mitsunobu; Kogai, Yasumichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters have experienced serious anaphylactic shock in Japan. These adverse reactions highlight the lack of commercially available catheters impregnated with strong antibacterial chemical agents. A system should be developed that can control both biocompatibility and antibacterial activity. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is biocompatible with bone and skin tissues. To provide antibacterial activity by using an external physical stimulus, titanium (Ti) ions were doped into the HAp structure. Highly dispersible, Ti-doped HAp (Ti-HAp) nanoparticles suitable as a coating material were developed. In 3 kinds of Ti-HAp [Ti/(Ca + Ti) = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2], the Ti content in the HAp was approximately 70% of that used in the Ti-HAp preparation, as determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). ICP-AES and X-ray diffraction showed Ti ions were well substituted into the HAp lattice. The nanoparticles were almost uniformly coated on a polyethylene (PE) sheet in a near-monolayer with a surface coverage ratio >95%. The antibacterial activity of the Ti-HAp nanoparticles containing 7.3% Ti ions and coating the sheet was evaluated by calculating the survival ratio of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the coated sheet after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The Ti-HAp-coated sheet showed a 50% decrease in the number of P. aeruginosa compared with that on an uncoated control PE sheet after UV irradiation for 30 s. Key Messages: A system of biocompatibility and antibacterial activity with an on/off switch controlled by external UV stimulation was developed. The system is expected to be applicable in long-term implanted intravascular catheters. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Detection of virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes in Campylobacter species using newly developed multiplex PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprade, Natacha; Cloutier, Michel; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward; Wilkes, Graham; Villemur, Richard; Khan, Izhar U H

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water. In each mPCR assay, a combination of two or three sets of primer pairs for virulence, antibiotic resistance and toxin (VAT) genes was used and optimized. Assay 1 was developed for the detection of dnaJ, racR and cdtC genes with expected amplification sizes of 720, 584 and 182bp. Assay 2 generated PCR amplicons for tet(O) and cdtA genes of 559 and 370bp. Assay 3 amplified cdtB ciaB, and pldA genes with PCR amplicon sizes of 620, 527 and 385bp. Assay 4 was optimized for flaA and flaB genes that generated PCR amplicons of 855 and 260bp. The primer pairs and optimized PCR protocols did not show interference and/or cross-amplification with each other and generated the expected size of amplification products for each target VAT gene for the C. jejuni ATCC 33291 reference strain. Overall, all ten target VAT genes were detected at a variable frequency in tested isolates of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. where cdtC, flaB, ciaB, cdtB, cdtA and pldA were commonly detected compared to the flaA, racR, dnaJ and tet(O) genes which were detected with less frequency. The developed mPCR assays are simple, rapid, reliable and sensitive tools for simultaneously assessing potential pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profiling in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. The mPCR assays will be useful in diagnostic and analytical settings for routine screening of VAT characteristics of Campylobacter spp. as well as being applicable in epidemiological

  4. Newly Developed Nano-Calcium Carbonate and Nano-Calcium Propanoate for the Deacidification of Library and Archival Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Valentini, Federica; Calcaterra, Andrea; Talamo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Paper-based cultural heritage objects are subject to natural deterioration due to internal and external factors, that is, the presence of heavy metals, incorrect conservation, humidity, exposure of the artifacts to pollutants, light, and high temperatures. To contrast the decay of the original objects, it is necessary to study and apply innovative specific techniques, set up novel preservation methodologies, and implement or synthesize new products. As the nanomaterial science field developed over the last decades, the usage of nanomaterials in cultural heritage gained a prominent role. Such an excitement for the novel materials opened the path for an uncontrolled transfer of nanoparticles developed for different applications to paper restoration, neglecting all their possible interactions with the support or the graphic media. The aim of this work was to synthesize new nanomaterials expressly conceived for the treatment of library materials. To evaluate their possible insertion in the official conservation treatments that are subjected to validation by Istituto Centrale Restauro e Conservazione Patrimonio Archivistico e Librario, the new nanomaterials were tested both on laboratory paper samples and on original documents. This work presents the results of these studies (some of which still preliminary) stressing the positive and extremely promising outcomes of this research.

  5. Performance measurement of a new concept reciprocating piston expander (RPE using a newly developed small-scale dynamometer unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad MNA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the progress of a small-scale dynamometer prototype development for performance measurement of a reciprocating piston expander (RPE. Since the available dynamometer systems in the market are limited to specific applications that require for the customization, their price normally very expensive. Since the current study on the RPE required a dynamometer unit, therefore, a new and cheaper dynamometer prototype that was suitable for RPE application has been developed. Using air as RPE working fluid, a case study has been carried out to measure its performance at different inlet fluid conditions, i.e., within 20°C–140°C and 3–5 bars. The results observed that the performance of RPE was proportionally increased to the increased of inlet fluid pressure and temperature. The maximum brake power produced was 27 Watt when the RPE operated at 140°C, 5 bars and the speed of 820 rpm. It also revealed that the changes in the pressure of inlet fluid can give significant change on the performance of the RPE due to its direct relation to the RPE actual rotating force. Although the RPE and dynamometer seem good being adapted to each other, both of them require some improvements to ensure both systems well operated and reliable.

  6. Newly Developed Nano-Calcium Carbonate and Nano-Calcium Propanoate for the Deacidification of Library and Archival Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bicchieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based cultural heritage objects are subject to natural deterioration due to internal and external factors, that is, the presence of heavy metals, incorrect conservation, humidity, exposure of the artifacts to pollutants, light, and high temperatures. To contrast the decay of the original objects, it is necessary to study and apply innovative specific techniques, set up novel preservation methodologies, and implement or synthesize new products. As the nanomaterial science field developed over the last decades, the usage of nanomaterials in cultural heritage gained a prominent role. Such an excitement for the novel materials opened the path for an uncontrolled transfer of nanoparticles developed for different applications to paper restoration, neglecting all their possible interactions with the support or the graphic media. The aim of this work was to synthesize new nanomaterials expressly conceived for the treatment of library materials. To evaluate their possible insertion in the official conservation treatments that are subjected to validation by Istituto Centrale Restauro e Conservazione Patrimonio Archivistico e Librario, the new nanomaterials were tested both on laboratory paper samples and on original documents. This work presents the results of these studies (some of which still preliminary stressing the positive and extremely promising outcomes of this research.

  7. Detection of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive neurons in the rat lateral septal nucleus by a newly developed antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, Arturo; Yajeya, Javier; Gonzalez, Noelia; Husson, Marianne; Geffard, Michel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The available immunohistochemical techniques have documented restricted distribution of vitamins in the mammalian brain. The aim of the study was to develop a highly specific antiserum directed against pantothenic acid to explore the presence of this vitamin in the mammalian brain. According to ELISA tests, the anti-pantothenic acid antiserum used showed a good affinity (10-8 M) and specificity. The antiserum was raised in rabbits. Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the mapping of pantothenic acid-immunoreactive structures was carried out in the rat brain. Pantothenic acid-immunoreactive perikarya were exclusively found in the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus. These cells were generally small, round, fusiform or pyramidal and showed 2-3 long (50-100 μm) immunoreactive dendrites. Any immunoreactive axons containing pantothenic acid were detected. The very restricted anatomical distribution of the pantothenic acid suggests that this vitamin could be involved in some specific neurophysiological mechanisms.

  8. Basic and clinical evaluation of CA 130 RIA kit (D-7111) using two newly developed monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, Tsuneo; Endo, Keigo; Nakajima, Tetsuo

    1988-01-01

    The CA 130 RIA kit was developed with the use of two monoclonal antibodies, 130 - 22 and 145 - 9. Laboratory performance was satisfactory for precision, reproducibility, recovery, and dilution. Measurement values with CA 130 kit were almost consistent with those with CA 125 kit. Favorable standard curves were attained with smaller concentrations and shorter incubation time of CA 130 kit than those with CA 125 kit. There was less prozone phenomenon. When defining a cut-off serum level of CA 130 as 35 U/ml, false-positive rate was 0 % for healthy men and 4 % for healthy women, suggesting the involvement of menstrual cycle. Positive rate for CA 130 was 65 % for malignant ovarian tumor, 48 % for lung cancer, and 47 % for endometriosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Five comorbidities reflected the health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the newly developed COMCOLD index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Anja; Muggensturm, Patrick; Putcha, Nirupama; Siebeling, Lara; Zoller, Marco; Boyd, Cynthia M; ter Riet, Gerben; Puhan, Milo A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to identify those comorbidities with greatest impact on patient-reported health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to develop a comorbidity index that reflects their combined impact. We included 408 Swiss and Dutch primary care patients with COPD from the International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) in this cross-sectional analysis. Primary outcome was the Feeling Thermometer, a patient-reported health status instrument. We assessed the impact of comorbidities at five cohort assessment times using multiple linear regression adjusted for FEV1, retaining comorbidities with associations P ≤ 0.1. We developed an index that reflects strength of association of comorbidities with health status. Depression (prevalence: 13.0%; regression coefficient: -9.00; 95% CI: -13.52, -4.48), anxiety (prevalence: 11.8%; regression coefficient: -5.53; 95% CI -10.25, -0.81), peripheral artery disease (prevalence: 6.4%; regression coefficient: -5.02; 95% CI-10.64, 0.60), cerebrovascular disease (prevalence: 8.8%; regression coefficient: -4.57; 95% CI -9.43, 0.29), and symptomatic heart disease (prevalence: 20.3%; regression coefficient: -3.81; 95% CI -7.23, -0.39) were most strongly associated with the Feeling Thermometer. These five comorbidities, weighted, compose the COMorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COMCOLD) index. The COMCOLD index reflects the combined impact of five important comorbidities from patients' perspective and complements existing comorbidity indices that predict death. It may help clinicians focus on comorbidities affecting patients' health status the most. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a newly developed low Young's modulus Ti-15Zr-5Cr-2Al biomedical alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Wu, Lihong; Feng, Yan; Bai, Jiaming; Zhang, Baicheng; Song, Jie; Guan, Shaokang

    2017-03-01

    The Ti-15Zr-5Cr-2Al alloy has been developed and various heat treatments have been investigated to develop new biomedical materials. It is found that the heat treatment conditions strongly affect the phase constitutions and mechanical properties. The as-cast specimen is comprised of β phase and a small fraction of α phase, which is attributed to the suppression of ω phase caused by adding Al. A high yield strength of 1148±36MPa and moderate Young's modulus of 96±3GPa are obtained in the as-cast specimen. Besides the β phase and α phase, ω phase is also detected in the air cooled and liquid nitrogen quenched specimens, which increases the Young's modulus and lowers the ductility. In contrast, only β phase is detected after ice water quenching. The ice water quenched specimen exhibits a good combination of mechanical properties with a high microhardness of 302±10HV, a large plastic strain of 23±2%, a low Young's modulus of 58±4GPa, a moderate yield strength of 625±32MPa and a high compressive strength of 1880±59MPa. Moreover, the elastic energies of the ice water quenched specimen (3.22MJ/m 3 ) and as-cast specimen (6.86MJ/m 3 ) are higher than that of c.p. Ti (1.25MJ/m 3 ). These results demonstrate that as-cast and ice water quenched Ti-15Zr-5Cr-2Al alloys with a superior combination of mechanical properties are potential materials for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduction of dental metallic artefacts in CT: Value of a newly developed algorithm for metal artefact reduction (O-MAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidoh, M.; Nakaura, T.; Nakamura, S.; Tokuyasu, S.; Osakabe, H.; Harada, K.; Yamashita, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the image quality of O-MAR (Metal Artifact Reduction for Orthopedic Implants) for dental metal artefact reduction. Materials and methods: This prospective study received institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained. Thirty patients who had dental implants or dental fillings were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained through the oral cavity and neck during the portal venous phase. The system reconstructed the O-MAR-processed images in addition to the uncorrected images. CT attenuation and image noise of the soft tissue of the oral cavity were compared between the O-MAR and the uncorrected images. Qualitative analysis was undertaken between the two image groups. Results: The image noise of the O-MAR images was significantly lower than that of the uncorrected images (p < 0.01). O-MAR offered plausible attenuations of soft tissue compared with non-O-MAR. Better qualitative scores were obtained in the streaking artefacts and the degree of depiction of the oral cavity with O-MAR compared with non-O-MAR. Conclusion: O-MAR enables the depiction of structures in areas in which this was not previously possible due to dental metallic artefacts in qualitative image analysis. O-MAR images may have a supplementary role in addition to uncorrected images in oral diagnosis

  12. Osseointegration aspects of placed implant in bone reconstruction with newly developed block-type interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya DOI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA. Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement.

  13. Effect of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of newly developed restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Gokcen Deniz; Sandalli, Nuket; Selvi-Kuvvetli, Senem; Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2017-11-12

    To evaluate the effects of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of five restorative materials MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups were comprised of five different restorative materials, Beautifil II (B); GCP Glass Fill (G); Amalgomer CR (A); Dyract XP (D); Fuji IX GP (F) and 21 specimens were prepared from each material. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the polishing system: Mylar (control) (C), Sof-lex (S), and Enhance-Pogo (EP). The amount of fluoride release was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and surface roughness was investigated with a profilometer. Bacterial adhesion on the materials was evaluated by optical density readouts for S.mutans on a spectrophotometer. The highest amount of fluoride was released from specimens in the S subgroup of group G during all measurement days. Surface roughness values were significantly lower in subgroup C than the other polishing systems in all study groups except group G (P restorative materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. This article stated that polishing promoted a significant increase of fluoride release on restorative materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. Further, proper polishing systems must be chosen according to the structure and composition of materials to provide the best clinical benefits in terms of fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Osseointegration aspects of placed implant in bone reconstruction with newly developed block-type interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOI, Kazuya; KUBO, Takayasu; MAKIHARA, Yusuke; OUE, Hiroshi; MORITA, Koji; OKI, Yoshifumi; KAJIHARA, Shiho; TSUGA, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial bone has been employed to reconstruct bone defects. However, only few reports on implant placement after block bone grafting exist. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of dental implant in bone reconstructions with interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA). Material and Methods The IP-CHA cylinders (D; 4.3 mm, H; 10.0 mm) were placed into bone sockets in each side of the femurs of four male dogs. The IP-CHA on the right side was a 24-week sample. Twelve weeks after placement, a titanium implant was placed into a socket that was prepared in half of the placed IP-CHA cylinder on the right side. On the left side, another IP-CHA cylinder was placed as a 12-week sample. After another 12 weeks, the samples were harvested, and the bone regeneration and bone-implant contact (BIC) ratios were measured. Results New bone formation area was superior in the 24-week IP-CHA compared with the 12-week IP-CHA. BIC was not significantly different between IP-CHA and the parent sites. Osseointegration was detected around the implant in IP-CHA-reconstructed bone. Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that IP-CHA may be a suitable bone graft material for reconstructing bones that require implant placement. PMID:27556202

  15. [Commissioning of the newly constructed Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC, Beijing, China, and visit to SRRC to discuss magnet manufacturing and measurement methods, Taipei, Taiwan, November 11--27, 1988]: Foreign trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The traveller was invited to IHEP to participate in the commissioning of the newly constructed Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC, give a status report on the AGS Booster Project and to assess the feasibility of sub-contracting booster sextupoles to IHEP. The trip to SRRC was undertaken to discuss magnet manufacturing and measurement methods

  16. The SIESTA method; developments and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho, Emilio; Anglada, E; Dieguez, O; Gale, J D; Garcia, A; Junquera, J; Martin, R M; Ordejon, P; Pruneda, J M; Sanchez-Portal, D; Soler, J M

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations

  17. Information Systems Development as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hasan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the stance that some cases of information systems development can be considered knowledge creating activities, and, in those cases, information systems development can be a legitimate research method. In these cases not only is knowledge created about the development process itself but also a deeper understanding emerges about the organisational problem that the system is designed to solve. The paper begins with a brief overview of research in the design sciences and a comparison of research methods that are concerned with the design, and use, of information systems. This is followed by an assessment of the way systems development as a research method deals with the scientific research processes of data collection, analysis, synthesis and display. A case study, where the systems development research method was use, is described to illustrate the method and give the reader a better understanding of the approach.

  18. First-language raters’ opinions when validating word recordings for a newly developed speech reception threshold test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Panday

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to consider the value of adding first-language speaker ratings to the process of validating word recordings for use in a new speech reception threshold (SRT test in audiology. Previous studies had identified 28 word recordings as being suitable for use in a new SRT test. These word recordings had been shown to satisfy the linguistic criteria of familiarity, phonetic dissimilarity and tone, and the psychometric criterion of homogeneity of audibility.   Objectives: The aim of the study was to consider the value of adding first-language speakers’ ratings when validating word recordings for a new SRT test.   Method: A single observation, cross-sectional design was used to collect and analyse quantitative data in this study. Eleven first-language isiZulu speakers, purposively selected, were asked to rate each of the word recordings for pitch, clarity, naturalness, speech rate and quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The percent agreement and Friedman test were used for analysis.   Results: More than 20% of these 11 participants rated the three-word recordings below ‘strongly agree’ in the category of pitch or tone, and one-word recording below ‘strongly agree’ in the categories of pitch or tone, clarity or articulation and naturalness or dialect.   Conclusion: The first-language speaker ratings proved to be a valuable addition to the process of selecting word recordings for use in a new SRT test. In particular, these ratings identified potentially problematic word recordings in the new SRT test that had been missed by the previously and more commonly used linguistic and psychometric selection criteria.

  19. Serosurveillance for Francisella tularensis among wild animals in Japan using a newly developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neekun; Hotta, Akitoyo; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Uda, Akihiko; Fujita, Osamu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chun-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Tularemia, a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, occurs sporadically in Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of the disease in wild animals. A total of 632 samples obtained from 150 Japanese black bears, 142 Japanese hares, 120 small rodents, 97 rats, 53 raptors, 26 Japanese monkeys, 21 Japanese raccoon dogs, 20 masked palm civets, and three Japanese red foxes between 2002 and 2010 were investigated for the presence of antibodies to F. tularensis by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and the commonly used microagglutination (MA) test. Seropositive cELISA and MA results were obtained in 23 and 18 Japanese black bears, three and two Japanese raccoon dogs, and two and one small rodents, respectively. All MA-positive samples (n=21) were also positive by cELISA. Six of seven samples that were only positive by cELISA were confirmed to be antibody-positive by western blot analysis. These findings suggest that cELISA is a highly sensitive and useful test for serosurveillance of tularemia among various species of wild animals. Because this is the first study to detect F. tularensis-seropositive Japanese raccoon dogs, these could join Japanese black bears as sentinel animals for tularemia in the wild in Japan. Further continuous serosurveillance for F. tularensis in various species of wild animals using appropriate methods such as cELISA is important to assess the risks of human exposure and to improve our understanding of the ecology of F. tularensis in the wild.

  20. Complete replication of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in a newly developed hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Darong; Zuo, Chaohui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Xianghe; Xue, Binbin; Liu, Nianli; Yu, Rong; Qin, Yuwen; Gao, Yimin; Wang, Qiuping; Hu, Jun; Wang, Ling; Zhou, Zebin; Liu, Bing; Tan, Deming; Guan, Yang; Zhu, Haizhen

    2014-04-01

    The absence of a robust cell culture system for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has limited the analysis of the virus lifecycle and drug discovery. We have established a hepatoma cell line, HLCZ01, the first cell line, to the authors' knowledge, supporting the entire lifecycle of both HBV and HCV. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive particles can be observed in the supernatant and the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of the cells via electron microscopy. Interestingly, HBV and HCV clinical isolates propagate in HLCZ01 cells. Both viruses replicate in the cells without evidence of overt interference. HBV and HCV entry are blocked by antibodies against HBsAg and human CD81, respectively, and the replication of HBV and HCV is inhibited by antivirals. HLCZ01 cells mount an innate immune response to virus infection. The cell line provides a powerful tool for exploring the mechanisms of virus entry and replication and the interaction between host and virus, facilitating the development of novel antiviral agents and vaccines.

  1. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of rasagiline in minipigs after oral dosing or transdermal administration via a newly developed patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Zou, Yanye; Lin, Jialiang; Zhang, Tao; Deng, Jie

    2013-08-01

    1. A rasagiline transdermal patch was developed for the treatment of early and advanced Parkinson's disease. Relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of rasagiline obtained after transdermal administration to minipigs were compared with those of rasagiline after oral administration. 2. A total of 18 minipigs were randomly divided into three groups (six animals for each group). A single dose of 1 mg rasagiline tablet was orally administrated to one group. Meanwhile, single dose of 1.25 and 2.5 mg (2 and 4 cm(2)) rasagiline patches were given (at the postauricular skin) to the other two groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma half-life (t1/2), time to peak plasma-concentration (Tmax), mean residence time (MRT), area under the curve (AUC(0-t)) were significantly (p rasagiline (1.25 mg patch: 11.8 ± 6.5 h, 2.5 mg patch: 12.5 ± 4.7 h) in minipig following transdermal administration was significantly prolonged as compared with that following the oral administration (1 mg tablet: 4.7 ± 2.5 h). The dose-normalized relative bioavailability of rasagiline patch in minipig were 178.5% and 156.4%, respectively, for 1.25 and 2.5 mg patches compared with 1 mg rasagiline tablet. The prolonged t1/2 and increased bioavailability of rasagiline patch suggested a possible longer dosing interval compared with oral tablet.

  2. Evaluation of a newly developed mid-infrared sensor for real-time monitoring of yeast fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Robert; Geoerg, Daniel; Staubach, Jens; Raedle, Matthias; Methner, Frank-Juergen; Beuermann, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    A mid-infrared (MIR) sensor using the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique has been developed for real-time monitoring in biotechnology. The MIR-ATR sensor consists of an IR emitter as light source, a zinc selenide ATR prism as boundary to the process, and four thermopile detectors, each equipped with an optical bandpass filter. The suitability of the sensor for practical application was tested during aerobic batch-fermentations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by simultaneous monitoring of glucose and ethanol. The performance of the sensor was compared to a commercial Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer by on-line measurements in a bypass loop. Sensor and spectrometer were calibrated by multiple linear regression (MLR) in order to link the measured absorbance in the transmission ranges of the four optical sensor channels to the analyte concentrations. For reference analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied. Process monitoring using the sensor yielded in standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 6.15 g/L and 1.36 g/L for glucose and ethanol. In the case of the FT-MIR spectrometer the corresponding SEP values were 4.34 g/L and 0.61 g/L, respectively. The advantages of optical multi-channel mid-infrared sensors in comparison to FT-MIR spectrometer setups are the compactness, easy process implementation and lower price. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication, mechanical properties and in vitro degradation behavior of newly developed ZnAg alloys for degradable implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora-Jasinska, M; Mostaed, E; Mostaed, A; Beanland, R; Mantovani, D; Vedani, M

    2017-08-01

    Zn and Zn-based alloys have been recognized as highly promising biodegradable materials for orthopedic implants and cardiovascular stents, due to their proved biocompatibility and, more importantly, lower corrosion rates compared to Mg alloys. However, pure Zn has poor mechanical properties. In this study, Ag is used as a promising alloying element to improve the mechanical properties of the Zn matrix as well as its biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Accordingly, we design three ZnAg alloys with Ag content ranging from 2.5 to 7.0wt% and investigate the influence of the Ag content on mechanical and corrosion behavior of the alloys. The alloys are developed by casting process and homogenized at 410°C for 6h and 12h, followed by hot extrusion at 250°C with extrusion ratio of 14:1. Degradation behavior is assessed by electrochemical and static immersion tests in Hank's modified solution. Microstructural analysis reveals that hot extrusion significantly reduces the grain size of the alloys. Zn-7.0%Ag alloy shows a reasonably equiaxed and considerably refined microstructure with mean grain size of 1.5μm. Tensile tests at room temperature suggest that increasing the Ag content steadily enhances the tensile strength, while it does not affect the tensile ductility significantly. Zn-7.0%Ag shows high yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of 236MPa and 287MPa, respectively, which is due to the grain refinement and high volume fraction of fine AgZn 3 particles precipitating along the grain boundaries during the extrusion process. Among all these alloys, Zn-7.0%Ag displayed superplasticity over a wide range of strain rates (from 5×10 -4 s -1 to 1.0×10 -2 s -1 ) providing the possibility of exploiting forming processes at rapid rates and/or even at lower temperatures. In addition, extruded alloys exhibit slightly faster degradation rate than pure Zn. X-ray diffraction results show the presence of ZnO and Zn(OH) 2 on the degraded surfaces. Moreover

  4. Preformulation and formulation of newly synthesized QNT3-18 for development of a skin whitening agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Do-Hyung; Jung, Hyun-Chan; Noh, Young-Wook; Thanigaimalai, Pillaiyar; Kim, Bong-Hee; Shin, Sang-Chul; Jung, Sang-Hun; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2013-04-01

    New molecules having the structure of (E)-2-(4-tert-butylbenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (QNT3-18) or 4-tert-butylphenylthiourea (QNT3-20) was synthesized and presupposed to inhibit melanogenesis through the inhibition of tyrosinase, which is involved in melanin formation. Therefore, we seek to develop these new molecules as skin whitening agents in topical formulations based on preformulation studies. QNT3-18 or QNT3-20 showed a strong single endothermic peak at 159.34°C with 10.79 μm-sized or at 150.69°C with 9.0 μm-sized aggregated particles, respectively. Both QNT3-18 and QNT3-20 did not show cytotoxicity at effective concentration range (0.4 µM) against keratinocyte cells and QNT3-18 was more retained than QNT3-20 in the skin instead of permeating through the skin. QNT3-18 or QNT3-20 was practically insoluble in water; the aqueous solubility was 3.8 ± 0.37 or 130.6 ± 2.52 μg/mL, respectively. Also, the partition coefficient value (log P) corresponding to the quotient between aqueous and octanol concentration of the molecule was 3.9 or 2.6, respectively. The skin retention amount of QNT3-18 was 1.7-fold higher than that of QNT3-20. When the optimal SLN cream (J3 formulation) containing 4 μM QNT3-18 was applied on the backs of hairless rats for 4 days after UV irradiation for 7 days and the skin color was checked by reflectance spectrophotometer, the rat skin treated with SLN cream with QNT3-18 quickly recovered to normal compared to skin treated with SLN cream without QNT3-18. Taken together, this study suggests that topical formulations such as creams including SLNs with QNT3-18 might be appropriate carriers for skin whitening agents.

  5. Development of Cross-Assembly Phage PCR-Based Methods ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technologies that can characterize human fecal pollution in environmental waters offer many advantages over traditional general indicator approaches. However, many human-associated methods cross-react with non-human animal sources and lack suitable sensitivity for fecal source identification applications. The genome of a newly discovered bacteriophage (~97 kbp), the Cross-Assembly phage or “crAssphage”, assembled from a human gut metagenome DNA sequence library is predicted to be both highly abundant and predominately occur in human feces suggesting that this double stranded DNA virus may be an ideal human fecal pollution indicator. We report the development of two human-associated crAssphage endpoint PCR methods (crAss056 and crAss064). A shotgun strategy was employed where 384 candidate primers were designed to cover ~41 kbp of the crAssphage genome deemed favorable for method development based on a series of bioinformatics analyses. Candidate primers were subjected to three rounds of testing to evaluate assay optimization, specificity, limit of detection (LOD95), geographic variability, and performance in environmental water samples. The top two performing candidate primer sets exhibited 100% specificity (n = 70 individual samples from 8 different animal species), >90% sensitivity (n = 10 raw sewage samples from different geographic locations), LOD95 of 0.01 ng/µL of total DNA per reaction, and successfully detected human fecal pollution in impaired envi

  6. Development of contaminated concrete removing system 'Clean cut method'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiko; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Funakawa, Naoyoshi; Idemura, Hajime; Sakashita, Fumio; Tajitsu, Yoshiteru

    1989-01-01

    In the case of decommissioning nuclear facilities such as nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel facilities and RI handling facilities and carrying out reconstruction works, if there is radioactive contamination on the surfaces of concrete structures such as the floors and walls of the buildings for nuclear facilities, it must be removed. Since concrete is porous, contamination infiltrates into the inside of concrete, and the wiping of surfaces only or chemical decontamination cannot remove it, therefore in most cases, contaminated concrete must be removed. The removal of concrete surfaces has been carried out with chipping hammers, grinders and so on, but many problems arise due to it. In order to solve these problems, the mechanical cutting method was newly devised, and clean cut method (CCRS) was completed. The depth of cutting from concrete surface is set beforehand, and the part to be removed is accurately cut, at the same time, the concrete powder generated is collected nearly perfectly, and recovered into a drum. The outline of the method and the constitution of the system, the features of the clean cut method, the development of the technology for cutting concrete and the technology for recovering concrete powder, and the test of verifying decontamination are reported. (K.I.)

  7. One-shot flow injection spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera with newly developed multi-compartment flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Norio; Gotoh, Shingo; Ida, Kazunori; Sakai, Tadao

    2006-01-01

    We propose here an affordable flow injection method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera. The use of a newly designed multi-compartment flow cell allowed the simultaneous determination of the three metals with a single injection ('one-shot') and a double beam spectrophotometer. The chemistry relied on the reactions of these metals with 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (nitro-PAPS) to form corresponding colored complexes. At pH 3.8, only copper-nitro-PAPS complex was formed in the presence of pyrophosphate as a masking agent for iron, and then the copper and iron(II) complexes were formed in the presence of reductant (ascorbic acid) at the same pH, and finally all three metals reacted with nitro-PAPS at pH 8.6. The characteristics were introduced into the flow system to determine each metal selectively and sensitively. Under the optimum conditions, linear calibration curves for the three metals were obtained in the range of 0.01-1 mg L -1 with a sample throughput rate of 20 h -1 . The limits of detection (3σ) were 3.9 μg L -1 for copper, 4.1 μg L -1 for iron and 4.0 μg L -1 for zinc. The proposed method was applied to analysis of some patients' sera

  8. Development and evaluation of the personal patient profile-prostate (P3P), a Web-based decision support system for men newly diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna L; Halpenny, Barbara; Wolpin, Seth; Davison, B Joyce; Ellis, William J; Lober, William B; McReynolds, Justin; Wulff, Jennifer

    2010-12-17

    Given that no other disease with the high incidence of localized prostate cancer (LPC) has so many treatments with so few certainties related to outcomes, many men are faced with assuming some responsibility for the treatment decision along with guidance from clinicians. Men strongly consider their own personal characteristics and other personal factors as important and influential to the decision. Clinical researchers have not developed or comprehensively investigated interventions to facilitate the insight and prioritizing of personal factors along with medical factors that are required of a man in preparation for the treatment decision. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and usability of a Web-based decision support technology, the Personal Patient Profile-Prostate (P3P), in men newly diagnosed with LPC. Use cases were developed followed by infrastructure and content application. The program was provided on a personal desktop computer with a touch screen monitor. Participant responses to the query component of P3P determined the content of the multimedia educational and coaching intervention. The intervention was tailored to race, age, and personal factors reported as influencing the decision. Prepilot usability testing was conducted using a "think aloud" interview to identify navigation and content challenges. These issues were addressed prior to deployment in the clinic. A clinical pilot was conducted in an academic medical center where men sought consultation and treatment for LPC. Completion time, missing data, and acceptability were measured. Prepilot testing included 4 men with a past diagnosis of LPC who had completed therapy. Technical navigation issues were documented along with confusing content language. A total of 30 additional men with a recent diagnosis of LPC completed the P3P program in clinic prior to consulting with a urologist regarding treatment options. In a mean time of 46 minutes (SD 13 minutes

  9. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  10. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  11. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This model describes the primary quality management methods which may be used to assess an organization's present strengths and weaknesses with regard to its use of quality management methods. This model ...

  12. An Experimental Study on Dynamics of a Novel Dual-Belt Continuous Variable Transmission Based on a Newly Developed Test Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Kin Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dual-belt Van Doorne’s continuous variable transmission (DBVCVT system, which is applicable to heavy-duty vehicles, has been previously proposed by the authors in order to improve the low torque capacity of traditional single-belt CVT. This DBVCVT is a novel design among continuously variable transmissions and is necessary to be prototyped for experimental study, and the analytical dynamic model for this DBVCVT also needs to be experimentally validated. So, this work originally fabricated a prototype of DBVCVT and integrates this prototype to a light-load hardware-in-the-loop test rig by replacing the engine and load equipment with the AC motor and magnetic powder dynamometer. Moreover, with the use of this newly developed test rig, this work implements the experimental study of this DBVCVT for the first time. The comparison of experimental and simulation results validates the previously proposed analytical model for DBVCVT, and some basic characteristics of the DBVCVT in terms of the reliability, speed ratio, and transmission efficiency are also experimentally studied. In all, this developed test rig with the analytical model lays the foundation for further study on this novel DBVCVT.

  13. Murine CD4 T cells produce a new form of TGF-β as measured by a newly developed TGF-β bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatoku Oida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is generally assumed that T cells do not produce active TGF-β since active TGF-β as measured in supernatants by ELISA without acidification is usually not detectable. However, it is possible that active TGF-β from T cells may take a special form which is not detectable by ELISA.We constructed a TGF-β bioassay which can detect both soluble and membrane-bound forms of TGF-β from T cells. For this bioassay, 293T cells were transduced with (caga(12 Smad binding element-luciferase along with CD32 (Fc receptor and CD86. The resulting cells act as artificial antigen presenting cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and produce luciferase in response to biologically active TGF-β. We co-cultured pre-activated murine CD4(+CD25(- T cells or CD4(+CD25(+ T cells with the 293T-caga-Luc-CD32-CD86 reporter cells in the presence of anti-CD3 and IL-2. CD4(+CD25(- T cells induced higher luciferase in the reporter cells than CD4(+CD25(+ T cells. This T cell-produced TGF-β is in a soluble form since T cell culture supernatants contained the TGF-β activity. The TGF-β activity was neutralized with an anti-mouse LAP mAb or an anti-latent TGF-β/pro-TGF-β mAb, but not with anti-active TGF-β Abs. An anti-mouse LAP mAb removed virtually all acid activatable latent TGF-β from the T cell culture supernatant, but not the ability to induce TGF-β signaling in the reporter cells. The induction of TGF-β signaling by T cell culture supernatants was cell type-specific.A newly developed 293T-caga-Luc-CD32-CD86 reporter cell bioassay demonstrated that murine CD4 T cells produce an unconventional form of TGF-β which can induce TGF-β signaling. This new form of TGF-β contains LAP as a component. Our finding of a new form of T cell-produced TGF-β and the newly developed TGF-β bioassay system will provide a new avenue to investigate T cell function of the immune system.

  14. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  15. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  16. Methods of Strength Development in Middle Schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. О. Нарижний

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strength being the foundation of motor abilities development, the question arises as to rationalizing the process of its development. The purpose of the research is to improve the conventional methods of strength development in middle schoolers. To achieve the objectives set, the study used the following methods: theoretical analysis and collation of methodological literature, testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The analysis of the testing results showed a statistically significant increase in the indicators by two of five tests in girls and three of five tests in boys, with the combined method used. The other results show a tendency to improve too, but the deviations in the testing results are statistically weak. The re-use of the method reveals a statistically reliable indicator in one of five exercises, whereas no such indicator manifests in girls. Conclusions. Using the combined method makes it possible to simultaneously influence several types of strength, which rationalizes the development of strength abilities. The tests “bending and unbending of arms in suspension lying”, “remaining in suspension lying on bent arms” proved most informative.

  17. A bio-economic evaluation of the potential for establishing a commercial fishery on two newly developed stocks: The Ionian red shrimp fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Guillen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that two deep-water red shrimp species (Aristeus antennatus and Aristaeomorpha foliacea have the potential to support a viable fishery in the Greek Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean. In this article, we investigate (i the evolution that this newly developed trawl shrimp fishery may undergo when subjected to different management measures, and (ii the most suitable extraction rates considering the uncertainties about the resource. We further analyse the effects that potential future fuel price increases and changes in the market may have on the fishery. Forecasting the biological and economic consequences of management actions, as well as the effects of market changes on inputs and outputs before they are applied, may help managers select the most suitable management options. We approach the problem by means of bio-economic simulation analysis. The results of this study show that fishing effort can increase by 50-100%, increasing the fleet’s profitability without jeopardizing the sustainability of the fishery.

  18. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  19. Real EPC. A method to assess the energy efficiency of newly built houses in practice; Reele EPC. Een methode voor de beoordeling van de energieprestatie van nieuwbouwwoningen in de praktijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Sipma, J.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Cozijnsen, E.; Leidelmeijer, K. [RIGO research en Advies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    In this report we describe a method to compare the energy performance in use with the energy performance calculation of newly build houses. We put the average real energy use of a project in the calculation method of the energy performance of new houses. In that way we could compare the energy performance of the building permit with the real performance in practice. Because the calculation method normalizes the energy use of a house by its user surface and surface of building shell, the energy performance of different projects could be compared also when the projects exist of different dwelling types. Also the energy performance of different energy concepts could be compared such as all-electric houses with a heat pump or houses with a gas fired condensing boiler [Dutch] Agentschap NL is betrokken bij veel nieuwbouwprojecten. Een grote vraag is altijd of in de praktijk ook de prestaties worden gehaald die van te voren werden verwacht. Agentschap NL heeft voorgesteld hiervoor een maat te ontwikkelen, namelijk de Reele EPC. ECN heeft deze methodiek uitgewerkt om van woningbouwprojecten de energieprestatie in de praktijk te vergelijken met de geplande EPC. Het idee is dat de energieprestatie in de praktijk wordt uitgedrukt in een reële EPC (de R-EPC)

  20. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  1. Flow cytometric method for enumeration and characterization of newly released polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the bone marrow using 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Horng; Whalen, Beth A; Goto, Yukinobu; Hogg, James C; van Eeden, Stephan F

    2005-09-01

    Inflammation accelerates polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) release from the bone marrow, and these PMNs are implicated in inappropriate tissue injury. We have previously developed a method using 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to study PMN kinetics using an immunocytochemical grading system of PMN on cytospin slides. The aim of this study was to develop a flow cytometric method to quantify the number of positively stained PMN and grade the intensity of staining for the transit time calculation of PMN through the marrow. Dividing myeloid progenitors in the marrow of rabbits were labeled with a pulse dosage of intravenous BrdU. BrdU-labeled PMN (PMN(BrdU)) were detected in the circulation using a FITC-conjugated anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody. The PMN(BrdU) were assigned to five groups according to their FITC intensity, and the transit times of PMN at different stages of development in the marrow were calculated. Results were compared using parallel immunocytochemical analysis of the same samples. In control animals, PMN(BrdU) in the circulation peaked at 72 h after BrdU labeling with 36.0% of PMN labeled. In normal rabbits, the transit times of PMN through the mitotic pool (49.5 +/- 4.2 h) and maturation pool (65.5 +/- 3.1 h) correlated well with immunocytochemical analysis and previously published values. Using this method, we demonstrated that exposure to air pollution particles accelerates the release of PMN(BrdU) from the marrow. We conclude that a flow cytometric approach for identifying BrdU-labeled leukocytes provides an objective and accurate method for studying leukocyte kinetics and behavior.

  2. A Framework for Teaching Software Development Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Yael; Hazzan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that aims at constructing a teaching framework for software development methods in higher education. The research field is a capstone project-based course, offered by the Technion's Department of Computer Science, in which Extreme Programming is introduced. The research paradigm is an Action Research that involves…

  3. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel; Tekinerdogan, B.; van den Broek, P.M.; Saeki, M.; Hruby, P.; Sunye, G.

    2001-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  4. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This

  5. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: An ultraviolet spectrophotometric system was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lornoxicam in solid dosage forms. Methods: Lornoxicam was dissolved in 0.01M NaOH and analysed using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Various analytical parameters such as linearity, precision, ...

  6. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Frohner, A´ kos; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  7. Usability Evaluation Method for Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Masood Butt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.

  8. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  9. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  10. The morphological development of newly inundated intertidal areas: the mechanisms driving the early evolution of an estuarine environment designed and constructed by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan; Burgess, Heidi; Cundy, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Intertidal saltmarsh and mudflat habitats are of global importance due to the ecosystem, economic and cultural services they provide. These services include wildlife habitat provision and species diversity, immobilisation of pollutants and protection from coastal flooding. Saltmarsh and mudflat environments are, however, being lost and degraded due to erosion caused by rising sea levels and increased storminess. These losses are exacerbated by anthropogenic influences including land reclamation, increased coastal development and the construction of coastal flood defences which prevent the landwards migration of saltmarsh and mudflat environments, resulting in coastal squeeze. To compensate for saltmarsh and mudflat losses areas of the coastal hinterland are being inundated by breaching defences and constructing new defences inland, thus extending or constructing new estuarine environments; a processes known as de-embankment or managed realignment. Morphological engineering and landscaping within managed realignment sites prior to site inundation varies depending on the aims of the scheme. However, there is a shortage of data on the morphological evolution within these sites post site inundation impeding the ability of coastal engineers to effectively design and construct future sites. To date there has been a focus on the colonisation of marine macro fauna and flora within newly inundated managed realignment sites, which can be relatively rapid and easily quantified. Little is known of the morphological evolution in response to altered sedimentary processes, its driving mechanisms and therefore the success and ecological sustainability of these sites. This study evaluates the post-inundation morphological development of the largest open coast managed realignment site in Europe, at Medmerry on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Inundated in September 2013, the Medmerry Managed Realignment Site consists of a mosaic of former agricultural land and areas of lower

  11. Effects of a newly developed potent orexin-2 receptor-selective antagonist Compound1m on sleep/wake states in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishi eEtori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins (also known as hypocretins, which are hypothalamic neuropeptides, play critical roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states by activating two G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, orexin 1 (OX1R and orexin 2 receptors (OX2R. In order to know the difference between effects of OX2R-selective antagonists (2-SORA and dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORA, and to understand the mechanisms underlying orexin-mediated regulation of sleep/wakefulness states, we examined the effects of a newly developed 2-SORA, Compound 1m (C1m, and a DORA, suvorexant, on sleep/wakefulness states in C57BL/6J mice. After oral administration in the dark period, both C1m and suvorexant exhibited potent sleep-promoting properties with similar efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. While C1m did not increase NREM and REM sleep episode durations, suvorexant induced longer episode durations of NREM and REM sleep as compared with both the vehicle- and C1m-administered groups. When compounds were injected during light period, C1m did not show a significant change in sleep/wakefulness states in the light period, whereas suvorexant slightly but significantly increased the sleep time. We also found that C1m did not affect the time of REM sleep, while suvorexant markedly increased it. This suggests that although OX1R-mediated pathway plays a pivotal role in promoting wakefulness, OX1R-mediated pathway also plays an additional role. OX1R-mediated pathway also plays a role in suppression of REM sleep. Fos-immunostaining showed that both compounds affected the activity of arousal-related neurons with different patterns. These results suggest partly overlapping and partly distinct roles of orexin receptors in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.

  12. Mechanical testing of newly developed biomaterial designed for intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament: ex vivo pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Fedorová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with mechanical testing of newly developed material polyethylene terephtalate coated with polycaprolactone nanofibers in combination with biodagradable Hexalon ACL/PCL screws as a new possibility of intra-articular reinforcement of partially ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Four groups of ex vivo models of pig stifle joints were prepared and tested: a model with intact CCL (group 1, a model with partial CCL rupture (group 2, a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 7 mm Mersilene® strip (group 3, and a model with CCL rupture stabilized with 5 mm PET/PCL biomaterial strip (group 4. The models were loaded in the standing angle of 100° and the maximum load (N and the shift (mm were monitored. The mean maximum peak power and the shift were 1266.0 ± 146.9 N and 13.7 ± 2.5 mm for group 1, and 1164.7 ± 228.2 N and 1 6.8 ± 3.3 mm for group 2, respectively. In all cases after reaching the maximum load, a tibial fracture occurred but never a CCL rupture. In groups 3 and 4, the initial fixation failure occurred in the mean values of 375.7 ± 81.5 and 360.4 ± 52.0 N, respectively, and with a bigger shift of 52.3 ± 11.9 mm and 39.4 ± 14.6 mm, respectively, compared to group 1. A critical point of failure was the anchoring in the bone. It can be concluded that the PET/PCL substitute in the ex vivo model has mechanically comparable properties with the clinically used Mersilene®, and based on its proven ability to carry stem cells it could be appropriate for partially ruptured CCL protection.

  13. Nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties of protein concentrate and isolate of newly-developed Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterreneaL.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Olaposi R; Adiamo, Oladipupo Q; Fawale, Olumide S

    2018-01-01

    Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African vegetable grown mainly for human food and animal feed due to its high protein content. Different factors like varieties and origin can influence the chemical composition of Bambara groundnut cultivars. Therefore, the aims of this study are to produce defatted flour and protein concentrate from newly developed Bambara groundnut cultivars [Accessions No: TVSU 5 - Bambara Groundnut White (BGW) and TVSU 146 - Bambara Groundnut Brown (BGB)] and compare their nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties with market sample [Bambara groundnut commercial (BGC)]. Higher protein content was observed in BGW (20.73%) and BGB (20.14%) as compared to BGC (18.50%). Also, the fat and ash contents of BGB and BGW were higher than that of BGC. Also, the new varieties were found to contain higher levels of some essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. The concentration of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic, ascorbic acids, pyrodoxine, alpha tocopherol, and vitamin K were also significantly higher in the two new varieties. The new varieties were good sources of magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, sodium, and potassium. The oil and water absorption and swelling capacities of whole, defatted, and protein concentrate flour of the new varieties increase with increase in temperature. The defatted flour and protein concentrate of brown Bambara groundnut was found to exhibit high emulsifying activity and stability at different pH's and salt concentrations. The new varieties possess significantly higher foaming capacity and stability than the commercial variety. The results obtained from this study have shown the potential for the industrial and household use of the new Bambara groundnut cultivars into shelf stable protein products and could be a useful ingredient in food formulations.

  14. Evaluation of treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children: "Fear assessment picture scale" and its association with physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishidha Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental treatment is usually a poignant phenomenon for children. Projective scales are preferred over psychometric scales to recognize it, and to obtain the self-report from children. Aims: The aims were to evaluate treatment related fear using a newly developed fear scale for children, fear assessment picture scale (FAPS, and anxiety with colored version of modified facial affective scale (MFAS - three faces along with physiologic responses (pulse rate and oxygen saturation obtained by pulse oximeter before and during pulpectomy procedure. Settings and Design: Total, 60 children of age 6-8 years who were visiting the dental hospital for the first time and needed pulpectomy treatment were selected. Children selected were of sound physical, physiological, and mental condition. Two projective scales were used; one to assess fear - FAPS and to assess anxiety - colored version of MFAS - three faces. These were co-related with the physiological responses (oxygen saturation and pulse rate of children obtained by pulse oximeter before and during the pulpectomy procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: Shapiro-Wilk test, McNemar′s test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test were applied in the study. Results: The physiological responses showed association with FAPS and MFAS though not significant. However, oxygen saturation with MFAS showed a significant change between "no anxiety" and "some anxiety" as quantified by Kruskal-Wallis test value 6.287, P = 0.043 (<0.05 before pulpectomy procedure. Conclusions: The FAPS can prove to be a pragmatic tool in spotting the fear among young children. This test is easy and fast to apply on children and reduces the chair-side time.

  15. Laser Nitriding of the Newly Developed Ti-20Nb-13Zr at.% Biomaterial Alloy to Enhance Its Mechanical and Corrosion Properties in Simulated Body Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M. A.; Kumar, A. Madhan; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Al-Aqeeli, N.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the widespread application of Ti alloy in the biomedical field, surface treatments are typically applied to improve its resistance to corrosion and wear. A newly developed biomedical Ti-20Nb-13Zr at.% alloy (TNZ) was laser-treated in nitrogen environment to improve its surface characteristics with corrosion protection performance. Surface modification of the alloy by laser was performed through a Nd:YAG laser. The structural and surface morphological alterations in the laser nitrided layer were investigated by XRD and a FE-SEM. The mechanical properties have been evaluated using nanoindentation for laser nitride and as-received samples. The corrosion protection behavior was estimated using electrochemical corrosion analysis in a physiological medium (SBF). The obtained results revealed the production of a dense and compact film of TiN fine grains (micro-/nanosize) with 9.1 µm below the surface. The mechanical assessment results indicated an improvement in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, and resistance of the formed TiN layer to plastic deformation. The electrochemical analysis exhibited that the surface protection performance of the laser nitrided TNZ substrates in the SBF could be considerably enhanced compared to that of the as-received alloy due to the presence of fine grains in the TiN layer resulting from laser nitriding. Furthermore, the untreated and treated Ti-20Nb-13Zr alloy exhibited higher corrosion resistance than the CpTi and Ti6Al4V commercial alloys. The improvements in the surface hardness and corrosion properties of Ti alloy in a simulated body obtained using laser nitriding make this approach a suitable candidate for enhancing the properties of biomaterials.

  16. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (pallergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in the group that remained infected with helminths, even though they had a lowered helminth load; d) The reasons for the increased allergy one year after immigration needs further investigation but probably reflects the combined influence of the decreased helminth load and novel environmental factors.

  17. Habenaria kilimanjari newly recorded for Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Bytebier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The orchid flora of Namibia is depauperate and as a result is poorly studied. Objectives: To further document the orchid flora of Namibia. Method: New herbarium collections were studied and the relevant published literature consulted. Results: Habenaria kilimanjari is newly recorded for Namibia. Conclusion: The newly recorded species increases our understanding of the orchid diversity in Namibia and underlines the need for continued botanical inventory work.

  18. Study of surface energy budget and test of a newly developed fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer in field campaign Szeged (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Nikov, Daniella; Zsolt Jász, Ervin; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Weidinger, Tamás; András Gyöngyösi, Zénó; Kiss, Melinda; Józsa, János; Simó Diego, Gemma; Cuxart Rodamilans, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhart; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    A micrometeorological field measurement campaign dedicated to study the surface energy budget and the structure of the boundary layer focusing on the transient layer forming periods during night-time was organized in the period of 10th of November to 3rd of December 2013 in the nearby of Szeged, Hungary. A temporary micrometeorological measurement station was set up at the coordinates N:46.239943; E:20.089758, approximately 1700 m far from a national meteorology station (N:46.255711; E:20.09052). In the experimental micrometeorological site different types of instruments were installed to measure numerous parameters: standard meteorological measurements (p, T, wet, wind speed and direction at three different levels, relative humidity at two levels and absolute humidity at one level) radiation budget components surface temperature and leaf wetness soil temperature, moisture and heat flux into the deeper soil layer eddy-covariance measurements (t, H, LE CO2) at 3 m level using Campbell open-path IRGA (EC150) system. At the national meteorology station (http://adatok.geo.u-szeged.hu/?lang=eng) besides their standard measurement equipment and measurement routine a SODAR was installed and continuously operated. These ground based measurements were combined with and supported by UAV, quadcopter and tethered balloon based vertical profile measurements of p, T, rh. For this measurement campaign as a modification of a previously developed airborne ready dual channel hygrometer, a fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer was developed for absolute humidity measurements. The estimated response time of the system is faster than 15 Hz, which was achieved by the replacement of the data acquisition system and by recording the raw photoacoustic signal sampled at rate of 48 kHz for post-processing. During the campaign this new system was compared to a TDL system commercially available at Li-COR Inc. Besides the testing of the newly developed fast photoacoustic hygrometer

  19. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  1. Development of Gocing Storage Method for Cocoyam

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwu, G.O; Nwosu, K.I; Madu, T.U; Chinaka, C; Okoye, B.C

    2008-01-01

    Lack of good storage reduces the shelf life of harvested cocoyam (Colocasia spp and Xanthosoma spp) corms and cormels. This is a major challenge facing cocoyam farmers, processors, and marketers in Nigeria. The National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria, which has a national mandate to research into root and tubers crops of economic importance, has developed the ‘Gocing Storage’ for improved storage of cocoyam. The paper highlights this improved method of storing cocoya...

  2. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications : Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering

  3. An animal study of a newly developed skin-penetrating pad and covering material for catheters to prevent exit-site infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Masato; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Yasushi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiaki; Naganuma, Toshihide; Nakatani, Tatsuya

    2009-12-01

    goat skin throughout the 2-year experimental period without any special wound care such as cleansing or disinfection. The performance of the skin-penetrating pad was similarly favorable when attached to a commercial continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheter. The newly developed segmented polyurethane porous material had excellent tissue biocompatibility and tissue ingrowth. The skin-penetrating pad devised by using this porous material did not cause epidermal downgrowth, suggesting that it may be effective for the prevention of exit-site infection.

  4. The Recent Developments in Biobased Polymers toward General and Engineering Applications: Polymers that Are Upgraded from Biodegradable Polymers, Analogous to Petroleum-Derived Polymers, and Newly Developed

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Hajime; Dijkstra, Peter; Loos, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The main motivation for development of biobased polymers was their biodegradability, which is becoming important due to strong public concern about waste. Reflecting recent changes in the polymer industry, the sustainability of biobased polymers allows them to be used for general and engineering applications. This expansion is driven by the remarkable progress in the processes for refining biomass feedstocks to produce biobased building blocks that allow biobased polymers to have more versati...

  5. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  6. Non-catalytic pyrolysis of scrap tires using a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer for the production of a pyrolysis oil with a low sulfur content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Scrap tire rubber was successfully pyrolyzed in a two-stage pyrolyzer. • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of auger and fluidized bed reactors. • N 2 and temperatures of ∼500 °C were effective for a low-sulfur oil. • A pyrolysis oil contained only 0.55 wt.% of sulfur and 0.28 wt.% of nitrogen. • A pyrolysis oil from the auger reactor contained 50 wt.% DL-limonene. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to reduce the sulfur content of pyrolysis oil derived from the scrap tire pyrolysis. In this respect, a series of pyrolysis experiments was conducted in both a fluidized bed reactor (one-stage pyrolysis) and a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor in series (two-stage pyrolysis). The one-stage pyrolysis was carried out at ∼500 and 600 °C with different fluidizing gases (N 2 and product gas). In the experiments, the pyrolysis oil obtained at ∼500 °C had a lower sulfur content than that produced at ∼600 °C. N 2 was better at producing a low-sulfur pyrolysis oil than product gas. The sulfur contents of the oils obtained from the one-stage pyrolysis ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 wt.%. The two-stage pyrolysis was conducted using product gas as the fluidizing medium at different auger reactor temperatures (∼230–450 °C) and at a constant fluidized bed reactor temperature (∼510 °C). A pyrolysis oil containing only 0.55 wt.% of sulfur could be produced at the temperatures of the auger reactor of ∼330 °C and fluidized bed reactor of ∼510 °C. Moreover, the two-stage pyrolysis could produce an oil with a low nitrogen content (0.28 wt.%). A pyrolysis oil obtained from the auger reactor contained DL-limonene up to 50 wt.%.

  7. Development of numerical methods for reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillard, N.

    2006-12-01

    When a radioactive waste is stored in deep geological disposals, it is expected that the waste package will be damaged under water action (concrete leaching, iron corrosion). Then, to understand these damaging processes, chemical reactions and solutes transport are modelled. Numerical simulations of reactive transport can be done sequentially by the coupling of several codes. This is the case of the software platform ALLIANCES which is developed jointly with CEA, ANDRA and EDF. Stiff reactions like precipitation-dissolution are crucial for the radioactive waste storage applications, but standard sequential iterative approaches like Picard's fail in solving rapidly reactive transport simulations with such stiff reactions. In the first part of this work, we focus on a simplified precipitation and dissolution process: a system made up with one solid species and two aqueous species moving by diffusion is studied mathematically. It is assumed that a precipitation dissolution reaction occurs in between them, and it is modelled by a discontinuous kinetics law of unknown sign. By using monotonicity properties, the convergence of a finite volume scheme on admissible mesh is proved. Existence of a weak solution is obtained as a by-product of the convergence of the scheme. The second part is dedicated to coupling algorithms which improve Picard's method and can be easily used in an existing coupling code. By extending previous works, we propose a general and adaptable framework to solve nonlinear systems. Indeed by selecting special options, we can either recover well known methods, like nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, or design specific method. This algorithm has two main steps, a preconditioning one and an acceleration one. This algorithm is tested on several examples, some of them being rather academical and others being more realistic. We test it on the 'three species model'' example. Other reactive transport simulations use an external chemical code CHESS. For a

  8. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  9. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W. A.; Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Erdman, S.; Muliere, D.; Wheeler, B.

    2002-01-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being developed to study the use of ceramic coatings on components in the hot-gas path of advanced low-emission gas-fired turbines. The types of ceramic coatings include thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). TBCs are under development for vanes, blades, and combustor liners to allow hotter gas-path temperatures, and EBCs are under development to reduce environmental damage to high-temperature components made of ceramic matrix composites. The NDE methods will be used to (a) provide data to assess the reliability of new coating application processes, (b) identify defective components that could cause unscheduled outages, (c) track growth rates of defects during component use in engines, and (d) allow rational judgment for replace/repair/re-use decisions regarding components. Advances in TBC application, both electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS), are allowing higher temperatures in the hot-gas path. However, as TBCs become ''prime reliant,'' their condition at scheduled or unscheduled outages must be known. NDE methods are under development to assess the condition of the TBC for pre-spall conditions. EB-PVD test samples with up to 70 thermal cycles have been studied by a newly developed method involving polarized laser back-scatter NDE. Results suggest a correlation between the NDE laser data and the TBC/bond-coat topography. This finding is important because several theories directed toward understanding the pre-spall condition suggest that the topography in the thermally grown oxide layer changes significantly as a function of the number of thermal cycles. Tests have also been conducted with this NDE method on APS TBCs. Results suggest that the pre-spall condition is detected for these coatings. One-sided, high-speed thermal imaging also has shown promise for NDE of APS coatings. Testing of SiC/SiC composites for combustor liners

  10. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S.I.; Kovalchuk, M.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  11. Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.

  12. The development of interdepartmental audit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The UK Radiotherapy Physics Audit Network is now well-established, with seven network groups and co-ordinated by the IPSM. It is based on visits, using ion chambers as the measurement method, and auditing at least machine calibration, single field parameters and simple multi-field planned irradiations. In addition procedural audit of dosimetry and quality control procedures, and records is incorporated. The general approach has been to use interdepartmental audit involving mutual co-operation with peer professionals from other centres. The different groups have evolved at different paces and in rather different directions. However the IPSM coordinating role ensures a basic common minimum to the system. The Scottish+ group has developed a semi-anatomical phantom to use in audit stages following on from the basic single field and geometric phantom dosimetry audit levels. This has been evaluated experimentally in one department before wider use. The Scottish+ audit system is briefly described. Results from levels 1 and 2 are summarised and the design and testing of the semi-anatomical phantom are discussed. The current and future development of the audit system is presented

  13. Interactive radio instruction: developing instructional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, J

    1989-01-01

    The USAID has, since 1972, funded the development of a new methodology for educational radio for young children through 3 projects: the Radio Mathematics PRoject of Nicaragua, the Radio Language Arts Project of Kenya, and the Radio Science PRoject of Papua New Guinea. These projects developed math programs for grades 1-4 and English as a second language for grades 1-3; programs to teach science in grades 4-6 are now being developed. Appropriate techniques were developed to engage young children actively in the learning process. Lessons are planned as a "conversation" between the children and the radio; scripts are written as 1/2 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that written as 12 of a dialogue, with pauses carefully timed so that students can contribute their 1/2. Teaching techniques used in all 3 projects include choral responses, simultaneous individual seatwork, and activities using simple materials such as pebbles and rulers. Certain techniques were specific to the subject being taught, or to the circumstances in which the lessons were to be used. Patterned oral drill was used frequently in the English lessons, including sound-cued drills. "Deferred" oral responses were used often in the math lessons. In this method, the children are instructed to solve a problem silently, not giving the answer aloud until requested, thus allowing time for even the slower children to participate. "One-child" questions were used in both English and science: the radio asks a question to be answered by a single child, who is selected on the spot by the classroom teacher. This allows for open-ended questions, but also requires constant supervision of the classroom teacher. Songs and games were used in all programs, and extensively for didactic purposes in the teaching of English. Instructions for science activities are often more complex than in other courses, particularly when the children are using science apparatus, especially when they work in pairs to share scarce

  14. All Internal Segmental Bone Transport and Optional Lengthening With a Newly Developed Universal Cylinder-Kombi-Tube Module for Motorized Nails-Description of a Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, Christian; El Naga, Ashraf

    2017-10-01

    Segmental transport is an effective method of treatment for segmental defects, but the need for external fixation during the transport phase is a disadvantage. To avoid external fixation, we have developed a Cylinder-Kombi-Tube Segmental Transport (CKTST) module for combination with a commercially available motorized lengthening nail. This CKTST module allows for an all-internal segmental bone transport and also allows for optional lengthening if needed. The concept and surgical technique of CKTST are described and illustrated with a clinical case.

  15. Laser materials development by means of a solid-state bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews laser materials development via a bonding method without adhesives. Instead of conventional chemical etching, a dry etching technique using an argon beam has been newly developed for the bonding method. This method meets the requirement for the use of optical materials. We succeeded in the fabrication of a composite laser crystal with good heat conductivity by bonding two kinds of crystals; one is neodymium-doped YVO 4 crystal (Nd:YVO 4 ) and the other is its host crystal YVO 4 . In the comparison of the laser performance between the normal and composite crystal, the composite one shows the good lasing capability of increasing laser output without fracture of the crystal due to thermal stress which appeared in the normal one. (author)

  16. Developments of an Interactive Sail Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Malpede

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tool for performing the integrated design and analysis of a sail. The features of the system are the geometrical definition of a sail shape, using the Bezier surface method, the creation of a finite element model for the non-linear structural analysis and a fluid-dynamic model for the aerodynamic analysis. The system has been developed using MATLAB(r. Recent sail design efforts have been focused on solving the aeroelastic behavior of the sail. The pressure distribution on a sail changes continuously, by virtue of cloth stretch and flexing. The sail shape determines the pressure distribution and, at the same time, the pressure distribution on the sail stretches and flexes the sail material determining its shape. This characteristic non-linear behavior requires iterative solution strategies to obtain the equilibrium configuration and evaluate the forces involved. The aeroelastic problem is tackled by combining structural with aerodynamic analysis. Firstly, pressure loads for a known sail-shape are computed (aerodynamic analysis. Secondly, the sail-shape is analyzed for the obtained external loads (structural analysis. The final solution is obtained by using an iterative analysis process, which involves both aerodynamic and the structural analysis. When the solution converges, it is possible to make design modifications.

  17. Research trend in thermally stimulated current method for development of materials and devices in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Taguchi, Dai

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurement is widely used in a variety of research fields, i.e., physics, electronics, electrical engineering, chemistry, ceramics, and biology. TSC is short-circuit current that flows owing to the displacement of charges in samples during heating. TSC measurement is very simple, but TSC curves give very important information on charge behaviors. In the 1970s, TSC measurement contributed greatly to the development of electrical insulation engineering, semiconductor device technology, and so forth. Accordingly, the TSC experimental technique and its analytical method advanced. Over the past decades, many new molecules and advanced functional materials have been discovered and developed. Along with this, TSC measurement has attracted much attention in industries and academic laboratories as a way of characterizing newly discovered materials and devices. In this review, we report the latest research trend in the TSC method for the development of materials and devices in Japan.

  18. Heart failure exacerbation associated with newly developed atrioventricular dyssynchrony after chemical conversion to a sinus rhythm in a patient receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Dohi, Kaoru; Kusuki, Hirofumi; Tanimura, Muneyoshi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Sugiura, Emiyo; Kumagai, Naoto; Nakamori, Shiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Fujii, Eitaro; Nakamura, Mashio; Nobori, Tsutomu; Ito, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with chronic heart failure (CHF) received cardiac resynchronization-defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy without atrial lead implantation due to longstanding atrial fibrillation (AF). Three months after oral amiodarone therapy was initiated for the treatment of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected by the CRT-D device, the patient's heart failure symptoms worsened and 12-lead electrocardiography showed newly emerged p-waves with atrioventricular (AV) dissociation. Immediately after the device was upgraded to the DDD-biventricular pacemaker, the patient's heart failure symptoms and cardiac function dramatically improved, which suggests that AV dissociation has a much more negative impact on the cardiac function than AF in patients with CHF.

  19. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  20. Reactor kinetics methods development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Henry, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a qualitative summary of research conducted at MIT from 1967 to 1977 in the area of reactor kinetics methods. The objectives of the research were to find methods of integration of various mathematical models of nuclear reactor transients. From the beginning the work was aimed at numerical integration methods. Specific areas of research, discussed in more detail following, included: integration of multigroup diffusion theory models by finite difference and finite element methods; response matrix and nodal methods; coarse-mesh homogenization; and special treatment of boundary conditions

  1. Radiographic assessment of alignment following TKA: outline of a standardized protocol and assessment of a newly devised trigonometric method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vikram; De Steiger, Richard; Lowe, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    An important determinant of long-term outcomes following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is post-operative alignment as measured on radiographs. Thus far, radiographs have been measured using the goniometer method (GM) and no standard protocol has been followed. The aim of this prospective study was to: (i) outline a protocol for radiographic measurement following TKA; and (ii) compare the accuracy of the traditional GM with a new trigonometric method (TM) of radiographic analysis. A protocol for the measurement of alignment on radiographs following TKA was outlined in detail with step-by-step instructions. A new TM of angle measurement was also delineated. Alignment was measured on 51 post-operative TKA radiographs. A single angle was chosen and measured by two observers using both the GM and TM. The TM had a precision of 1.06 degrees compared with 1.5 degrees using the GM. The standard deviation of the TM was significantly smaller than the GM (P= 0.033). The intra-class correlation coefficient of the TM was 0.94 versus 0.90 for the GM. The study detailed a protocol for the measurement of axial alignment of the limbs and components following TKA, and provided evidence that a newer TM of angle measurement was superior in terms of precision and intra-rater reliability in comparison with the traditional method.

  2. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  3. Stochastic development regression using method of moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation problem arising when inferring parameters in the stochastic development regression model for manifold valued non-linear data. Stochastic development regression captures the relation between manifold-valued response and Euclidean covariate variables using...... the stochastic development construction. It is thereby able to incorporate several covariate variables and random effects. The model is intrinsically defined using the connection of the manifold, and the use of stochastic development avoids linearizing the geometry. We propose to infer parameters using...

  4. A newly developed container for safe, easy, and cost-effective overnight transportation of tissues and organs by electrically keeping tissue or organ temperature at 3 to 6°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Kitagawa, T; Fukushima, N; Ito, T; Sawa, Y; Yoshimine, T

    2012-05-01

    As there is only one skin procurement organization in Japan the Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), all skin grafts procured in Japan are sent by a commercialized delivery system. Preliminarily, bottles containing saline were transported in a cardboard box using a so-called "cooled home delivery service" using a truck with a refrigerated cargo container. During transportation the temperature in the cardboard box increased to 18°C in summer and decreased to -5°C in winter. For these reasons, we investigated whether a newly developed container "Medi Cube" would be useful to transport skin grafts. Four bottles with a capacity of 300 mL containing 150 mL of saline in a Medi Cube container were transported from Osaka to the JSBN in Tokyo between 4 PM and 10 AM using a commercialized cooled home delivery service. Two bottles were transported in a Medi Cube container without phase change materials (PCM) in winter and summer, respectively. Another two bottles were transported in the Medi Cube with PCMs in winter. The temperatures inside saline, inside a transportation container, and outside the container, and air temperature were monitored continuously with a recordable thermometer. The temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container were maintained between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container increased during parking. The temperature inside a Medi Cube container without PCM decreased to -3°C when the inside of the cargo container was overcooled in winter. However, the temperatures inside saline and inside a Medi Cube container with PCM were between 3 and 6°C, even when the temperature outside the container decreased to below 0°C in winter. A Medi Cube container with PCM provided a safe, easy, and cost-effective method for overnight transportation of skin grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after...... the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations...... of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease...

  6. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    densitometric method, was based on the separation of the mixture on silica gel plates using chloroform: methanol (93:7, v/v) as a mobile phase. Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage ...

  7. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test method using a USP paddle type dissolution test apparatus set at a speed of. 50 rpm. The dissolution medium consisted of 900 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) containing 0.25% w/v cetrimide at 37 ...

  8. Agile Development Methods for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Webster, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Main stream industry software development practice has gone from a traditional waterfall process to agile iterative development that allows for fast response to customer inputs and produces higher quality software at lower cost. How can we, the space ops community, adopt state of the art software development practice, achieve greater productivity at lower cost, and maintain safe and effective space flight operations? At NASA Ames, we are developing Mission Control Technologies Software, in collaboration with Johnson Space Center (JSC) and, more recently, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  9. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunova A. V.; Maximova O. N.; Ekova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding eva...

  10. Bayesian methods for proteomic biomarker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Hernández

    2015-12-01

    In this review we provide an introduction to Bayesian inference and demonstrate some of the advantages of using a Bayesian framework. We summarize how Bayesian methods have been used previously in proteomics and other areas of bioinformatics. Finally, we describe some popular and emerging Bayesian models from the statistical literature and provide a worked tutorial including code snippets to show how these methods may be applied for the evaluation of proteomic biomarkers.

  11. Incident chronic kidney disease and newly developed complications related to renal dysfunction in an elderly population during 5 years: a community-based elderly population cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Young Ahn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the association between incident chronic kidney disease (CKD and related complications, especially in elderly population. We attempted to verify the association between GFR and concurrent CKD complications and elucidate the temporal relationship between incident CKD and new CKD complications in a community-based prospective elderly cohort. METHOD: We analyzed the available data from 984 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Participants were categorized into 6 groups according to eGFR at baseline examination (≥90, 75-89, 60-74, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2. RESULT: The mean age of study population was 76 ± 9.1 years and mean eGFR was 72.3 ± 17.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2. Compared to eGFR group 1, the odds ratio (OR for hypertension was 2.363 (95% CI, 1.299-4.298 in group 4, 5.191 (2.074-12.995 in group 5, and 13.675 (1.611-115.806 in group 6; for anemia, 7.842 (2.265-27.153 in group 5 and 13.019 (2.920-58.047 in group 6; for acidosis, 69.580 (6.770-715.147 in group 6; and for hyperkalemia, 19.177 (1.798-204.474 in group 6. Over a 5-year observational period, CKD developed in 34 (9.6% among 354 participants with GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 at basal examination. The estimated mean number of new complications according to analysis of co-variance was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.35-0.68 in subjects with incident CKD and 0.24 (0.19-0.29 in subjects without CKD (p = 0.002. Subjects with incident CKD had a 2.792-fold higher risk of developing new CKD complications. A GFR level of 52.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2 (p = 0.032 predicted the development of a new CKD complication with a 90% sensitivity. CONCLUSION: In an elderly prospective cohort, CKD diagnosed by current criteria is related to an increase in the number of concurrent CKD complications and the development of new CKD complications.

  12. Validation of a paper-disk approach to facilitate the sensory evaluation of bitterness in dairy protein hydrolysates from a newly developed food-grade fractionation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Niamh M; O'Riordan, Dolores; Jacquier, Jean-Christophe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Cohen, Joshua L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Barile, Daniela; Dallas, David C

    2017-06-01

    Casein-hydrolysates (NaCaH) are desirable functional ingredients, but their bitterness impedes usage in foods. This study sought to validate a paper-disk approach to help evaluate bitterness in NaCaHs and to develop a food-grade approach to separate a NaCaH into distinct fractions, which could be evaluated by a sensory panel. Membrane filtration generated sensory evaluation. Bitterness differences observed in the membrane fractions using this sensory evaluation approach reflected those observed for the same fractions presented as a liquid. The flash-chromatography fractions increased in bitterness with an increase in hydrophobicity, except for the 50% EtOH fraction which had little bitterness. Amino acid analysis of the fractions showed enrichment of different essential amino acids in both the bitter and less bitter fractions. The developed food-grade fractionation system, allowed for a simple and reasonably scaled approach to separating a NaCaH, into physicochemically different fractions that could be evaluated by a sensory panel. The method of sensory evaluation used in this study, in which NaCaH samples are impregnated into paper-disks, provided potential solutions for issues such as sample insolubility and limited quantities of sample. As the impregnated paper-disk samples were dehydrated, their long storage life could also be suitable for sensory evaluations distributed by mail for large consumer studies. The research, in this study, allowed for a greater understanding of the physicochemical basis for bitterness in this NaCaH. As some essential amino acids were enriched in the less bitter fractions, selective removal of bitter fractions could allow for the incorporation of the less bitter NaCaH fractions into food products for added nutritional value, without negatively impacting sensory properties. There is potential for this approach to be applied to other food ingredients with undesirable tastes, such as polyphenols.

  13. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  14. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  15. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  16. Which method better evaluates the molecular response in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with imatinib treatment, BCR-ABL(IS) or log reduction from the baseline level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Lai, Yue-Yun; Lu, Xi-Jing; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-09-01

    The molecular response of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment can be evaluated either by BCR-ABL mRNA levels on international scale (IS) or by log reduction from the baseline level of the laboratory. Both methods were compared in 248 newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib. The major molecular responses (MMR) obtained by both methods predict progression-free survival (PFS, all Plog reduction method, had the same PFS as MMR patients identified by both methods. The molecular responses of patients at 3 and 6 months, as evaluated by the two methods, have similar predictive values on their cytogenetic responses at 12 months and on their molecular responses at 18 months. Both ≤ 10%(IS) and ≥ 1 log reduction at 3 months and ≤ 1%(IS) at 6 months were significantly associated with PFS (P=0.0011, 0.0090, and 0.0064). The percentages of patients with BCR-ABL(IS) of ≤ 1%, >1-10%, and of >10% at 3 months and 6 months in the German CML Study IV were similar with those with corresponding BCR-ABL(IS) in our center, but was significantly different with those evaluated by the log reduction method. Therefore, the molecular response evaluated by BCR-ABL(IS) has similar trends in PFS and in response prediction, but can better differentiate patients than that by the log reduction method. Furthermore, the IS method allows comparison among molecular response results from different laboratories. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a newly developed hexaplex real-time PCR assay for screening for presence of GMOs in food, feed and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, C; Krech, A B; Wurz, A; Wulff, D

    2010-03-01

    For years, an increasing number and diversity of genetically modified plants has been grown on a commercial scale. The need for detection and identification of these genetically modified organisms (GMOs) calls for broad and at the same time flexible high throughput testing methods. Here we describe the development and validation of a hexaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening assay covering more than 100 approved GMOs containing at least one of the GMO targets of the assay. The assay comprises detection systems for Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NOS terminator, Figwort Mosaic Virus 34S promoter and two construct-specific sequences present in novel genetically modified soybean and maize that lack common screening elements. Additionally a detection system for an internal positive control (IPC) indicating the presence or absence of PCR inhibiting substances was included. The six real-time PCR systems were allocated to five detection channels showing no significant crosstalk between the detection channels. As part of an extensive validation, a limit of detection (LOD(abs)) GMO detection system was still shown in highly asymmetric target situations in the presence of 1,000 copies of all other GMO targets of each detection channel. Furthermore, the applicability to a broad sample spectrum and reliable indication of inhibition by the IPC system was demonstrated. The presented hexaplex assay offers sensitive and reliable detection of GMOs in processed and unprocessed food, feed and seed samples with high efficiency.

  18. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  19. Ex vivo water exchange performance and short-term clinical feasibility assessment of newly developed heat and moisture exchangers for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Cindy; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew D; Züchner, Klaus; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2014-02-01

    Laryngectomized patients suffer from respiratory complaints due to insufficient warming and humidification of inspired air in the upper respiratory tract. Improvement of pulmonary humidification with significant reduction of pulmonary complaints is achieved by the application of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) over the tracheostoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether the new Provox HMEs (XM-HME and XF-HME) have a better water exchange performance than their predecessors (R-HME and L-HME, respectively; Atos Medical, Hörby, Sweden). The other aim was to assess the short-term clinical feasibility of these HMEs. The XM-HME and XF-HME were weighed at the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration at different breathing volumes produced by a healthy volunteer. The associations between weight changes, breathing volume and absolute humidity were determined using both linear and non-linear mixed effects models. Study-specific questionnaires and tally sheets were used in the clinical feasibility study. The weight change of the XM-HME is 3.6 mg, this is significantly higher than that of the R-HME (2.0 mg). The weight change of the XF-HME (2.0 mg) was not significantly higher than that of the L-HME (1.8 mg). The absolute humidity values of both XM- and XF-HME were significantly higher than that of their predecessors. The clinical feasibility study did not reveal any practical problems over the course of 3 weeks. The XM-HME has a significantly better water exchange performance than its predecessor (R-HME). Both newly designed HMEs did succeed in the clinical feasibility study.

  20. Compressive strength of two newly developed glass-ionomer materials for use with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in class II cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraads, H; Van der Kroon, G; Frencken, J E

    2009-04-01

    The null-hypotheses tested were that no difference in compressive strength of ART class II cavities exists between those restored with (1) glass-carbomer and a commonly used glass-ionomer; (2) KMEM and the commonly used glass-ionomer and; (3) glass-carbomer and KMEM. 100 molar teeth, stratified by size, were randomly allocated to the four test groups. Large ART class II cavities were drilled and restored with Clearfil photoposterior (negative control), Fuji IX (positive control), Glass-carbomer and Ketac Molar Easymix (KMEM) (experimental groups). Half of the samples in each test group were 5000 times thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, with a 30s dwell time in each bath and a transfer time of 10s. The restorations were statically tested at the marginal ridge until failure, using a rounded rectangular testing rod at crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min. ANOVA and Student's t-test were applied to test for differences between the dependent variable (compressive strength at the final breaking point) and the independent variables (thermocycling and restorative material). Restorations of Clearfil photoposterior had a statistically significant higher mean compressive strength value at final breaking point than those of the three glass-ionomers tested (p=0.0001). No thermocycling effect was observed (p=0.19). ANOVA between the three glass-ionomer materials and mean compressive strength at final breaking point showed no statistically significant difference (p=0.09). Class II ART cavities restored with the newly launched Glass-carbomer and Ketac Molar Easymix were not significantly more fracture resistant than comparable restorations using the conventional glass-ionomer Fuji IX.

  1. Development of methods for DSM and distribution automation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtonen, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Kekkonen, V.; Koreneff, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the de-regulated electricity market, the power trading companies have to face new problems. The biggest challenges are caused by the uncertainty in the load magnitudes. In order to minimize the risks in power purchase and also in retail sales, the power traders should have as reliable and accurate estimates for hourly demands of their customers as possible. New tools have been developed for the distribution load estimation and for the management of energy balances of the trading companies. These tools are based on the flexible combination of the information available from several sources, like direct customer measurements, network measurements, load models and statistical data. These functions also serve as an information source for higher level activities of the electricity selling companies. These activities and the associated functions have been studied in the prototype system called DEM, which is now being developed for the operation of Finnish utilities in the newly de-regulated power market

  2. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  3. Dynamic management of sustainable development methods for large technical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krishans, Zigurds; Merkuryev, Yuri; Oleinikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development presents a concise summary of the authors' research in dynamic methods analysis of technical systems development. The text illustrates mathematical methods, with a focus on practical realization and applications.

  4. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  5. Understanding Prostate Cancer: Newly Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vs Cancer Contact Us Newly Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Basics About the Prostate Risk Factors Prostate ... when my.. Donors Patient Stories About the Prostate Cancer Foundation The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) is the world’s leading philanthropic ...

  6. A range of newly developed mobile generators to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for reactive compounds at atmospheric concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Three new mobile facilities have been developed at METAS to dynamically generate SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds at atmospheric amount of substance fractions and at very low levels of uncertainty (Ux balance. The carrier gas is previously purified from the compounds of interest using commercially available purification cartridges. The permeation chambers of ReGaS2 and ReGaS3 have multiple individual cells allowing for the generation of mixtures containing up to 5 different components if required. ReGaS1 allows for the generation of one-component mixtures only. These primary mixtures are then diluted to the required amount of substance fractions using thermal mass flow controllers for full flexibility and adaptability of the generation process over the entire range of possible concentrations. In order to considerably reduce adsorption/desorption processes and thus stabilisation time, all electro-polished stainless steel parts of ReGaS1 and ReGaS2 in contact with the reference gas mixtures are passivated with SilcoNert2000® surface coating. These three state-of-the-art mobile reference gas generators are applicable under both, laboratory and field conditions. Moreover the dynamic generation method can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g. BTEX, CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and other refrigerants) and is particularly suitable for reactive gas species and/or at concentration ranges which are unstable when stored in pressurised cylinders. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union

  7. Using possibility of QFD method for development of the "ready-to-go" package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Dragoljub Krstic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although quality function deployment (QFD is the mostly used in the development of new products, the methodology is equally varied and applied as a packaging design/development tool. Due to the fact that the demands of the market, i.e. users are constantly changing, the designers of all products, as well as the designers of packaging for food products, must implement the introduced requirements on the newly design of its products. The goal of this paper was to explain the QFD method with the aim to understand the mode of its operation and implementation, with an explanation of its potential for practical application in the packaging design process, as well as to highlight all the advantages and disadvantages of this method. The goal of the implementation of QFD method during the development of the packaging, as one of the types of products, is to find exactly the features and functions of the customer, i.e. what the user expects from the packaging, i.e. by this method, customer's voice transforms into new products that really meet their needs. It can be concluded that the application of QFD methods can reduce the length of the product development cycle, in this case the packaging, while simultaneously improving the quality and marketing of products in the market.

  8. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  9. Feedback of reactor operating data to nuclear methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, R.L.; Kang, C.M.; Parkos, G.R.; Wolters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The problems in obtaining power reactor data for reliable nuclear methods development and the major sources of power reactor data for this purpose are reviewed. Specific examples of the use of power reactor data in nuclear methods development are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations on the key elements of an effective program to use power reactor data in nuclear methods development

  10. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyasilp, Thanaporn; Pongput, Kobkiat; Boonyasirikul, Thana

    2009-01-01

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin.

  11. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriyasilp, Thanaporn [Department of Civil Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pongput, Kobkiat [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Boonyasirikul, Thana [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi 11130 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin. (author)

  12. Development of a one-step RT-PCR assay for detection of pancoronaviruses (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronaviruses) using newly designed degenerate primers for porcine and avian `fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Jung, Kwonil; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda J; Vlasova, Anastasia N

    2018-02-27

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are critical human and animal pathogens because of their potential to cause severe epidemics of respiratory or enteric diseases. In pigs, the newly emerged porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and re-emerged porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) reported in the US and Asia, as well as the discovery of novel CoVs in wild bats or birds, has necessitated development of improved detection and control measures for these CoVs. Because the previous pancoronavirus (panCoV) RT-PCR established in our laboratory in 2007-2011 did not detect deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) in swine fecal and serum samples, our goal was to develop a new panCoV RT-PCR assay to detect known human and animal CoVs, including δ-CoVs. In this study, we designed a new primer set to amplify a 668 bp-region within the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene that encodes the most conserved protein domain of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-CoVs. We established a one-step panCoV RT-PCR assay and standardized the assay conditions. The newly established panCoV RT-PCR assay was demonstrated to have a high sensitivity and specificity. Using a panel of 60 swine biological samples (feces, intestinal contents, and sera) characterized by PEDV, PDCoV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus-specific RT-PCR assays, we demonstrated that sensitivity and specificity of the newly established panCoV RT-PCR assay were 100%. 400 avian fecal (RNA) samples were further tested simultaneously for CoV by the new panCoV RT-PCR and a one-step RT-PCR assay with the δ-CoV nucleocapsid-specific universal primers. Four of 400 avian samples were positive for CoV, three of which were positive for δ-CoV by the conventional RT-PCR. PanCoV RT-PCR fragments for 3 of the 4 CoVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of one γ-CoV and two δ-CoV in the sequenced samples. The newly designed panCoV RT-PCR assay should be useful for the detection of currently known CoVs in animal biological samples. Copyright © 2018

  13. Biomechanical Skin Property Evaluation for Wounds Treated With Synthetic and Biosynthetic Wound Dressings and a Newly Developed Collagen Matrix During Healing of Superficial Skin Defects in a Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Manuel; Engelke, Anne-Sophie; Tolzmann, Dascha Sophie; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rothenberger, Jens

    2016-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of superficial wounds such as partial-thickness burns. Treatment of these wounds frequently includes temporary application of wound dressings. The aim of this study was to compare a newly developed collagen matrix with commonly used temporary skin dressings for treatment of partial-thickness skin defects. Through a skin dermatome, 42 standardized superficial skin defects were generated on the back of 28 adult male Lewis rats. The wounds were treated with a synthetic wound dressing (Suprathel, Polymedics Innovations Inc, Woodstock, GA) (n = 14), a biosynthetic skin dressing (Biobrane, Smith & Nephew, Hull, UK) (n = 14), or a newly developed bovine collagen matrix, Collagen Cell Carrier (Viscofan BioEngineering, Weinheim, Germany) (n = 14). Biomechanical properties of the skin were determined and compared every 10 days over a 3-month period of using the Cutometer MPA 580 (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). As opposed to healthy skin, statistically significant differences were detected between days 10 and 30, and between days 60 and 80, for calculated elasticity (Ue), firmness of skin (R0), and overall elasticity (R8). After 3 months, no statistically significant differences in skin elasticity were detected between the different wound dressings. The presented results give an opportunity to compare the wound dressings used for treatment with respect to skin elasticity and reveal the potential of the bovine collagen matrix in the treatment of superficial skin defects; therefore the results facilitate further evaluation of collagen matrix in surgical applications and regenerative medicine.

  14. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.

    1978-01-01

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  15. Development of fast neutron profiling method

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, T; Sanami, T; Yamazaki, T; Ibaraki, M; Hirasawa, Y; Hiroishi, T; Aoki, T; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the effects of neutron scattering and gamma-ray background in fast neutron imaging and the method to reduce them. As a profiling device, a combination of an imaging plate (IP) and a polypropylene film (CH sub 2) has been employed in this study. Good profiles were obtained by employing appropriate neutron energy, a CH sub 2 thickness and geometry for accelerator-based fast neutrons (5-14 MeV). The neutron flux was approx 3.5x10 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the CH sub 2 -IP position. Furthermore, we are designing the device using a position-sensitive photomultiplier in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio by obtaining the information of pulse height for particle selection together with position.

  16. Adjoint-based Mesh Optimization Method: The Development and Application for Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seongmin; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    In this research, methods for optimizing mesh distribution is proposed. The proposed method uses adjoint base optimization method (adjoint method). The optimized result will be obtained by applying this meshing technique to the existing code input deck and will be compared to the results produced from the uniform meshing method. Numerical solutions are calculated form an in-house 1D Finite Difference Method code while neglecting the axial conduction. The fuel radial node optimization was first performed to match the Fuel Centerline Temperature (FCT) the best. This was followed by optimizing the axial node which the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) is matched the best. After obtaining the optimized radial and axial nodes, the nodalization is implemented into the system analysis code and transient analyses were performed to observe the optimum nodalization performance. The developed adjoint-based mesh optimization method in the study is applied to MARS-KS, which is a nuclear system analysis code. Results show that the newly established method yields better results than that of the uniform meshing method from the numerical point of view. It is again stressed that the optimized mesh for the steady state can also give better numerical results even during a transient analysis

  17. Competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a nursing college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Morolong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African education and training system, through its policy of outcomesbased education and training, has made competency a national priority. In compliance to this national requirement of producing competent learners, the South African Nursing Council ( 1999 B require that the beginner professional nurse practitioners and midwives have the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which will enable them to render efficient professional service. The health care system also demands competent nurse practitioners to ensure quality in health care. In the light of competency being a national priority and a statutory demand, the research question that emerges is, how competent are the newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college in clinical nursing education? A quantitative, non-experimental contextual design was used to evaluate the competence of newly qualified registered nurses from a specific nursing college. The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase dealt with the development of an instrument together with its manual through the conceptualisation process. The second phase focused on the evaluation of the competency of newly qualified nurses using the instrument based on the steps of the nursing process. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility of the items of the instrument. During the evaluation phase, a sample of twenty-six newly qualified nurses was selected by simple random sampling from a target population of thirty-six newly qualified registered nurses. However, six participants withdrew from the study. Data was collected in two general hospitals where the newly qualified registered nurses were working. Observation and questioning were used as data collection techniques in accordance with the developed instrument. Measures were taken to ensure internal validity and reliability of the results. To protect the rights of the participants, the researcher adhered to DENOSA’S (1998

  18. Developments of integrated laser crystals by a direct bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Fukuyama, Hiroyasu; Katsumata, Masaki; Tanaka, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Yukikatu

    2003-01-01

    Laser crystal integration using a neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (or orthovanadate) laser crystal, and non-doped yttrium vanadate crystals that function as cold fingers has been demonstrated. A newly developed dry etching process was adopted in the preparation for contact of mechanically polished surfaces. In the heat treatment process, temperature optimization was essential to get rid of precipitation of vanadic acid caused by the thermo-chemical reaction in a vacuum furnace. The bonded crystal was studied via optical characteristics, magnified inspections, laser output performances pumped by a CW laser diode. From these experiments, it was clear that the integrated Nd:YVO 4 laser crystal, securing the well-improved thermal conductivity, can increase laser output power nearly twice that of the conventional single crystal which was cracked in high power laser pumping of 10 W due to its intrinsic poor thermal conductivity. (author)

  19. Methods and Protocols for Developing Prion Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniuk, Kristen; Taschuk, Ryan; Napper, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases denote a distinct form of infectivity that is based in the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into a pathological, infectious conformation (PrP(Sc)). Efforts to develop vaccines for prion diseases have been complicated by the potential dangers that are associated with induction of immune responses against a self-protein. As a consequence, there is considerable appeal for vaccines that specifically target the misfolded prion conformation. Such conformation-specific immunotherapy is made possible through the identification of vaccine targets (epitopes) that are exclusively presented as a consequence of misfolding. An immune response directed against these targets, termed disease-specific epitopes (DSEs), has the potential to spare the function of the native form of the protein while clearing, or neutralizing, the infectious isomer. Although identification of DSEs represents a critical first step in the induction of conformation-specific immune responses, substantial efforts are required to translate these targets into functional vaccines. Due to the poor immunogenicity that is inherent to self-proteins, and that is often associated with short peptides, substantial efforts are required to overcome tolerance-to-self and maximize the resultant immune response following DSE-based immunization. This often includes optimization of target sequences in terms of immunogenicity and development of effective formulation and delivery strategies for the associated peptides. Further, these vaccines must satisfy additional criteria from perspectives of specificity (PrP(C) vs. PrP(Sc)) and safety (antibody-induced template-driven misfolding of PrP(C)). The emphasis of this report is on the steps required to translate DSEs into prion vaccines and subsequent evaluation of the resulting immune responses.

  20. Developing a second nearest-neighbor modified embedded atom method interatomic potential for lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Gao, Feng; Qu, Jianmin; Cui, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a second nearest-neighbor modified embedded atom method (2NN MEAM) interatomic potential for lithium (Li). The 2NN MEAM potential contains 14 adjustable parameters. For a given set of these parameters, a number of physical properties of Li were predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. By fitting these MD predictions to their corresponding values from either experimental measurements or ab initio simulations, these adjustable parameters in the potential were optimized to yield an accurate and robust interatomic potential. The parameter optimization was carried out using the particle swarm optimization technique. Finally, the newly developed potential was validated by calculating a wide range of material properties of Li, such as thermal expansion, melting temperature, radial distribution function of liquid Li and the structural stability at finite temperature by simulating the disordered–ordered transition

  1. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  2. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Axelsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative solution methods to solve linear systems of equations were originally formulated as basic iteration methods of defect-correction type, commonly referred to as Richardson's iteration method. These methods developed further into various versions of splitting methods, including the successive overrelaxation (SOR method. Later, immensely important developments included convergence acceleration methods, such as the Chebyshev and conjugate gradient iteration methods and preconditioning methods of various forms. A major strive has been to find methods with a total computational complexity of optimal order, that is, proportional to the degrees of freedom involved in the equation. Methods that have turned out to have been particularly important for the further developments of linear equation solvers are surveyed. Some of them are presented in greater detail.

  3. Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Santella, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive methodology for designing and optimizing metallic alloys by combinatorial principles. Because conventional techniques for alloy preparation are unavoidably restrictive in the range of alloy composition that can be examined, combinatorial methods promise to significantly reduce the time, energy, and expense needed for alloy design. Combinatorial methods can be developed not only to optimize existing alloys, but to explore and develop new ones as well. The scientific approach involved fabricating an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface--an ''alloy library''--and then using spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize its structure, composition, and relevant properties. The three specific objectives of the project were: (1) to devise means by which simple test specimens with a library of alloy compositions spanning the range interest can be produced; (2) to assess how well the properties of the combinatorial specimen reproduce those of the conventionally processed alloys; and (3) to devise screening tools which can be used to rapidly assess the important properties of the alloys. As proof of principle, the methodology was applied to the Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy system that constitutes many commercially important materials such as stainless steels and the H-series and C-series heat and corrosion resistant casting alloys. Three different techniques were developed for making alloy libraries: (1) vapor deposition of discrete thin films on an appropriate substrate and then alloying them together by solid-state diffusion; (2) co-deposition of the alloying elements from three separate magnetron sputtering sources onto an inert substrate; and (3) localized melting of thin films with a focused electron-beam welding system. Each of the techniques was found to have its own advantages and disadvantages. A new and very powerful technique for

  4. Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharr, George M.; George, Easo P.; Santella, Michael L

    2005-07-01

    The primary goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive methodology for designing and optimizing metallic alloys by combinatorial principles. Because conventional techniques for alloy preparation are unavoidably restrictive in the range of alloy composition that can be examined, combinatorial methods promise to significantly reduce the time, energy, and expense needed for alloy design. Combinatorial methods can be developed not only to optimize existing alloys, but to explore and develop new ones as well. The scientific approach involved fabricating an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface--an ''alloy library''--and then using spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize its structure, composition, and relevant properties. The three specific objectives of the project were: (1) to devise means by which simple test specimens with a library of alloy compositions spanning the range interest can be produced; (2) to assess how well the properties of the combinatorial specimen reproduce those of the conventionally processed alloys; and (3) to devise screening tools which can be used to rapidly assess the important properties of the alloys. As proof of principle, the methodology was applied to the Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloy system that constitutes many commercially important materials such as stainless steels and the H-series and C-series heat and corrosion resistant casting alloys. Three different techniques were developed for making alloy libraries: (1) vapor deposition of discrete thin films on an appropriate substrate and then alloying them together by solid-state diffusion; (2) co-deposition of the alloying elements from three separate magnetron sputtering sources onto an inert substrate; and (3) localized melting of thin films with a focused electron-beam welding system. Each of the techniques was found to have its own advantages and disadvantages. A new and very

  5. Comparative Genome Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Genes Within Newly Identified High Variability Regions Associated With Drug Resistance Development

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hsun-Cheng; Khatun, Jainab; Kanavy, Dona M.; Giddings, Morgan C.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming rise of ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported in several clinical studies. Though the mutation of resistance genes and their role in drug resistance has been researched, the process by which the bacterium acquires high-level resistance is still not well understood. How does the genomic evolution of P. aeruginosa affect resistance development? Could the exposure of antibiotics to the bacteria enrich genomic variants that lead to the development of resist...

  6. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with copper. Method: A coloured complex based on UV/Vis spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of losartan potassium concentration in pharmaceutical ...

  7. Compressive strength of two newly developed glass-ionomer materials for use with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in class II cavities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraads, H.; Kroon, G. Van der; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The null-hypotheses tested were that no difference in compressive strength of ART class II cavities exists between those restored with (1) glass-carbomer and a commonly used glass-ionomer; (2) KMEM and the commonly used glass-ionomer and; (3) glass-carbomer and KMEM. METHODS: 100 molar

  8. THE METHODS DEVELOPMENT OF CALCULATION OF TUNNEL LINING RECTANGULAR SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kozhushko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods of computation of rectangular underground building developed last century and at the beginning of the 21st century with the purpose of exposing basic development directions of the given problem have been considered. The author's opinion concerning computation method development prospect of underground building of rectangular outline has been suggested.

  9. Identification of different cytoplasms based on newly developed mitotype-specific markers for marker-assisted selection breeding in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Shuangping; Chen, Fengyi; Wei, Chao; Hu, Kaining; Yang, Zonghui; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Si, Ping; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2017-06-01

    Different mitotype-specific markers were developed to distinguish different cytoplasms in Brassica napus L. Mitotype-specific markers have been developed to distinguish different mitotypes in plant. And use of molecular markers to identify different mitotypes in Brassica napus would enhance breeding efficiency. Here, we comparatively analyzed six sequenced mitochondrial genomes in Brassica napus and identified collinear block sequences and mitotype-specific sequences (MSSs) of these mitochondrial genomes. The collinear block sequences between mitochondrial genomes of nap, cam, and pol cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines were higher than those of other lines. After comparative analysis of the six sequenced mitochondrial genomes (cam, nap, ole, pol CMS, ogu CMS, and hau CMS), 90 MSSs with sizes ranging from 101 to 9981 bp and a total length of 103,756 bp (accounting for 6.77% of the mitochondrial genome sequences) were identified. Additionally, 12 mitotype-specific markers were developed based on the mitochondrial genome-specific sequences in order to distinguish among these different mitotypes. Cytoplasms of 570 different inbred lines collected across scientific research institutes in China were identified using the MSS markers developed in our study. In addition to confirming the accuracy of the cytoplasmic identification, we also identified mitotypes that have not been reported in Brassica napus. Our study may provide guidance for the classification of different mitotypes in B. napus breeding.

  10. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  11. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during oral glucocorticoid treatment and observed for 14 years: all-cause mortality and clinical developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Dyring-Andersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  12. Optimization of an immunoassay of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and development of regenerative surfaces by immunosorbent modification with newly synthesised BAM hapten library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthuppu, Basil; Aamand, Jens; Jørgensen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    ) is being employed to quantitatively detect BAM in water samples. In this work, as a starting step of developing immunoassay based on-site monitoring systems for pesticide analysis, the heterogeneous BAM immunoassay is optimised in terms of surface (polymer) regeneration. We have synthesised a small library...

  13. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  14. Understanding the formation and evolution of early-type galaxies based on newly developed single-burst stellar population synthesis models in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The detailed study of the different stellar populations which can be observed in galaxies is one of the most promising methods to shed light on the evolutionary histories of galaxies. So far, stellar population analysis has been carried out mainly in the optical wavelength range. The infrared spectral range, on the other hand, has been poorly studied so far, although it provides very important insights, particularly into the cooler stellar populations which are present in galaxies. However, in the last years, space telescopes like the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and instruments like the spectrograph X-Shooter on the Very Large Telescope have collected more and more photometric and spectroscopic data in this wavelength range. In order to analyze these observations, it is necessary to dispose of reliable and accurate stellar population models in the infrared. Only a small number of stellar population models in the infrared exist in the literature. They are mostly based on theoretical stellar libraries and very often cover only the near-infrared wavelength range at a rather low resolution. Hence, we developed new single-burst stellar population models between 8150 and 50000Å which are exclusively based on 180 spectra from the empirical Infrared Telescope Facility stellar library. We computed our single stellar population models for two different sets of isochrones and various types of initial mass functions of different slopes. Since the stars of the Infrared Telescope Facility library present only a limited coverage of the stellar atmospheric parameter space, our models are of sufficient quality only for ages larger than 1 Gyr and metallicities between [Fe/H] = 0.40 and 0.26. By combining our single stellar population models in the infrared with the extended medium-resolution Isaac Newton Telescope library of empirical spectra in the optical spectral range, we created the first single stellar population models covering the

  15. Genetic diversity of the Japanese wood pigeon, Columba janthina, endemic to islands of East Asia, estimated by newly developed microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Haruko; Kaneko, Shingo; Suzuki, Hajime; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Takano, Hajime; Ogawa, Hiroko; Isagi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese wood pigeon Columba janthina is endemic to islands of East Asia and is listed as Near Threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). One subspecies, C. janthina nitens, in particular, is at the greatest risk of extinction due to its small population size. To reduce the extinction risk of C. janthina, it is important to understand the species' present genetic status and to develop an appropriate conservation plan based on genetic data. We developed seven new microsatellite markers for two subspecies of C. janthina: C. janthina janthina and C. janthina nitens. We also confirmed the cross-use of one microsatellite marker developed for Columba livia var. domestica. Seven loci were polymorphic in C. janthina janthina, while two loci were polymorphic in C. janthina nitens. Using the markers, we performed preliminary analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure within each subspecies. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.64 in C. janthina janthina and from 0.00 to 0.08 in C. janthina nitens. Each subspecies and each population within C. janthina janthina had different allele frequencies. C. janthina nitens exhibited far lower genetic diversity than C. janthina janthina. Furthermore, C. janthina nitens appears to have experienced strong genetic drift from a common ancestral population, inferred by STRUCTURE analysis. The markers described here may be useful for investigating genetic diversity and genetic structure of C. janthina populations, and could be used to estimate appropriate evolutionary significant unit and to guide development of a captive breeding program based on genetic information.

  16. A newly developed real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Fusarium oxysporum and its use in compatible and incompatible interactions with grafted melon genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegi, Anita; Catalano, Valentina; Luongo, Laura; Vitale, Salvatore; Scotton, Michele; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2013-08-01

    A reliable and species-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detection of the complex soilborne anamorphic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The new primer pair, designed on the translation elongation factor 1-α gene with an amplicon of 142 bp, was highly specific to F. oxysporum without cross reactions with other Fusarium spp. The protocol was applied to grafted melon plants for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, a devastating pathogen of this cucurbit. Grafting technologies are widely used in melon to confer resistance against new virulent races of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, while maintaining the properties of valuable commercial varieties. However, the effects on the vascular pathogen colonization have not been fully investigated. Analyses were performed on 'Charentais-T' (susceptible) and 'Nad-1' (resistant) melon cultivars, both used either as rootstock and scion, and inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 and race 1,2. Pathogen development was compared using qPCR and isolations from stem tissues. Early asymptomatic melon infections were detected with a quantification limit of 1 pg of fungal DNA. The qPCR protocol clearly showed that fungal development was highly affected by host-pathogen interaction (compatible or incompatible) and time (days postinoculation). The principal significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on fungal development was due to the melon genotype used as rootstock, and this effect had a significant interaction with time and F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis race. In particular, the amount of race 1,2 DNA was significantly higher compared with that estimated for race 1 in the incompatible interaction at 18 days postinoculation. The two fungal races were always present in both the rootstock and scion of grafted plants in either the compatible or incompatible interaction.

  17. Comparative genome analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals genes within newly identified high variability regions associated with drug resistance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hsun-Cheng; Khatun, Jainab; Kanavy, Dona M; Giddings, Morgan C

    2013-12-01

    The alarming rise of ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been reported in several clinical studies. Though the mutation of resistance genes and their role in drug resistance has been researched, the process by which the bacterium acquires high-level resistance is still not well understood. How does the genomic evolution of P. aeruginosa affect resistance development? Could the exposure of antibiotics to the bacteria enrich genomic variants that lead to the development of resistance, and if so, how are these variants distributed through the genome? To answer these questions, we performed 454 pyrosequencing and a whole genome analysis both before and after exposure to ciprofloxacin. The comparative sequence data revealed 93 unique resistance strain variation sites, which included a mutation in the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. We generated variation-distribution maps comparing the wild and resistant types, and isolated 19 candidates from three discrete resistance-associated high variability regions that had available transposon mutants, to perform a ciprofloxacin exposure assay. Of these region candidates with transposon disruptions, 79% (15/19) showed a reduction in the ability to gain high-level resistance, suggesting that genes within these high variability regions might enrich for certain functions associated with resistance development.

  18. Adapting participatory and agile software methods to participatory rural development

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Andy; Rizvi, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents observations from a project that combines participatory rural development methods with participatory design techniques to support a farmers’ co-operative in Madhya Pradesh, India

  19. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  20. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...

  1. Comprehensive analysis of genic male sterility-related genes in Brassica rapa using a newly developed Br300K oligomeric chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available To identify genes associated with genic male sterility (GMS that could be useful for hybrid breeding in Chinese cabbage (Brassicarapa ssp. pekinensis, floral bud transcriptome analysis was carried out using a B. rapa microarray with 300,000 probes (Br300K. Among 47,548 clones deposited on a Br300K microarray with seven probes of 60 nt length within the 3' 150 bp region, a total of 10,622 genes were differentially expressed between fertile and sterile floral buds; 4,774 and 5,848 genes were up-regulated over 2-fold in fertile and sterile buds, respectively. However, the expression of 1,413 and 199 genes showed fertile and sterile bud-specific features, respectively. Genes expressed specifically in fertile buds, possibly GMS-related genes, included homologs of several Arabidopsis male sterility-related genes, genes associated with the cell wall and synthesis of its surface proteins, pollen wall and coat components, signaling components, and nutrient supplies. However, most early genes for pollen development, genes for primexine and callose formation, and genes for pollen maturation and anther dehiscence showed no difference in expression between fertile and sterile buds. Some of the known genes associated with Arabidopsis pollen development showed similar expression patterns to those seen in this study, while others did not. BrbHLH89 and BrMYP99 are putative GMS genes. Additionally, 17 novel genes identified only in B. rapa were specifically and highly expressed only in fertile buds, implying the possible involvement in male fertility. All data suggest that Chinese cabbage GMS might be controlled by genes acting in post-meiotic tapetal development that are different from those known to be associated with Arabidopsis male sterility.

  2. A newly developed technique of wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides of cold neutron research facilities at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In

    2012-01-01

    KAERI developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron research facilities at HANARO from 2003 to 2010. In 2008, the old plug shutter and instruments were removed, and a new plug and primary shutter were installed as the first cold neutron delivery system at HANARO. At the beginning of 2010, all the neutron guides and accessories had been successfully installed as well. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in pile plug assembly with in pile guides, the primary shutter with in shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with secondary shutter, and the neutron guides in the neutron guide hall. Three kinds of glass materials were selected with optimum lengths by considering their lifetime, shielding, maintainability and cost as well. Radiation damage of the guides can occur on the coating and glass by neutron capturing in the glass. It is a big challenge to inspect a guide failure because of the difficult surrounding environment, such as high level radiation, limited working space, and massive hard work for removing and reinstalling the shielding blocks as shown in Fig 1. Therefore, KAERI has developed a wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides using an infrared light camera mounted on the vehicle moving in the guide

  3. Using combinatorial bioinformatics methods to analyze annual perspective changes of influenza viruses and to accelerate development of effective vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard World Health Organization procedure for vaccine development has provided a guideline for influenza viruses, but no systematic operational model. We recently designed a systemic analysis method to evaluate annual perspective sequence changes of influenza virus strains. We applied dnaml of PHYLIP 3.69, developed by Joseph Felsenstein of Washington University, and ClustalX2, developed by Larkin et al, for calculating, comparing, and localizing the most plausible vaccine epitopes. This study identified the changes in biological sequences and associated alignment alterations, which would ultimately affect epitope structures, as well as the plausible hidden features to search for the most conserved and effective epitopes for vaccine development. Addition our newly designed systemic analysis method to supplement the WHO guidelines could accelerate the development of urgently needed vaccines that might concurrently combat several strains of viruses within a shorter period.

  4. Study on the Development of New BWR Core Analysis Scheme Based on the Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Burn-up Calculation Method

    OpenAIRE

    東條, 匡志; tojo, masashi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a BWR core calculation method is developed. The continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code is newly applied to BWR assembly calculations of production level. The applicability of the present new calculation method is verified through the tracking-calculation of commercial BWR.The mechanism and quantitative effects of the error propagations, the spatial discretization and of the temperature distribution in fuel pellet on the Monte Carlo burn-up calculations are clari...

  5. "Her illness is a project we can work on together": developing a collaborative family-centered intervention model for newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintell, David; Melito, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model for intervening with families that are addressing a new diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in one member. The model is collaborative, integrative, and family-centered. It involves both working with the family collaboratively and providing strategies to promote greater collaboration within the family. The model integrates elements of crisis intervention theory, psycho-education, and family-centered approaches. The model was developed with families addressing MS, and was piloted with three families. The intervention was found to improve family members' ability to collaborate with each other. Such increased collaboration may enhance the family's ability to manage long-term illness more effectively, help the family address the impact of the illness on all family members, and generally improve the family's quality of life.

  6. Fifteen-year population attributable fractions and causal pies of risk factors for newly developed hepatocellular carcinomas in 11,801 men in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liao

    Full Text Available Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a multi-factorial process. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are important risk factors of HCC. Host factors, such as alcohol drinking, may also play a role. This study aims to provide a synthesis view on the development of HCC by examining multiple risk factors jointly and collectively. Causal-pie modeling technique was applied to analyze a cohort of 11,801 male residents (followed up for 15 years in Taiwan, during which a total of 298 incident HCC cases were ascertained. The rate ratios adjusted by age were further modeled by an additive Poisson regression. Population attributable fractions (PAFs and causal-pie weights (CPWs were calculated. A PAF indicates the magnitude of case-load reduction under a particular intervention scenario, whereas a CPW for a particular class of causal pies represents the proportion of HCC cases attributable to that class. Using PAF we observed a chance to reduce around 60% HCC risk moving from no HBV-related intervention to the total elimination of the virus. An additional ∼15% (or ∼5% reduction can be expected, if the HBV-related intervention is coupled with an HCV-related intervention (or an anti-drinking campaign. Eight classes of causal pies were found to be significant, including four dose-response classes of HBV (total CPW=52.7%, one independent-effect class of HCV (CPW=14.4%, one HBV-alcohol interaction class (CPW=4.2%, one HBV-HCV interaction class (CPW=1.7%, and one all-unknown class (CPW=27.0%. Causal-pie modeling for HCC helps clarify the relative importance of each viral and host factor, as well as their interactions.

  7. Fifteen-year population attributable fractions and causal pies of risk factors for newly developed hepatocellular carcinomas in 11,801 men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Fen; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial process. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. Host factors, such as alcohol drinking, may also play a role. This study aims to provide a synthesis view on the development of HCC by examining multiple risk factors jointly and collectively. Causal-pie modeling technique was applied to analyze a cohort of 11,801 male residents (followed up for 15 years) in Taiwan, during which a total of 298 incident HCC cases were ascertained. The rate ratios adjusted by age were further modeled by an additive Poisson regression. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) and causal-pie weights (CPWs) were calculated. A PAF indicates the magnitude of case-load reduction under a particular intervention scenario, whereas a CPW for a particular class of causal pies represents the proportion of HCC cases attributable to that class. Using PAF we observed a chance to reduce around 60% HCC risk moving from no HBV-related intervention to the total elimination of the virus. An additional ∼15% (or ∼5%) reduction can be expected, if the HBV-related intervention is coupled with an HCV-related intervention (or an anti-drinking campaign). Eight classes of causal pies were found to be significant, including four dose-response classes of HBV (total CPW=52.7%), one independent-effect class of HCV (CPW=14.4%), one HBV-alcohol interaction class (CPW=4.2%), one HBV-HCV interaction class (CPW=1.7%), and one all-unknown class (CPW=27.0%). Causal-pie modeling for HCC helps clarify the relative importance of each viral and host factor, as well as their interactions.

  8. Sex Reversal and Analyses of Possible Involvement of Sex Steroids in Scallop Gonadal Development in Newly Established Organ-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Ayano; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Okumura, Tomomi; Fujii, Shiro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E 2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E 2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12. Scallops equipped with ambiguous gonads were 61.1% at month 16 and disappeared at month 18. Therefore, sex reversal in Funka bay occurs at around month 16. For establishment of organ culture systems for bivalves, Manila clam gonads were cultured in 15% L-15 medium diluted with HBSS containing 10% KSR on agarose gel at 10°C, and the gonads survived for 14 days. Scallop gonads were also able to be cultured in 30% L15 medium diluted with ASW containing 10% KSR on agarose gel for seven days. At mature stage, Foxl2 and Tesk were predominantly expressed in ovary and testis, respectively. When scallop gonads at sex reversal stage were organ-cultured, sex steroid treatment decreased Tesk expression in the majority of scallop gonads at sex reversal stage. However, no obvious change in Foxl2 and Tesk expression was detected in mature gonads in response to either E 2 or T in culture, suggesting sex steroid treatment might affect gonadal development at sex reversal stage.

  9. CONTAMINATION OF ANTI-VEGF DRUGS FOR INTRAVITREAL INJECTION: How Do Repackaging and Newly Developed Syringes Affect the Amount of Silicone Oil Droplets and Protein Aggregates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schargus, Marc; Werner, Benjamin P; Geerling, Gerd; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-08-21

    The particle counts and the nature of particles of three different antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (VEGF) in different containers in a laboratory setting were compared. Original prefilled ranibizumab glass syringes, original vials with aflibercept, and repacked ready-to-use plastic syringes with bevacizumab from a compounding pharmacy and a compounding company (CC) were analyzed. Particle counts and size distributions were quantified by different particle characterization methods (nephelometry, light obscuration, Micro-Flow Imaging, nanotracking analysis, resonant mass measurement). Using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC), levels of protein drug monomer and soluble aggregates were determined. Nearly all samples showed similar product quality. Light obscuration and Micro-Flow Imaging showed a 4-fold to 9-fold higher total particle count in compounding company bevacizumab (other samples up to 42,000 particles/mL). Nanotracking analysis revealed highest values for compounding company bevacizumab (6,375 million particles/mL). All containers showed similar amounts of silicone oil microdroplets. Ranibizumab showed lowest particle count of all tested agents with only one monomer peak in HP-SEC. Repackaged bevacizumab from different suppliers showed varying product quality. All three tested agents are available in similar quality regarding particulate purity and silicone oil microdroplet count. Repackaging can have a major impact on the quality.

  10. A newly developed floor chair placed on an office chair reduces lumbar muscle fatigue by cyclically changing its lumbar supporting shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Koyama, Takayuki; Kurihara, Yasushi; Tagami, Miki; Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Nitta, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated lumbar muscle fatigue before and after maintaining a seated position for one hour, lumbar and pelvic inclination angle change, in subjects with and without active lumber support. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy subjects randomized into two groups sat on a floor chair, placed on an office chair, that cyclically changed its lumbar supporting shape to provide active lumbar support (ALS) or no ALS for one hour. Before and after, we measured the frequency of muscle waveforms of the trunk extensor muscles when the subjects lifted an object weighing 10% of their body weight, using both hands while seated. In addition, ROMt (Range of motion test) of trunk rotation, degree of fatigue and muscle stiffness were analyzed. [Results] Muscle frequency while lifting the weight decreased significantly without ALS compared to with ALS. Mean muscle stiffness increased, ROMt decreased in desk work task significantly without ALS compared to with ALS. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the lumbar muscles became fatigued, because low frequencies, increased muscle stiffness, and decreased ROMt without ALS. We suggest lumbar muscle fatigue was maintained low for subjects seated in a chair with ALS.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of the newly-developed chemotherapeutic agents 17-AAG in combination with oxaliplatin and capecitabine in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Mahshid; Zeynali, Shima; Azarbaijani, Anahita Fathi; Khadem Ansari, Mohammad Hassan; Kheradmand, Fatemeh

    2017-12-01

    The use of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors like 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG) has been recently introduced as an attractive anticancer therapy. It has been shown that 17-AAG may potentiate the inhibitory effects of some classical anticolorectal cancer (CRC) agents. In this study, two panels of colorectal carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of 17-AAG in combination with capecitabine and oxaliplatin as double and triple combination therapies on the proliferation of CRC cell lines. HT-29 and all HCT-116 cell lines were seeded in culture media in the presence of different doses of the mentioned drugs in single, double, and triple combinations. Water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay was used to investigate cell proliferation 24 h after treatments. Then, dose-response curves were plotted using WST-1outputs, and IC 50 values were determined. For double and triple combinations respectively 0.5 × IC 50 and 0.25 × IC 50 were used. Data was analyzed with the software CompuSyn. Drug interactions were analyzed using Chou-Talalay method to calculate the combination index (CI).The data revealed that 17-AAG shows a potent synergistic interaction (CI 1) in HT-29 and a synergistic effect (CI AAG with oxaliplatin or capecitabine might be effective against HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines. However, in triple combinations, positive results were seen only against HCT-116. Further investigation is suggested to confirm the effectiveness of these combinations in clinical trials.

  12. Preconcentration and determination of trace metal ions from aqueous samples by newly developed gallic acid modified Amberlite XAD-16 chelating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Pant, Parul

    2009-04-15

    Gallic acid was immobilized on Amberlite XAD-16 by coupling it through -N=N group. The resulting chelating resin Amberlite XAD-16 gallic acid, characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared (IR) spectra and BET analysis, was used to preconcentrate Cr(III), Mn(II),Fe(III),Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)ions. The resin was employed for the preconcentration of the metal ions present in river water and industrial area aqueous samples. Several parameters like effect of pH, effect of time, effect of sample volume and flow rate of sample were investigated. The sorption capacities for the resin were 216 micromol g(-1), 180 micromol g(-1), 403 micromol g(-1), 281 micromol g(-1), 250 micromol g(-1) and 344 micromol g(-1) for Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) respectively. The preconcentration factors for Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) were found out to be 300, 200, 400, 285.7, 300 and 400 respectively. The effect of various interfering ions was also studied. Results were validated by using standard addition method for river water sample.

  13. Serum uric acid levels are associated with increased risk of newly developed diabetic retinopathy among Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study (diabetes distress and care registry at Tenri [DDCRT 13]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hirohito; Okamura, Shintaro; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Tsujii, Satoru; Ishii, Hitoshi

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the prospective association between baseline serum uric acid levels and consequent risk of developing diabetic retinopathy. Data for 1839 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic retinopathy were obtained from a Japanese diabetes registry. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying exposure information by sex was used and adjusted for potential confounders to assess the independent correlations between baseline serum uric acid levels and incidence rate of diabetic retinopathy. Newly developed diabetic retinopathy was recognized in 188 patients (10.2%) during the observation period of 2 years. Compared to the first serum uric acid quartile level, the multivariate adjusted hazards ratio for diabetic retinopathy development in male patients was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.14-3.41; P = .015), 1.92 (95% CI, 1.18-3.13; P = .008), and 2.17 (95% CI, 1.40-3.37; P = .001) for the second, third, and fourth serum uric acid quartile levels, respectively. But this was not the case with female patients. Higher serum uric acid levels were associated with increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in female patients. Serum uric acid may be a useful biomarker for predicting the future risk of developing diabetic retinopathy in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Reliability of a newly-developed immunochromatography diagnostic kit for pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm virus: implications for drug administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Sasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis of seasonal influenza, clinicians rely on point-of-care testing (POCT using commercially available kits developed against seasonal influenza viruses. However, POCT has not yet been established for the diagnosis of pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1pdm infection due to the low sensitivity of the existing kits for H1N1pdm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An immunochromatography (IC test kit was developed based on a monoclonal antibody against H1N1pdm, which does not cross-react with seasonal influenza A or B viruses. The efficacy of this kit (PDM-IC kit for the diagnosis of H1N1pdm infection was compared with that of an existing kit for the detection of seasonal influenza viruses (SEA-IC kit. Nasal swabs (n = 542 were obtained from patients with flu-like syndrome at 13 clinics in Osaka, Japan during the winter of 2010/2011. Among the 542 samples, randomly selected 332 were further evaluated for viral presence by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The PDM-IC kit versus the SEA-IC kit showed higher sensitivity to and specificity for H1N1pdm, despite several inconsistencies between the two kits or between the kits and RT-PCR. Consequently, greater numbers of false-negative and false-positive cases were documented when the SEA-IC kit was employed. Significant correlation coefficients for sensitivity, specificity, and negative prediction values between the two kits were observed at individual clinics, indicating that the results could be affected by clinic-related techniques for sampling and kit handling. Importantly, many patients (especially influenza-negative cases were prescribed anti-influenza drugs that were incongruous with their condition, largely due to physician preference for patient responses to questionnaires and patient symptomology, as opposed to actual viral presence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Concomitant use of SEA-IC and PDM-IC kits increased the likelihood of correct influenza

  15. SU-D-304-04: Pre-Clinical Feasibility Study for Intensity Modulated Grid Proton Therapy (IMgPT) Using a Newly Developed Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiamas, P; Moskvin, V; Shin, J; Axente, M; Pirlepesov, F; Krasin, M; Merchant, T; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to characterize and evaluate intensity-modulated proton grid therapy (IMgPT) using a clinical proton beam. Methods: A TOPAS MC model of a new developmental mode (pre-clinical) of the Hitachi proton therapy system (PROBEAT) was used for simulation and characterization of proton grid therapy. TOPAS simulations of different energy ranges, depths and spot separation distances were performed. LET spectra for various energies and depths were produced with FLUKA MC code for evaluation potential interplay between planning parameters and their effect on the characterization of areas (valley) between spots. IMgPT planning aspects (spot spacing, skin dose, peak-to-valley ratios, beam selection, etc.) were evaluated for different phantom and patient cases. Raysearch software (v4.51) was used to perform the evaluation. Results: Calculated beam peak-to-valley ratios scenarios showed strong energy and depth dependence with ratios to be larger for higher energies and shallower depths. Peak-to-valley ratios for R90 range and for spot spacing of 1cm varied from 30% (E = 221.3 MeV, depth 30.6 cm) to 80% (E = 70.3 MeV, depth 4 cm). LET spectra calculations showed spectral hardening with depth, which might potential increase, spot separation distance and improve peak-to-valley ratios. IMgPT optimization, using constant spot spacing, showed skin dose reduction between peak regions of dose due to the irradiation of less skin. Single beam for bulky shallower tumors might be a potential candidate for proton grid therapy. Conclusions: Proton grid therapy using a clinical beam is a promising technique that reduces skin dose between peak regions of dose and may be suitable for the treatment of shallow tumors. IMgPT may be considered for use when bystander effects in off peak regions would be appropriate.

  16. Using the Newly Developed Floor-Sitting Movement Analysis Proforma to Study the Effect of Age and Activity on Floor-Sitting in Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagrajan, Anjana; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2017-03-01

    Floor-sitting is culturally relevant to the Indian context. The present study aimed to examine the effect of age and activity on the movement patterns used and time taken to perform floor-sitting in Indian adults. Video-recordings of 30 young (23.30 ± 2.53 years) and 30 older (69.67 ± 6.45 years) adults performing floor-sitting without and with an activity (simulated feeding) were analyzed using the Floor-sitting Movement Analysis Proforma (FMAP) developed for the study. For inter-rater reliability of the FMAP, two raters analyzed the performance of a random sample of 20 participants. An almost perfect inter-rater agreeability (κ ≥ .8) was obtained for the FMAP. Cross-legged sitting was the most preferred (95%) floor-sitting position. Older adults used more number of movement components, asymmetrical patterns, more support, and more time (p sitting (p = .004). The study establishes the influence of age and activity on performance of floor-sitting. Older adults use lower developmental movement patterns that may be a "normal" adaptation to age-related sensorimotor changes. Retraining of floor-sitting is a "culturally" desired goal among Indian adults and should involve the practice of age-appropriate movement patterns in the context of meaningful activities.

  17. Analysis of Humoral Immune Responses to Surface and Virulence-Associated Chlamydia abortus Proteins in Ovine and Human Abortions by Use of a Newly Developed Line Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Jürgen Benjamin; Simnacher, Ulrike; Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maile, Julia; Soutschek, Erwin; Walder, Gernot; Boden, Katharina; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia abortus is the causative agent of enzootic abortion of ewes and poses a significant zoonotic risk for pregnant women. Using proteomic analysis and gene expression library screening in a previous project, we identified potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis, of which nine were scrutinized here with a strip immunoassay. We have shown that aborting sheep exhibited a strong antibody response to surface (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G) and virulence-associated (CPAF, TARP, SINC) antigens. While the latter disappeared within 18 weeks following abortion in a majority of the animals, antibodies to surface proteins persisted beyond the duration of the study. In contrast, nonaborting experimentally infected sheep developed mainly antibodies to surface antigens (MOMP, MIP, Pmp13G), all of which did not persist. We were also able to detect antibodies to these surface antigens in C abortus-infected women who had undergone septic abortion, whereas a group of shepherds and veterinarians with occupational exposure to C abortus-infected sheep revealed only sporadic immune responses to the antigens selected. The most specific antigen for the serodiagnosis of human C abortus infections was Pmp13G, which showed no cross-reactivity with other chlamydiae infecting humans. We suggest that Pmp13G-based serodiagnosis accomplished by the detection of antibodies to virulence-associated antigens such as CPAF, TARP, and SINC may improve the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal C abortus infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Spatial distribution of ventricular late potentials assessed by the newly developed signal-averaged vector-projected 187-channel electrocardiogram in patients with old myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Futagawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk stratification of lethal arrhythmias is important for the management of ischemic heart disease. Recently, we developed a novel 187-channel signal-averaged vector-projected high-resolution electrocardiograph (187-ch SAVP-ECG with a Mason–Likar lead system with 10 electrodes. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a noninvasive evaluation of the spatial distribution of high-frequency late potentials (HFLPs in patients with myocardial infarction (MI by using the 187-ch SAVP-ECG. Sixty-four MI patients (7 women and 57 men, between the age of 39 and 84 years (mean 67.7±9.7 years, with positive ventricular late potentials defined by an X, Y, Z-lead ECG were studied. The integrated ventricular 187-ch SAVP-ECG could identify the area of HFLPs that was projected virtually by mathematically calculated 187 electrograms on the body surface in all patients, and differentiate the locations of MI. The 187-ch SAVP-ECG can be a practical and noninvasive examination tool for identifying the location of infarction areas and possible arrhythmogenic substrates with slow conduction properties in patients with MI.

  19. Molecular spectroscopic features of protein in newly developed chickpea: Relationship with protein chemical profile and metabolism in the rumen and intestine of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoli; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-05-05

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy. The second aim was to quantify the relationship between protein molecular spectral characteristics and CP subfractions, in situ rumen CP degradation characteristics, intestinal digestibility of CP, and MP supply to dairy cows. Samples (n=4) of each variety, from two consecutive years were analyzed. Chickpeas had higher (Pmolecular spectral data of chickpeas can be distinguished from the barley. The two chickpeas did not differ in CP content, and any of the measured in situ degradation and molecular spectral characteristics of protein. The content of RUP was positively (r=0.94, Pmolecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their digestibility and nutritive value. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of Bs mixing at the CDFII experiment with a newly developed opposite side b-flavour tagging algorithm using kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamanna, Giuseppe [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    This thesis describes the development, calibration and performance evaluation of an Opposite-side b flavor tagger using K mesons at a p$\\bar{p} $hadron collider. In particular, this work is performed using data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) during the Run II of the Tevatron hadron collider running at √s = 1.96 TeV. b flavor tagging consists of the determination of the flavor of the b quark contained within a hadron. This information is vital to perform any time-dependent measurement involving flavor asymmetries in b hadron decays and flavor oscillations, where it is necessary to know whether a b or $\\bar{b}$ was contained in a hadron when it was produced. Although at a hadron collider the biggest challenge is probably to perform an effective selection of interesting events in real time and with the best signal-to-background ratio, the statistical significance of any time-dependent measurement is proportional to the effectiveness with which the selected data sample is tagged.

  1. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process [nl

  2. Development of remedial method for teaching electric circuits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also it attempted to develop a remedial teaching method that would be used to remedy any identified misconceptions. An electric circuit Remedial Teaching Method was therefore developed, and its impact was assessed using a nonrandomized control pretest/post-test design. The percentages of students who had various ...

  3. Developing a reliable signal wire attachment method for rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a better attachment method for rail signal wires to improve the reliability of signaling : systems. EWI conducted basic research into the failure mode of current attachment methods and developed and tested a ne...

  4. Development of Early Warning Methods for Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    This thesis concerns the development of methods that can provide, in realtime, an early warning for an emerging blackout in electric power systems. The blackout in E-Denmark and S-Sweden on September 23, 2003 is the main motivation for the method development. The blackout was caused by occurrence...

  5. Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Validation of Analytical Method for Losartan-Copper Complex Using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop a new spectrophotometric method for the analysis of losartan potassium in pharmaceutical formulations by making its complex with ...

  6. Sulfur Isotope Variation in Basaltic Melt Inclusions from Krakatau Revealed by a Newly Developed Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Technique for Silicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, C. W.; Shimizu, N.; Kelley, K. A.; Cheek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfur is a ubiquitous element with variable valance states (S2-, S0, S4+, S6+) allowing for its participation in a wide variety of chemical and biogeochemical processes. However, its potential as an isotopic tracer in magmatic processes has not been fully developed and is crucial to understanding of sulfur recycling in subduction zones and between Earth's major reservoirs, mantle, lithosphere and coupled hydrosphere-atmosphere. Previous studies of silicate glasses and melt inclusions have been hampered by lack of an in situ isotopic measurement technique with spatial resolution of 10 to 100 microns. We have developed a new secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analytical technique for measurement of 34S/32S ratios in silicate glasses utilizing the IMS 1280 at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. A beam of 133Cs+ ions with 13 keV energy and current of 1-2 nA is focused onto a 10 micron spot and rastered over 30 × 30 microns. A Normal Incidence Electron Gun was used to compensate excess charge. The rastered beam is then centered to the optical axis of the machine, and a mechanical aperture is placed on the image plane to limit the area of analysis to the central 15 × 15 microns. The energy slit width was adjusted to 50 eV. A mass resolving power of 5500 was sufficient for eliminating mass interferences. A suite of synthetic and natural glasses with δ34SVCDT values spanning from - 5.6‰ to 18.5‰ with SiO2 from 44-72 weight % were measured. Magnitude of the instrumental mass fractionation (α) for 34S/32S ratios is 0.991 and is constant for all the glasses measured despite their compositions. Precision of individual measurements of 34S/32S ratios is 0.4 ‰, or better. Preliminary δ34S measurements of olivine-hosted basaltic melt inclusions in pre- 1883 basaltic scoria from Krakatau volcano Indonesia vary from -5.6 to 7.9‰ with sulfur concentrations from 490 to 2170 ppm, respectively. Host olivines are Fo77-80 and inclusions generally need minor to no post

  7. Standoff detection of bioaerosols over wide area using a newly developed sensor combining a cloud mapper and a spectrometric LIF lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Roy, Gilles; Lahaie, Pierre; Nadeau, Denis; Mathieu, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    A standoff sensor called BioSense was developed to demonstrate the capacity to map, track and classify bioaerosol clouds from a distant range and over wide area. The concept of the system is based on a two steps dynamic surveillance: 1) cloud detection using an infrared (IR) scanning cloud mapper and 2) cloud classification based on a staring ultraviolet (UV) Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) interrogation. The system can be operated either in an automatic surveillance mode or using manual intervention. The automatic surveillance operation includes several steps: mission planning, sensor deployment, background monitoring, surveillance, cloud detection, classification and finally alarm generation based on the classification result. One of the main challenges is the classification step which relies on a spectrally resolved UV LIF signature library. The construction of this library relies currently on in-chamber releases of various materials that are simultaneously characterized with the standoff sensor and referenced with point sensors such as Aerodynamic Particle Sizer® (APS). The system was tested at three different locations in order to evaluate its capacity to operate in diverse types of surroundings and various environmental conditions. The system showed generally good performances even though the troubleshooting of the system was not completed before initiating the Test and Evaluation (T&E) process. The standoff system performances appeared to be highly dependent on the type of challenges, on the climatic conditions and on the period of day. The real-time results combined with the experience acquired during the 2012 T & E allowed to identify future ameliorations and investigation avenues.

  8. Molecular spectroscopic features of protein in newly developed chickpea: Relationship with protein chemical profile and metabolism in the rumen and intestine of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoli; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-05-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional value of crude protein (CP) in CDC [Crop Development Centre (CDC), University of Saskatchewan] chickpea varieties (Frontier kabuli and Corinne desi) in comparison with a CDC barley variety in terms of: 1) CP chemical profile and subfractions; (2) in situ rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal digestibility of CP; 2) metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cows; and (3) protein molecular structure characteristics using advanced molecular spectroscopy. The second aim was to quantify the relationship between protein molecular spectral characteristics and CP subfractions, in situ rumen CP degradation characteristics, intestinal digestibility of CP, and MP supply to dairy cows. Samples (n = 4) of each variety, from two consecutive years were analyzed. Chickpeas had higher (P chickpeas than barley. The effective degradability ratio of N to organic matter (OM) (36.07-38.44 g N/kg OM) of the chickpeas was higher than the optimal for achieving optimum microbial CP (MCP) synthesis. The truly digested MCP (64.94-66.43 vs. 41.43 g/kg DM); MP (81.10-83.67 vs 61.0 g/kg DM) feed milk value (1.64-1.70 vs 1.24) was higher in the chickpeas than barley grain. The chickpeas had higher (P protein molecular spectral data of chickpeas can be distinguished from the barley. The two chickpeas did not differ in CP content, and any of the measured in situ degradation and molecular spectral characteristics of protein. The content of RUP was positively (r = 0.94, P chickpea is a good source of MP for dairy cows, and molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their digestibility and nutritive value.

  9. Differential detection of type II methanotrophic bacteria in acidic peatlands using newly developed 16S rRNA-targeted fluorescent oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F; Derakshani, Manigee; Stubner, Stephan; Heyer, Jürgen; Liesack, Werner

    2003-04-01

    Abstract Based on an extensive 16S rRNA sequence database for type II methanotrophic bacteria, a set of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for differential detection of specific phylogenetic groups of these bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). This set of oligonucleotides included a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis (Mcyst-1432) and three species-specific probes for Methylosinus sporium (Msins-647), Methylosinus trichosporium (Msint-1268) and the recently described acidophilic methanotroph Methylocapsa acidiphila (Mcaps-1032). These novel probes were applied to further characterise the type II methanotroph community that was detected in an acidic Sphagnum peat from West Siberia in a previous study (Dedysh et al. (2001) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4850-4857). The largest detectable population of indigenous methanotrophs simultaneously hybridised with a group-specific probe targeting all currently known Methylosinus/Methylocystis spp. (M-450), with a genus-specific probe for Methylocystis spp. (Mcyst-1432), and with an additional probe (Mcyst-1261) that had been designed to target a defined phylogenetic subgroup of Methylocystis spp. The same subgroup of Methylocystis was also detected in acidic peat sampled from Sphagnum-dominated wetland in northern Germany. The population size of this peat-inhabiting Methylocystis subgroup was 2.0+/-0.1x10(6) cells g(-1) (wet weight) of peat from Siberia and 5.5+/-0.5x10(6) cells g(-1) of peat from northern Germany. This represented 60 and 95%, respectively, of the total number of methanotroph cells detected by FISH in these two wetland sites. Other major methanotroph populations were M. acidiphila and Methylocella palustris. Type I methanotrophs accounted for not more than 1% of total methanotroph cells. Neither M. trichosporium nor M. sporium were detected in acidic Sphagnum peat.

  10. Developing and evaluating a machine learning based algorithm to predict the need of pediatric intensive care unit transfer for newly hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haijun; Brady, Patrick; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Ni, Yizhao; Wheeler, Derek S; Solti, Imre

    2014-08-01

    Early warning scores (EWS) are designed to identify early clinical deterioration by combining physiologic and/or laboratory measures to generate a quantified score. Current EWS leverage only a small fraction of Electronic Health Record (EHR) content. The planned widespread implementation of EHRs brings the promise of abundant data resources for prediction purposes. The three specific aims of our research are: (1) to develop an EHR-based automated algorithm to predict the need for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) transfer in the first 24h of admission; (2) to evaluate the performance of the new algorithm on a held-out test data set; and (3) to compare the effectiveness of the new algorithm's with those of two published Pediatric Early Warning Scores (PEWS). The cases were comprised of 526 encounters with 24-h Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) transfer. In addition to the cases, we randomly selected 6772 control encounters from 62516 inpatient admissions that were never transferred to the PICU. We used 29 variables in a logistic regression and compared our algorithm against two published PEWS on a held-out test data set. The logistic regression algorithm achieved 0.849 (95% CI 0.753-0.945) sensitivity, 0.859 (95% CI 0.850-0.868) specificity and 0.912 (95% CI 0.905-0.919) area under the curve (AUC) in the test set. Our algorithm's AUC was significantly higher, by 11.8 and 22.6% in the test set, than two published PEWS. The novel algorithm achieved higher sensitivity, specificity, and AUC than the two PEWS reported in the literature. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. First percutaneous implantation of a completely tissue-engineered self-expanding pulmonary heart valve prosthesis using a newly developed delivery system: a feasibility study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriestersbach, Hendrik; Prudlo, Antonia; Bartosch, Marco; Sanders, Bart; Radtke, Torben; Baaijens, Frank P T; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Berger, Felix; Schmitt, Boris

    2017-01-01

    In a European consortium, a decellularized tissue-engineered heart valve (dTEHV) based on vessel-derived cells, a fast-degrading scaffold and a self-expanding stent has been developed. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that percutaneous delivery is feasible. To implant this valve prosthesis transcutaneously into pulmonary position, a catheter delivery system was designed and custom made. Three sheep underwent transjugular prototype implantation. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), angiography and computed tomography (CT) were applied to assess the position, morphology, function and dimensions of the stented dTEHV. One animal was killed 3 h after implantation and two animals were followed up for 12 weeks. Explanted valves were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically. In all animals, the percutaneous implantation of the stented dTEHV was successful. The prototype delivery system worked at first attempt in all animals. In the first implantation a 22 F system was used: the valve was slightly damaged during crimping. Loading was difficult due to valve-catheter mismatch in volume. In the second and third implantation a 26 F system was used: the valves fitted adequately and stayed intact. Following implantation, these two valves showed moderate regurgitation due to insufficient coaptation. During follow-up, regurgitation increased due to shortened leaflets. At explantation, macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the second and third valve to be intact. Histology revealed autologous recellularization of the decellularized valve after 12 weeks in vivo. It was demonstrated that completely in vitro tissue-engineered heart valves are thin and stable enough to be crimped and implanted transvenously into pulmonary position.

  12. Development of analysis methods for seismically isolated nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeng-Hoi

    2002-01-01

    KAERI's contributions to the project entitled Development of Analysis Methods for Seismically Isolated Nuclear Structures under IAEA CRP of the intercomparison of analysis methods for predicting the behaviour of seismically isolated nuclear structures during 1996-1999 in effort to develop the numerical analysis methods and to compare the analysis results with the benchmark test results of seismic isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures provided by participating countries are briefly described. Certain progress in the analysis procedures for isolation bearings and isolated nuclear structures has been made throughout the IAEA CRPs and the analysis methods developed can be improved for future nuclear facility applications. (author)

  13. Development and Validation of a Bioanalytical Method for Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2011-01-16

    Jan 16, 2011 ... Purpose: To develop and validate a user-friendly spiked plasma method for the extraction of diclofenac potassium that reduces the ... Keywords: Bioanalytical method, Diclofenac potassium, RP-HPLC method, NSAIDs, Plasma. Received: 16 ..... R. Enantiospecific Pharmacokinetic Studies on. Ketoprofen in ...

  14. Development of a Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a simple visible spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of ganciclovir in bulk sample and dosage form. Method: The method was based on the diazo coupling reaction between diazotized ganciclovir and acidified p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. Various analytical ...

  15. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  16. [Establishment of a short-form screening test for cognitive decline as part of a newly developed comprehensive geriatric assessment initiative named 'Dr. Superman'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Takeshi; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive function is important in comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), and several standardized screening tests for dementia such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are available. However, it takes 5 to 20 minutes to perform the MMSE. We have developed a CGA initiative named 'Dr. Superman' which is designed to accomplish CGA within 10 minutes. In this study, we evaluated a short-form screening test for cognitive decline preceding the MMSE. The MMSE and a question on episodic memory, ("What kind of food did you have last night?") were administered to 90 elderly outpatients with various diseases. They were divided into 2 groups according to their MMSE scores: a normal group (MMSE score≥24) and an abnormal group (MMSE score≤23). Within these groups, each domain (D) (D1: time orientation, D2: place orientation, D3: immediate memory, D4: calculation, D5: recall, D6: language, and D7: spatial cognition) and episodic memory was separately scored and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predicative value of each were calculated. Based on these data, the best combination of the domains was evaluated for practical use as an assessment tool. The MMSE scores ranged from 10 to 30, and 42 cases were classified into the normal group. High sensitivity, specificity, or positive predicative value was observed in D1, D2, D4, D5 and episodic memory categories. On the basis of the characteristics of each item in these domains in order to make a short-form assessment, a combination of "What is this year" in D1, "Serial 7's twice" in D4, and a question on episodic memory was found to be superior to other combinations (sensitivity: 93.8%; specificity: 71.4%; positive predicative value: 78.9%). Using this combination for 50 outpatients with 2 raters, it took 32 to 55 seconds to accomplish the assessment with good inter-rater reliability (κ=0.861). The combination of "What is this year?", "Serial 7's twice", and "What kind of food did you have

  17. [Establishment of a short-form screening test for malnutrition in a newly developed comprehensive geriatric assessment initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hiroko; Ohnuma, Takeshi; Satoh, Tomohiko; Sugiyama, Keiko; Harikae, Maki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nutritional state is important in comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Several standardized screening tests for malnutrition are available such as the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and MNA-Short Form (MNA-SF). However, it takes more than 10 minutes to perform the MNA-SF alone. We have developed a CGA initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN', which is designed to accomplish CGA within 10 minutes. In this study, we evaluated a short-form screening test for malnutrition preceding the MNA. The MNA-SF, which consists of 6 items (A-F), was administered to 163 elderly outpatients (mean age: 83.4 years, 80 men) with various diseases. Using the results of the MNA-SF score (normal ≥ 12 and abnormal ≤ 11) as a gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values (PPVs) of each item were calculated and the best combination of 2 items for identifying malnutrition among the elderly outpatients was selected. According to the combination of 2 items (item B: weight loss during the last 3 months; item F: body mass index (BMI)/calf circumference (CC) in cm), they were divided into 2 groups: the normal control (NC) group (neither items B nor F) and the malnutrition/at risk (MN) group (either items B or D, or both). Findings of the clinical feature, anthropometric measurement, and nutritional biomarker between the 2 groups were examined to clarify the characteristics of each. The MNA-SF score was distributed as follows: 3-7 in 12 cases, 8-11 in 68 cases, and 12-14 in 83 cases. Based on the MNA-SF score, the combination of items B and F revealed the highest sensitivity (91.3%), specificity (63.9%), and PPV (70.9%), resulting in 103 cases in the MN group and 60 cases in the NC group. A high frequency of anorexia, living alone, hypoprealbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, and dehydration was observed in the MN group, whereas a high frequency of leg edema was observed in the NC group. Cases showing a positive wall-occiput test, which compelled the

  18. Structural Make-up, Biopolymer Conformation, and Biodegradation Characteristics of Newly Developed Super Genotype of Oats (CDC SO-I vs. Conventional Varieties): Novel Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiran, D.; Yu, P

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new 'super' genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE{sub L3x}, 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.

  19. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    Full Text Available Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff. is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2 that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar and 93-11 (indica cultivar. InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922, while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome

  20. Structural Make-up, Biopolymer Conformation, and Biodegradation Characteristics of Newly Developed Super Genotype of Oats (CDC SO-I vs. Conventional Varieties): Novel Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiran, D.; Yu, P.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new 'super' genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE L3x , 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.

  1. Mistakes the newly promoted make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1999-01-01

    Many newly promoted managers make identical mistakes, most of them preventable. Physician executives who are thinking of taking on a bigger job should consider the following eight mistakes: (1) misreading top management's agenda, (2) micromanaging your successor, (3) not updating technical skills, (4) assuming customs and taboos are negotiable, (5) not rewriting your job description to mirror your new role, (6) not mentally moving from management to leadership, (7) not adjusting to relationships, and (8) not identifying a likely successor.

  2. Omeprazole, other antiulcer drugs and newly diagnosed gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Christoph R.; Jick, Hershel

    1997-01-01

    Aims Case-reports describing patients who developed a first episode of acute gout while being treated with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole led us to compare incidence rates of newly diagnosed gout cases among omeprazole, ranitidine and cimetidine users. Methods We conducted a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis using the UK-based General Practitioner Research Database (GPRD). The study encompassed a cohort of more than 53 000 subjects who received some 185 000 prescriptions for the three study drugs. Results Neither current omeprazole vs recent use (age- and sex-adjusted relative risk 1.1, 95% CI 0.5–2.1), nor current omeprazole use in comparison with current use of the two histamine H2-receptor blockers was associated with an increased risk of developing newly diagnosed gout. Higher age (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5–3.9), male gender (RR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.3), high body mass index (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–10.9) and hypertension (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.6–12.9) were all important risk factors for gout. Conclusions While other known risk factors were significantly associated with gout, current omeprazole use was not materially associated with an increased gout incidence. PMID:9278205

  3. Development of automatic control method for cryopump system for JT-60 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Akino, Noboru; Dairaku, Masayuki; Ohuchi, Yutaka; Shibata, Takemasa

    1991-10-01

    A cryopump system for JT-60 neutral beam injector (NBI) is composed of 14 cryopumps with the largest total pumping speed of 20000 m 3 /s in the world, which are cooled by liquid helium through a long-distance liquid helium transferline of about 500 m from a helium refrigerator with the largest capacity of 3000 W at 3.6 K in Japan. An automatic control method of the cryopump system has been developed and tested. Features of the automatic control method are as follows. 1) Suppression control of the thermal imbalance in cooling-down of the 14 cryopumps. 2) Stable cooling control of the cryopump due to liquid helium supply to six cryopanels by natural circulation in steady-state mode. 3) Stable liquid helium supply control for the cryopumps from the liquid helium dewar in all operation modes of the cryopumps, considering the helium quantities held in respective components of the closed helium loop. 4) Stable control of the helium refrigerator for the fluctuation in thermal load from the cryopumps and the change of operation mode of the cryopumps. In the automatic operation of the cryopump system by the newly developed control method, the cryopump system including the refrigerator was stably operated for all operation modes of the cryopumps, so that the cool-down of 14 cryopumps was completed in 16 hours from the start of cool-down of the system and the cryopumps was stably cooled by natural circulation cooling in steady-state mode. (author)

  4. Development of novel growth methods for halide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    We developed novel growth methods for halide scintillator single crystals with hygroscopic nature, Halide micro-pulling-down [H-μ-PD] method and Halide Vertical Bridgman [H-VB] method. The H-μ-PD method with a removable chamber system can grow a single crystal of halide scintillator material with hygroscopicity at faster growth rate than the conventional methods. On the other hand, the H-VB method can grow a large bulk single crystal of halide scintillator without a quartz ampule. CeCl3, LaBr3, Ce:LaBr3 and Eu:SrI2 fiber single crystals could be grown by the H-μ-PD method and Eu:SrI2 bulk single crystals of 1 and 1.5 inch in diameter could be grown by the H-VB method. The grown fiber and bulk single crystals showed comparable scintillation properties to the previous reports using the conventional methods.

  5. Development of measure methods of radon in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, L.T.; Pela, C.A.; Navas, E.A.; Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The development of some conventional measuring methods, aiming obtain an estimation of radon concentration in air, mainly in indoor air is described, including the charcoal absorption collector, Lucas cell and thermoluminescent dosemeters. (C.G.C)

  6. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  7. A systematic review and appraisal of methods of developing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) risk factors questionnaires is the key to obtaining accurate information to enable planning of CVD prevention program which is a necessity in developing countries. We conducted this review to assess methods and processes used for ...

  8. New developments in the Csub(N) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Paul; Kavenoky, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    The most recent developments of the Csub(N) method used for solving transport equations are presented: treatment of the Rayleigh scattering kernel in plane geometry and of the cylindrical problems with an isotropic scattering law [fr

  9. EPA Scientists Develop Research Methods for Studying Mold Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency researchers developed a DNA-based Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction method (MSQPCR) for identifying and quantifying over 100 common molds and fungi.

  10. Microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, N. E.; Gryaznov, A. Yu; Kholopova, E. D.; Guk, K. K.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper microelectronic devices digital X-ray image processing method development is described. The main steps of the algorithm work are presented. The results of using the algorithm for improving the printed circuit board image are shown

  11. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    for an industry to do so; discuss what education that candidates for these industries need, that is, which courses must be part of a BSc/MSc Software Engineering curriculum. Finally we shall comment on distinctions between formal methods and formal techniques; limitations of mono-language formalisations, hence......The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974......-..., [1]), Z (Z for Zermelo Fraenkel, 1980-..., [2]), RAISE (Rigorous Approach to Industrial Software Engineering, 1987-..., [3]) Event B (B for Bourbaki, 1990/2000-..., [4]) and Alloy [5]; and outline the basics of a formal development using, for example, RAISE: first developing a domain description D...

  12. Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a gradient tube method for examining microbial population structures in floating sulphur biofilms. ML Bowker, JB Molwantwa, J Gilfillan, R Dorrington, R Kirby, PD Rose ...

  13. Dilemmas of a Newly Recruited Academic Qualified Professor: A Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the situation of a newly recruited academic professor who volunteered to teach a course on Research Methods to first-term MBA students in a practitioner-oriented case method Business School. Research Methods is a unique course due to its relevance not only in business but also across all graduate programs. Instructional and…

  14. Asset Based Community Driven Development Method For Agrotourism Development On Integrated Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Syah, Muhammad; Zakariah, Muhammad Askari; Zakariah, Muhammad; Azis, Muhammad Asra

    2017-01-01

    This community based research aim to determined effect asset based community driven development (ABCD) method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system were done in Mowewe district, East Kolaka Regency. Qualitative method were used participant observation developed. Approach stage of ABCD method for agrotourism development on integrated farming system are: discovering strengths, organizing and mapping, lingking and mobilizing, community driven initiatives and sustaining the pro...

  15. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttila, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy

  16. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  17. Development of digital image correlation method to analyse crack ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The wall deficiency is very difficult to detect in practical experiments because crack formation and development cannot be measured accurately. Therefore, the digital image correlation method is proposed in this study to observe the surface deformation of brick wall; the feasibility of applying this method for crack observation ...

  18. Development and Validation of a Bioanalytical Method for Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a user-friendly spiked plasma method for the extraction of diclofenac potassium that reduces the number of treatments with plasma sample, in order to minimize human error. Method: Instead of solvent evaporation technique, the spiked plasma sample was modified with H2SO4 and NaCl, ...

  19. Development and Validation of Improved Method for Fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate an improved method by capillary zone electrophoresis with photodiode array detection for the fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Rhizoma Chuanxiong). Methods: The optimum high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) conditions were 30 mM borax containing 5 ...

  20. On the Adaptation of an Agile Information Systems Development Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, F.; van Slooten, C.; Stegwee, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This article presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. Two forms

  1. Adaptation of an Agile Information System Development Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, A.F.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Stegwee, R.A.; Siau, K.

    2007-01-01

    Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This chapter presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. The

  2. Epistemological Development and Judgments and Reasoning about Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 96 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14-year-olds and university students) epistemological development and its relation to judgments and reasoning about teaching methods was examined. The domain (scientific or moral), nature of the topic (controversial or noncontroversial), and teaching method (direct instruction by…

  3. Methods of the Development Strategy of Service Companies: Logistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toymentseva, Irina A.; Karpova, Natalya P.; Toymentseva, Angelina A.; Chichkina, Vera D.; Efanov, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to lack of attention of heads of service companies to the theory and methodology of strategic management, methods and models of management decision-making in times of economic instability. The purpose of the article is to develop theoretical positions and methodical recommendations on the formation of the…

  4. Developing Plurilinguism in Slovakia: The CLIL Method, A Starting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malá Eva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an introduction of the CLIL (Content and LanguageIntegrated Learning - a newly invented and officially recommended method for the teaching of foreign languages in the European Union. The authors describe its general characteristics and benefits as well as give examples of its application in Slovakia, one of the new member states of the EU. Since Slovakia is not widely known in Colombia, the authors have added a description of the situation in teaching foreign languages in their country, thus providing an important context for teaching objectives and conditions of applying the CLIL. Key words: Plurilinguism, Foreign Language Teaching-Young Learners, CLILMethodology Este documento trata sobre la introducción del método (Contenido y Lenguaje integrados en el aprendizaje CLIL – una nueva metodología diseñada y oficialmente recomendada como método de enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras en la Unión Europea. Las autoras describen las características generales del método y sus beneficios, así como ejemplos de su aplicación en Eslovenia, uno de los nuevos miembros de la UE. Debido a que Eslovenia no es muy conocida en Colombia, las autoras han incluido una descripción de la situación de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras en su país. De tal manera, proveen un contexto importante para los objetivos y condiciones de la enseñanza en la aplicación de esta metodología. Palabras claves: Plurilingüismo, Enseñanza-Lenguas Extranjeras- Estudiantes-Jóvenes, CLIL-Metodología

  5. A Model-Driven Development Method for Management Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Keinosuke; Mori, Naoki

    Traditionally, a Management Information System (MIS) has been developed without using formal methods. By the informal methods, the MIS is developed on its lifecycle without having any models. It causes many problems such as lack of the reliability of system design specifications. In order to overcome these problems, a model theory approach was proposed. The approach is based on an idea that a system can be modeled by automata and set theory. However, it is very difficult to generate automata of the system to be developed right from the start. On the other hand, there is a model-driven development method that can flexibly correspond to changes of business logics or implementing technologies. In the model-driven development, a system is modeled using a modeling language such as UML. This paper proposes a new development method for management information systems applying the model-driven development method to a component of the model theory approach. The experiment has shown that a reduced amount of efforts is more than 30% of all the efforts.

  6. USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP METHOD IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Cengiz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a body of economical and social policies towards improving living conditions in rural areas through enabling rural population to utilize economical, social, cultural and technological blessing of city life in place, without migrating. As it is understood from this description, rural development is a very broad concept. Therefore, in development efforts problem should be stated clearly, analyzed and many criterias should be evaluated by experts. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method can be utilized at there stages of development efforts. AHP methods is one of multi-criteria decision method. After degrading a problem in smaller pieces, relative importance and level of importance of two compared elements are determined. It allows evaluation of quality and quantity factors. At the same time, it permits utilization of ideas of many experts and use them in decision process. Because mentioned features of AHP method, it could be used in rural development works. In this article, cultural factors, one of the important components of rural development is often ignored in many studies, were evaluated as an example. As a result of these applications and evaluations, it is concluded that AHP method could be helpful in rural development efforts.

  7. Compare the user interface of digital libraries\\' websites between the developing and developed countries in content analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Abbas Mousavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study performed with goals of determining the Items in designing and developing the user interface of digital libraries' websites and to determine the best digital libraries' websites and discuss their advantages and disadvantages; to analyze and compare digital libraries' websites in developing countries with those in the developed countries. Methodology: to do so, 50 digital libraries' websites were selected by purposive sampling method. By analyzing the level of development of the countries in the sample regarding their digital libraries' websites, 12 websites were classified as belonging to developing and 38 countries to developed counties. Then, their content was studied by using a qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted by using a research-constructed checklist containing 12 main categories and 44 items, whose validity was decided by content validity method. The data was analyzed in SPSS (version 16. Findings: The results showed that in terms of “online resources”, “library collection,” and “navigation”, there is a significant relationship between the digital library' user interface design in both types of countries. Results: The items of “online public access catalogue (OPAC” and “visits statistics” were observed in more developing countries’ digital libraries' websites. However, the item of “menu and submenus to introduce library' sections” was presented in more developed countries’ digital libraries' websites. Moreover, by analyzing the number of items in the selected websites, “American Memory” with 44 items, “International Children Digital Library” with 40 items, and “California” with 39 items were the best, and “Berkeley Sun Site” with 10 items was the worst website. Despite more and better quality digital libraries in developed countries, the quality of digital libraries websites in developing countries is considerable. In general, some of the newly established

  8. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  9. Evaluation index system of steel industry sustainable development based on entropy method and topsis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronglian, Yuan; Mingye, Ai; Qiaona, Jia; Yuxuan, Liu

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable development is the only way for the development of human society. As an important part of the national economy, the steel industry is an energy-intensive industry and needs to go further for sustainable development. In this paper, we use entropy method and Topsis method to evaluate the development of China’s steel industry during the “12th Five-Year Plan” from four aspects: resource utilization efficiency, main energy and material consumption, pollution status and resource reuse rate. And we also put forward some suggestions for the development of China’s steel industry.

  10. Development of 3-D FBR heterogeneous core calculation method based on characteristics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Maruyama, Manabu; Hamada, Yuzuru; Nishi, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Junichi; Kitano, Akihiro

    2002-01-01

    A new 3-D transport calculation method taking into account the heterogeneity of fuel assemblies has been developed by combining the characteristics method and the nodal transport method. In the axial direction the nodal transport method is applied, and the characteristics method is applied to take into account the radial heterogeneity of fuel assemblies. The numerical calculations have been performed to verify 2-D radial calculations of FBR assemblies and partial core calculations. Results are compared with the reference Monte-Carlo calculations. A good agreement has been achieved. It is shown that the present method has an advantage in calculating reaction rates in a small region

  11. Quality functions for requirements engineering in system development methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M; Timpka, T

    1996-01-01

    Based on a grounded theory framework, this paper analyses the quality characteristics for methods to be used for requirements engineering in the development of medical decision support systems (MDSS). The results from a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) used to rank functions connected to user value and a focus group study were presented to a validation focus group. The focus group studies take advantage of a group process to collect data for further analyses. The results describe factors considered by the participants as important in the development of methods for requirements engineering in health care. Based on the findings, the content which, according to the user a MDSS method should support is established.

  12. Efficacy of modified polycross method in development of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the modified polycross method is as efficient as the Hawaiian polycross technique and more economical in the development of high yielding commercial sugarcane varieties in low technological developed sugarcane breeding programme. Key Words: Crop cycles, Heritability, Rank Summation Index ...

  13. Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous estimation of citicoline and piracetam in tablet dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, Akhila; Sathi, Aiswarya; Sathi, Kavya; Rahate, Kalpana Pravin

    2013-07-01

    Citicoline (CN) and piracetam (PM) combination in tablet formulation is newly introduced in market. It is necessary to develop suitable quality control methods for rapid and accurate determination of these drugs. The study aimed to develop the methods for simultaneous determination of CN and PM in combined dosage form. The first method was developed by formation and solving simultaneous equations using 280.3 and 264.1 nm as two analytical wavelengths. Second method was absorbance ratio in which wavelengths selected were 256.6 nm as its absorptive point and 280.3 nm as λmax of CN. According to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) norm, the parameters - linearity, precision, and accuracy were studied. The methods were validated statistically and by recovery studies. Both the drugs obeyed Beer-Lambert's law at the selected wavelengths in concentration range of 5-13 μg/ml for CN and 10-22 μg/ml for PM. The percentage of CN and PM in marketed tablet formulation was found to be 99.006 ± 0.173 and 99.257 ± 0.613, respectively; by simultaneous equation method. For Q-Absorption ratio method the percentage of CN and PM was found to be 99.078 ± 0.158 and 99.708 ± 0.838, respectively. The proposed methods were simple, reproducible, precise and robust. The methods can be successfully applied for routine analysis of tablets.

  14. Recently developed methods in neutral-particle transport calculations: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that successful, general methods for the solution of the neutral particle transport equation involve a close connection between the spatial-discretization method used and the source-acceleration method chosen. The first form of the transport equation, angular discretization which is discrete ordinates is considered as well as spatial discretization based upon a mesh arrangement. Characteristic methods are considered briefly in the context of future, desirable developments. The ideal spatial-discretization method is described as having the following attributes: (1) positive-positive boundary data yields a positive angular flux within the mesh including its boundaries; (2) satisfies the particle balance equation over the mesh, that is, the method is conservative; (3) possesses the diffusion limit independent of spatial mesh size, that is, for a linearly isotropic flux assumption, the transport differencing reduces to a suitable diffusion equation differencing; (4) the method is unconditionally acceleratable, i.e., for each mesh size, the method is unconditionally convergent with a source iteration acceleration. It is doubtful that a single method possesses all these attributes for a general problem. Some commonly used methods are outlined and their computational performance and usefulness are compared; recommendations for future development are detailed, which include practical computational considerations

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIGGINS, J.C.; O'HARA, J.M.; LEWIS, P.M.; PERSENSKY, J.; BONGARRA, J.

    2002-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS. THE U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) REVIEWS THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF PROPOSED LICENSE AMENDMENTS THAT IMPACT HUMAN ACTIONS THAT ARE CREDITED IN A PLANTS SAFETY ANALYSIS. THE STAFF IS COMMITTED TO A GRADED APPROACH TO THESE REVIEWS THAT FOCUS RESOURCES ON THE MOST RISK IMPORTANT CHANGES. THEREFORE, A RISK INFORMED SCREENING METHOD WAS DEVELOPED BASED ON AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING GUIDANCE FOR RISK INFORMED REGULATION AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE METHOD USES BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION TO DIVIDE THE AMENDMENT REQUESTS INTO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF REVIEW. THE METHOD WAS EVALUATED USING A VARIETY OF TESTS. THIS PAPER WILL SUMMARIZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY AND THE EVALUATIONS THAT WERE PERFORMED TO VERIFY ITS USEFULNESS

  16. Newly discovered hepatitis C virus minicores circulate in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Francis J.; El‐Shamy, Ahmed; Doyle, Erin H.; Klepper, Arielle; Muerhoff, A. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic blood‐borne infections worldwide. Despite developments of highly effective treatments, most infected individuals are unaware of their infection. Approximately 75% of infections are in low‐ and middle‐income countries; therefore, continuing research in HCV molecular virology and the development of vaccines and affordable diagnostics is required to reduce the global burden. Various intracellular forms of the HCV nucleocapsid (core) protein are produced in cell culture; these comprise the conventional p21 core and the newly discovered shorter isoforms (minicores). Minicores lack the N‐terminus of p21 core. This study was conducted to determine if minicores are secreted in cell culture and more importantly if they circulate in the blood of individuals infected with HCV. We also developed a new monoclonal antibody that detects minicores targeting a C‐terminal region common to p21 core and minicores. Direct evidence of minicores requires western blot analysis to distinguish the detection of p21 core from minicores. However, the sensitivity for western blot detection of HCV proteins from blood is nil without their prior purification/enrichment from blood. Therefore, we developed a purification method based on a heparin/Mn+2 precipitation of apolipoprotein B‐containing lipoproteins because HCV is thought to circulate as a hybrid lipoviral particle. Minicores are secreted in culture when cells are grown in the presence of human serum. The heparin/Mn+2 precipitate from HCV‐infected cell culture supernatants and from the blood of 4 patients with high‐titer genotype‐1 HCV contained minicores. Conclusion: Minicores are major newly discovered HCV proteins that are secreted and circulate in blood during natural infections. Minicore proteins have translational potential as targets in diagnostic assays and in vaccine development. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:21–28) PMID:29404509

  17. Developing Learning in Organizations with Innovation Pedagogy Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Konst, Taru

    2017-01-01

    Most jobs include training and communication tasks, but often the people in these jobs lack pedagogical competences to plan, implement and assess learning. This paper aims to discuss how a learning approach called innovation pedagogy developed in higher education can be utilized for learning development in various organizations. The methods presented how to implement innovation pedagogy such as process consultation and train the trainer model can provide added value to develop pedagogical kno...

  18. Study on time properties of newly type inorganic scintillator cerium fluoride (CeF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mengchun; Zhou Dianzhong; Guo Cun; Ye Wenying

    2003-01-01

    CeF 3 is a newly fast time response inorganic scintillator, the time characteristics of which, developed in recent country in nearly year were studied in our works. The time characteristics are rise time, FWHM time and fall time for fast pulse radiation source. As the same time, authors have calculated and used the formula of pulse method gain to the decay time constant of crystal shining, the decay time constant measured is the same to the results of foreign references

  19. Genesis and development of DPPH method of antioxidant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedare, Sagar B; Singh, R P

    2011-08-01

    α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method offers the first approach for evaluating the antioxidant potential of a compound, an extract or other biological sources. This is the simplest method, wherein the prospective compound or extract is mixed with DPPH solution and absorbance is recorded after a defined period. However, with the advancement and sophistication in instrumental techniques, the method has undergone various modifications to suit the requirements, even though the basic approach remains same in all of them. This article presents a critical review on various developments to the DPPH method.

  20. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications Theoretical Developments and Numerical Examples

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Alexander G

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrates the application of DSM to solve a broad range of operator equations The dynamical systems method (DSM) is a powerful computational method for solving operator equations. With this book as their guide, readers will master the application of DSM to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear problems as well as ill-posed and well-posed problems. The authors offer a clear, step-by-step, systematic development of DSM that enables readers to grasp the method's underlying logic and its numerous applications. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications begins with a general introduction and

  1. [Pharmacological properties of chitosan-coated dialdehyde cellulose (chitosan DAC), a newly developed oral adsorbent (II). Effect of chitosan DAC on rats with chronic renal failure induced by adriamycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, N; Yoshimoto, H; Nishitoba, T; Sato, H; Miyata, S; Kusaka, M; Jing, S B; Yamaguchi, T

    1995-08-01

    The effects of chitosan-coated dialdehyde cellulose (Chitosan DAC), a newly developed oral adsorbent of urea and ammonia, were examined in rats with progressive chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by adriamycin. CRF rats induced by repeated injections of adriamycin were fed a diet containing chitosan DAC (5% content) or Kremezin (5% content), an oral charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) under strict paired-feeding for four months. CRF rats that received both a normal diet and Kremezin showed progressive azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperlipidemia, proteinuria, and anemia, and began to die from 9 weeks after feeding started. In contrast, chitosan DAC-treatment showed marked prolongation of the survival period and decreases in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum phosphate. In addition, chitosan DAC-treatment ameliorated anemia in CRF rats, although hyperlipidemia and proteinuria were not improved. Furthermore, fecal weight, fecal water content, fecal nitrogen and fecal sodium were markedly increased, and the apparent protein ratio was decreased in CRF rats fed a diet containing chitosan DAC for 9 weeks. In contrast, none of these effects were observed in CRF rats receiving Kremezin. These observations suggest the further possibility of using oral adsorbent therapy for CRF patients.

  2. Evaluation of the Influence of Three Newly Developed Bispyridinium Anti-nicotinic Compounds (MB408, MB442, MB444) on the Efficacy of Antidotal Treatment of Nerve Agent Poisoning in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Williams, Rebecca L; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H

    2018-04-01

    The influence of three newly developed bispyridinium antinicotinic compounds (the non-oximes MB408, MB442 and MB444) on the therapeutic efficacy of a standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning by the organophosphorus nerve agents tabun and soman was studied in mice. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime with or without one of the bispyridinium non-oximes was evaluated by determination of the LD 50 values of the nerve agents and measurement of the survival time after supralethal poisoning. Addition of all the tested non-oximes increased significantly the therapeutic efficacy of atropine in combination with an oxime against tabun poisoning. They also positively influenced the number of surviving mice 6 hr after supralethal poisoning with tabun. However, they were only slightly effective for the treatment of soman poisoning. The benefit of the tested bispyridinium non-oximes was dose-dependent. To conclude, the addition of bispyridinium non-oximes to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisoning with tabun was beneficial regardless of the chosen non-oxime, but only slightly beneficial in the case of soman poisoning. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. The J-Matrix Method Developments and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alhaidari, Abdulaziz D; Heller, Eric J; Abdelmonem, Mohamed S

    2008-01-01

    This volume aims to provide the fundamental knowledge to appreciate the advantages of the J-matrix method and to encourage its use and further development. The J-matrix method is an algebraic method of quantum scattering with substantial success in atomic and nuclear physics. The accuracy and convergence property of the method compares favourably with other successful scattering calculation methods. Despite its thirty-year long history new applications are being found for the J-matrix method. This book gives a brief account of the recent developments and some selected applications of the method in atomic and nuclear physics. New findings are reported in which experimental results are compared to theoretical calculations. Modifications, improvements and extensions of the method are discussed using the language of the J-matrix. The volume starts with a Foreword by the two co-founders of the method, E.J. Heller and H.A. Yamani and it contains contributions from 24 prominent international researchers.

  4. Interaction Studies between Newly Synthesized Photosensitive Polymer and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information age, different kinds of photosensitive materials have been used in the manufacture of information storage devices. But these photosensitive materials have the bane of low diffraction efficiency. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesized a novel photosensitive polymer from epoxy-based azopolymers (with three types of azochromophores. Furthermore, we have studied the interaction between this newly synthesized azopolymer and ionic liquids (ILs. For this purpose, we have used the ammonium and imidazolium families of ILs, such as diethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DEAP, tributylammonium methyl sulfate (TBMS, triethylammonium 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid (TASA, and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl. To investigate the molecular interaction between azopolymer and ILs, we have used the following spectroscopic methods of analysis: UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and confocal Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we have developed new photosensitive materials by combining polymer with ILs.

  5. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  6. Development of analytical method used for the estimation of potassium amide in liquid ammonia at HWP (Tuticorin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Potassium amide in liquid ammonia is used as a homogeneous catalyst in mono-thermal ammonia-hydrogen isotopic chemical exchange process employed for the manufacture of heavy water. Estimation of concentration of potassium amide in liquid ammonia is vital for checking whether it is sufficient for catalysis in isotopic exchange towers or for purification in purifiers in the Heavy Water Plants. This estimation was carried out earlier by the conventional method involving evaporation of ammonia, decomposition of potassium amide with water and titration of liberated ammonia with sulphuric acid. This method has been replaced by a newly developed method involving direct titration of potassium amide in ammonia with ammonium bromide. This new method is based on the principle that ammonium bromide and potassium amide act as acid and base respectively in the non-aqueous solvent medium, liquid ammonia. This method has not only proved to be an alternative method of estimation of potassium amide in liquid ammonia but also has been serving as a developed analytical method, because it is faster (with fewer steps), more accurate, safer (as it excludes the use of corrosive sulphuric acid needed for the conventional method) and more convenient (as it doesn't need specially designed apparatus and inert gas like dry nitrogen used in the conventional method). (author)

  7. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  8. Agile Software Development Methods: A Comparative Review1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Oza, Nilay; Siponen, Mikko T.

    Although agile software development methods have caught the attention of software engineers and researchers worldwide, scientific research still remains quite scarce. The aim of this study is to order and make sense of the different agile approaches that have been proposed. This comparative review is performed from the standpoint of using the following features as the analytical perspectives: project management support, life-cycle coverage, type of practical guidance, adaptability in actual use, type of research objectives and existence of empirical evidence. The results show that agile software development methods cover, without offering any rationale, different phases of the software development life-cycle and that most of these methods fail to provide adequate project management support. Moreover, quite a few methods continue to offer little concrete guidance on how to use their solutions or how to adapt them in different development situations. Empirical evidence after ten years of application remains quite limited. Based on the results, new directions on agile methods are outlined.

  9. Developing the Students’ English Speaking Ability Through Impromptu Speaking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumettu, A.; Runtuwene, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    Having multi -purposes, English mastery has becomea necessary for us.Of the four language skills, speaking skill should get the first priority in English teaching and speaking skills development cannot be separated from listening.One communicative way of developing speaking skill is impromptu speaking,a method sudden speaking which depends only on experience and insight by applying spontaneity or improvisation. It is delivered based on the need of the moment of speaking using simple language.This research aims to know (1). Why impromptu speaking is necessary in teaching speaking? (2). How can impromptu speaking develop the students’ speaking skills.The method of this research is qualitative method and the techniques of data collection are: observation,interview and documentation. The results of data analysis using Correlation shows a strong relation between the students’ speaking ability and impromptu speaking method (r = 0.80).The research show that by using impromptu speaking method, the students are trained to interact faster naturally and spontaneously and enrich their vocabulary and general science to support speaking development through interview, speech, presentation, discussion and storytelling.

  10. Vibro-acoustic performance of newly designed tram track structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladin, Ivo; Lakušić, Stjepan; Ahac, Maja

    2017-09-01

    Rail vehicles in interaction with a railway structure induce vibrations that are propagating to surrounding structures and cause noise disturbance in the surrounding areas. Since tram tracks in urban areas often share the running surface with road vehicles one of top priorities is to achieve low maintenance and long lasting structure. Research conducted in scope of this paper gives an overview of newly designed tram track structures designated for use on Zagreb tram network and their performance in terms of noise and vibration mitigation. Research has been conducted on a 150 m long test section consisted of three tram track types: standard tram track structure commonly used on tram lines in Zagreb, optimized tram structure for better noise and vibration mitigation and a slab track with double sleepers embedded in a concrete slab, which presents an entirely new approach of tram track construction in Zagreb. Track has been instrumented with acceleration sensors, strain gauges and revision shafts for inspection. Relative deformations give an insight into track structure dynamic load distribution through the exploitation period. Further the paper describes vibro-acoustic measurements conducted at the test site. To evaluate the track performance from the vibro-acoustical standpoint, detailed analysis of track decay rate has been analysed. Opposed to measurement technique using impact hammer for track decay rate measurements, newly developed measuring technique using vehicle pass by vibrations as a source of excitation has been proposed and analysed. Paper gives overview of the method, it’s benefits compared to standard method of track decay rate measurements and method evaluation based on noise measurements of the vehicle pass by.

  11. Development of Fast Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy by Using Interference Filter Method in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Sakasai, Akira; Koide, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Kamada, Yutaka; Hatae, Takaki; Oyama, Naoyuki; Miura, Yukitoshi

    Recent developments and results of fast charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) using interference filter method are reported. In order to measure the rapid change of the ion temperature and rotation velocity under collapse or transition phenomena with high-time resolution, two types of interference filter systems were applied to the CXRS diagnostics on the JT-60U Tokamak. One can determine the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the CXR emission using three interference filters having slightly different center wavelengths. A rapid estimation method of the temperature and rotation velocity without non-linear least square fitting is presented. The modification of the three-filters system enables us to improve the minimum time resolution up to 0.8 ms, which is better than that of 16.7 ms for the conventional CXRS system using the CCD detector in JT-60U. The other system having seven wavelength channels is newly fabricated to crosscheck the results obtained by the three-filters assembly, that is, to verify that the CXR emission forms a Gaussian profile under collapse phenomena. In a H-mode discharge having giant edge localized modes, the results obtained by the two systems are compared. The applicability of the three-filters system to the measurement of rapid changes in temperature and rotation velocity is demonstrated.

  12. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described

  13. Development of soil microbiology methods: from respirometry to molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Jiří

    2010-12-01

    This review deals with techniques and methods used in the study of the function and development of microorganisms occurring in soil with emphasis on the contributions of Czech Academician Ivan Málek and his coworkers or fellows (Jiří Macura, František Kunc) to the development of basic techniques used in soil microbiology. Early studies, including batch cultivation and respirometric techniques, as well as later developments of percolation and continuous-flow methods of cultivation of soil microorganisms are discussed. Recent developments in the application of analytical chemistry (HPLC or GC) and of molecular biological techniques to ecological questions that have revolutionized concepts in soil microbiology and microbial ecology are also briefly mentioned, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and others. The shift of soil microbiology from the study of individual microorganisms to entire microbial communities, including nonculturable species, is briefly discussed.

  14. Developing an Engineering Design Process Assessment using Mixed Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A; Alemdar, Meltem; Lingle, Jeremy A; Gale, Jessica D; Moore, Roxanne A

    Recent reforms in science education worldwide include an emphasis on engineering design as a key component of student proficiency in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics disciplines. However, relatively little attention has been directed to the development of psychometrically sound assessments for engineering. This study demonstrates the use of mixed methods to guide the development and revision of K-12 Engineering Design Process (EDP) assessment items. Using results from a middle-school EDP assessment, this study illustrates the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to inform item development and revisions. Overall conclusions suggest that the combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence provides an in-depth picture of item quality that can be used to inform the revision and development of EDP assessment items. Researchers and practitioners can use the methods illustrated here to gather validity evidence to support the interpretation and use of new and existing assessments.

  15. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  16. Development of radioactive methods for direct measurement of steel machinability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovich, B.; Teofilovski, Ch.; Bek-Uzarov, Dzh.; Drashkovich, R.

    1976-01-01

    A review of direct methods for measuring and evaluation of stability of cutting tools has been given. These methods using radioactive isotope techniques are being developed at Trybology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kraguevets, and Radioisotope Laboratory, Boris Kidric Institute, Yugoslavia. Direct measuring of wear is being planned for tools used in cutting of alloys, steels and other metals, in order to determine machinability of various structural materials. The experimental method is generally used for the tools with the surface irradiated by proton and neutron particles in an accelerator. The tools of high-speed steel, and tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, etc. were investigated during cutting, milling, and drilling of metals

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CALCULATION METHOD OF SENSITIVITIES FOR LIGHT WATER REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOSHIKAZU TAKEDA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method of calculating sensitivity coefficients of core characteristics relative to infinite-dilution cross sections has been developed. Conventional sensitivity coefficients are evaluated for the changes of effective cross sections which are dependent on individual models of core and cell. Therefore a correction has been derived to the conventional sensitivity coefficients based on the perturbation theory. The accuracy of the present method has been verified by comparing numerical results of sensitivity coefficients with a reference Monte-Carlo method.

  18. CASE METHOD: THE STORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF THE METHOD IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Грузкова

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of origin and issue of case-study method (of a кейс-method in the practice of professional education, which is based on case studies. The distinctive feature of the case-study method is to create a problematic situation on the basis of the facts of real life. As a method, analysis of situations-has become widespread in the world in the 70-80 years, in the same period, he became known in the USSR. This method was used at the beginning, when training managers mainly economic universities to form the students ' ability to make decisions. It is connected with the changes taking place in the economy, because at that time, it has generated substantial reform demand for specialists who know how to act in situations of uncertainty, high risk specialists who can analyze and make decisions. On the one hand, as the authors note, the wide dissemination of this method in education due to its orientation, so that the case method is focused not so much on the development of specific knowledge or skills, as on the development of the common intellectual and communicative capacity of the trainee and the training. In addition, the case method is quite effective in training, he can be connected easily enough with other learning methods. On the other hand, have been certain difficulties in introducing the case-study method in the practice of professional education: general orientation for the development of education and development of the quality requirements for surface treatment, specialist teachers to the methodological basis for the other method.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-24

  19. The Development of Methods to Estimate and Reduce Design Rework

    OpenAIRE

    Arundachawat, Panumas

    2012-01-01

    Design rework includes unnecessary repetition in design tasks to correct design problems. Resolving design matters in advance, through in-depth understanding of the design planning and rework issues and development of effective predictive tools could contribute to higher business profit margins and a faster product time-to-market. This research aims to develop three novel and structured methods to predict the design rework occurrence and effort at the very early design stage, which may otherw...

  20. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  1. Pilot-in-the-Loop CFD Method Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-20

    1 Contract # N00014-14-C-0020 Pilot-in-the-Loop CFD Method Development Progress Report (CDRL A001) Progress Report for Period: January...Penn State VLRCOE Flight Simulator. Performance Study and Grid Dependency To quantify the timing performance of the developed coupling tool on...scalability and load balancing. On a scalable implementation, the time per iteration is expected to reduce in inverse proportion to the number of

  2. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  3. Development of a practical costing method for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengyu; Toyabe, Shin-Ichi; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2006-03-01

    To realize an effective cost control, a practical and accurate cost accounting system is indispensable in hospitals. In traditional cost accounting systems, the volume-based costing (VBC) is the most popular cost accounting method. In this method, the indirect costs are allocated to each cost object (services or units of a hospital) using a single indicator named a cost driver (e.g., Labor hours, revenues or the number of patients). However, this method often results in rough and inaccurate results. The activity based costing (ABC) method introduced in the mid 1990s can prove more accurate results. With the ABC method, all events or transactions that cause costs are recognized as "activities", and a specific cost driver is prepared for each activity. Finally, the costs of activities are allocated to cost objects by the corresponding cost driver. However, it is much more complex and costly than other traditional cost accounting methods because the data collection for cost drivers is not always easy. In this study, we developed a simplified ABC (S-ABC) costing method to reduce the workload of ABC costing by reducing the number of cost drivers used in the ABC method. Using the S-ABC method, we estimated the cost of the laboratory tests, and as a result, similarly accurate results were obtained with the ABC method (largest difference was 2.64%). Simultaneously, this new method reduces the seven cost drivers used in the ABC method to four. Moreover, we performed an evaluation using other sample data from physiological laboratory department to certify the effectiveness of this new method. In conclusion, the S-ABC method provides two advantages in comparison to the VBC and ABC methods: (1) it can obtain accurate results, and (2) it is simpler to perform. Once we reduce the number of cost drivers by applying the proposed S-ABC method to the data for the ABC method, we can easily perform the cost accounting using few cost drivers after the second round of costing.

  4. IDEF method-based simulation model design and development framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Jeong

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an IDEF method-based integrated framework for a business process simulation model to reduce the model development time by increasing the communication and knowledge reusability during a simulation project. In this framework, simulation requirements are collected by a function modeling method (IDEF0 and a process modeling method (IDEF3. Based on these requirements, a common data model is constructed using the IDEF1X method. From this reusable data model, multiple simulation models are automatically generated using a database-driven simulation model development approach. The framework is claimed to help both requirement collection and experimentation phases during a simulation project by improving system knowledge, model reusability, and maintainability through the systematic use of three descriptive IDEF methods and the features of the relational database technologies. A complex semiconductor fabrication case study was used as a testbed to evaluate and illustrate the concepts and the framework. Two different simulation software products were used to develop and control the semiconductor model from the same knowledge base. The case study empirically showed that this framework could help improve the simulation project processes by using IDEF-based descriptive models and the relational database technology. Authors also concluded that this framework could be easily applied to other analytical model generation by separating the logic from the data.

  5. Adopting of Agile methods in Software Development Organizations: Systematic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of agile methods in the software development organization is considered as a powerful solution to deal with the quickly changing and regularly developing business environment and fully-educated customers with constantly rising expectation, such as shorter time periods and an extraordinary level of response and service. This study investigates the adoption of agile approaches in software development organizations by using systematic mapping. Six research questions are identified, and to answer these questions a number of research papers have been reviewed in electronic databases. Finally, 25 research papers are examined and answers to all research questions are provided.

  6. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  7. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Development of Beginning Literacy Skills of Letter KnowledgeWords Among Primary School Pupils in Cross River State. ... The instrument used included the Letter Knowledge Test (LKT) which was a standardized instrument, used in several prior studies in English.

  8. Effects of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing Comprehension Skills in Primary School Pupils in Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of primary one pupils' reading level, English comprehension skill.

  9. Development of new deactivation method for simulation of fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selection of a good catalyst is the easiest way to increase profitability of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit. During operation, these ... New rapid deactivation method has been developed to simulate plant equilibrium catalyst (E-Cat) by modifying metal impregnation, steaming and oxidation/reduction procedures. The E-Cat ...

  10. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  11. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  12. Development of a Visible Spectrophotometric Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical studies of ganciclovir at glassy carbon electrodes and its direct determination in serum and pharmaceutics by square wave and differential pulse voltammetry. Anal chim acta 2005; 537: 307-313. 10. Sarsambi PS, Sonawane A, Faheem A. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the.

  13. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  14. The application of statistical methods in the development of Cyrillic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article describes the process of a software product development that allows you to convert a text written in Tatar to Latin using Cyrillic graphics. The aspects of Cyrillic graphics to Latin graphics conversion are considered for Tatar language. The authors study the application of various statistical methods necessary for ...

  15. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, was developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 Å, 250 x 4.6 mm I.D. column maintained ...

  16. Assessment method for buildings' Rehabilitation needs : Development and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vasconcelos de Paiva, J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment method of a building rehabilitation needs. It was considered that a building needs rehabilitation if it would not comply with the functional requirements defined in Portuguese legislation or determined by good practices of design and

  17. The contemporary art of cost management methods during product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.; Morales, S.; Epstein, M.J.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of research published in the management accounting literature on methods for cost management in new product development, such as a target costing, life cycle costing, component commonality, and modular design. Methodology/approach The structured literature search

  18. Development of Bayesian stock assessment methods for Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of Bayesian stock assessment methods in the management of Namibian orange roughy Hoplosthethus atlanticus within the 200 mile EEZ of Namibia is reviewed. Time-series of relative abundance are short and their reliability in indicating abundance trends is uncertain. The development of informative prior ...

  19. Development of a method for the mineralization of coffee husk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    material for soap factories. Mounjouenpou Pauline*, Ntoupka Mama and Fallo Justin. Institute of Agricultural Research for Development, P.O Box: 2067 Yaounde-Cameroun. Accepted 22 February, 2007. Every year, large quantities of husk resulting from the dry method of treatment of robusta coffee are dumped into nature.

  20. Development of precursors recognition methods in vector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapralov, V. G.; Elagin, V. V.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Stankevich, L. A.; Dremin, M. M.; Krylov, S. V.; Borovov, A. E.; Harfush, H. A.; Sedov, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    Precursor recognition methods in vector signals of plasma diagnostics are presented. Their requirements and possible options for their development are considered. In particular, the variants of using symbolic regression for building a plasma disruption prediction system are discussed. The initial data preparation using correlation analysis and symbolic regression is discussed. Special attention is paid to the possibility of using algorithms in real time.