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Sample records for neutrophil peptide-1 2

  1. Upregulated expression of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 (HNP 1-3) in colon cancer serum and tumours

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    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2005-01-01

    of identifying biomarkers for colon cancer. METHODS: By Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation--Time Of Flight/Mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS) we compare the protein profiles of colon cancer serum with serum from healthy individuals and the protein profiles of colon tumours with normal colon tissue......BACKGROUND: Molecular markers for localized colon tumours and for prognosis following therapy are needed. Proteomics research is currently producing numerous biomarker studies with clinical potential. We investigate the protein composition of plasma and of tumour extracts with the aim....... By size exclusion chromatography, we investigate the binding of HNP 1-3 to high mass plasma proteins. By microflow we investigate the effect of HNP 1-3 on mammalian cells. RESULTS: Human Neutrophil Peptides -1, -2 and -3 (HNP 1-3), also known as alfa-defensin-1, -2 and -3, are present in elevated...

  2. Upregulated expression of human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 (HNP 1-3) in colon cancer serum and tumours: a biomarker study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Bøgebo, Rikke; Gammeltoft, Steen; Olsen, Jesper; Winther, Benny; Raskov, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Molecular markers for localized colon tumours and for prognosis following therapy are needed. Proteomics research is currently producing numerous biomarker studies with clinical potential. We investigate the protein composition of plasma and of tumour extracts with the aim of identifying biomarkers for colon cancer. By Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation – Time Of Flight / Mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF/MS) we compare the protein profiles of colon cancer serum with serum from healthy individuals and the protein profiles of colon tumours with normal colon tissue. By size exclusion chromatography, we investigate the binding of HNP 1-3 to high mass plasma proteins. By microflow we investigate the effect of HNP 1-3 on mammalian cells. Human Neutrophil Peptides -1, -2 and -3 (HNP 1-3), also known as alfa-defensin-1, -2 and -3, are present in elevated concentrations in serum from colon cancer patients and in protein extracts from colon tumours. A fraction of HNP 1-3 in serum is bound to unidentified high mass plasma proteins. HNP 1-3 purified from colon tumours are lethal to mammalian cells. HNP 1-3 may serve as blood markers for colon cancer in combination with other diagnostic tools. We propose that HNP 1-3 are carried into the bloodstream by attaching to high mass plasma proteins in the tumour microenvironment. We discuss the effect of HNP 1-3 on tumour progression

  3. Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 as immunotherapeutic agent against Leishmania infected BALB/c mice.

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    Zahra Abdossamadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 (HNP1 produced by neutrophils, is a well-known antimicrobial peptide which plays a role both in innate as well as in adaptive immunity and is under intensive investigation as a potential therapeutic agent. Previous in vitro experiments have indicated the leishmaniacidal effect of recombinant HNP1 on Leishmania major (L. major promastigotes and amastigotes. In the current study, we further extended the idea to explore the remedial effect of HNP1 in the two modalities of peptide therapy (folded HNP1 and gene therapy in L. major infected BALB/c mice. To this end, mice in five different groups received synthetic folded HNP1 (G1, pcDNA-HNP1-EGFP (G2, pcDNA-EGFP (G3, Amphotericin B (G4 and PBS (G5, which was started three weeks after infection for three consecutive weeks. Footpad swelling was monitored weekly and a day after the therapy ended, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6 and nitric oxide produced by splenocytes were analyzed together with the parasite load in draining lymph nodes. Arginase activity and dermal histopathological changes were also analyzed in the infected footpads. We demonstrated that both therapeutic approaches effectively induced Th1 polarization and restricted parasite burden. It can control disease progression in contrast to non-treated groups. However, pcDNA-HNP1-EGFP is more promising in respect to parasite control than folded HNP1, but less effective than AmB treatment. We concluded with the call for a future approach, that is, a DNA-based expression of HNP1 combined with AmB as it can improve the leishmaniacidal efficacy.

  4. Human neutrophil peptide-1 promotes alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis.

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    Rie Ibusuki

    Full Text Available Neutrophil infiltration of the liver is a typical feature of alcoholic liver injury. Human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1 is an antimicrobial peptide secreted by neutrophils. The aim of this study was to determine if HNP-1 affects ethanol-induced liver injury and to examine the mechanism of liver injury induced by HNP-1.Transgenic (TG mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter were established. Ethanol was orally administered to HNP-1 TG or wild-type C57BL/6N (WT mice. SK-Hep1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were used to investigate the effect of HNP-1 on hepatocytes in vitro.After 24 weeks of ethanol intake, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly more severe in TG mice than in WT mice. Levels of CD14, TLR4, and IL-6 in liver tissues were higher in TG mice than in WT mice. Apoptosis was accompanied by higher protein levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and cleaved PARP in liver tissue. In addition, phosphorylated ASK1, ASK1, phosphorylated JNK, JNK1, JNK2, Bax, Bak and Bim were all more abundant in TG mice than in WT mice. In contrast, the level of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 in the liver was significantly lower in TG mice than in WT mice. Analysis of microRNAs in liver tissue showed that miR-34a-5p expression was significantly higher in TG mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, in the presence of ethanol, HNP-1 increased the apoptosis with the decreased level of Bcl2 in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.HNP-1 secreted by neutrophils may exacerbate alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis and hepatocyte apoptosis with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and an increase in miR-34a-5p expression.

  5. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1-3 – Early Markers in Development of Colorectal Adenomas and Carcinomas

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    Henning Mothes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression of Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP 1–3 was recently found to be associated with development of colorectal cancer. Raised defensin-expression in tumours is believed to stem from increased infiltration of neutrophils into tumour environment.

  6. Human Neutrophil Peptides 1–3 as Gastric Cancer Tissue Markers Measured by MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry: Implications for Infiltrated Neutrophils as a Tumor Target

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    Chun-Chia Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs -1, -2 and -3 are significantly upregulated and were reported as biomarkers in gastric cancer (GC. However, the tissue location and function of HNPs 1-3 are still unclear in GC, and the spatial distribution of the triad needs to be disclosed. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and relationships among HNPs-1, -2 and -3, and assess whether infiltrated neutrophils accumulate in gastric tumor.

  7. Morphological and functional adaptations of Fusobacterium nucleatum exposed to human neutrophil Peptide-1.

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    Musrati, Ahmed Ali; Fteita, Dareen; Paranko, Jorma; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2016-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that Fusobacterium nucleatum can resist to human neutrophil peptide (HNP)-1 by decreasing its membrane permeability and increasing its proliferation and biofilm formation. In this continuation study, we aimed to further evaluate and explain these resistance properties by determining the morphological and functional adaptations of F. nucleatum, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cultures of the type strain of F. nucleatum (ssp. nucleatum ATCC 25586) and two clinical strains (ssp. polymorphum AHN 9910 and ssp. nucleatum AHN 9508) were incubated without (0 μg/ml) or with four different test concentrations of recombinant HNP-1 (1, 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml). Membrane morphology and thickness, and cell (visualized by TEM), planktonic growth (measured in colony forming units), and biofilm formation (measured as total mass) were analyzed. Scrambled HNP-1 was used in planktonic growth and biofilm formation studies as a negative control. TEM analyses revealed a decrease in the outer membrane surface corrugations and roughness of the strain AHN 9508 with increasing HNP-1 concentrations. In higher concentrations of HNP-1, the strain AHN 9910 showed thicker outer membranes with a number of associated rough vesicles attached to the outer surface. Intracellular granules became increasingly visible in the strain ATCC 25586 with increasing peptide concentrations. With increased concentrations of HNP-1, planktonic growth of the two clinical strains was significantly enhanced (P nucleatum has the ability to withstand the lethal effects of HNP-1, and the ultrastructural changes on bacterial membrane and cytoplasm may play role in this adaptive process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Sang Ah Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies have reported that glypican-4 (GPC4 regulates insulin signaling by interacting with insulin receptor and through adipocyte differentiation. However, GPC4 has not been studied with regard to its effects on clinical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We aimed to identify factors associated with GPC4 level in T2DM.MethodsBetween January 2010 and December 2013, we selected 152 subjects with T2DM and collected serum and plasma into tubes pretreated with aprotinin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to preserve active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1. GPC4, active GLP-1, active GIP, and other factors were measured in these plasma samples. We performed a linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with GPC4 level.ResultsThe subjects had a mean age of 58.1 years, were mildly obese (mean body mass index [BMI], 26.1 kg/m2, had T2DM of long-duration (mean, 101.3 months, glycated hemoglobin 7.5%, low insulin secretion, and low insulin resistance (mean homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], 1.2. Their mean GPC4 was 2.0±0.2 ng/mL. In multivariate analysis, GPC4 was independently associated with age (β=0.224, P=0.009, and levels of active GLP-1 (β=0.171, P=0.049 and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; β=–0.176, P=0.043 after being adjusted for other clinical factors.ConclusionGPC4 was independently associated with age, active GLP-1, and AST in T2DM patients, but was not associated with HOMA-IR and BMI, which are well known factors related to GPC4. Further study is needed to identify the mechanisms of the association between GPC4 and basal active GLP-1 levels.

  9. Effects of exendin-4, a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on neutrophil count and inflammatory cytokines in a rat model of endotoxemia

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    Yanay O

    2015-07-01

    of acute early phase inflammation, treatment with exendin-4 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations without changing IL-10 blood levels and improved neutropenia. Following LPS injection, rats developed a tendency toward hypoglycemia that improved with exendin-4. Overall our data suggest that exogenous exendin-4 mediates anti-inflammatory effects early in this rat model of endotoxin-induced inflammation. Keywords: glucagon like peptide-1, exendin-4, sepsis, endotoxemia, inflammation, neutrophils

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

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    Seungah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide. Patients with T2D suffer from various diabetes-related complications. Since there are many patients with T2D that cannot be controlled by previously developed drugs, it has been necessary to develop new drugs, one of which is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 based therapy. GLP-1 has been shown to ameliorate diabetes-related conditions by augmenting pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion and having the low risk of causing hypoglycemia. Because of a very short half-life of GLP-1, many researches have been focused on the development of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonists with long half-lives such as exenatide and dulaglutide. Now GLP-1R agonists have a variety of dosing-cycle forms to meet the needs of various patients. In this article, we review the physiological features of GLP-1, the effects of GLP-1 on T2D, the features of several GLP-1R agonists, and the therapeutic effect on T2D.

  11. Radio-immunoassays for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Holst, J J

    1987-01-01

    Gene-sequencing studies have shown that the glucagon precursor contains two additional glucagon-like sequences, the so-called glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We developed radio-immunoassays against synthetic peptides corresponding to these sequences. Antisera were raised in rabb...

  12. Determinants of the impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Damholt, M B; Madsbad, Sten

    2001-01-01

    peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucose during a 4-h mixed meal test in 54 heterogeneous type 2 diabetic patients, 33 matched control subjects with normal glucose tolerance, and 15 unmatched subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The glucagon-like peptide-1 response in terms of area under......-like peptide-1 response. The impaired glucose tolerance subjects were hyperinsulinemic and generally showed the same abnormalities as the diabetic patients, but to a lesser degree. We conclude that the meal-related glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes is decreased, which may contribute......To elucidate the causes of the diminished incretin effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus we investigated the secretion of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose- dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and measured nonesterified fatty acids, and plasma concentrations of insulin, C...

  13. Increased proliferation and decreased membrane permeability as defense mechanisms of Fusobacterium nucleatum against human neutrophilic peptide-1.

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    Keskin, Mutlu; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Isik, Gülden; Firatli, Erhan; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

    2014-12-01

    Human neutrophilic peptides (HNPs) constitute a class of host defense molecules, which contribute to the non-oxidative killing of bacteria and other microorganisms. Since the adaptability is crucial to bacterial survival in changing environments, it is of interest to know how Fusobacterium nucleatum, the major bridge organism connecting early and late colonizers in dental biofilms, defends itself against HNPs. This study aimed to examine the planktonic growth, membrane permeability, and biofilm formation characteristics as defense mechanisms of F. nucleatum against HNP-1. In all experiments, the type strain of F. nucleatum (ssp. nucleatum ATCC 25586) and two clinical strains (ssp. nucleatum AHN 9508 and ssp. polymorphum AHN 9910) were used. Planktonic growth (measured in colony forming units), capsular polysaccharide production (visualized by Ziehl-Neelsen stain), membrane permeability (demonstrated as N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine uptake), biofilm formation, and established biofilm development (measured as total mass and polysaccharide levels) were analyzed in the presence of 0 μg/ml (control), 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, and 10 μg/ml of HNP-1. Planktonic growth of the strains AHN 9508 and ATCC 25586 were significantly (pdefense mechanisms against neutrophilic defensins. In addition, this strain-dependent survival ability against HNP-1 may explain the variation in the virulence of different F. nucleatum strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucagon and glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2

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    Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    The glucagon gene is expressed not only in the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets but also in the endocrine cells of the intestinal epithelium (so-called L-cells), and in certain neurons of the brain stem. Whereas in the pancreas, glucagon, the hyperglycaemic hormone, is cleaved out of the 160......-107amide, a potent incretin homone, regulating insulin secretion, glucagon secretion, gastrointestinal motility and appetite) and 2 (PG 126-158, a regulator of gut mucosal growth and integrity). The two prohormone convertases PC2 and PC1/3, respectively, are responsible for the differential processing...

  15. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

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    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...... in the proteolysis of beta 2m. However, we demonstrated that native beta 2m following degranulation may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m by lymphocytes. We suggest that neutrophil beta 2m following exocytosis may be transformed to Des-Lys58-beta 2m, acting as an extracellular messenger between granulocytes...

  16. Neutrophil beta-2 microglobulin: an inflammatory mediator

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    Bjerrum, O W; Nissen, Mogens Holst; Borregaard, N

    1990-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin (beta 2m) constitutes the light invariant chain of HLA class I antigen, and is a constituent of mobilizable compartments of neutrophils. Two forms of beta 2m exist: native beta 2m and proteolytically modified beta 2m (Des-Lys58-beta 2m), which shows alpha mobility in crossed...... radioimmuno-electrophoresis. The modification of native beta 2m can be executed by membrane-associated activity of mononuclear cells, and Des-Lys58-beta 2m augments the production of interleukin 2. In this study we present evidence that human neutrophils contain native beta 2m in specific granules, secretory...... vesicles, and plasma membrane. Beta 2m was released in the native form from neutrophils in response to stimulation with chemotactic stimuli and phorbol ester. The results of experiments designed to study the modification of native beta 2m by neutrophils indicated that neutrophils do not participate...

  17. Radio-immunoassays for glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orskov, C.; Holst, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Gene-sequencing studies have shown that the glucagon precursor contains two additional glucagon-like sequences, the so-called glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). The authors developed radio-immunoassays against synthetic peptides corresponding to these sequences. Antisera were raised in rabbits after carbodiimide conjugation of peptides to BSA. The selected antisera showed neither mutual cross-reactivity nor cross-reacted with any other peptide of the glucagon family. Trypsin digestion experiments showed that both antisera were directed against the C-terminus of the antigen peptides. I 125 labelling was performed with chloramine T. and separation with plasma-coated charcoal. The detection limit was 7 and 25 pmol/l for GLP-1 and GLP-2. Accurate measurement of both peptides in plasma required extraction. Optimum recovery was obtained with ethanol at 75% (final concentration). The concentrations measured in fasting plasma from 10 normal subjects were 107 +- 7 pmol/l and 151 +-14 pmol/l for GLP-1 and GLP-2, respectively. After a mixed meal the concentrations rose slowly for 2 h reaching 145 +- 13 and 225 +- 15 pmol/l. (author)

  18. Treatment of type 2 diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists

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    Hansen, K B; Knop, F K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    ongoing decline in pancreatic beta-cell function and, lastly, they have a number of side effects including hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new class of pharmacological agents, which improve glucose homeostasis in a multifaceted way. Their effects...... of hypoglycaemia with GLP-1 receptor agonists is low, the compounds have clinically relevant effects on body weight, and data are suggesting beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Exenatide was released in 2005 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and liraglutide is expected to be approved by the Food...

  19. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide 1-21 inhibits acute EAE by inducing Th2-like cytokines.

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    Brod, Staley A; Hood, Zachary

    2007-02-01

    Ingested type I IFN inhibits clinical attacks, relapses and inflammation in murine chronic relapsing EAE by inhibiting Th1-like cytokines. Type I IFN activates human suppressor T cells that produce SIRS. We examined whether oral (ingested) SIRS peptide inhibits EAE by decreasing Th1-like cytokines. Parenteral SIRS peptide 1-21 showed a significant inhibition of disease severity in murine EAE. Ingested SIRS peptide at 10 and 100 microg SIRS peptide showed a significant inhibition of disease severity but also a prolonged delay in the onset of disease compared to placebo. There were significantly less inflammatory foci in the SIRS peptide fed group compared to the control mock fed group. Splenocytes from SIRS peptide 1-21 fed mice showed increased production of Th2-like CD30L, IL-13, TCA-3 cytokines/chemokines and decreased production of Th1-like cytokine lymphotactin. Ingested (oral) SIRS peptide significantly inhibits both clinical EAE and inflammation predominately via counter-regulatory type 2-like cytokines/chemokines IL-13, CD30L and TCA-3.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

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    Lund, Asger; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    , slowing of gastric emptying and suppression of appetite. In circulation, GLP-1 has a half-life of approximately 2min due to rapid degradation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Because of this short half-life GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, resistant to degradation by DPP-4 have been...... effects. This review gives an overview of the clinical data on GLP-1R agonists that have been compared in head-to-head studies and focuses on relevant differences between the compounds. Highlighting these similarities and differences could be beneficial for physicians in choosing the best treatment......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gastrointestinal hormone, secreted in response to ingestion of nutrients, and has important effects on several of the pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effects include potentiation of insulin secretion, suppression of glucagon secretion...

  1. Neutrophil-Derived Cytosolic PLA2α Contributes to Bacterial-Induced Neutrophil Transepithelial Migration.

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    Yonker, Lael M; Pazos, Michael A; Lanter, Bernard B; Mou, Hongmei; Chu, Kengyeh K; Eaton, Alexander D; Bonventre, Joseph V; Tearney, Guillermo J; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Hurley, Bryan P

    2017-10-15

    Eicosanoids are a group of bioactive lipids that are shown to be important mediators of neutrophilic inflammation; selective targeting of their function confers therapeutic benefit in a number of diseases. Neutrophilic airway diseases, including cystic fibrosis, are characterized by excessive neutrophil infiltration into the airspace. Understanding the role of eicosanoids in this process may reveal novel therapeutic targets. The eicosanoid hepoxilin A3 is a pathogen-elicited epithelial-produced neutrophil chemoattractant that directs transepithelial migration in response to infection. Following hepoxilin A3-driven transepithelial migration, neutrophil chemotaxis is amplified through neutrophil production of a second eicosanoid, leukotriene B4 (LTB4). The rate-limiting step of eicosanoid generation is the liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2, and the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)α isoform has been specifically shown to direct LTB4 synthesis in certain contexts. Whether cPLA2α is directly responsible for neutrophil synthesis of LTB4 in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa- induced neutrophil transepithelial migration has not been explored. Human and mouse neutrophil - epithelial cocultures were used to evaluate the role of neutrophil-derived cPLA2α in infection-induced transepithelial signaling by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Primary human airway basal stem cell - derived epithelial cultures and micro-optical coherence tomography, a new imaging modality that captures two- and three-dimensional real-time dynamics of neutrophil transepithelial migration, were applied. Evidence from these studies suggests that cPLA2α expressed by neutrophils, but not epithelial cells, plays a significant role in infection-induced neutrophil transepithelial migration by mediating LTB4 synthesis during migration, which serves to amplify the magnitude of neutrophil recruitment in response to epithelial infection. Copyright © 2017 by The American

  2. Human neutrophil peptides 1, 2 and 3 are biochemical markers for metastatic colorectal cancer

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    Albrethsen, Jakob; Møller, Christian H; Olsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    -D, whereas HNP1-3 in plasma was only elevated in Dukes' stage D compared to healthy individuals. HNP1-3 plasma concentration determined with ELISA was increased in Dukes' stages C and D, but not in A and B. It is concluded that HNP1-3 is a potential marker for prognostic assessment, surveillance of patients...

  3. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Oxidative Stress and Nrf2 Signaling

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    Yoon Sin Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative cellular damage caused by free radicals is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as to aging. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein1 (Keap1 signaling pathways play an important role in preventing stresses including oxidative and inflammatory stresses. Nrf2 is a master regulator of cellular stress responses, induces the expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone, which was originally found to increase insulin synthesis and secretion. It is now widely accepted that GLP-1 has multiple functions beyond glucose control in various tissues and organs including brain, kidney, and heart. GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists are known to be effective in many chronic diseases, including diabetes, via antioxidative mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of GLP-1 in the protection against oxidative damage and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2004-01-01

    Proof-of-concept for the efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-based therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes was provided in 2002 by means of prolonged continuous subcutaneous infusion of native GLP-1. Since then, several long-acting analogues of GLP-1, as well as inhibitors of dipeptidyl...

  5. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype

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    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Martini, Lene; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    for the fusion constructs was observed. We conclude that the glucagon-like peptide 1 fusion construct mimics the natural interaction of the receptor with (beta)arr2 with respect to binding peptide ligands, G protein-mediated signaling and internalization, and that this distinct molecular phenotype is reminiscent...

  6. Transgenic expression of human neutrophil peptide-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in mice fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet.

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    Ibusuki, Rie; Uto, Hirofumi; Arima, Shiho; Mawatari, Seiichi; Setoguchi, Yoshiko; Iwashita, Yuji; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Takuro; Tanoue, Shiro; Kanmura, Shuji; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2013-11-01

    Neutrophils infiltrate the livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) induce cytokine and chemokine production under inflammatory conditions, which may contribute to the progression of NASH. In this study, we focused on the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a mouse model of NASH induced by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet. We generated transgenic mice expressing HNP-1 under the control of a β-actin-based promoter. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type C57BL/6N mice were fed a CDAA diet for 16 weeks to induce hepatic steatosis and fibrosis. Serological and histological features were examined, and the effects of HNP-1 on hepatic stellate cell lines were assessed. HNP-1 transgenic and wild-type mice fed the CDAA diet showed no significant differences in serum alanine aminotransferase levels or the degree of hepatic steatosis based on Oil red O staining and hepatic triglyceride content. In contrast, Sirius Red and Azan staining showed significantly more severe hepatic fibrosis in HNP-1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. In addition, significantly more α-smooth muscle actin-positive hepatic stellate cells were observed in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, the proliferation of the LI90 hepatic stellate cell line increased in response to HNP-1. Our data indicate that HNP-1 enhances hepatic fibrosis in fatty liver by inducing hepatic stellate cell proliferation. Thus, neutrophil-derived HNP-1 may contribute to the progression of NASH. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

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    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective of this st......We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective......-67) yr; body mass index: 31.2 (27.0-37.7) kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose: 11.9 (8.3-14.3) mmol/liter; hemoglobin A(1C): 9.6 (7.0-12.5)%]. For comparison, six matched healthy subjects were examined. Peak plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased linearly with increasing doses of GLP-1 and were similar...... statistically significant). GLP-1 was eliminated rapidly with clearances of intact GLP-1 after 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 amounting to: 9.0 +/- 5.0, 8.1 +/- 6.0, 4.0 +/- 1.0, 4.0 +/- 1.0 liter/min in type 2 diabetic patients and 8.4 +/- 4.2, 7.6 +/- 4.5, 5.0 +/- 2.0, 5.0 +/- 1.0 liter/min in healthy...

  8. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type 2 diabetes

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    Nauck, M A; Vardarli, I; Deacon, C F

    2011-01-01

    The incretin hormones gastric inhibitory polypeptide and especially glucagon-like peptide (GLP) have an important physiological function in augmenting postprandial insulin secretion. Since GLP-1 may play a role in the pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes, assessment of meal-related GLP......-1 secretory responses in type 2 diabetic patients vs healthy individuals is of great interest. A common view states that GLP-1 secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes is deficient and that this applies to a lesser degree in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Such a deficiency...... with and without diabetes after oral glucose and mixed meals. Our analysis does not support the contention of a generalised defect in nutrient-related GLP-1 secretory responses in type 2 diabetes patients. Rather, factors are identified that may determine individual incretin secretory responses and explain some...

  9. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists: a new approach to type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite advances in options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, optimal glycaemic control is often not achieved. Hypoglycaemia and weight gain that are associated with many antidiabetic medications may interfere with the implementation and long-term application of treatment strategies. Glucose homeostasis is ...

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 1-baseret behandling af type 2-diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip Krag; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2007-01-01

    GLP-1 is secreted from the small intestine in response to ingestion of nutrients. It has a powerful insulinotropic effect and stimulates beta-cell growth and is therefore being developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. The GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, is on the market in the USA as an add...

  11. Determinants of the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide- 1 in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M.B.; Madsbad, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    GLP-1 lowers blood glucose in fasting type 2 diabetic patients. To clarify the relation of the effect of GLP-1 to obesity, blood glucose, beta-cell function, and insulin sensitivity, GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg.min) was infused iv for 4-6 h into 50 fasting type 2 diabetic patients with a wide range of age...... diabetes regardless of severity, but glucose elimination is faster and obtained glycemic level lower in patients with the lower fasting plasma glucose. Not all patients can be expected to reach normoglycemia......., body mass index, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose. The effectiveness of GLP-1 was evaluated by calculation of a glucose disappearance constant for each individual (Kg, linear slope of log-transformed plasma glucose), and by the lowest stable glucose level (Nadir plasma glucose) obtained during...... the infusion. Grouped according to fasting plasma glucose (15 mmol/liter), Kg values were 0.45 +/- 0.03, 0.38 +/- 0.04, and 0.28 +/- 0.04%/min (P = 0.005), and Nadir plasma glucose values were 4.7 +/- 0.1 (3.9-5.9), 5.8 +/- 0.4 (4.3-8.4), and 8.7 +/- 1.4 (6.2-18.7) mmol/liter (P = 0...

  12. Determinants of the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    2001-01-01

    GLP-1 lowers blood glucose in fasting type 2 diabetic patients. To clarify the relation of the effect of GLP-1 to obesity, blood glucose, beta-cell function, and insulin sensitivity, GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg.min) was infused iv for 4-6 h into 50 fasting type 2 diabetic patients with a wide range of age...... diabetes regardless of severity, but glucose elimination is faster and obtained glycemic level lower in patients with the lower fasting plasma glucose. Not all patients can be expected to reach normoglycemia......., body mass index, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose. The effectiveness of GLP-1 was evaluated by calculation of a glucose disappearance constant for each individual (Kg, linear slope of log-transformed plasma glucose), and by the lowest stable glucose level (Nadir plasma glucose) obtained during...... the infusion. Grouped according to fasting plasma glucose (15 mmol/liter), Kg values were 0.45 +/- 0.03, 0.38 +/- 0.04, and 0.28 +/- 0.04%/min (P = 0.005), and Nadir plasma glucose values were 4.7 +/- 0.1 (3.9-5.9), 5.8 +/- 0.4 (4.3-8.4), and 8.7 +/- 1.4 (6.2-18.7) mmol/liter (P = 0...

  13. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, T; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that type 2 diabetic patients have decreased plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared with healthy subjects after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. This decrease could be caused by differences in the metabolism of GLP-1. The objective...... of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48......-67) yr; body mass index: 31.2 (27.0-37.7) kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose: 11.9 (8.3-14.3) mmol/liter; hemoglobin A(1C): 9.6 (7.0-12.5)%]. For comparison, six matched healthy subjects were examined. Peak plasma GLP-1 concentrations increased linearly with increasing doses of GLP-1 and were similar...

  14. Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus based on glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    1999-01-01

    inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and secretion in the presence of nutrients in the lower small intestine). However, because of these same actions, the hormone can normalise the blood glucose of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, in contradistinction to insulin and sulphonylurea, it does...... not cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, treatment of Type 2 diabetes based on GLP-1 is currently being investigated. As a peptide, it must be administered parenterally, and, in addition, it is metabolised extremely rapidly. However, several methods to circumvent these problems have already been developed. A GLP......-1- based therapy of diabetes mellitus and perhaps also obesity is therefore likely to become a realistic alternative to current therapies of these disorders....

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Holst, Jens Juul; Carr, R D

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease resulting in raised blood sugar which, if not satisfactorily controlled, can cause severe and often debilitating complications. Unfortunately, for many patients, the existing therapies do not give adequate control. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Holst, Jens Juul; Carr, R D

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease resulting in raised blood sugar which, if not satisfactorily controlled, can cause severe and often debilitating complications. Unfortunately, for many patients, the existing therapies do not give adequate control. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1...... advantages offered by GLP-1 and give the hope of providing effective glycemic control without the risk of overt hypoglycemia....

  17. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefo....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure......., previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...

  18. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 on microcirculation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Ambrus, Rikard; Lindhe, Joanna; Achiam, Michael P; Jeppesen, Palle B; Svendsen, Lars B

    2017-03-07

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the potential effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on microcirculation. A systematic search was performed independently by two authors in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Of 1111 screened papers, 20 studies were included in this review: 16 studies in animals, three in humans, and one in humans and rats. The studies were few and heterogeneous and had a high risk of bias. However, it seems that GLP-1 regulates the pancreatic, skeletal, and cardiac muscle flow, indicating a role in the glucose homeostasis, while GLP-2 acts primarily in the regulation of the microcirculation of the mid-intestine. These findings may be useful in gastrointestinal surgery and in situations with impaired microcirculation of the gut. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure....

  20. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for a poor outcome after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive insulin treatment aiming at normoglycemia can markedly improve the survival of critically ill patients, but the broad clinical application is limited by its practicab......OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for a poor outcome after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive insulin treatment aiming at normoglycemia can markedly improve the survival of critically ill patients, but the broad clinical application is limited by its...... practicability and the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, the glucose-lowering effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery. DESIGN: Randomised clinical study. SETTING: A surgical unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS...... AND MEASUREMENTS: Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (five men, three women; age, 49+/-15 yrs; body mass index, 28+/-3 kg/m; glycosylated hemoglobin, 8.0%+/-1.9%), who had undergone major surgical procedures, were studied between the second and the eighth postoperative day with the intravenous administration...

  1. Chronic liraglutide therapy induces an enhanced endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 secretory response in early type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline K; Zinman, Bernard; Choi, Haysook; Connelly, Philip W; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Sustained exogenous stimulation of a hormone-specific receptor can affect endogenous hormonal regulation. In this context, little is known about the impact of chronic treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists on the endogenous GLP-1 response. We therefore evaluated the impact of chronic liraglutide therapy on endogenous GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response to an oral glucose challenge. A total of 51 people with type 2 diabetes of 2.6 ± 1.9 years' duration were randomized to daily subcutaneous liraglutide or placebo injection and followed for 48 weeks, with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) every 12 weeks. GLP-1 and GIP responses were assessed according to their respective area under the curve (AUC) from measurements taken at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes during each OGTT. There were no differences in AUC GIP between the groups. By contrast, although fasting GLP-1 was unaffected, the liraglutide arm had ~2-fold higher AUC GLP -1 at 12 weeks ( P  endogenous GLP-1 response, highlighting the need for further study of the long-term effects of incretin mimetics on L-cell physiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Calorie restriction and not glucagon-like peptide-1 explains the acute improvement in glucose control after gastric bypass in Type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Steven, S.; Hollingsworth, K. G.; Small, P. K.; Woodcock, S. A.; Pucci, A.; Aribasala, B.; Al-Mrabeh, A.; Batterham, R. L.; Taylor, R.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet. METHODS: A semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was m...

  3. The Effect of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists on Weight Loss in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Potts

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo and other anti-diabetic agents on weight loss in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Electronic searches were conducted for randomised controlled trials that compared a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy at a clinically relevant dose with a comparator treatment (other type 2 diabetes treatment or placebo in adults with type 2 diabetes and a mean body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Pair-wise meta-analyses and mixed treatment comparisons were conducted to examine the difference in weight change at six months between the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and each comparator.In the mixed treatment comparison (27 trials, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists were the most successful in terms of weight loss; exenatide 2 mg/week: -1.62 kg (95% CrI: -2.95 kg, -0.30 kg, exenatide 20 μg: -1.37 kg (95% CI: -222 kg, -0.52 kg, liraglutide 1.2 mg: -1.01 kg (95%CrI: -2.41 kg, 0.38 kg and liraglutide 1.8 mg: -1.51 kg (95% CI: -2.67 kg, -0.37 kg compared with placebo. There were no differences between the GLP-1 receptor agonists in terms of weight loss.This review provides evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapies are associated with weight loss in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes with no difference in weight loss seen between the different types of GLP-1 receptor agonists assessed.

  4. The metabolite generated by dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 metabolism of glucagon-like peptide-1 has no influence on plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, M; Madsbad, S; Deacon, C F

    2006-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is metabolised by the enzyme dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4), generating a metabolite with potential antagonistic properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of that metabolite on plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes...

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Cold, Frederik; Gluud, Lise L

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RAs) labels warn about acute pancreatitis (AP) and impose upon doctors the obligation to inform patients about symptoms of AP. Here we systematically reviewed the risk of AP in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of GLP...

  6. Albiglutide: A once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Portia N; Ndefo, Uche Anadu; Oliver, Ashley; Payton, Enryka

    2015-07-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and place in therapy of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist albiglutide are reviewed. Albiglutide (Tanzeum, GlaxoSmithKline) is an injectable GLP-1 agonist approved in 2014 for use as an adjunct to diet modification and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Albiglutide augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion and slows gastric emptying; it has an elimination half-life of approximately five days, allowing for once-weekly administration. Clinical trials demonstrated mean absolute reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values of 0.78-1.55% after 16 weeks of adjunctive therapy with albiglutide. Specific recommendations on albiglutide use have been issued by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Studies show that the potential for hypoglycemic episodes with albiglutide use is low. In clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse events were nausea and diarrhea. The use of albiglutide is contraindicated in patients with a history of pancreatitis and patients with a personal or family history of thyroid cancer. Albiglutide has been shown to be effective for the management of type 2 diabetes in adults and is recommended (by ADA) as second-line therapy when used in combination with metformin and (by AACE) as first-line monotherapy in patients with an HbA1c concentration of ≤7.5% at treatment initiation. In clinical trials, albiglutide was generally well tolerated by patients, with adverse effects comparable to those seen with other GLP-1 agonists. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The contribution of serotonin 5-HT2C and melanocortin-4 receptors to the satiety signaling of glucagon-like peptide 1 and liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Suzuki, Marina; Sanuki, Marin; Wakameda, Mamoru; Tamari, Tomohiro

    2011-07-29

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an insulinotropic gastrointestinal peptide produced mainly from intestinal endocrine L-cells, and liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, induce satiety. The serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) and melanoroctin-4 receptor (MC4R) are involved in the regulation of food intake. Here we show that systemic administration of GLP-1 (50 and 200μg/kg)-induced anorexia was blunted in mice with a 5HT2CR null mutation, and was attenuated in mice with a heterozygous MC4R mutation. On the other hand, systemic administration of liraglutide (50 and 100μg/kg) suppressed food intake in mice lacking 5-HT2CR, mice with a heterozygous mutation of MC4R and wild-type mice matched for age. Moreover, once-daily consecutive intraperitoneal administration of liraglutide (100μg/kg) over 3days significantly suppressed daily food intake and body weight in mice with a heterozygous mutation of MC4R as well as wild-type mice. These findings suggest that GLP-1 and liraglutide induce anorexia via different central pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment Strategy for Type 2 Diabetes with Obesity: Focus on Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-06-01

    The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for step-wise intensification of therapy for maintaining normal glycemic levels and lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk. Because obesity is a prominent risk factor and comorbidity of T2DM, it further elevates the CV risk in T2DM. Therefore, it is vital to manage weight, obesity, and glycemic parameters for effective T2DM management. Few oral antidiabetic drugs (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) and insulin are not suitable for obese patients with T2DM because these drugs cause weight gain. The present review discusses the place of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in the treatment of obese patients with T2DM and the significance of these drugs in the prevention of future CV risk in patients with T2DM. A literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted by using the search terms T2DM, GLP-1RAs, obesity, and cardiovascular complication. Randomized controlled trials measuring the effect of GLP-1RAs versus that of placebo on CV outcomes were included in the review. GLP-1RAs have emerged as a therapeutic alternative; these drugs exert their actions by providing glycemic control, improving insulin resistance and ö̇-cell function, and reducing weight. The risk of hypoglycemia with GLP-1RAs is minimal; however, GLP-1RAs are associated with gastrointestinal adverse events and raise concerns regarding pancreatitis. Combining GLP-1RAs with insulin analogues results in higher efficacy, a lowered insulin dose, and reduced insulin-related hypoglycemia and weight gain. Longer acting GLP-1RAs are also associated with improvement in medication adherence. Improvement in CV risk factors such as blood pressure and lipid profile further increases their usability for improving CV outcomes. Overall, the properties of GLP-1RAs make them suitable for combination with oral antidiabetic drugs in the early stages of T2DM and with insulins in the later stages for optimizing comprehensive management of the

  9. Impaired glucagon-like peptide-1-induced insulin secretion in carriers of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, S A; Tschritter, O; Machicao, F

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are associated with type 2 diabetes and reduced insulin secretion. The transcription factor TCF7L2 is an essential factor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal L cells. We studied whether...... a defect in the enteroinsular axis contributes to impaired insulin secretion in carriers of TCF7L2 polymorphisms. METHODS: We genotyped 1,110 non-diabetic German participants for five single nucleotide polymorphisms in TCF7L2. All participants underwent an OGTT; GLP-1 secretion was measured in 155...... and an arginine bolus. RESULTS: The OGTT data confirmed that variants in TCF7L2 are associated with reduced insulin secretion. In contrast, insulin secretion induced by an i.v. glucose challenge in the IVGTT and hyperglycaemic clamp was not different between the genotypes. GLP-1 concentrations during the OGTT...

  10. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose...... butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma......, incretin responses, and triacylglycerol metabolism postprandially in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  11. Calorie restriction and not glucagon-like peptide-1 explains the acute improvement in glucose control after gastric bypass in Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, S; Hollingsworth, K G; Small, P K; Woodcock, S A; Pucci, A; Aribasala, B; Al-Mrabeh, A; Batterham, R L; Taylor, R

    2016-12-01

    To compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet. A semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was measured. Hepatic and pancreatic fat content was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. The decrease in fat mass was almost identical in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the very-low-calorie diet groups (3.0±0.3 and 3.0±0.7kg). The early rise in plasma glucose level and in acute insulin secretion were greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet; however, the early rise in glucagon-like peptide-1 was disproportionately greater (sevenfold) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet. This did not translate into a greater improvement in fasting glucose level or area under the curve for glucose. The reduction in liver fat was greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (29.8±3.7 vs 18.6±4.0%) and the relationships between weight loss and reduction in liver fat differed between the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group and the very-low-calorie diet group. This study shows that gastroenterostomy increases the rate of nutrient absorption, bringing about a commensurately rapid rise in insulin level; however, there was no association with the large post-meal rise in glucagon-like peptide-1, and post-meal glucose homeostasis was similar in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and very-low-calorie diet groups. (Clinical trials registry number: ISRCTN11969319.). © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  12. Leucine Rich α-2 Glycoprotein: A Novel Neutrophil Granule Protein and Modulator of Myelopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J Druhan

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich α2 glycoprotein (LRG1, a serum protein produced by hepatocytes, has been implicated in angiogenesis and tumor promotion. Our laboratory previously reported the expression of LRG1 in murine myeloid cell lines undergoing neutrophilic granulocyte differentiation. However, the presence of LRG1 in primary human neutrophils and a role for LRG1 in regulation of hematopoiesis have not been previously described. Here we show that LRG1 is packaged into the granule compartment of human neutrophils and secreted upon neutrophil activation to modulate the microenvironment. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and direct biochemical measurements, we demonstrate that LRG1 is present in the peroxidase-negative granules of human neutrophils. Exocytosis assays indicate that LRG1 is differentially glycosylated in neutrophils, and co-released with the secondary granule protein lactoferrin. Like LRG1 purified from human serum, LRG1 secreted from activated neutrophils also binds cytochrome c. We also show that LRG1 antagonizes the inhibitory effects of TGFβ1 on colony growth of human CD34+ cells and myeloid progenitors. Collectively, these data invoke an additional role for neutrophils in innate immunity that has not previously been reported, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby neutrophils may modulate the microenvironment via extracellular release of LRG1.

  13. Effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide on systolic function in patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Nielsen, Olav W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) have increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. The diabetic heart is characterized by increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced glucose uptake resulting in reduced cardiac efficiency. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has...... with T2D and stable CAD were randomized to liraglutide or placebo and underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and exercise tolerance test at beginning and end of each intervention. The primary endpoint was changes in LV ejection fraction. Secondary endpoints were exercise capacity and other.......12 %; 95 % CI 3.45-5.69), or at recovery (+4.06 %; 95 % CI 0.81-8.93). No significant changes in WMSI were observed at any stress levels. GLS and GLSR at rest did not improve. The maximal exercise capacity estimated by metabolic equivalents was not affected by liraglutide. CONCLUSION: In conclusion...

  14. Evaluating preferences for profiles of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists among injection-naive type 2 diabetes patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Poon, Jiat Ling; Boye, Kristina S; Suzuki, Shuichi; Babineaux, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to estimate patients' preferences for the treatment features, safety, and efficacy of two specific glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dulaglutide and liraglutide, among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Japan. In Japan, patients with self-reported T2DM and naive to treatment with self-injectable medications were administered a DCE through an in-person interview. The DCE examined the following six attributes of T2DM treatment, each described by two levels: "dosing frequency", "hemoglobin A1c change", "weight change", "type of delivery system", "frequency of nausea", and "frequency of hypoglycemia". Part-worth utilities were estimated using logit models and were used to calculate the relative importance (RI) of each attribute. A chi-square test was used to determine the differences in preferences for the dulaglutide versus liraglutide profiles. The final evaluable sample consisted of 182 participants (mean age: 58.9 [standard deviation =10.0] years; 64.3% male; mean body mass index: 26.1 [standard deviation =5.0] kg/m(2)). The RI values for the attributes in rank order were dosing frequency (44.1%), type of delivery system (26.3%), frequency of nausea (15.1%), frequency of hypoglycemia (7.4%), weight change (6.2%), and hemoglobin A1c change (1.0%). Significantly more participants preferred the dulaglutide profile (94.5%) compared to the liraglutide profile (5.5%; Ptwo existing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. In this comparison, dosing frequency and type of delivery system were the two most important characteristics, accounting for >70% of the RI. These findings are similar to those of a previous UK study, providing information about patients' preferences that may be informative for patient-clinician treatment discussions.

  15. No hypoglycemia after subcutaneous administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 in lean type 2 diabetic patients and in patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Larsen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    have previously shown that GLP-1 does not cause hypoglycemia in obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance amounting to 5.4 +/- 1.1 according to homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). In this study, we investigated diabetic patients with normal or close to normal insulin sensitivity.......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a proglucagon derivative secreted primarily from the L-cells of the small intestinal mucosa in response to the ingestion of meals. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion. It has previously been shown that intravenous or subcutaneous...... administration of GLP-1 concomitant with intravenous glucose results in hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Because GLP-1 is also effective in type 2 diabetic patients and is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic agent, it is important to investigate whether GLP-1 may cause hypoglycemia in such patients. We...

  16. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma...... metabolism and the responses of the duodenal incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide after meals rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid), respectively. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the postprandial responses (8 h) of glucose......, insulin, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and GLP-1 to saturated- and monounsaturated-rich test meals. DESIGN: Twelve overweight patients with type 2 diabetes ingested 3 meals randomly: an energy-free soup with 50 g carbohydrate (control meal), the control meal plus 100 g...

  17. Dulaglutide (Trulicity®), a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 receptors for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    SCHEEN, André

    2016-01-01

    Résumé : Le dulaglutide (Trulicity®) est un nouvel agoniste des récepteurs du Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) proposé, en injection sous-cutanée hebdomadaire, dans le traitement du diabète de type 2. Les études cliniques du programme de phase III AWARD ont démontré l’efficacité et la sécurité d’emploi du dulaglutide chez des patients diabétiques de type 2 traités par régime et exercice, par metformine, par une combinaison metformine-sulfamide ou metformine-pioglitazone ou encore par des suppl...

  18. Soluble CD40 ligand stimulates CD40-dependent activation of the β2 integrin Mac-1 and protein kinase C zeda (PKCζ in neutrophils: implications for neutrophil-platelet interactions and neutrophil oxidative burst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jin

    Full Text Available Recent work has revealed an essential involvement of soluble CD40L (sCD40L in inflammation and vascular disease. Activated platelets are the major source of sCD40L, which has been implicated in platelet and leukocyte activation, although its exact functional impact on leukocyte-platelet interactions and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We aimed to determine the impact and the mechanisms of sCD40L on neutrophils. We studied neutrophil interactions with activated, surface-adherent platelets as a model for leukocyte recruitment to the sites of injury. Our data show that CD40L contributes to neutrophil firm adhesion to and transmigration across activated surface-adherent platelets, possibly through two potential mechanisms. One involves the direct interaction of ligand-receptor (CD40L-CD40, i.e., platelet surface CD40L interaction with neutrophil CD40; another involves an indirect mechanism, i.e. soluble CD40L stimulates activation of the leukocyte-specific β2 integrin Mac-1 in neutrophils and thereby further promotes neutrophil adhesion and migration. Activation of the integrin Mac-1 is known to be critical for mediating neutrophil adhesion and migration. sCD40L activated Mac-1 in neutrophils and enhanced neutrophil-platelet interactions in wild-type neutrophils, but failed to elicit such responses in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Furthermore, our data show that the protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ is critically required for sCD40L-induced Mac-1 activation and neutrophil adhesive function. sCD40L strongly stimulated the focal clustering of Mac-1 (CD11b and the colocalization of Mac-1 with PKCζ in wild-type neutrophils, but had minimal effect in CD40-deficient neutrophils. Blocking PKCζ completely inhibited sCD40L-induced neutrophil firm adhesion. Moreover, sCD40L strongly stimulates neutrophil oxidative burst via CD40-dependent activation of PI3K/NF-KB, but independent of Mac-1 and PKCζ. These findings may contribute to a better

  19. Neutrophils Self-Regulate Immune Complex-Mediated Cutaneous Inflammation through CXCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jackson LiangYao; Lim, Chun Hwee; Tay, Fen Wei; Goh, Chi Ching; Devi, Sapna; Malleret, Benoit; Lee, Bernett; Bakocevic, Nadja; Chong, Shu Zhen; Evrard, Maximilien; Tanizaki, Hideaki; Lim, Hwee Ying; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Zolezzi, Francesca; Poidinger, Michael; Angeli, Veronique; St John, Ashley L; Harris, John E; Tey, Hong Liang; Tan, Suet Mien; Kabashima, Kenji; Weninger, Wolfgang; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Lai Guan

    2016-02-01

    Deposition of immune complexes (ICs) in tissues triggers acute inflammatory pathology characterized by massive neutrophil influx leading to edema and hemorrhage, and is especially associated with vasculitis of the skin, but the mechanisms that regulate this type III hypersensitivity process remain poorly understood. Here, using a combination of multiphoton intravital microscopy and genomic approaches, we re-examined the cutaneous reverse passive Arthus reaction and observed that IC-activated neutrophils underwent transmigration, triggered further IC formation, and transported these ICs into the interstitium, whereas neutrophil depletion drastically reduced IC formation and ameliorated vascular leakage in vivo. Thereafter, we show that these neutrophils expressed high levels of CXCL2, which further amplified neutrophil recruitment and activation in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. Notably, CXCL1 expression was restricted to tissue-resident cell types, but IC-activated neutrophils may also indirectly, via soluble factors, modulate macrophage CXCL1 expression. Consistent with their distinct cellular origins and localization, only neutralization of CXCL2 but not CXCL1 in the interstitium effectively reduced neutrophil recruitment. In summary, our study establishes that neutrophils are able to self-regulate their own recruitment and responses during IC-mediated inflammation through a CXCL2-driven feed forward loop. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  1. Evaluating preferences for profiles of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists among injection-naive type 2 diabetes patients in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelhorn HL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Heather L Gelhorn,1 Elizabeth D Bacci,2 Jiat Ling Poon,1 Kristina S Boye,3 Shuichi Suzuki,4 Steven M Babineaux3 1Outcomes Research, Evidera, Bethesda, MD, 2Evidera, Seattle, WA, 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Medicines Development Unit Japan, Eli Lilly Japan, Kobe, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to use a discrete choice experiment (DCE to estimate patients’ preferences for the treatment features, safety, and efficacy of two specific glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dulaglutide and liraglutide, among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Japan.Methods: In Japan, patients with self-reported T2DM and naive to treatment with self-injectable medications were administered a DCE through an in-person interview. The DCE examined the following six attributes of T2DM treatment, each described by two levels: “dosing frequency”, “hemoglobin A1c change”, “weight change”, “type of delivery system”, “frequency of nausea”, and “frequency of hypoglycemia”. Part-worth utilities were estimated using logit models and were used to calculate the relative importance (RI of each attribute. A chi-square test was used to determine the differences in preferences for the dulaglutide versus liraglutide profiles.Results: The final evaluable sample consisted of 182 participants (mean age: 58.9 [standard deviation =10.0] years; 64.3% male; mean body mass index: 26.1 [standard deviation =5.0] kg/m2. The RI values for the attributes in rank order were dosing frequency (44.1%, type of delivery system (26.3%, frequency of nausea (15.1%, frequency of hypoglycemia (7.4%, weight change (6.2%, and hemoglobin A1c change (1.0%. Significantly more participants preferred the dulaglutide profile (94.5% compared to the liraglutide profile (5.5%; P<0.0001.Conclusion: This study elicited the preferences of Japanese T2DM patients for attributes and levels

  2. Near-normalization of glycaemic control with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment combined with exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensberg, Pernille; Nyby, Signe; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk

    2017-01-01

    seen in body fat (exercise plus liraglutide: -2.5 ± 1.4%, (p exercise plus placebo: -2.2 ± 1.9%, (p exercise plus liraglutide: 0.5 ± 0.5 l O2 per min (p exercise plus placebo: 0.4 ± 0.4 l O2 per min (p = 0...... the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, exercise combined with GLP-1RA treatment near-normalised HbA1c levels and caused a robust weight loss when compared to placebo. These results suggest that a combination of exercise and GLP-1RA treatment is effective in type 2 diabetes.......AIMS: Exercise as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of exercise in combination with a GLP-1RA (liraglutide) or placebo for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty...

  3. Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia and augments the glucagon-like peptide-1 response in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Wong, Olivia; Synnott, Emma-Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion or response may contribute to ineffective insulin release in type 2 diabetes. The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine stimulates GLP-1 secretion in vitro and in vivo. In a randomized, crossover study, we evaluated the effect of oral...... glutamine, with or without sitagliptin (SIT), on postprandial glycemia and GLP-1 concentration in 15 type 2 diabetes patients (glycated hemoglobin 6.5 ± 0.6%). Participants ingested a low-fat meal (5% fat) after receiving either water (control), 30 g l-glutamine (Gln-30), 15 g L-glutamine (Gln-15), 100 mg...... concentration and limiting postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes....

  4. Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, T; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2001-01-01

    -like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), we measured plasma concentrations after a mixed breakfast meal (566 kcal) in 12 type 2 diabetic patients (age 57 years [range 49-67], BMI 31 kg/m2 [27-38], and HbA1c 9.2% [7.0-12.5]) and 12 matched healthy subjects. The patients had...... by a small early rise (30-45 min) and a significantly reduced late phase (75-150 min) (P patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas the late intact GLP-1 response was strongly...... between patients and healthy subjects for total GIP (intact + metabolite) as well as intact GIP, except for a small decrease in the patients at 120 min; integrated areas for intact hormone (area under the curve [AUC]INT) averaged 52 +/- 4% (for patients) versus 56 +/- 3% (for control subjects) of total...

  5. Toll-Like Receptor-2 and -4 Expression by Maternal Neutrophils in Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prearo Moço, Natália; Camargo Batista, Renata Aparecida; Fernandes Martin, Laura; de Oliveira, Leandro Gustavo; Garcia de Lima Parada, Cristina Maria; Alarcão Dias-Melicio, Luciane; de Assis Golim, Marjorie; Guimarães da Silva, Márcia

    2018-01-01

    The inflammatory response in preterm parturition is regulated by the innate immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 are innate immune receptors that recognize the microorganisms most frequently involved in amniotic cavity infections, which are associated with activating the inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface during preterm labor. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in maternal neutrophils in preterm labor. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics Care Unit of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, Brazil. The preterm group was composed of 20 pregnant women who presented preterm labor and preterm delivery. The control group was composed of 20 nonlaboring pregnant women matched to the preterm group by gestational age. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral blood and TLR expressions were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Gene expressions of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in neutrophils from the preterm group were statistically higher than expressions in neutrophils from the matched control group. The percentage of TLR-4+ neutrophils was higher in the preterm group than the matched control group, while the percentage of TLR-2+ neutrophils did not differ between groups. TLR-4 expression in maternal neutrophils is associated with spontaneous preterm labor. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue therapy for psoriasis patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahern, T

    2012-06-13

    Background  Diabetes and obesity are more prevalent amongst psoriasis patients as is disturbance of the innate immune system. GLP-1 analogue therapy considerably improves weight and glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes and its receptor is present on innate immune cells. Objective  We aimed to determine the effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, on psoriasis severity. Methods  Before and after 10 weeks of liraglutide therapy (1.2 mg subcutaneously daily) we determined the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and the dermatology life quality index (DLQI) in seven people with both psoriasis and diabetes (median age 48 years, median body mass index 48.2 kg\\/m(2) ). We also evaluated the immunomodulatory properties of liraglutide by measuring circulating lymphocyte subset numbers and monocyte cytokine production. Results  Liraglutide therapy decreased the median PASI from 4.8 to 3.0 (P = 0.03) and the median DLQI from 6.0 to 2.0 (P = 0.03). Weight and glycaemic control improved significantly. Circulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells increased from 0.13% of T lymphocytes to 0.40% (P = 0.03). Liraglutide therapy also effected a non-significant 54% decrease in the proportion of circulating monocytes that produced tumour necrosis factor alpha (P = 0.07). Conclusion  GLP-1 analogue therapy improves psoriasis severity, increases circulating iNKT cell number and modulates monocyte cytokine secretion. These effects may result from improvements in weight and glycaemic control as well as from direct immune effects of GLP-1 receptor activation. Prospective controlled trials of GLP-1 therapies are warranted, across all weight groups, in psoriasis patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

  7. Is glucagon-like peptide-1 fully protected by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor administration in patients with type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, ES; Lund, A.; Bagger, J. I.

    2018-01-01

    diabetes (T2D) [n=8; age: 59.9±10.8 (mean±SD) years; body mass index (BMI): 28.8±4.6 kg/m2 ; HbA1c : 43.1±0.5 mmol/mol (6.6±1.7%)] received a 380-minute continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-1 (1.0 pmol × kg body weight-1 × min-1 ) and double-blinded, single-dose oral administration of sitagliptin...

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist or bolus insulin with optimized basal insulin in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Michaela; Nauck, Michael A; Shaginian, Rimma; Malone, James K; Cleall, Simon; Reaney, Matthew; de Vries, Danielle; Hoogwerf, Byron J; MacConell, Leigh; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2014-10-01

    Mealtime insulin is commonly added to manage hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes when basal insulin is insufficient. However, this complex regimen is associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia. This study compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide twice daily or mealtime insulin lispro in patients inadequately controlled by insulin glargine and metformin despite up-titration. In this 30-week, open-label, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial with 12 weeks prior insulin optimization, 627 patients with insufficient postoptimization glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were randomized to exenatide (10-20 µg/day) or thrice-daily mealtime lispro titrated to premeal glucose of 5.6-6.0 mmol/L, both added to insulin glargine (mean 61 units/day at randomization) and metformin (mean 2,000 mg/day). Randomization HbA1c and fasting glucose (FG) were 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) and 7.1 mmol/L for exenatide and 8.2% (66 mmol/mol) and 7.1 mmol/L for lispro. At 30 weeks postrandomization, mean HbA1c changes were noninferior for exenatide compared with lispro (-1.13 and -1.10%, respectively); treatment differences were -0.04 (95% CI -0.18, 0.11) in per-protocol (n = 510) and -0.03 (95% CI -0.16, 0.11) in intent-to-treat (n = 627) populations. FG was lower with exenatide than lispro (6.5 vs. 7.2 mmol/L; P = 0.002). Weight decreased with exenatide and increased with lispro (-2.5 vs. +2.1 kg; P < 0.001). More patients reported treatment satisfaction and better quality of life with exenatide than lispro, although a larger proportion of patients with exenatide experienced treatment-emergent adverse events. Exenatide resulted in fewer nonnocturnal hypoglycemic episodes but more gastrointestinal adverse events than lispro. Adding exenatide to titrated glargine with metformin resulted in similar glycemic control as adding lispro and was well tolerated. These findings support exenatide as a noninsulin addition for patients failing basal insulin. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association

  9. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...... mins, but they remained elevated during placebo infusion (p infusion led to a significant increase of insulin secretion (p

  10. L-glutamine and whole protein restore first-phase insulin response and increase glucagon-like Peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Chisholm, Don J; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    l-glutamine triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from L cells in vitro and when ingested pre-meal, decreases postprandial glycaemia and increases circulating insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of oral l-glutamine, compared with whole...... protein low in glutamine, on insulin response in well-controlled T2D patients. In a randomized study with a crossover design, T2D patients (n = 10, 6 men) aged 65.1 ± 5.8, with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.6% ± 0.7% (48 ± 8 mmol/mol), received oral l-glutamine (25 g), protein (25 g) or water...... tested 1–2 weeks apart. Both l-glutamine and protein increased first-phase insulin response (p ≤ 0.02). Protein (p = 0.05), but not l-glutamine (p = 0.2), increased second-phase insulin response. Total GLP-1 was increased by both l-glutamine and protein (p ≤ 0.02). We conclude that oral l-glutamine...

  11. A discrete-choice experiment to quantify patient preferences for frequency of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist injections in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, A Brett; Nguyen, Hiep; Posner, Joshua; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Ruggles, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patients' preferences for attributes of injectable antihyperglycemic regimens may improve patient satisfaction and medication adherence. Our objective was to quantify the preferences of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for reducing the frequency of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist injections from once daily to once weekly. A total of 643 respondents with a self-reported physician diagnosis of type 2 diabetes completed a web-based discrete-choice experiment survey. The sample included four prespecified subgroups: currently using exenatide once weekly (n = 150), liraglutide once daily (n = 153), insulin (but not exenatide once weekly or liraglutide) (n = 156), and no injectable treatment (n = 184). Device attributes included type of injection device, needle size and pain, injection frequency, refrigeration, and injection-site reactions. Random-parameters logit was used to estimate the relative impact of device attributes on treatment choice for each subgroup. In all subgroups, changing injection frequency from daily to weekly (independent of the effect of injection frequency on preferences for other attributes) was the most important predictor of treatment choice. Switching from a longer and thicker needle to a shorter and thinner needle and eliminating injection-site reactions were also statistically significant predictors of device choice (P choices, diagnosis was self-reported, and patients were recruited from an Internet panel and may not be representative of the T2DM patient population.

  12. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate responses to intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thazhath, Sony S; Marathe, Chinmay S; Wu, Tongzhi; Chang, Jessica; Khoo, Joan; Kuo, Paul; Checklin, Helen L; Bound, Michelle J; Rigda, Rachael S; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Rayner, Christopher K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. Nine subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive intravenous exenatide or saline control in a crossover design. Glucose (3 kcal min -1 ) was infused via an intraduodenal manometry catheter for 60 min. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the frequency and amplitude of duodenal pressure waves were measured at regular intervals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored using 100 mm visual analogue scales. During intraduodenal glucose infusion (0-60 min), diastolic (p (0-60)  = 0.03) and mean arterial (p (0-60)  = 0.03) blood pressures and heart rate (p (0-60)  = 0.06; p (0-120)  = 0.03)) were higher with exenatide compared to placebo. The increase in the area under the curve for diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure was related directly to the suppression of the duodenal motility index with exenatide compared to control (p = 0.007 and 0.04, respectively). In type 2 diabetes, intravenous exenatide increases mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion, supporting the need for further research with exenatide for its potential use in postprandial hypotension. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Series of Long-Acting Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Pentasaccharide Conjugates for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nigel; Patterson, Steven; de Kort, Martin; Moffett, R Charlotte; Wisse, Jeffry A J; Dokter, Wim H A; Bos, Ebo S; Miltenburg, André M M; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    The present study details the development of a family of novel D-Ala(8) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) peptide conjugates by site specific conjugation to an antithrombin III (ATIII) binding carrier pentasaccharide through tetraethylene glycol linkers. All conjugates were found to possess potent insulin-releasing activity. Peptides with short linkers (GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1-R) binding affinity. All D-Ala(8) GLP-1 conjugates exhibited prominent glucose-lowering action. Biological activity of the Lys(37) short-linker peptide was evident up to 72 h post-injection. In agreement, the pharmacokinetic profile of this conjugate (t1/2 , 11 h) was superior to that of the GLP-1-R agonist, exenatide. Once-daily injection of the Lys(37) short-linker peptide in ob/ob mice for 21 days significantly decreased food intake and improved HbA1c and glucose tolerance. Islet size was decreased, with no discernible change in islet number. The beneficial effects of the Lys(37) short-linker peptide were similar to or better than either exenatide or liraglutide, another GLP-1-R agonist. In conclusion, GLP-1 peptides conjugated to an ATIII binding carrier pentasaccharide have a substantially prolonged bioactive profile compatible for possible once-weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist Liraglutide Alters Bone Marrow Exosome-Mediated miRNA Signal Pathways in Ovariectomized Rats with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Fu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Lu; Xie, Fen; Dai, Ru-Chun

    2017-11-14

    BACKGROUND Compared with normal postmenopausal women, estrogen deficiency and hyperglycemia in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) lead to more severe bone property degradation. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been reported to improve bone condition among people with T2DM but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Exosomes work as mediators in cell-to-cell communication, delivering functional miRNAs between cells. We aimed to explore the role of exosomes in T2DM-related bone metabolic disorders and the bone protective mechanisms of liraglutide. MATERIAL AND METHODS We made comparative analyses of bone marrow-derived exosomal miRNAs from ovariectomized (OVX) control rats, OVX + T2DM rats, and OVX + T2DM + liraglutide-treated rats. miRNA profiles were generated using high-throughput sequencing. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis were performed to investigate the signal pathway alterations. Three miRNAs were randomly chosen to validate their absolute expression levels by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS Bone marrow-derived exosomal miRNAs were different with respect to miRNA numbers, species, and expression levels. miRNA spectra varied under T2DM condition and after liraglutide treatment. By bioinformatics analysis, we found T2DM and liraglutide administration lead to significant changes in exosomal miRNAs which targeted to insulin secretion and insulin-signaling pathway. Wnt signaling pathway alteration was the critical point regarding bone metabolism. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show the selective packaging of functional miRNA cargoes into exosomes due to T2DM and liraglutide treatment. Bone marrow exosome-mediated Wnt signaling pathway alteration may play a part in the bone protective effect of liraglutide.

  15. [Impact of anti-diabetic therapy based on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on the cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort-Babkowski, Miguel

    2013-08-17

    Anti-diabetic drugs have, in addition to their well-known glucose lowering-effect, different effects in the rest of cardiovascular factors that are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been incorporated to the therapeutic arsenal of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonists on different cardiovascular risk factors, mediated by the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on the control of hyperglycaemia and the GLP-1 receptor agonists effect on other cardiovascular risk factors (weight control, blood pressure control, lipid profile and all other cardiovascular risk biomarkers). In addition, we present the emerging evidence with regards to the impact that GLP-1 receptor agonists therapy could have in the reduction of cardiovascular events and the currently ongoing studies addressing this issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenfield, Jerry R; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Keogh, Julia M

    2008-01-01

    to increases in circulating GLP-1 concentrations, which peaked at 30 min in LEAN (31.9 +/- 5.7 pmol/L) and OB-CON (24.3 +/- 2.1 pmol/L) subjects and at 45 min in OB-DIAB subjects (19.5 +/- 1.8 pmol/L). Circulating GLP-1 concentrations increased in all study groups after glutamine ingestion, with peak...... concentrations at 30 min of 22.5 +/- 3.4, 17.9 +/- 1.1, and 17.3 +/- 3.4 pmol/L in LEAN, OB-CON, and OB-DIAB subjects, respectively. Glutamine also increased plasma GIP concentrations but less effectively than glucose. Consistent with the increases in GLP-1 and GIP, glutamine significantly increased circulating......BACKGROUND: Incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in meal-related insulin secretion. We previously demonstrated that glutamine is a potent stimulus of GLP-1 secretion in vitro. OBJECTIVE: Our...

  17. Effects of 6 months glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, N D; Cuthbertson, D J; Kemp, G J; Pugh, C; Green, D J; Cable, N T; Jones, H

    2013-08-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are used for treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Little is known about their cardiovascular (CV) impact. We sought to determine the effects of chronic treatment on vascular function in T2DM. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial-independent glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) function and carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT) were assessed in 11 severely obese T2DMs (4 females, 7 males: 55 ± 8 years, diabetes duration 8.3 ± 4.7 years mean ± s.d.) before and after 6 months GLP-1 RA. Body weight (5.3 ± 1.2 kg; p < 0.05) and magnetic resonance imaging determined total and subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, decreased. Glycaemic control improved. There were no significant changes in FMD, GTN and cIMT (-1.1 ± 0.4%, 0.3 ± 3.0% and 0.00 ± 0.04 mm, respectively). Despite significant improvements in body composition and glycaemic control, 6 months GLP-1 RA treatment did not modulate vascular function. Alternative strategies may therefore be needed to reduce the burden of CV risk in severely obese patients with long-standing T2DM. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Expression of cholecystokinin2-receptor in rat and human L cells and the stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion by gastrin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Cao, Xun; Liu, Xiao-Min

    2015-03-01

    Gastrin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by G cells. Hypergastrinemia can improve blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. These positive effects are primarily due to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells. In recent years, many receptors that regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) have been identified in enteroendocrine L cell lines. This led us to hypothesize that, in addition to the trophic effects of gastrin on β-cells, L cells also express cholecystokinin2-receptor (CCK2R), which may regulate GLP-1 secretion and have synergistic effects on glucose homeostasis. Our research provides a preliminary analysis of CCK2R expression and the stimulating effect of gastrin treatment on GLP-1 secretion in a human endocrine L cell line, using RT-PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA analyses. The expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3, which regulate GLP-1 biosynthesis, were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Double immunofluorescence labeling was utilized to assess the intracellular localization of CCK2R and GLP-1 in L cells harvested from rat colon tissue. Our results showed that CCK2R was expressed in both the human L cell line and the rat L cells. We also showed that treatment with gastrin, a CCK2R agonist, stimulated the secretion of GLP-1, and that this effect was likely due to increased expression of proglucagon and PCSK1 (also known as prohormone convertase 3 (PC3 gene)). These results not only provide a basis for the role gastrin may play in intestinal L cells, and may also provide the basis for the development of a method of gastrin-mediated glycemic regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg -1 ), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg -1 ) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg -1 ) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA): long-term effect on kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Tine Willum; Goetze, Jens Peter; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2015-07-01

    In a short-term study including 31 patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) treatment was associated with a significant reversible decline in GFR. Twenty-three patients re-initiated GLP-1 RA treatment after the primary study, and the aim was to investigate the long-term effect on kidney function. We included 30 patients in a one-year extension study, all initially treated with liraglutide for seven weeks. During follow-up 23 were treated with liraglutide and seven untreated. Primary outcome was change in GFR ((51)Cr-EDTA plasma clearance). Patients were 61.5 (10.0) years and HbA(1c) 60.1 (13.8) mmol/mol. Baseline GFR was 100.6 (24.9) mL/min/1.73 m(2) and was reduced by 11 (95% CI: 6.6-15.7, p < 0.001) mL/min/1.73 m(2), independent of change in 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP), weight, UAER or HbA(1c) (p≥0.33). Geometric mean (IQR) of UAER was 25.5 (9.9-50.9) mg/d and was reduced by 27 (95% CI: 5-44; p = 0.020)%, and 24-h SBP was reduced by 8.2 (p = 0.048) mmHg. No changes occurred in untreated patients. Long-term treatment with liraglutide was associated with a reduction in measured GFR similar to the effect during short-term treatment, suggesting a metabolic or haemodynamic reversible effect and not structural changes. Moreover, UAER and 24-h SBP were reduced. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01499108. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-normalization of glycaemic control with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment combined with exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensberg, P; Nyby, S; Jørgensen, P G; Storgaard, H; Jensen, M T; Sivertsen, J; Holst, J J; Kiens, B; Richter, E A; Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of exercise in combination with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), liraglutide, or placebo for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Thirty-three overweight, dysregulated and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 16 weeks of either exercise and liraglutide or exercise and placebo. Both groups had three supervised 60-minute training sessions per week including spinning and resistance training. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels dropped by a mean ± standard deviation of 2.0% ± 1.2% (from 8.2% ± 1.4%) in the exercise plus liraglutide group vs 0.3% ± 0.9% (from 8.0% ± 1.2%) in the exercise plus placebo group ( P < .001), and body weight was reduced more with liraglutide (-3.4 ± 2.9 kg vs -1.6 ± 2.3 kg; P < .001). Compared with baseline, similar reductions were seen in body fat (exercise plus liraglutide: -2.5% ± 1.4% [ P < .001]; exercise plus placebo: -2.2% ± 1.9% [ P < .001]) and similar increases were observed in maximum oxygen uptake (exercise plus liraglutide: 0.5 ± 0.5 L O 2 /min [ P < .001]; exercise plus placebo: 0.4 ± 0.4 L O 2 /min [ P = .002]). Greater reductions in fasting plasma glucose (-3.4 ± 2.3 mM vs -0.3 ± 2.6 mM, P < .001) and systolic blood pressure (-5.4 ± 7.4 mm Hg vs -0.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P < .01) were seen with exercise plus liraglutide vs exercise plus placebo. The two groups experienced similar increases in quality of life during the intervention. In obese patients with type 2 diabetes, exercise combined with GLP-1RA treatment near-normalized HbA1c levels and caused a robust weight loss when compared with placebo. These results suggest that a combination of exercise and GLP-1RA treatment is effective in type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Weight Loss in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs on weight reduction in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM, a network meta-analysis was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from 1950 to October 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving GLP-1 RAs were included if they provided information on body weight. A total of 51 RCTs were included and 17521 participants were enrolled. The mean duration of 51 RCTs was 31 weeks. Exenatide 10 μg twice daily (EX10BID reduced weight compared with exenatide 5 μg twice daily (EX5BID, liraglutide 0.6 mg once daily (LIR0.6QD, liraglutide—1.2 mg once daily (LIR1.2QD, and placebo treatment, with mean differences of −1.07 kg (95% CI: −2.41, −0.02, −2.38 kg (95% CI: −3.71, −1.06, −1.62 kg (95% CI: −2.79, −0.43, and −1.92 kg (95% CI: −2.61, −1.24, respectively. Reductions of weight treated with liraglutide—1.8 mg once daily (LIR1.8QD reach statistical significance (−1.43 kg (95% CI: −2.73, −0.15 versus LIR1.2QD and (−0.98 kg (95% CI: −1.94, −0.02 versus placebo. Network meta-analysis found that EX10BID, LIR1.8QD, and EX2QW obtained a higher proportion of patients with weight loss than other traditional hypoglycemic agents. Our results suggest GLP-1 RAs are promising candidates for weight control in comparison with traditional hypoglycemic drugs, and EX10BID, LIR1.8QD, and EX2QW rank the top three drugs.

  3. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, attenuates the progression of overt diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Shigeki; Hirai, Keiji; Hirai, Aizan

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is one of the incretins, gut hormones released from the intestine in response to food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists have been used to treat type 2 diabetes. Here, we studied the effect of the administration of a GLP-1R agonist, liraglutide, on proteinuria and the progression of overt DN in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty-three type 2 diabetic patients with overt DN, who had already been treated with blockade of renin-angiotensin system under dietary sodium restriction, were given liraglutide for a period of 12 months. Treatment with liraglutide caused a significant decrease in HbA1c from 7.4 ± 0.2% to 6.9 ± 0.3% (p = 0.04), and in body mass index (BMI) from 27.6 ± 0.9 kg/m² to 26.5 ± 0.8 kg/m² after 12 months (p < 0.001), while systolic blood pressure did not change. The progression of DN was determined as the rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The 12-month administration of liraglutide caused a significant decrease in proteinuria from 2.53 ± 0.48 g/g creatinine to 1.47 ± 0.28 g/g creatinine (p = 0.002). The administration of liraglutide also substantially diminished the rate of decline in eGFR from 6.6 ± 1.5 mL/min/1.73 m²/year to 0.3 ± 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m²/year (p = 0.003). Liraglutide can be used not only for reducing HbA1c and BMI, but also for attenuating the progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  4. Efficacy and Acceptability of Glycemic Control of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists among Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixia; Zhang, Yuan; Quan, Xiaochi; Yang, Zhirong; Zeng, Xiantao; Ji, Linong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesize current evidence of the impact of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on hypoglycemia, treatment discontinuation and glycemic level in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data Sources Literature search (Medline, Embase, the Cochrane library), website of clinical trial, bibliographies of published systematic reviews. Eligibility Criteria Randomized controlled trials with available data comparing GLP-1 RAs with placebo or traditional anti-diabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Data Synthesis Traditional pairwise meta-analyses within DerSimonian-Laird random effects model and network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework were performed to calculate odds ratios for the incidence of hypoglycemia, treatment discontinuation, HbA1c<7.0% and HbA1c<6.5%. Ranking probabilities for all treatments were estimated to obtain a treatment hierarchy using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) and mean ranks. Results 78 trials with 13 treatments were included. Overall, all GLP-1 RAs except for albiglutide increased the risk of hypoglycemia when compared to placebo. Reduction in the incidence of hypoglycemia was found for all GLP-1 RAs versus insulin (except for dulaglutide) and sulphonylureas. For the incidence of treatment discontinuation, increase was found for exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide and taspoglutide versus placebo, insulin and sitagliptin. For glycemic level, decrease was found for all GLP-1 RAs versus placebo. Dulaglutide, exenatide long-acting release (exe_lar), liraglutide and taspoglutide had significant lowering effect when compared with sitagliptin (HbA1c<7.0%) and insulin (HbA1c<6.5%). Finally, according to SUCRAs, placebo, thiazolidinediones and albiglutide had the best decrease effect on hypoglycemia; sulphanylureas, sitagliptin and insulin decrease the incidence of treatment discontinuation most; exe_lar and dulaglutide had the highest

  5. Nucleobindin co-localizes and associates with cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Leclerc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The inducible cyclooxygenase isoform (COX-2 is associated with inflammation, tumorigenesis, as well as with physiological events. Despite efforts deployed in order to understand the biology of this multi-faceted enzyme, much remains to be understood. Nucleobindin (Nuc, a ubiquitous Ca(2+-binding protein, possesses a putative COX-binding domain. In this study, we investigated its expression and subcellular localization in human neutrophils, its affinity for COX-2 as well as its possible impact on PGE(2 biosynthesis. Complementary subcellular localization approaches including nitrogen cavitation coupled to Percoll fractionation, immunofluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy collectively placed Nuc, COX-2, and all of the main enzymes involved in prostanoid synthesis, in the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum of human neutrophils. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated a high affinity between Nuc and COX-2. Addition of human recombinant (hr Nuc to purified hrCOX-2 dose-dependently caused an increase in PGE(2 biosynthesis in response to arachidonic acid. Co-incubation of Nuc with COX-2-expressing neutrophil lysates also increased their capacity to produce PGE(2. Moreover, neutrophil transfection with hrNuc specifically enhanced PGE(2 biosynthesis. Together, these results identify a COX-2-associated protein which may have an impact in prostanoid biosynthesis.

  6. Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Modulates Neutrophil Recruitment in a Murine Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Kapellos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system consists of endogenous lipid mediators and cannabinoid receptors (CB 1 and 2. It has previously been demonstrated that activation of the leukocyte-expressed CB2 has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. Here, we report its role under baseline conditions and in a model of low-dose endotoxemia by comparing CB2 knockout to littermate control mice. CB2-deficient mice displayed significantly more neutrophils and fewer monocytes in the bone marrow under steady state. In initial validation experiments, administration of 1 mg/kg LPS to male C57BL/6J mice was shown to transiently upregulate systemic proinflammatory mediators (peaked at 2 hours and mobilise bone marrow neutrophils and monocytes into circulation. In CB2 knockout mice, the level of the metalloproteinase MMP-9 was significantly elevated by 2 hours and we also observed augmented recruitment of neutrophils to the spleen in addition to increased levels of Ccl2, Ccl3, Cxcl10, and Il6. Collectively, our data show that the absence of CB2 receptor increases the levels of innate immune cell populations in the bone marrow under steady state. Furthermore, during an acute systemic inflammatory insult, we observe a highly reproducible and site-specific increase in neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory chemokine expression in the spleen of CB2 knockout mice.

  7. Neutrophil elastase induces inflammation and pain in mouse knee joints via activation of proteinase-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, Milind M; Reid, Allison R; Botz, Bálint; Bölcskei, Kata; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; McDougall, Jason J

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophil elastase plays a crucial role in arthritis. Here, its potential in triggering joint inflammation and pain was assessed, and whether these effects were mediated by proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Neutrophil elastase (5 μg) was injected into the knee joints of mice and changes in blood perfusion, leukocyte kinetics and paw withdrawal threshold were assessed. Similar experiments were performed in animals pretreated with the neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat, the PAR2 antagonist GB83, the p44/42 MAPK inhibitor U0126 and in PAR2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Neutrophil elastase activity was also evaluated in arthritic joints by fluorescent imaging and sivelestat was assessed for anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Intra-articular injection of neutrophil elastase caused an increase in blood perfusion, leukocyte kinetics and a decrease in paw withdrawal threshold. Sivelestat treatment suppressed this effect. The PAR2 antagonist GB83 reversed neutrophil elastase-induced synovitis and pain and these responses were also attenuated in PAR2 KO mice. The MAPK inhibitor U0126 also blocked neutrophil elastase-induced inflammation and pain. Active neutrophil elastase was increased in acutely inflamed knees as shown by an activatable fluorescent probe. Sivelestat appeared to reduce neutrophil elastase activity, but had only a moderate anti-inflammatory effect in this model. Neutrophil elastase induced acute inflammation and pain in knee joints of mice. These changes are PAR2-dependent and appear to involve activation of a p44/42 MAPK pathway. Blocking neutrophil elastase, PAR2 and p44/42 MAPK activity can reduce inflammation and pain, suggesting their utility as therapeutic targets. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Microbiome-mediated neutrophil recruitment via CXCR2 and protection from amebic colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Watanabe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease severity of Entamoeba histolytica infection ranges from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Recent human and animal data implicate the gut microbiome as a modifier of E. histolytica virulence. Here we have explored the association of the microbiome with susceptibility to amebiasis in infants and in the mouse model of amebic colitis. Dysbiosis occurred symptomatic E. histolytica infection in children, as evidenced by a lower Shannon diversity index of the gut microbiota. To test if dysbiosis was a cause of susceptibility, wild type C57BL/6 mice (which are innately resistant to E. histiolytica infection were treated with antibiotics prior to cecal challenge with E. histolytica. Compared with untreated mice, antibiotic pre-treated mice had more severe colitis and delayed clearance of E. histolytica. Gut IL-25 and mucus protein Muc2, both shown to provide innate immunity in the mouse model of amebic colitis, were lower in antibiotic pre-treated mice. Moreover, dysbiotic mice had fewer cecal neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity. Paradoxically, the neutrophil chemoattractant chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, as well as IL-1β, were higher in the colon of mice with antibiotic-induced dysbiosis. Neutrophils from antibiotic pre-treated mice had diminished surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR2, potentially explaining their inability to migrate to the site of infection. Blockade of CXCR2 increased susceptibility of control non-antibiotic treated mice to amebiasis. In conclusion, dysbiosis increased the severity of amebic colitis due to decreased neutrophil recruitment to the gut, which was due in part to decreased surface expression on neutrophils of CXCR2.

  9. Shiga toxin-2 induces neutrophilia and neutrophil activation in a murine model of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, G C; Rubel, C; Dran, G; Gómez, S; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    2000-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that infections due to Shiga toxins (Stx) producing Escherichia coli are the main cause of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Although it is recognized that Stx damage the glomerular endothelium, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the inflammatory response is able to potentiate Stx toxicity. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and neutrophils (PMN) represent two central components of inflammation during a gram-negative infection. In this regard, patients with high peripheral PMN counts at presentation have a poor prognosis. Since the murine model has been used to study LPS-Stx interactions, we analyzed the effects of Stx alone or in combination with LPS on the kinetics of neutrophil production and activation and their participation in renal damage. We observed a sustained neutrophilia after Stx2 injection. Moreover, these neutrophils showed increased expression of CD11b, enhanced cytotoxic capacity, and greater adhesive properties. Regarding the cooperative effects of LPS on Stx2 action, we demonstrated potentiation of neutrophilia and CD11b induction at early times by pretreatment with LPS. Finally, a positive correlation between neutrophil percentage and renal damage (assayed as plasmatic urea) firmly suggests a role for PMN in the pathogenesis of HUS.

  10. Neutrophils from Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Display Reduced Chemotaxis to CXCR2 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Cockx

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD, cystic fibrosis (CF, and chronic obstructive airway disease are characterized by neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs. In CF and chronic obstructive airway disease, improper functioning of neutrophils has been demonstrated. We hypothesized that the pulmonary damage in PCD might be aggravated by abnormal functioning neutrophils either as a primary consequence of the PCD mutation or secondary to chronic inflammation. We analyzed chemotactic responses and chemoattractant receptor expression profiles of peripheral blood neutrophils from 36 patients with PCD, 21 healthy children and 19 healthy adults. We stimulated peripheral blood monocytes from patients and healthy controls and measured CXCL8 and IL-1β production with ELISA. PCD neutrophils displayed reduced migration toward CXCR2 ligands (CXCL5 and CXCL8 in the shape change, microchamber and microslide chemotaxis assays, whereas leukotriene B4 and complement component 5a chemotactic responses were not significantly different. The reduced response to CXCL8 was observed in all subgroups of patients with PCD (displaying either normal ultrastructure, dynein abnormalities or central pair deficiencies and correlated with lung function. CXCR2 was downregulated in about 65% of the PCD patients, suggestive for additional mechanisms causing CXCR2 impairment. After treatment with the TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, PCD monocytes produced more CXCL8 and IL-1β compared to controls. Moreover, PCD monocytes also responded stronger to IL-1β stimulation in terms of CXCL8 production. In conclusion, we revealed a potential link between CXCR2 and its ligand CXCL8 and the pathogenesis of PCD.

  11. Impaired sensitivity to beta 2 integrin-blocking in ICAM-1-mediated neutrophil migration in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, B; Brimnes, J; Claesson, M H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the directed migration of neutrophils into colonic tissue in ulcerative colitis (UC) are poorly described. ICAM-1 has recently been shown to possess chemotactic properties, and the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of beta 2 integrins in this ICAM-1......-mediated migration. METHODS: The chemotactic effect of ICAM-1 on neutrophils isolated from 13 UC patients and 17 healthy volunteers was studied in microchemotaxis chambers. Physiological concentrations of ICAM-1 (0.05-500 pM) were separated from neutrophils by nitrocellulose filters, and cell migration...... was evaluated using the leading front technique. beta 2 integrins on neutrophils were blocked with antibodies to CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD18, and migration towards ICAM-1 was examined. RESULTS: Migration towards ICAM-1 was equal for UC and control neutrophils, showing a bell-shaped ICAM-1 dosemigratory...

  12. Comparative Effects of the Endogenous Agonist Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) Amide and the Small-Molecule Ago-Allosteric Agent “Compound 2” at the GLP-1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Coopman, Karen; Huang, Yan; Johnston, Neil; Bradley, Sophie J.; Wilkinson, Graeme F.; Willars, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediates antidiabetogenic effects through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is targeted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been sought due to difficulties with peptide therapeutics. Recently, 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2) has been described as a GLP-1R allosteric modulator and agonist. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing human GLP-1Rs, we extended this work to cons...

  13. Ca2+ response in neutrophils after exposure to bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine: delayed response in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Lamberth, Kasper; Brimnes, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In acute stages of ulcerative colitis (UC), neutrophils migrate from the circulation into inflamed colonic tissue, initiated by yet unknown stimuli. The bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a component of the surface membrane of colonic bacteria such as Escherichia...... mediated neutrophil migration is impaired in UC patients. The aim of the present work was to study the influx of Ca2+ into peripheral blood neutrophils of UC patients after exposure to FMLP and after binding of either beta 2-integrins or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)....

  14. Effect of Butyrate and Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Status, Lipid Profile and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Effat; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ghavami, Abed; Alipour, Shahriar; Alamdari, Naimeh Mesri; Barati, Meisam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Studies on humans with diabetes mellitus showed that the crosstalk between the intestinal microbiota and the host has a key role in controlling the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate and high performance inulin supplementation simultaneously or singly on glycemic status, lipid profile, and glucagon-like peptide 1 level in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty patients were recruited for the study. The participants were randomly allocated, using randomized block procedure, to one of the four treatment groups (A, B, C, or D). Group A received sodium butyrate capsules, group B received inulin supplement powder, group C was exposed to the concomitant use of inulin and sodium butyrate, and group D consumed placebo for 45 consecutive days. Markers of glycemia, lipid profile, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured pre- and post-intervention. Dietary supplementation in groups A, B, and C significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure in comparison with the placebo group (pinulin (group C) significantly reduced fasting blood sugar (p=0.049) and waist to hip ratio (p=0.020). Waist circumference in groups B and C reduced significantly after the intervention (p=0.007 and p=0.011; respectively). The post hoc Tukey tests showed significant increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 concentration in groups A and C in comparison with group D (pinulin supplementation may be useful to diabetic patients and these effects could be increased with butyrate supplement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The peptidomimetic Lau-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 antagonizes formyl peptide receptor 2 expressed in mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    /differences between the human and murine FPR family members is required. Compared to FPR1 and FPR2 expressed by human neutrophils, very little is known about agonist/antagonist recognition patterns for their murine orthologues, but now we have identified two potent and selective formylated peptide agonists (f...... to be devoid of effect on their murine orthologues as determined by their inability to inhibit superoxide release from murine neutrophils upon stimulation with receptor-specific agonists. The Boc-FLFLF peptide was found to be a selective antagonist for Fpr1, whereas the lipidated peptidomimetic Lau...

  16. Neutrophil P2X7 receptors mediate NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion in response to ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Mausita; Katsnelson, Michael A.; Dubyak, George R.; Pearlman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular ATP is abundant at sites of inflammation, its role in activating inflammasome signalling in neutrophils is not well characterized. In the current study, we demonstrate that human and murine neutrophils express functional cell-surface P2X7R, which leads to ATP-induced loss of intracellular K+, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion. ATP-induced P2X7R activation caused a sustained increase in intracellular [Ca2+], which is indicative of P2X7R channel opening. Although there are multiple polymorphic variants of P2X7R, we found that neutrophils from multiple donors express P2X7R, but with differential efficacies in ATP-induced increase in cytosolic [Ca2+]. Neutrophils were also the predominant P2X7R-expressing cells during Streptococcus pneumoniae corneal infection, and P2X7R was required for bacterial clearance. Given the ubiquitous presence of neutrophils and extracellular ATP in multiple inflammatory conditions, ATP-induced P2X7R activation and IL-1β secretion by neutrophils likely has a significant, wide ranging clinical impact. PMID:26877061

  17. A dual-docking microfluidic cell migration assay (D2-Chip) for testing neutrophil chemotaxis and the memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Wu, Jiandong; Xu, Guoqing; Xie, Dongxue; Peretz-Soroka, Hagit; Santos, Susy; Alexander, Murray; Zhu, Ling; Zhang, Michael; Liu, Yong; Lin, Francis

    2017-04-18

    Chemotaxis is a classic mechanism for guiding cell migration and an important topic in both fundamental cell biology and health sciences. Neutrophils are a widely used model to study eukaryotic cell migration and neutrophil chemotaxis itself can lead to protective or harmful immune actions to the body. While much has been learnt from past research about how neutrophils effectively navigate through a chemoattractant gradient, many interesting questions remain unclear. For example, while it is tempting to model neutrophil chemotaxis using the well-established biased random walk theory, the experimental proof was challenged by the cell's highly persistent migrating nature. A special experimental design is required to test the key predictions from the random walk model. Another question that has interested the cell migration community for decades concerns the existence of chemotactic memory and its underlying mechanism. Although chemotactic memory has been suggested in various studies, a clear quantitative experimental demonstration will improve our understanding of the migratory memory effect. Motivated by these questions, we developed a microfluidic cell migration assay (so-called dual-docking chip or D 2 -Chip) that can test both the biased random walk model and the memory effect for neutrophil chemotaxis on a single chip enabled by multi-region gradient generation and dual-region cell alignment. Our results provide experimental support for the biased random walk model and chemotactic memory for neutrophil chemotaxis. Quantitative data analyses provide new insights into neutrophil chemotaxis and memory by making connections to entropic disorder, cell morphology and oscillating migratory response.

  18. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca 2+ ] i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca 2+ ] i in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  19. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jeppe; Dejgaard, Anders; Frøkiær, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with multiple actions in addition to control of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is known to cause natriuresis in humans, but the effects on basic renal physiology are still partly unknown.......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with multiple actions in addition to control of glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is known to cause natriuresis in humans, but the effects on basic renal physiology are still partly unknown....

  1. Metabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in the human neutrophil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggiani, M.; D'Souza, D.M.; Chilton, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    The biosynthesis of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC) together with that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC (platelet-activating factor) has been demonstrated in a variety of inflammatory cells and tissues. It has been hypothesized that the relative proportion of these phospholipids produced upon cell activation may be influenced by their rates of catabolism. We studied the catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC in resting and activated human neutrophils and compared it to that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. Neutrophils rapidly catabolize both 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC and 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC; however, the rate of catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is approximately 2-fold higher than that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. In addition, most of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is catabolized through a pathway different from that of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-GPC. The main step in the catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is the removal of the long chain at the sn-1 position; the long chain residue is subsequently incorporated either into triglycerides or into phosphatidylcholine. The 1-lyso-2-acetyl-GPC formed in this reaction is then further degraded to glycerophosphocholine, choline, or phosphocholine. 1-Acyl-2-acetyl-GPC is also catabolized, to a lesser extent, through deacetylation at the sn-2 position and reacylation with a long chain fatty acid. Stimulation of neutrophils by A23187 results in a higher rate of catabolism of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC by increasing both the removal of the long chain at the sn-1 position and the deacetylation-reacylation at the sn-2 position. In a broken cell preparation, the cytosolic fraction of the neutrophil was shown to contain an enzyme activity which cleaved the sn-1 position of 1-acyl-2-acetyl-GPC and 1-acyl-2-lyso-GPC but not of 1,2-diacyl-GPC

  2. CXCR2 mediates NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation in cystic fibrosis airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcos, Veronica; Zhou, Zhe; Yildirim, Ali Onder; Bohla, Alexander; Hector, Andreas; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Wiedenbauer, Eva-Maria; Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Stoiber, Walter; Belohradsky, Bernd H.; Rieber, Nikolaus; Kormann, Michael; Koller, Barbara; Roscher, Adelbert; Roos, Dirk; Griese, Matthias; Eickelberg, Oliver; Döring, Gerd; Mall, Marcus A.; Hartl, Dominik

    2010-01-01

    Upon activation, neutrophils release DNA fibers decorated with antimicrobial proteins, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although NETs are bactericidal and contribute to innate host defense, excessive NET formation has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases.

  3. TLR2 Elicits IL-17-Mediated RANKL Expression, IL-17, and OPG Production in Neutrophils from Arthritic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Milanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of neutrophils to express receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL, to secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG, and to produce IL-17. Arthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of zymosan, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Frequencies of neutrophils in bone marrow (BM, blood and synovial fluid (SF, receptor expression, and cytokine production were evaluated by flow cytometry. 1A8 antibody (1A8 Ab was used to deplete neutrophils in zymosan-injected SCID mice. IL-17, RANKL, and OPG amounts in SF, serum, or cell cultures were determined by ELISA. The development of arthritis was associated with increased secretion of IL-17, RANKL, and OPG in serum and SF, elevated frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells in BM, blood, and SF and upregulated RANKL expression. Both IL-17 and OPG were absent in serum and SF after neutrophil depletion; therefore we assume that they were released by neutrophils. In vitro blood Ly6G+CD11b+ cells from arthritic mice produced spontaneously IL-17, IFN-γ, and OPG and expressed RANKL. This phenotype was sustained by IL-17. TLR2 engagement increased IL-17 and IFN-γ production, potentiated IL-17-mediated RANKL expression, and inhibited OPG secretion. We conclude that TLR2 regulates the destructive potential of neutrophils and its targeting might limit joint alterations in arthritis.

  4. (±)-2-Chloropropionic acid elevates reactive oxygen species formation in human neutrophil granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aam, B.B.; Fonnum, F.

    2006-01-01

    (±)-2-Chloropropionic acid (2-CPA) is a neurotoxic compound which kills cerebellar granule cells in vivo, and makes cerebellar granule cells in vitro produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have studied the effect of 2-CPA on ROS formation in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We found an increased formation of ROS after 2-CPA exposure using three different methods; the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and the chemiluminescent probes lucigenin and luminol. Four different inhibitors of ROS formation were tested on the cells in combination with 2-CPA to characterize the signalling pathways. The spin-trap s-PBN, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 and the antioxidant Vitamin E inhibited the 2-CPA-induced ROS formation completely, while the mitochondrial transition permeability pore blocker cyclosporine A inhibited the ROS formation partly. We also found that 2-CPA induced an increased nitric oxide production in the cells by using the Griess reagent. The level of reduced glutathione, measured with the DTNB assay, was decreased after exposure to high concentrations of 2-CPA. Western blotting analysis showed that 2-CPA exposure led to an elevated phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. This phosphorylation was inhibited by U0126. Based on these experiments it seems like the mechanisms for 2-CPA induced toxicity involves ROS formation and is similar in neutrophil granulocytes as earlier shown in cerebellar granule cells. This also implies that 2-CPA may be immunotoxic

  5. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Hansen, Tine Willum; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In a short-term study including 31 patients with type 2 diabetes, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) treatment was associated with a significant reversible decline in GFR. Twenty-three patients re-initiated GLP-1 RA treatment after the primary study, and the aim...

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose homeostasis and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, Carolyn F; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Incretins, enhancers of insulin secretion, are essential for glucose tolerance, and a reduction in their function might contribute to poor beta-cell function in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. However, at supraphysiological doses, the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) protects panc...

  7. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET informs neutrophil accumulation and activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosana S; Bozza, Fernando A; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Wang, Li-Ming; Wu, Qi; Hoffman, John M; Zimmerman, Guy A; Morton, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    Molecular imaging of the earliest events related to the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could facilitate therapeutic development and patient management. We previously reported that 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET identifies ALI/ARDS prior to radiographic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to establish the time courses of 18 F-FDG uptake, edema and neutrophil recruitment in an endotoxin-induced acute lung injury model and to examine molecular events required for 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG was measured by PET in control male Sprague Dawley rats and at 2, 6 and 24h following the intraperitoneal injection of 10mg/kg LPS. Lung edema (attenuation) was measured by microCT. Neutrophil influx into the lungs was measured by myeloperoxidase assay. Control and activated human donor neutrophils were compared for uptake of 14 C-2DG, transcription and content of hexokinase and GLUT isoforms and for hexokinase (HK) activity. Significant uptake of 18 F-FDG occurred by 2h following LPS, and progressively increased to 24h. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG preceded increased CT attenuation (lung edema). Myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs, supporting neutrophil influx, paralleled 18 F-FDG uptake. Activation of isolated human neutrophils resulted in increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of GLUT 3 and GLUT 4 and expression and increased HK1 activity. Systemic endotoxin-induced ALI results in very early and progressive uptake of 18 F-FDG, parallels neutrophil accumulation and occurs earlier than lung injury edema. Activated neutrophils show increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of specific GLUT3, GLUT4 and HK1 protein and HK activity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: 18 F-FDG pulmonary uptake is an early biomarker of neutrophil recruitment in ALI and is associated with specific molecular events that mediate 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. 18 F

  8. Four weeks of near-normalisation of blood glucose improves the insulin response to glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, P V; Vilsbøll, T; Rabøl, R

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incretin effect is attenuated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, partly as a result of impaired beta cell responsiveness to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 4 week...... of near-normalisation of the blood glucose level could improve insulin responses to GIP and GLP-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Eight obese patients with type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control (HbA(1c) 8.6 +/- 1.3%), were investigated before and after 4 weeks of near......)). CONCLUSIONS: Near-normalisation of blood glucose for 4 weeks improves beta cell responsiveness to both GLP-1 and GIP by a factor of three to four. No effect was found on beta cell responsiveness to glucose alone. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV ID NO.: NCT 00612950. FUNDING: This study was supported by The Novo Nordisk...

  9. The exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 response is important for the improved β-cell function and glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2013-01-01

    -cell function and meal-induced glucagon release before the operation, but did impair glucose tolerance. After RYGB, β-GS decreased to preoperative levels, glucagon secretion increased and glucose tolerance was impaired by Ex-9 infusion. Thus, the exaggerated effect of GLP-1 after RYGB is of major importance......β-cell function is improved in patients with type 2 diabetes in response to an oral glucose stimulus after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This has been linked to an exaggerated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion, but causality has not been established. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the role of GLP-1 in improving β-cell function and glucose tolerance and in regulating glucagon release after RYGB, using the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-specific antagonist, Exendin(9-39) (Ex-9). Nine patients with type 2 diabetes, were examined before, 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Each visit...

  10. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1–42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  11. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Matthias Ploug; Torekov, Signe Sørensen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incretin effect is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: To assess the relation between the incretin hormone GLP-1 and the prediabetic subtypes: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and the combined IFG/IGT to investigate whether a low GLP-1......, unaltered, and reduced GLP-1 levels. Studies assessing IFG/IGT found unaltered or reduced GLP-1 levels. When assessing the five studies with the largest sample size, it clearly suggests a decreased GLP-1 response in IFG/IGT subjects. Several other factors (BMI, glucagon, age, and nonesterified fatty acids...... (NEFA)), including medications (metformin), may also influence the secretion of GLP-1. CONCLUSION: This review suggests that the GLP-1 response is a variable in prediabetes possibly due to a varying GLP-1-secreting profile during the development and progression of type 2 diabetes or difference...

  12. Preservation of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Level Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Tissue Fibrosis by Altering AT1/AT 2 Receptor Expression and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Activity in Rat Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Hui; Pang, Xue-Fen; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Shah, Ahmed Ijaz; McKallip, Robert J; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Xiong; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2015-06-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in animals and patients. This study tests the hypothesis that preservation of GLP-1 by the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide or the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin is associated with a reduction of angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiac fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II (500 ng/kg/min) infusion using osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. Liraglutide (0.3 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected twice daily or linagliptin (8 mg/kg) was administered via oral gavage daily during Ang II infusion. Relative to the control, liraglutide, but not linagliptin decreased MAP (124 ± 4 vs. 200 ± 7 mmHg in control, p receptor and up-regulated the AT2 receptor as identified by a reduced AT1/AT2 ratio (0.4 ± 0.02 and 0.7 ± 0.01 vs. 1.4 ± 0.2 in control, p receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the myocardium and peri-coronary vessels. Both drugs significantly reduced the populations of macrophages (16 ± 6 and 19 ± 7 vs. 61 ± 29 number/HPF in control, p GLP-1 receptor expression were significantly up-regulated. Along with these modulations, the synthesis of collagen I and tissue fibrosis were inhibited as determined by the smaller collagen-rich area and more viable myocardium. These results demonstrate for the first time that preservation of GLP-1 using liraglutide or linagliptin is effective in inhibiting Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis, suggesting that these drugs could be selected as an adjunctive therapy to improve clinical outcomes in the fibrosis-derived heart failure patients with or without diabetes.

  13. Does glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy add value in the treatment of type 2 diabetes? Focus on exenatide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genugten, R.E.; van Raalte, D.H.; Diamant, M.

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterized by beta-cell failure in the setting of obesity-related insulin resistance. T2DM has a progressive course and is associated with a high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, regardless of the treatment used. The incretin hormones

  14. Effects of E2HSA, a Long-Acting Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Spontaneous Diabetic db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaocong; Li, Caina; Huan, Yi; Liu, Shuainan; Liu, Quan; Sun, Sujuan; Jiang, Qian; Jia, Chunming; Shen, Zhufang

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists such as exendin-4 have been widely used but their short half-life limits their therapeutic value. The recombinant protein, E2HSA, is a novel, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist generated by the fusion of exendin-4 with human serum albumin. In mouse pancreatic NIT-1 cells, E2HSA activated GLP-1 receptor with similar efficacy as exendin-4. After single-dose administration in ICR mice, E2HSA showed prolonged glucose lowering effects which lasted up to four days and extended inhibition on gastric emptying for at least 72 hours. Chronic E2HSA treatment in db/db mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced elevated nonfasting and fasting plasma glucose levels, and also decreased HbA1c levels. E2HSA also increased insulin secretion and decreased body weight and appetite. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2HSA increased β-cell area, improved islet morphology, and reduced β-cell apoptosis. In accordance with the promotion of β-cell function and survival, E2HSA upregulated genes such as Irs2, Pdx-1, Nkx6.1, and MafA and downregulated the expression levels of FoxO1 and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In conclusion, with prolonged glucose lowering effects and promoting β-cell function and survival, the fusion protein, E2HSA, is a promising new therapeutic for once weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Effects of E2HSA, a Long-Acting Glucagon Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, on Glycemic Control and Beta Cell Function in Spontaneous Diabetic db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaocong Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 have been widely used but their short half-life limits their therapeutic value. The recombinant protein, E2HSA, is a novel, long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist generated by the fusion of exendin-4 with human serum albumin. In mouse pancreatic NIT-1 cells, E2HSA activated GLP-1 receptor with similar efficacy as exendin-4. After single-dose administration in ICR mice, E2HSA showed prolonged glucose lowering effects which lasted up to four days and extended inhibition on gastric emptying for at least 72 hours. Chronic E2HSA treatment in db/db mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced elevated nonfasting and fasting plasma glucose levels, and also decreased HbA1c levels. E2HSA also increased insulin secretion and decreased body weight and appetite. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis showed that E2HSA increased β-cell area, improved islet morphology, and reduced β-cell apoptosis. In accordance with the promotion of β-cell function and survival, E2HSA upregulated genes such as Irs2, Pdx-1, Nkx6.1, and MafA and downregulated the expression levels of FoxO1 and proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In conclusion, with prolonged glucose lowering effects and promoting β-cell function and survival, the fusion protein, E2HSA, is a promising new therapeutic for once weekly treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Preserved glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to oral glucose, but reduced incretin effect, insulin secretion and sensitivity in young Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect are sc...

  17. Preserved glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to oral glucose, but reduced incretin effect, insulin secretion and sensitivity in young Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Toh Peng; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect...

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, C F; Wettergren, A; Pedersen, J F

    2004-01-01

    with GLP-1 inhibits gastric emptying and the sensation of hunger in man. METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scales scoring during......, but GLP-2 was less potent than GLP-1, which increased the antral emptying time by 192% (P hunger compared with saline (P = 0.023), whereas...... the two GLP-2 infusions had no significant effect. Addition of GLP-2 to the GLP-1 infusion did not decrease the sensation of hunger further. CONCLUSIONS: Both GLP-1 and GLP-2 inhibit antral emptying in man, but GLP-1 is more potent....

  19. No hypoglycemia after subcutaneous administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 in lean type 2 diabetic patients and in patients with diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Larsen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    administration of GLP-1 concomitant with intravenous glucose results in hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Because GLP-1 is also effective in type 2 diabetic patients and is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic agent, it is important to investigate whether GLP-1 may cause hypoglycemia in such patients. We...... have previously shown that GLP-1 does not cause hypoglycemia in obese type 2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance amounting to 5.4 +/- 1.1 according to homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). In this study, we investigated diabetic patients with normal or close to normal insulin sensitivity....

  20. Efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, on body weight, eating behavior, and glycemic control, in Japanese obese type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujishima Yuya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently reported that short-term treatment with liraglutide (20.0 ± 6.4 days reduced body weight and improved some scales of eating behavior in Japanese type 2 diabetes inpatients. However, it remained uncertain whether such liraglutide-induced improvement is maintained after discharge from the hospital. The aim of the present study was to determine the long-term effects of liraglutide on body weight, glycemic control, and eating behavior in Japanese obese type 2 diabetics. Methods Patients with obesity (body mass index (BMI >25 kg/m2 and type 2 diabetes were hospitalized at Osaka University Hospital between November 2010 and December 2011. BMI and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were examined on admission, at discharge and at 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge. For the liraglutide group (BMI; 31.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, n = 29, patients were introduced to liraglutide after correction of hyperglycemic by insulin or oral glucose-lowering drugs and maintained on liraglutide after discharge. Eating behavior was assessed in patients treated with liraglutide using The Guideline For Obesity questionnaire issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity, at admission, discharge, 3 and 6 months after discharge. For the insulin group (BMI; 29.1 ± 3.0 kg/m2, n = 28, each patient was treated with insulin during hospitalization and glycemic control maintained by insulin after discharge. Results Liraglutide induced significant and persistent weight loss from admission up to 6 months after discharge, while no change in body weight after discharge was noted in the insulin group. Liraglutide produced significant improvements in all major scores of eating behavior questionnaire items and such effect was maintained at 6 months after discharge. Weight loss correlated significantly with the decrease in scores for recognition of weight and constitution, sense of hunger, and eating style. Conclusion Liraglutide

  1. Sustained influence of metformin therapy on circulating glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Dawed, Adem; Welsh, Paul

    2017-01-01

    treated with metformin or diet, using Student's t-tests and linear regression. RESULTS: In CAMERA, metformin increased total GLP-1 at 6 (+20.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-39.0), 12 (+26.7%, 95% CI 10.3-45.6) and 18 months (+18.7%, 95% CI 3.8-35.7), an overall increase of 23.4% (95% CI 11.2-36.9; P....... These changes were independent of potential confounders including age, sex, adiposity and glycated haemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: In people without diabetes, metformin increases total GLP-1 in a sustained manner and independently of changes in weight or glycaemia. Metformin-treated patients with T2DM also have...

  2. The transcription factor Jdp2 controls bone homeostasis and antibacterial immunity by regulating osteoclast and neutrophil differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kenta; Fukasaka, Masahiro; Vandenbon, Alexis; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kawasaki, Takumi; Kondo, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Standley, Daron; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2012-12-14

    Jdp2 is an AP-1 family transcription factor that regulates the epigenetic status of histones. Previous in vitro studies revealed that Jdp2 is involved in osteoclastogenesis. However, the roles of Jdp2 in vivo and its pleiotropic functions are largely unknown. Here we generated Jdp2(-/-) mice and discovered its crucial roles not only in bone metabolism but also in differentiation of neutrophils. Jdp2(-/-) mice exhibited osteopetrosis resulting from impaired osteoclastogenesis. Jdp2(-/-) neutrophils were morphologically normal but had impaired surface expression of Ly6G, bactericidal function, and apoptosis. We also found that ATF3 was an inhibitor of neutrophil differentiation and that Jdp2 directly suppresses its expression via inhibition of histone acetylation. Strikingly, Jdp2(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection. Thus, Jdp2 plays pivotal roles in in vivo bone homeostasis and host defense by regulating osteoclast and neutrophil differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated...... measures ANOVA and Duncan's post hoc test. Plasma glucose concentrations were equally normalized with all GLP-1 doses (P fasting state (P ... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  4. Effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1receptor agonist liraglutide on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    -one patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease were randomized to receive liraglutide or placebo to a backbone therapy of metformin in this double-blind, placebo-controlled 12 along with 12 weeks crossover study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed at the start...... or the nocturnal BP dipping. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate any BP-lowering effect of liraglutide when using 24-h ABPM. Liraglutide exhibited diurnal variation in the effect on BP without affecting the BP variability or nocturnal BP dipping....

  5. Single-Dose Metformin Enhances Bile Acid-Induced Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Albér, Anders; Rohde, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    -controlled, and double-blinded crossover study. Setting: This study was conducted at Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark. Patients: Fifteen metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes; all participants completed the study. Interventions: Four experimental study days in randomized order...... with administration of either 1500 mg metformin or placebo in combination with intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin (0.4 pmol × kg-1 × min-1) or saline. Main Outcome Measure: Plasma GLP-1 excursions as measured by baseline-subtracted area under the curve. Results: Single-dose metformin further enhanced bile acid...

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 does not have acute effects on central or renal hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes without nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Meena

    2016-01-01

    effects of GLP-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes under fixed sodium intake. During a 3-hour infusion of GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline, intra-arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured continuously, concomitantly with cardiac output estimated by pulse contour analysis. Renal plasma...... infusion, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and cardiac output remained unchanged, whereas heart rate increased significantly. Arterio-venous gradients for GLP-1 exceeded glomerular filtrations significantly, but renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate as well as renal sodium and lithium...... flow, glomerular filtration rate, and uptake/release of hormones and ions were measured using Fick's Principle after catheterization of a renal vein. Urine collection was conducted throughout the experiments at voluntary voiding, and patients remained supine during the experiments. During the GLP-1...

  7. COMPARING CLINICAL OUTCOMES AND COSTS FOR DIFFERENT TREATMENT INTENSIFICATION APPROACHES IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES UNCONTROLLED ON BASAL INSULIN: ADDING GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS VERSUS ADDING RAPID-ACTING INSULIN OR INCREASING BASAL INSULIN DOSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Philip; Fan, Tao; Song, Xue; Nero, Damion; Davis, Brian; Chu, Bong-Chul

    2017-11-01

    Not all patients with type 2 diabetes achieve recommended glycated hemoglobin A 1c (A1C) levels after adequate titration of basal insulin (BI). Current intensification approaches include addition of rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), but it is not clear which strategy results in better long-term outcomes. This retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data in the U.S. MarketScan database compared glycemic control and healthcare resource utilization and costs 12 months after adding a GLP-1 RA to BI versus adding a RAI or increasing BI doses. Propensity score matching was used in the comparative effectiveness analysis. A total of 8,034 patients underwent treatment intensification within 6 months of showing poor glycemic control; 4,134 patients had their BI dose adjusted, and 2,076 and 331 received RAI and GLP-1 RA, respectively. A1C changes were similar for the GLP-1 RA and RAI cohorts but higher for the GLP-1 RA versus the dose-adjustment group. The hypoglycemia rate was lower after adding GLP-1 RA versus RAI or increasing BI dose. No overall changes in utilization of healthcare resources or diabetes-related costs were observed between intensification strategies, although prescription costs were higher for the GLP-1 RA cohort. BI in combination with GLP-1 RAs appears to be an effective intensification strategy, further reducing A1C levels and hypoglycemia frequency compared to increasing BI doses. GLP-1 RA addition also decreases hypoglycemia frequency versus BI dose increases and RAI addition, without raising overall healthcare costs. A1C = hemoglobin A 1c ; BI = basal insulin; CAD = coronary artery disease; ED = emergency department; FPG = fasting plasma glucose; GLP-1 RA = glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OAD = oral antidiabetes drug; PSM = propensity score matching; RAI

  8. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Response to Oral Glucose is Reduced in Pre-diabetes, Screen-detected Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity, and Influenced by Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Kristine; Torekov, Signe S; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    The role of glucose-stimulated release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes is unclear. We assessed GLP-1 response to oral glucose in a large study population of lean and obese men and women with normal and impaired glucose regulation. Circulating...... with NGT, women with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes had 25% lower GLP-1 response to an OGTT, and both men and women with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes had 16-21% lower 120-min GLP-1 concentrations independent of age and obesity. Obese and overweight individuals had 20% reduced GLP-1 response to oral...... concentrations of glucose, insulin and GLP-1 during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were analyzed in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n=774), pre-diabetes (n=523) or screen-detected type 2 diabetes (n=163) who attended the Danish ADDITION-PRO study (n=1,462). Compared with individuals...

  9. Comparative effects of the endogenous agonist glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide and the small-molecule ago-allosteric agent "compound 2" at the GLP-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Karen; Huang, Yan; Johnston, Neil; Bradley, Sophie J; Wilkinson, Graeme F; Willars, Gary B

    2010-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediates antidiabetogenic effects through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which is targeted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Small-molecule GLP-1R agonists have been sought due to difficulties with peptide therapeutics. Recently, 6,7-dichloro-2-methylsulfonyl-3-N-tert-butylaminoquinoxaline (compound 2) has been described as a GLP-1R allosteric modulator and agonist. Using human embryonic kidney-293 cells expressing human GLP-1Rs, we extended this work to consider the impact of compound 2 on G protein activation, Ca(2+) signaling and receptor internalization and particularly to compare compound 2 and GLP-1 across a range of functional assays in intact cells. GLP-1 and compound 2 activated Galpha(s) in cell membranes and increased cellular cAMP in intact cells, with compound 2 being a partial and almost full agonist, respectively. GLP-1 increased intracellular [Ca(2+)] by release from intracellular stores, which was mimicked by compound 2, with slower kinetics. In either intact cells or membranes, the orthosteric antagonist exendin-(9-39), inhibited GLP-1 cAMP generation but increased the efficacy of compound 2. GLP-1 internalized enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged GLP-1Rs, but the speed and magnitude evoked by compound 2 were less. Exendin-(9-39) inhibited internalization by GLP-1 and also surprisingly that by compound 2. Compound 2 displays GLP-1R agonism consistent with action at an allosteric site, although an orthosteric antagonist increased its efficacy on cAMP and blocked compound 2-mediated receptor internalization. Full assessment of the properties of compound 2 was potentially hampered by damaging effects that were particularly manifest in either longer term assays with intact cells or in acute assays with membranes.

  10. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDANH2]-Exendin-4 for the Diagnosis of Recurrence or Dissemination of Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies on medullary thyroid cancer (MTC have shown that neither a change in stage at diagnosis nor improvement in survival has occurred during the past 30 years. In patients with detectable serum calcitonin and no clinically apparent disease, a careful search for local recurrence, and nodal or distant metastases, should be performed. Conventional imaging modalities will not show any disease until basal serum calcitonin is at least 150 pg/mL. The objective of the study was to present the first experience with labelled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDANH2]-exendin-4 in the visualisation of MTC in humans. Material and Method. Four patients aged 22–74 years (two with sporadic and two with MEN2 syndrome-related disseminated MTC were enrolled in the study. In all patients, GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed. Results. High-quality images were obtained in all patients. All previously known MTC lesions have been confirmed in GLP-1 scintigraphy. Moreover, one additional liver lesion was detected in sporadic MTC male patient. Conclusions. GLP-1 receptor imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDANH2]-exendin-4 is able to detect MTC lesions. GLP-1 scintigraphy can serve as a confirmatory test in MTC patients, in whom other imaging procedures are inconsistent.

  11. A phospholipase A₂ from Bothrops asper snake venom activates neutrophils in culture: expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and PGE₂ biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Vanessa; Gutiérrez, José María; Amaral, Rafaela Bacci; Lomonte, Bruno; Purgatto, Eduardo; Teixeira, Catarina

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and up-regulation in cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway induced by a phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂), myotoxin-III (MT-III), purified from Bothrops asper snake venom, in isolated neutrophils were investigated. The arachidonic acid (AA) production and the participation of intracellular PLA₂s (cytosolic PLA₂ and Ca(2+)-independent PLA₂) in these events were also evaluated. MT-III induced COX-2, but not COX-1 gene and protein expression in neutrophils and increased PGE₂ levels. Pretreatment of neutrophils with COX-2 and COX-1 inhibitors reduced PGE₂ production induced by MT-III. Arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF₃), an intracellular PLA₂ inhibitor, but not bromoenol lactone (BEL), an iPLA₂ inhibitor, suppressed the MT-III-induced AA and PGE₂ release. In conclusion, MT-III directly stimulates neutrophils inducing COX-2 mRNA and protein expression followed by production of PGE₂. COX-2 isoform is preeminent over COX-1 for production of PGE₂ stimulated by MT-III. PGE₂ and AA release by MT-III probably is related to cPLA₂ activation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Mette; Madsbad, Sten; Madsen, Jan Lysgaard

    2002-01-01

    subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 (n=10) or saline (n=10) for 6 weeks. Before (week 0) and at weeks 1 and 6, they underwent beta-cell function tests (hyperglycaemic clamps), 8 h profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and free fatty acids, and appetite and side-effect ratings on 100 mm visual...... concentrations of free fatty acids decreased by 30% and 23% (p=0.0005 and 0.01, respectively). Gastric emptying was inhibited, bodyweight decreased by 1.9 kg, and appetite was reduced. Both insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function improved (p=0.003 and p=0.003, respectively). No important side-effects were......BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study. METHODS: 20 patients with type 2 diabetes were alternately assigned continuous...

  13. The Beta-2-Adrenoreceptor Agonists, Formoterol and Indacaterol, but Not Salbutamol, Effectively Suppress the Reactivity of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical relevance of the anti-inflammatory properties of beta-2 agonists remains contentious possibly due to differences in their molecular structures and agonist activities. The current study has compared the effects of 3 different categories of β2-agonists, namely, salbutamol (short-acting, formoterol (long-acting and indacaterol (ultra-long-acting, at concentrations of 1–1000 nM, with human blood neutrophils in vitro. Neutrophils were activated with either N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP, 1 µM or platelet-activating factor (PAF, 200 nM in the absence and presence of the β2-agonists followed by measurement of the generation of reactive oxygen species and leukotriene B4, release of elastase, and expression of the β2-integrin, CR3, using a combination of chemiluminescence, ELISA, colorimetric, and flow cytometric procedures respectively. These were correlated with alterations in the concentrations of intracellular cyclic-AMP and cytosolic Ca2+. At the concentrations tested, formoterol and indacaterol caused equivalent, significant (P<0.05 at 1–10 nM dose-related inhibition of all of the pro-inflammatory activities tested, while salbutamol was much less effective (P<0.05 at 100 nM and higher. Suppression of neutrophil reactivity was accompanied by elevations in intracellular cAMP and accelerated clearance of Ca2+ from the cytosol of activated neutrophils. These findings demonstrate that β2-agonists vary with respect to their suppressive effects on activated neutrophils.

  14. The role of genetic variation in TCF7L2 and KCNJ11, dietary intake, and physical activity on fasting plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Freitag Luglio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2 and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily j member 11 (KCNJ11 gene polymorphisms have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM via regulation of insulin production. Ingested nutrients induce glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which in turn induces insulin secretion. Objective To evaluate the relationship between TCF7L2 and KCNJ11 gene polymorphism, dietary intake, and physical activity on fasting plasma GLP-1 in normal male adolescents. Methods This observational study with a cross-sectional design included 54 male adolescents selected from high schools in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Interviews were done to collect data on energy intake and physical activity. The GLP-1 and insulin levels were measured from fasting blood plasma. The TCF7L2 and KCNJ11 gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results Fasting GLP-1 was positively correlated with energy intake (r=0.276; P=0.047, but not with physical activity (r=0.011; P=0.936. The GLP-1 concentration was not associated with TCF7L2 and KCNJ11 gene polymorphisms (all P>0.05. In subjects with an EE genotype (KCNJ11, GLP-1 was not correlated with insulin (r=-0.036; P=0.435. However, in subjects with an EK genotype (KCNJ11, GLP-1 was positively correlated with insulin (r=0.394; P=0.026. Conclusion GLP-1 concentration is positively correlated with body weight. Among male adolescents with a genetic variation in KCNJ11 (EK genotype, there is a significant correlation between GLP-1 and insulin signalling.

  15. Addition of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, to ongoing therapy with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide: A randomized controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Michael A; Kahle, Melanie; Baranov, Oleg; Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether the addition of sitagliptin to pre-existing therapy with liraglutide changes glycaemic excursions after a mixed meal. A total of 16 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and liraglutide (1.2 mg/d for ≥2 weeks) were randomized (sealed envelopes), within a cross-over design, to be studied on two occasions, after an overnight fast, with (1) sitagliptin (100 mg orally) and (2) placebo (patients and care givers blinded) administered 60 minutes before a mixed meal, or vice versa. Glucose excursions (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; primary endpoint) and insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and incretin concentrations were measured. The study setting was a metabolic study unit at a specialized diabetes hospital. All 16 patients completed the study and were analysed. Glucose (AUC glucose 319 ± 30 [placebo] vs 315 ± 18 mmol.L -1 .min -1 [sitagliptin], Δ 7 [95% confidence interval -50 to 63] mmol.L -1 .min -1 ), insulin, C-peptide and glucagon concentrations were not affected significantly by sitagliptin treatment ( P = .60-1.00). Intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations were augmented by sitagliptin, by 78.4% and 90.2%, respectively (both P GLP-1 receptor agonist (liraglutide), increased intact GLP-1 and GIP concentrations, but with marginal, non-significant effects on glycaemic control. GLP-1 receptors have probably been maximally stimulated by liraglutide. Our findings do not support combination treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors, but longer-term trials are needed to support clinical recommendations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Postmeal increment in intact glucagon-like peptide 1 level, but not intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels, is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soyeon; Yang, Eun-Jin; Lee, Sang Ah; Koh, Gwanpyo

    2018-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists proved to be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of blood incretin levels with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. This is a cross-sectional study involving 334 people with type 2 diabetes. Intact GLP-1 (iGLP-1) and intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (iGIP) levels were measured in a fasted state and 30 min after ingestion of a standard mixed meal. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Two hundred twenty-five (69%) of the subjects have metabolic syndrome. The fasting iGLP-1 level was no different between groups. Thirty-min postprandial iGLP-1 was non-significantly lower in the subjects who had metabolic syndrome. Incremental iGLP-1 (ΔiGLP-1, the difference between 30-min postmeal and fasting iGLP-1 levels) was significantly lower in those with metabolic syndrome. There were no significant differences in fasting iGIP, postprandial iGIP, and ΔiGIP between groups. The ΔiGLP-1, but not ΔiGIP levels decreased significantly as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased. In hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the ΔiGLP-1 level was found to be a significant contributor to metabolic syndrome even after adjusting for other covariates. Taken together, the iGLP-1 increment in the 30 min after meal ingestion is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that postmeal iGLP-1 increment could be useful in assessing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.

  17. HBA1C CONTROL AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS INITIATED ON CANAGLIFLOZIN OR A GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 1 RECEPTOR AGONIST IN A REAL-WORLD SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Carol H; Pilon, Dominic; Ingham, Mike; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Emond, Bruno; Kamstra, Rhiannon; Pfeifer, Michael; Lefebvre, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    To compare glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control and medication costs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300 mg (CANA) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in a real-world setting. Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 RA (index date) were identified from IQVIA ™ Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records U.S. database (March 29, 2012-April 30, 2016). Inverse probability of treatment weighting accounted for differences in baseline characteristics. HbA1c levels at 3-month intervals were compared using generalized estimating equations. Medication costs used wholesale acquisition costs. For both cohorts (CANA: n = 11,435; GLP-1 RA: n = 11,582), HbA1c levels decreased at 3 months postindex and remained lower through 30 months. Absolute changes in mean HbA1c from index to 3 months postindex for CANA and GLP-1 RA were -1.16% and -1.21% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% [53 mmol/mol]); -1.54% and -1.51% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8% [64 mmol/mol]); and -2.13% and -1.99% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9% [75 mmol/mol]), respectively. Postindex, CANA patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% had similar HbA1c levels at each interval versus GLP-1 RA patients, except 9 months (mean HbA1c, 7.75% [61 mmol/mol] vs. 7.86% [62 mmol/mol]; P = .0305). CANA patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8% and ≥9% had consistently lower HbA1c numerically versus GLP-1 RA patients and statistically lower HbA1c at 9 (baseline HbA1c ≥8% or ≥9%), 27, and 30 months (baseline HbA1c ≥9%). Continuous 12-month medication cost $3,326 less for CANA versus GLP-1 RA. This retrospective study demonstrated a similar evolution of HbA1c levels among CANA and GLP-1 RA patients in a real-world setting. Lower medication costs suggest CANA is economically dominant over GLP-1 RA (similar effectiveness, lower cost). AHA = antihyperglycemic agent BMI = body mass index CANA = canagliflozin 300 mg DCSI = diabetes complications severity

  18. The Noncaloric Sweetener Rebaudioside A Stimulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Release and Increases Enteroendocrine Cell Numbers in 2-Dimensional Mouse Organoids Derived from Different Locations of the Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, Nikkie; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Muckenschnabl, Susanne; Pieters, Raymond; Hendriks, Henk Fj; Witkamp, Renger F; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is

  19. The noncaloric sweetener rebaudioside a stimulates glucagon-like peptide 1 release and increases enteroendocrine cell numbers in 2-dimensional mouse organoids derived from different locations of the intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der Nikkie; Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Muckenschnabl, Susanne; Pieters, Raymond; Hendriks, Henk F.J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine

  20. Safety and efficacy of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin therapy versus basal insulin with or without a rapid-acting insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes: results of a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Carol H; Lin, Jay; Kuritzky, Louis

    2017-05-01

    To consolidate the evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) as add-on to basal insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We searched the EMBASE® and NCBI PubMed (Medline) databases and relevant congress abstracts for randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 RAs as add-on to basal insulin compared with basal insulin with or without rapid-acting insulin (RAI) through 23 May 2016. The pooled data were analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis model. A subanalysis was performed for trials investigating basal insulin plus GLP-1 RAs versus basal insulin plus RAI. Of the 2617 retrieved records, 19 randomized controlled trials enrolling 7,053 patients with T2D were included. Compared with basal insulin ± RAI, reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline (difference in means: -0.48% [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.67 to -0.30]; p GLP-1 RA. The subanalysis similarly showed significant results for change in HbA1c from baseline and for weight loss, as well as a significantly lower risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia in patients treated with basal insulin plus GLP-1 RA versus basal insulin plus RAI (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.64]; p GLP-1 RA to basal insulin provided improved glycemic control, led to weight reduction and similar hypoglycemia rates versus an intensified insulin strategy; however, symptomatic hypoglycemia rates were significantly lower when compared with a basal insulin plus RAI.

  1. Ménage-à-trois: The ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and the pH regulate the capacity of neutrophils to form NETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maueröder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified and characterized the potential of a high ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and a moderately alkaline pH to render neutrophils prone to undergo neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation. Both experimental settings increased the rate of spontaneous NET release and potentiated the NET-inducing capacity of phorbol esters (PMA, ionomycin, monosodium urate and LPS. In contrast, an acidic environment impaired neutrophil extracellular trap formation both spontaneous and induced. Our findings indicate that intracellular alkalinization of neutrophils in response to an alkaline environment leads to an increase of intracellular calcium and neutrophil activation. We further found that the anion channel blocker DIDS strongly reduced NET formation induced by bicarbonate. This finding suggests that the effects observed are due to a molecular program that renders neutrophils susceptible to neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Inflammatory foci are characterized by an acidic environment. Our data indicates that NET formation is favored by the higher pH at the border regions of inflamed areas. Moreover our findings highlight the necessity for strict pH control during assays of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

  2. Data on human neutrophil activation induced by pepducins with amino acid sequences derived from β2AR and CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Holdfeldt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described here is related to the research article titled (Gabl et al., 2016 [1]. Pepducins with peptide sequence derived from one of the intracellular domains of a given G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR can either activate or inhibit cell functions. Here we include data on human neutrophil function induced by pepducins derived from β2AR (ICL3-8 and CXCR4 (ATI-2341, respectively. ICL3-8 exerts neither direct activating effect on the NADPH-oxidase as measured by superoxide release nor inhibitory effect on FPR signaling. ATI-2341 dose-dependently triggers neutrophil activation and these cells were subsequently desensitized in their response to FPR2 specific agonists F2Pal10 and WKYMVM. Moreover, the ATI-2341 response is inhibited by PBP10 and the peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-betaNSpe6-NH2 (both are FPR2 specific inhibitors, but not to the FPR1 specific inhibitor cyclosporine H.

  3. Evaluation of beta-cell secretory capacity using glucagon-like peptide 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Nielsen, Mette Toft; Krarup, T

    2000-01-01

    Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients.......Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients....

  4. Mechanisms of cell death induced by the neutrophil antimicrobial peptides alpha-defensins and LL-37.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarbiou, J.; Tjabringa, G.S.; Verhoosel, R.M.; Ninaber, D.K.; White, S.R.; Peltenburg, L.T.; Rabe, K.F.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of cell death mediated by the antimicrobial peptides neutrophil defensins (human neutrophil peptides 1-3 [HNP1-3]) and LL-37. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HNP1-3- and LL-37-mediated cell death was assessed in human lung epithelial cells

  5. Effects of LX4211, a dual sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 inhibitor, on postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine in a dose-timing study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrowicz, Brian; Ogbaa, Ike; Frazier, Kenny; Banks, Phillip; Turnage, Anne; Freiman, Joel; Boehm, Kristi A; Ruff, Dennis; Powell, David; Sands, Arthur

    2013-08-01

    LX4211 is a first-in-class dual inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2). SGLT1 is the primary transporter for glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, and SGLT2 is the primary transporter for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. SGLT1 inhibition reduces postprandial glucose (PPG) levels and increases the release of gastrointestinal peptides such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), whereas SGLT2 inhibition results in increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE). This study evaluated how timing of dose relative to meals changes the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of LX4211 treatment, including effects on UGE, fasting plasma glucose, PPG, insulin, total and active GLP-1, and PYY. The safety and tolerability of LX4211 in healthy subjects were also assessed. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study to determine the PD effects of LX4211 dose timing relative to meals in 12 healthy subjects. Blood and urine were collected for the analysis of PD variables. Twelve healthy subjects 30 to 51 years of age were enrolled and treated. Treatment with LX4211 resulted in significant elevation of total and active GLP-1, and PYY while significantly decreasing PPG levels relative to placebo, likely by reducing SGLT1-mediated intestinal glucose absorption. Comparisons performed among the dosing schedules indicated that dosing immediately before breakfast maximized the PD effects of LX4211 on both SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibition. The comparative results suggested distinct SGLT1 effects on GLP-1, PYY, glucose, and insulin, which were separate from SGLT2-mediated effects, indicating that SGLT1 inhibition with LX4211 may be clinically meaningful. All treatments were well tolerated with no evidence of diarrhea with LX4211 treatment. This clinical study indicates that dosing of LX4211 immediately before breakfast maximized the PD effects of both SGLT1 and SGLT 2 inhibition and provided

  6. ANNEXIN A1 N-TERMINAL DERIVED PEPTIDE AC2-26 EXERTS CHEMOKINETIC EFFECTS ON HUMAN NEUTROPHILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesmond eDalli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that peptides derived from the N-terminal region of Annexin A1, a glucocorticoid-regulated 37-kDa protein, could act as biomimetics of the parent protein. However, recent evidence, amongst which the ability to interact with distinct receptors other then that described for Annexin A1, suggest that these peptides might fulfil other functions at variance to those reported for the parent protein. Here we tested the ability of peptide Ac2-26 to induce chemotaxis of human neutrophils, showing that this peptide can elicit responses comparable to those produced by the canonical activator formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (or FMLP. However, whilst disruption of the chemical gradient abolished the FMLP response, addition of peptide Ac2-26 in the top well of the chemotaxis chamber did not affect (10 µM or augmented (at 30 µM the neutrophil locomotion to the bottom well, as elicited by 10 µM peptide Ac2-26. Intriguingly, the sole addition of peptide Ac2-26 in the top wells produced a marked migration of neutrophils. A similar behaviour was observed when human primary monocytes were used. Thus, peptide Ac2-26 is a genuine chemokinetic agent towards human blood leukocytes.Neutralization strategies indicated that engagement of either the GPCR termed FPR1 or its cognate receptor FPR2/ALX was sufficient to sustain peptide Ac2-26 induced neutrophil migration. Similarly, application of pharmacological inhibitors showed that cell locomotion to peptide Ac2-26 was mediated primarily by the ERK, but not the JNK and p38 pathways.In conclusion, we report here novel in vitro properties for peptide Ac2-26, promoting neutrophil and monocyte chemokinesis, a process that may contribute to accelerate the resolution phase of inflammation. Here we postulate that the generation Annexin A1 N-terminal peptides at the site of inflammation may expedite the egress of migrated leukocytes thus promoting the return to homeostasis.

  7. The proteolytically stable peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 selectively inhibits human neutrophil activation via formyl peptide receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M H; Larsen, Camilla J; Franzyk, Henrik; Forsman, Huamei; Dahlgren, Claes

    2015-01-15

    Immunomodulatory host defense peptides (HDPs) are considered to be lead compounds for novel anti-sepsis and anti-inflammatory agents. However, development of drugs based on HDPs has been hampered by problems with toxicity and low bioavailability due to in vivo proteolysis. Here, a subclass of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogs of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines, we found that a fluorescently labeled analog of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore, the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating peptide agonist Cy5-WKYMWM, while the binding of an FPR1-selective agonist was not inhibited. To our knowledge, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 is the first HDP mimic found to inhibit activation of human neutrophils via direct interaction with FPR2. Hence, we consider Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 to be a convenient tool in the further dissection of the role of FPR2 in inflammation and homeostasis as well as for investigation of the importance of neutrophil stimulation in anti-infective therapy involving HDPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Rowzee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is a small peptide component of the prohormone, proglucagon, that is produced in the gut. Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist originally isolated from the saliva of H. suspectum or Gila monster, is a peptide that shares sequence and functional homology with GLP-1. Both peptides have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin secretion, inhibit glucagon secretion, promote satiety and slow gastric emptying. As such, GLP-1 and Exendin-4 have become attractive pharmaceutical targets as an adjunctive therapy for individuals with type II diabetes mellitus, with several products currently available clinically. Herein we summarize the cell biology leading to GLP-1 production and secretion from intestinal L-cells and the endocrine functions of this peptide and Exendin-4 in humans. Additionally, gene therapeutic applications of GLP-1 and Exendin-4 are discussed with a focus on recent work using the salivary gland as a gene therapy target organ for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Real-world medication persistence and outcomes associated with basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist free-dose combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jay Lin,1 Melissa Lingohr-Smith,1 Tao Fan2 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Novosys Health, Green Brook, NJ, USA; 2North America Medical Affairs, Sanofi US, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ, USA Background: Free-dose combination treatment with basal insulin and short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs reduces hyperglycemia via complementary targeting of fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, however, in the real world, due to injection burden and clinical inertia, the full efficacy may not be able to translate into clinical and economic benefits. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment persistence and associated outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D treated with a GLP-1 RA in free-dose combination with basal insulin. Methods: Claims data were extracted on US adults with T2D with ≥1 prescription claim for both a GLP-1 RA and a basal insulin from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2013, and continuous health plan coverage for 6 months prior to (baseline and 12 months after the index date (follow-up period. Outcomes analyzed for patients stratified by treatment persistence included glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and health care costs and resource utilization. Multivariate analyses were used to examine factors associated with persistence or hypoglycemia. Results: The analysis included 7,320 patients, of whom 16.9% were persistent with free-dose combination treatment. The median time to treatment discontinuation was 133 days. Compared with ­nonpersistent patients, persistent patients had greater glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C reductions (–0.80% vs –0.42%; P=0.032, were more likely to achieve A1C <7.0% (39% vs 22%; P<0.001, and were less likely to experience hypoglycemia (9.5% vs 6.8%; P=0.002. Persistent patients also had significantly fewer hospitalizations and shorter hospital stays. While prescription costs were significantly higher (all-cause: $14,691 vs $10,791; P<0.001; diabetes-related: $8

  10. Endogenous PGI2 signaling through IP inhibits neutrophilic lung inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Shinji; Zhou, Weisong; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Dulek, Daniel E; Newcomb, Dawn C; Lawson, William E; Peebles, R Stokes

    2018-04-13

    Endogenous prostaglandin I 2 (PGI 2 ) has inhibitory effects on immune responses against pathogens or allergens; however, the immunomodulatory activity of endogenous PGI 2 signaling in endotoxin-induced inflammation is unknown. To test the hypothesis that endogenous PGI 2 down-regulates endotoxin-induced lung inflammation, C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and PGI 2 receptor (IP) KO mice were challenged intranasally with LPS. Urine 6-keto-PGF 1α , a stable metabolite of PGI 2, was significantly increased following the LPS-challenge, suggesting that endogenous PGI 2 signaling modulates the host response to LPS-challenge. IPKO mice had a significant increase in neutrophils in the BAL fluid as well as increased proteins of KC, LIX, and TNF-α in lung homogenates compared with WT mice. In contrast, IL-10 was decreased in LPS-challenged IPKO mice compared with WT mice. The PGI 2 analog cicaprost significantly decreased LPS-induced KC, and TNF-α, but increased IL-10 and AREG in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) compared with vehicle-treatment. These results indicated that endogenous PGI 2 signaling attenuated neutrophilic lung inflammation through the reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine and enhanced IL-10. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET informs neutrophil accumulation and activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rosana S.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Hanrahan, Christopher J.; Wang, Li-Ming; Wu, Qi; Hoffman, John M.; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Morton, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Molecular imaging of the earliest events related to the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could facilitate therapeutic development and patient management. We previously reported that 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET identifies ALI/ARDS prior to radiographic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to establish the time courses of 18 F-FDG uptake, edema and neutrophil recruitment in an endotoxin-induced acute lung injury model and to examine molecular events required for 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. Methods: Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG was measured by PET in control male Sprague Dawley rats and at 2, 6 and 24 h following the intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. Lung edema (attenuation) was measured by microCT. Neutrophil influx into the lungs was measured by myeloperoxidase assay. Control and activated human donor neutrophils were compared for uptake of 14 C-2DG, transcription and content of hexokinase and GLUT isoforms and for hexokinase (HK) activity. Results: Significant uptake of 18 F-FDG occurred by 2 h following LPS, and progressively increased to 24 h. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG preceded increased CT attenuation (lung edema). Myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs, supporting neutrophil influx, paralleled 18 F-FDG uptake. Activation of isolated human neutrophils resulted in increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of GLUT 3 and GLUT 4 and expression and increased HK1 activity. Conclusion: Systemic endotoxin-induced ALI results in very early and progressive uptake of 18 F-FDG, parallels neutrophil accumulation and occurs earlier than lung injury edema. Activated neutrophils show increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of specific GLUT3, GLUT4 and HK1 protein and HK activity. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: 18 F-FDG pulmonary uptake is an early biomarker of neutrophil recruitment in ALI and is associated with specific molecular events that mediate 14

  12. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  13. Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Facilitate Heart Repair by Modulating M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization and Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shaimaa Hasan

    Full Text Available Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs, one of the promising stem cell sources for myocardial repair, have been tested in clinical trials and resulted in beneficial effects; however, the relevant mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that CDCs favor heart repair by switching the macrophages from a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1 into a regulatory anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2. Macrophages from mice were cultured with CDCs-conditioned medium or with fibroblasts-conditioned medium as a control. Immunostaining showed that CDCs-conditioned medium significantly enhanced the expression of CD206 (a marker for M2 macrophages, but decreased the expression of CD86 (a marker for M1 macrophages 3 days after culture. For animal studies, we used an acute myocardial infarction model of mice. We injected CDCs, fibroblasts, or saline only into the border zone of infarction. Then we collected the heart tissues for histological analysis 5 and 14 days after treatment. Compared with control animals, CDCs treatment significantly decreased M1 macrophages and neutrophils but increased M2 macrophages in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, CDCs-treated mice had reduced infarct size and fewer apoptotic cells compared to the controls. Our data suggest that CDCs facilitate heart repair by modulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization and neutrophil recruitment, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of stem cell-based myocardial repair.

  14. The Proteolytically Stable Peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-ßNSpe)6-NH2 Selectively Inhibits Human Neutrophil Activation via Formyl Peptide Receptor 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Larsen, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    of proteolytically stable HDP mimics consisting of lipidated α-peptide/β-peptoid oligomers was investigated for their effect on neutrophil function. The most promising compound, Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2, was shown to inhibit formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) agonist-induced neutrophil granule mobilization and release...... of reactive oxygen species. The potency of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 was comparable to that of PBP10, the most potent FPR2-selective inhibitor known. The immunomodulatory effects of structural analogues of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 emphasized the importance of both the lipid and peptidomimetic parts. By using imaging...... flow cytometry in primary neutrophils and FPR-transfected cell lines we found that a fluorescently labelled analogue of Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 interacted selectively with FPR2. Furthermore the interaction between Pam-(Lys-βNSpe)6-NH2 and FPR2 was found to prevent binding of the FPR2-specific activating...

  15. Unprecedented high insulin secretion in a healthy human subject after intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Lund, Asger; Madsbad, Sten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut-derived incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, are released in response to ingestion of nutrients. Both hormones are highly insulinotropic in strictly glucose-dependent fashions and glucagon-like peptide-1 is often referred...... to as one of the most insulinotropic substances known. CASE PRESENTATION: Plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured in a healthy Caucasian male (age: 53 years; body mass index: 28.6 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose: 5.7 mM; 2 h plasma glucose value following 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test: 3...

  16. Cytoplasmic lipid bodies of human neutrophilic leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, P.F.; Ackerman, S.J.; Nicholson-Weller, A.; Dvorak, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    The morphology and function of cytoplasmic lipid bodies in human neutrophils were evaluated. By transmission electron microscopy, neutrophil lipid bodies were cytoplasmic inclusions, usually several microns in diameter, that occasionally coalesced to attain a diameter up to 7 microM. Neutrophil lipid bodies were not enveloped by membrane but were often surrounded by a more electron-dense shell at their periphery. Normal peripheral blood neutrophils contained an average of approximately one lipid body per cell. Lipid bodies appeared in greater numbers in neutrophils from inflammatory lesions. Perturbation of neutrophils during conventional methods of cell isolation and purification modestly increased lipid body numbers in neutrophils, whereas incubation of neutrophils with 1 microM oleic acid rapidly induced lipid body formation over 30 to 60 minutes. After granulocytes were incubated for 2 hours with 3H-fatty acids, including arachidonic, oleic, and palmitic acids, electron microscopic autoradiography demonstrated that lipid bodies represented the predominant intracellular sites of localization of each of the three 3H-fatty acids. There was lesser labeling noted in the perinuclear cisterna, but not in cell membranes. Virtually all of each of the three 3H-fatty acids incorporated by the neutrophils were esterified into chromatographically resolved classes of neutral lipids or phospholipids. These findings indicate that cytoplasmic lipid bodies are more prominent in neutrophils in vivo engaged in inflammatory responses and that these organelles in human neutrophils function as sites of deposition of esterified, incorporated fatty acids

  17. Ligand binding and activation mechanism og the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye

    endogenous agonist, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), has a number of physiological effects that contribute to reducing blood sugar and body weight. Therefore, GLP-1R has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The overall purpose of the Ph.D. project has been to investigate how...

  18. Expression of myeloperoxidase in swine influenza virus (SIV)-infected neutrophils in lungs from pigs experimentally infected with SIV subtype H1N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongtae; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Han, Kiwon; Seo, Hwi Won; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Jang, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2011-10-01

    The expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was examined in the swine influenza virus (SIV)-infected neutrophils in the lungs of pigs experimentally infected with swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N2 by immunohistochemistry. Five pigs each from the infected and non-infected group were euthanized 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi). Immunohistochemical reactivity was mainly seen in neutrophils. The score for pulmonary histopathological lesions correlated with the score for MPO immunohistochemical reactivity (r ( s ) = 0.962, P < 0.01). In addition, the score for in situ hybridization of SIV nucleic acid correlated with the score for MPO immunohistochemical reactivity (r ( s ) = 0.976, P < 0.01). These results suggest neutrophils are one of the primary effector cells in the early phase of SIV infection in pigs.

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors in diabetes: more than inhibition of glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Fliers, Eric; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitors of the protease dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) are promising new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are thought to act by inhibiting the breakdown of glucagon-like peptide-1 and, thereby, selectively enhancing insulin release under conditions when it is physiologically

  20. Effect of exercise combined with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment on cardiac function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter G; Jensen, Magnus T; Mensberg, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, both supervised exercise and treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide may improve cardiac function. We evaluated cardiac function before and after 16 weeks of treatment with the GLP-1RA liraglutide or placebo...

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment reduces beta cell mass in normoglycaemic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, J.H.; Tons, H.A.; Westerouen van Meeteren, M.J.; de Graaf, N.; Hanegraaf, M.A.; Rabelink, T.J.; Carlotti, F.; de Koning, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Incretin-based therapies improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. In animal models of diabetes, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) increase beta cell mass. GLP-1RAs are also evaluated in non-diabetic individuals with obesity and cardiovascular

  2. Oligomerization of a Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Analog: Bridging Experiment and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Tine Maja; Sønderby, Pernille; Ryberg, Line A.

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, is a GLP-1 agonist and is used in the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. From a pharmaceutical perspective, it is important to know the oligomerization state of liraglutide with respect to stability. Compared to GLP-1...

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1, a new hormone of the entero-insular axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C

    1992-01-01

    reported in Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetic patients, however, the consequences of the elevation are not yet known. However, elevated levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with increased gastric emptying rate (post-gastrectomy syndromes) may be responsible for the exaggerated insulin...

  4. The Neutrophil Response Induced by an Agonist for Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 (GPR43) Is Primed by Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and by Receptor Uncoupling from the Cytoskeleton but Attenuated by Tissue Recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Lena; Mårtensson, Jonas; Winther, Malene

    2016-01-01

    by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in a process associated with a recruitment of easily mobilizable granules, but neutrophils recruited to an aseptic inflammation in vivo were nonresponding. Superoxide production induced by Cmp1 was increased in latrunculin A-treated neutrophils, but no reactivation......Ligands with improved potency and selectivity for free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2R) have become available, and we here characterize the neutrophil responses induced by one such agonist (Cmp1) and one antagonist (CATPB). Cmp1 triggered an increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca(2......+), and the neutrophils were then desensitized to Cmp1 and to acetate, a naturally occurring FFA2R agonist. The antagonist CATPB selectively inhibited responses induced by Cmp1 or acetate. The activated FFA2R induced superoxide anion secretion at a low level in naive blood neutrophils. This response was largely increased...

  5. Neutrophils at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauseef, William M; Borregaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this Review we discuss data demonstrating recently recognized aspects of neutrophil homeostasis in the steady state, granulopoiesis in 'emergency' conditions and interactions of neutrophils with the adaptive immune system. We explore in vivo observations of the recruitment of neutrophils from...

  6. Protective Effects of Emodin-Induced Neutrophil Apoptosis via the Ca2+-Caspase 12 Pathway against SIRS in Rats with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Jun; Wang, Yue; Teng, Yong-Sheng; Sun, Fa-Lv; Xiang, Hong; Liu, Jian-Jun; Xia, Shi-Lin; Zhang, Gui-Xin; Chen, Hai-Long; Shang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) results in high mortality. This is partly because of early multiple organ dysfunction syndromes that are usually caused by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Many studies have reported the beneficial effects of emodin against SAP with SIRS. However, the exact mechanism underlying the effect of emodin remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of emodin against SIRS in rats with SAP. In the present study, cytosolic Ca 2+ levels, calpain 1 activity, and the expression levels of the active fragments of caspases 12 and 3 decreased in neutrophils from rats with SAP and increased after treatment with emodin. Delayed neutrophil apoptosis occurred in rats with SAP and emodin was able to reverse this delayed apoptosis and inhibit SIRS. The effect of emodin on calpain 1 activity, the expression levels of the active fragments of caspases 12 and 3, neutrophil apoptosis, and SIRS scores were attenuated by PD150606 (an inhibitor of calpain). These results suggest that emodin inhibits SIRS in rats with SAP by inducing circulating neutrophil apoptosis via the Ca 2+ -calpain 1-caspase 12-caspase 3 signaling pathway.

  7. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, Arthur; Burch, Micah; Krause, John R

    2018-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a sustained peripheral blood neutrophilia, absence of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein, bone marrow hypercellularity with less than 5% myeloblasts and normal neutrophil maturation, and no dysplasia. This leukemia has been associated with mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) that may activate this receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are the hallmark of chronic neutrophilic leukemia. We present a case of chronic neutrophilic leukemia and discuss the criteria for diagnosis and the significance of mutations found in this leukemia.

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1--a cardiologic dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treiman, Marek; Elvekjaer, Mikkel; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental data suggest glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its analogs to have direct effects on the cardiovascular system, in addition to their classic glucoregulatory actions. These direct effects may be cardioprotective, contractility augmenting, and vasorelaxant. A few preliminary c...

  9. Human neutrophil alloantigens systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse Moritz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil alloantigens are involved in a variety of clinical conditions including immune neutropenias, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI, refractoriness to granulocyte transfusions and febrile transfusion reactions. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the characterization of the implicated antigens. Currently, seven antigens are assigned to five human neutrophil antigen (HNA systems. The HNA-1a, HNA-1b and HNA-1c antigens have been identified as polymorphic forms of the neutrophil Fcγ receptor IIIb (CD16b, encoded by three alleles. Recently, the primary structure of the HNA-2a antigen was elucidated and the HNA-2a-bearing glycoprotein was identified as a member of the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily, which has been clustered as CD177. The HNA-3a antigen is located on a 70-95 kDa glycoprotein; however, its molecular basis is still unknown. Finally, the HNA-4a and HNA-5a antigens were found to be caused by single nucleotide mutations in the αM (CD11b and αL (CD11a subunits of the leucocyte adhesion molecules (β2 integrins. Molecular and biochemical characterization of neutrophil antigenshave expanded our diagnostic tools by the introduction of genotyping techniques and immunoassays for antibody identification. Further studies in the field of neutrophil immunology will facilitate the prevention and management of transfusion reactions and immune diseases caused by neutrophil antibodies.Os aloantígenos de neutrófilos estão associados a várias condições clínicas como neutropenias imunes, insuficiência pulmonar relacionada à transfusão (TRALI, refratariedade à transfusão de granulócitos, e reações transfusionais febris. Na última década, foi observado considerável progresso na caracterização dos aloantígenos envolvidos nestas condições clínicas. Atualmente sete antígenos estão incluídos em cinco sistemas de antígenos de neutrófilo humano (HNA. Os antígenos HNA-1a, HNA-1b e HNA-1c foram

  10. The lipidated peptidomimetic Lau-[(S)-Aoc]-(Lys-βNphe)6-NH2 is a novel formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist that activates both human and mouse neutrophil NADPH-oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdfeldt, Andre; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Winther, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils expressing formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) play key roles in host defense, immune regulation, and resolution of inflammation. Consequently, the search for FPR2-specific modulators has attracted much attention due to its therapeutic potential. Earlier described agonists......2 (F2M2), showing comparable potency in activating human and mouse neutrophils by inducing a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration and assembly of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. This FPR2/Fpr2 agonist contains a headgroup consisting of a 2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) residue acylated......2 signaling as well as for development of prophylactic immunomodulatory therapy. This novel class of cross-species FPR2/Fpr2 agonists should enable translation of results obtained with mouse neutrophils (and disease models) into enhanced understanding of human inflammatory and immune diseases....

  11. Acetylcholine stimulation of human neutrophil chemotactic activity is directly inhibited by tiotropium involving Gq and ERK-1/2 regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurai M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic, may improve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD by mechanisms beyond bronchodilatation. We tested the hypothesis that tiotropium may act as an anti-inflammatory mediator by directly acting on and inhibiting human neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA that is promoted by acetylcholine (ACh exposure. ACh treatment increased NCA in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.001 and tiotropium pretreatment reduced ACh stimulation (dose effect; 0 to 1000 nM; p < 0.001. Selective muscarinic receptor inhibitors demonstrated that subtype-3 (M3 receptor plays a role in NCA regulation. In addition, NCA that was stimulated by cevimeline (M3 agonist and pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT, M3 coupled Gq agonist. However, the increased NCA to cevimeline and PMT was reduced by tiotropium pretreatment (p < 0.001. ACh treatment stimulated ERK-1/2 activation by promoting protein phosphorylation and tiotropium reduced this effect (p < 0.01. In addition, pretreatment of the cells with a specific MEK-1/2 kinase inhibitor reduced ACh stimulated NCA (p < 0.01. Together these results demonstrated that cholinergic stimulation of NCA is effectively inhibited by tiotropium and is governed by a mechanism involving M3 coupled Gq signaling and downstream ERK signaling. This study further demonstrates that tiotropium may act as an anti-inflammatory agent in lung disease.

  12. Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyugovskaya Larissa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged neutrophil survival is evident in various cardiovascular and respiratory morbidities, in hypoxic conditions in-vitro and in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia (IH. This may lead to persistent inflammation, tissue injury and dysfunction. We therefore investigated by a translational approach the potential contribution of the intrinsic stress-induced mitochondrial pathway in extending neutrophil survival under IH conditions. Thus, neutrophils of healthy individuals treated with IH in-vitro and neutrophils of OSA patients undergoing nightly IH episodes in-vivo were investigated. Specifically, the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the control of Mcl-1 expression were investigated. Methods Purified neutrophils were exposed to IH and compared to normoxia and to sustained hypoxia (SH using a BioSpherix-OxyCycler C42 system. Bax and Mcl-1 levels, and p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Also, Bax/Mcl-1 expression and Bax translocation to the mitochondria were assessed by confocal microscopy in pre-apoptotic neutrophils, before the appearance of apoptotic morphology. Co-localization of Bax and mitochondria was quantified by LSM 510 CarlZeiss MicroImaging using Manders Overlap Coefficient. A paired two-tailed t test, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, was used for statistical analysis. Results Compared to normoxia, IH and SH up-regulated the anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 by about 2-fold, down-regulated the pro-apoptotic Bax by 41% and 27%, respectively, and inhibited Bax co-localization with mitochondria before visible morphological signs of apoptosis were noted. IH induced ERK1/2 and p38MAPKs phosphorylation, whereas SH induced only p38MAPK phosphorylation. Accordingly, both ERK and p38MAPK inhibitors attenuated

  13. Equine glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad H. Kheder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS is associated with insulin dysregulation, which often manifests as post-prandial hyperinsulinemia. Circulating concentrations of the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 correlate with an increased insulin response to carbohydrate intake in animals with EMS. However, little is known about the equine GLP-1 receptor (eGLP-1R, or whether GLP-1 concentrations can be manipulated. The objectives were to determine (1 the tissue localisation of the eGLP-1R, (2 the GLP-1 secretory capacity of equine intestine in response to glucose and (3 whether GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets can be attenuated. Methods Archived and abattoir-sourced tissues from healthy horses were used. Reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine the tissue distribution of the eGLP-1R gene, with immunohistochemical confirmation of its pancreatic location. The GLP-1 secretion from intestinal explants in response to 4 and 12 mM glucose was quantified in vitro. Pancreatic islets were freshly isolated to assess the insulin secretory response to GLP-1 agonism and antagonism in vitro, using concentration-response experiments. Results The eGLP-1R gene is widely distributed in horses (pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, duodenum, digital lamellae, tongue and gluteal skeletal muscle. Within the pancreas the eGLP-1R was immunolocalised to the pancreatic islets. Insulin secretion from pancreatic islets was concentration-dependent with human GLP-1, but not the synthetic analogue exendin-4. The GLP-1R antagonist exendin 9-39 (1 nM reduced (P = 0.08 insulin secretion by 27%. Discussion The distribution of the eGLP-1R across a range of tissues indicates that it may have functions beyond insulin release. The ability to reduce insulin secretion, and therefore hyperinsulinemia, through eGLP-1R antagonism is a promising and novel approach to managing equine insulin dysregulation.

  14. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Glucagon-like Peptide-1-based Therapies in Ischaemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlet, Ida R; Ölmestig, Joakim N E; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this MiniReview was to systemati......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence suggests that they may provide neuroprotection. The aim of this Mini......Review was to systematically evaluate the proposed mechanism of action for GLP-1-based therapies in ischaemic brain damage in animals. We performed a literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. GLP-1-based therapies administered before, during or after experimental stroke in diabetic and non...

  15. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates the PAF-synthesizing enzyme acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O2-acetyltransferase and PAF synthesis in neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Doebber, T W; Wu, M S

    1987-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; PAF) induced in isolated rat peritoneal and human peripheral neutrophils a rapid and potent activation of the PAF biosynthetic enzyme acetyl-CoA:1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine O2-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.67). The PAF-induced activation of the neutrophil acetyltransferase (8-10 times basal neutrophil activity) was maximal within 30 sec after PAF addition, as was the PAF-stimulated degranulation. After 1 min of PA...

  16. Improvement in psoriasis after treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A; Knop, F K; Thyssen, J P

    2011-01-01

    A 59-year old man with moderate and stable psoriasis through 15 years was admitted to our Department with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Treatment was initiated with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist liraglutide. The patient experienced marked improvement in his...... improvement in comorbidities such as overweight. Randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal whether GLP-1R agonists represent a new therapeutic option for psoriasis....

  17. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-04-06

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity.

  18. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zielińska-Przyjemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease– ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients’ neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptoticactivity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity.

  19. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, Herve; Platteau, Bernadette; Bakour, Rabah; Janssens, Michele; Wauters, Georges

    1982-01-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10 7 isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge [fr

  20. Pathogenesis of post-irradiation infection. 2. Role of neutrophils in the defence of irradiated rats against Yersinia enterocolitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, H.; Platteau, B.; Bakour, R.; Janssens, M.; Wauters, G. (Universite de Louvain, Bruxelles (Belgium))

    1982-07-01

    Wistar R inbred rats showed a substantial mortality when they were given Yersinia enterocolitica eight days after a 6.5 Gy total body irradiation. The possibility to abolish the high susceptibility of these irradiated rats to Yersinia enterocolitica by intravenous injections of isogenic neutrophils is presented: irradiated rats injected with 7 to 10.10/sup 7/ isogenic neutrophils, by the intravenous route, just before or after the administration of Yersinia enterocolitica, were not susceptible. On the contrary, control irradiated rats, not transfused, were killed by the same bacterial challenge.

  1. Effect of a 2.45-GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shin; Narita, Eijiro; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Taki, Masao; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    The potential public health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields have been discussed at length, especially with the use of mobile phones spreading extensively throughout the world. In order to investigate the properties of RF fields, we examined the effect of 2.45-GHz RF fields at the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2 and 10 W/kg for 4 and 24 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis in differentiated human HL-60 cells. Neutrophil chemotaxis was not affected by RF-field exposure, and subsequent phagocytosis was not affected either compared with that under sham exposure conditions. These studies demonstrated an initial immune response in the human body exposed to 2.45-GHz RF fields at the SAR of 2 W/kg, which is the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results of our experiments for RF-field exposure at an SAR under 10 W/kg showed very little or no effects on either chemotaxis or phagocytosis in neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  2. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, facilitates osteogenic proliferation and differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways involving β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuelun; Li, Shilun; Xue, Peng; Li, Yukun

    2017-11-15

    Previous studies have proven that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor agonist exert favorable anabolic effects on skeletal metabolism. However, whether GLP-1 could directly impact osteoblast-mediated bone formation is still controversial, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Thus in this paper, we investigated the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts proliferation and differentiation and explored the potential cellular basis. Our study confirmed the presence of GLP-1R in MC3T3-E1, and demonstrated that liraglutide promotes osteoblasts proliferation at an intermediate concentration (100nM) and time (48h), upregulated the expression of osteoblastogenic biomarkers at various stages, and stimulated osteoblastic mineralization. Liraglutide also elevated the intracellular cAMP level and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and β-catenin simultaneously with increased nuclear β-catenin content and transcriptional activity. Pretreatment of cells with the inhibitors LY294002, PD98059, H89 and GLP-1R and β-catenin siRNA partially blocked the liraglutide-induced signaling activation and attenuated the facilitating effect of liraglutide on MC3T3-E1 cells. Collectively, liraglutide was capable of acting upon osteoblasts directly through GLP-1R by activating PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2, cAMP/PKA/β-cat-Ser675 signaling to promote bone formation via GLP-1R. Thus, GLP-1 analogues may be potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteoporosis in diabetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 2SNP heritability and effects of genetic variants for neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Bell, Jordana T; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J; Jansen, Rick; Kluft, Cornelis; Mangino, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda; Spector, Tim D; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are important biomarkers for disease development and progression. To gain insight into the genetic causes of variance in NLR and PLR in the general population, we conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses and

  4. Tasting Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.Human neutrophils express the bitter receptor T2R38 as sensor for the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eMaurer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria communicate with each other via specialized signalling molecules, known as quorum sensing molecules or autoinducers. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (AHL-12, however, also activates mammalian cells. As shown previously, AHL-12 induced chemotaxis, up-regulated CD11b expression, and enhanced phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. Circumstantial evidence concurred with a receptor for AHL-12, which so far has been elusive. We investigated the bitter receptor T2R38 as a potential candidate. Although identified as a taste receptor, cells outside the gustatory system express T2R38, for example epithelial cells in the lung. We now detected T2R38 in peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes on the cell membrane, but also intracellular. In neutrophils, T2R38 was located in vesicles with characteristics of lipid droplets, and super-resolution microscopy showed a co-localisation with the lipid droplet membrane. Neutrophils take up AHL-12, and it co-localized with T2R38 as seen by laser scan microscopy. Binding of AHL-12 to T2R28 was confirmed by pull-down assays using biotin-coupled AHL-12 as bait. A commercially available antibody to T2R38 inhibited binding of AHL-12 to neutrophils, and this antibody by itself stimulated neutrophils, similarly to AHL-12. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for expression of functional T2R38 on neutrophils, and are compatible with the notion that T2R38 is the receptor for AHL-12 on neutrophils.

  5. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  6. Oxidant activation of neutrophil collagenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumaran, G.; Amoruso, M.A.; Berg, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidant gas exposure leads to lung injury characterized by acute inflammation, connective tissue breakdown and alveolar damage. In an effort to better understand the mechanism for oxidant gas injury human peripheral neutrophils were isolated and incubated with 14 C-proline labelled extracellular matrix. Neutrophils in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) alone (to stimulate the secretion of collagenase from specific granules) had no effect on the matrix. When neutrophils were incubated with PMA and 2 mM p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA), the latter a known activator of collagenase, extensive degradation of the matrix was observed. The generation of the characteristic 3/4- and 1/4-clip fragments of Type I collagen was an indication that the major enzymatic activity operative was collagenase. This was further supported by its requirement for Ca 2+ and inhibition of enzymatic activity by EDTA. Further experiments indicated that 10 μM oxidized glutathione could replace APMA in activating the secreted collagenase. Since GSH is thought to be the major physiological antioxidant in the lung, the degradation of connective tissue caused by inflammation from oxidant gas injury may be attributed to the oxidation of GSH to GSSG with resultant activation of neutrophil collagenase

  7. Mitochondria in neutrophil apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raam, B. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2006-01-01

    Central in the regulation of the short life span of neutrophils are their mitochondria. These organelles hardly contribute to the energy status of neutrophils but play a vital role in the apoptotic process. Not only do the mitochondria contain cytotoxic proteins that are released during apoptosis

  8. Apoptosis of neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maianski, N. A.; Maianski, A. N.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Roos, D.

    2004-01-01

    Regulation of the neutrophil life span by apoptosis provides a fine balance between their function as effector cells of host defense and a safe turnover of these potentially harmful cells. Alterations of neutrophil apoptosis are associated with a number of diseases. As do other cell types,

  9. alpha-Glucosidase inhibition (acarbose) fails to enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) and to delay gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hücking, K; Kostic, Z; Pox, C

    2005-01-01

    and gastric emptying in Type 2 diabetic patients after a mixed test meal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten Type 2 diabetic patients were tested with 100 mg acarbose or placebo served with a mixed meal that was labelled with 100 mg 13C-octanoic acid. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP......-1 and GIP were determined over 6 h. Gastric emptying was measured by determining breath 13CO2 using infrared absorptiometry. Statistics repeated-measures anova. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates (t1/2: 162 +/- 45 vs. 163 +/- 62 min, P = 0.65) and plasma concentrations (increasing from approximately 12...... to approximately 25 pmol/l, P = 0.37) and integrated responses of GLP-1 (P = 0.37) were not changed significantly by acarbose treatment. Postprandial plasma glucose concentrations (P concentrations of insulin and C...

  10. Role of rs6923761 gene variant in glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor in basal GLP-1 levels, cardiovascular risk factor and serum adipokine levels in naïve type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Bachiller, R

    2015-02-01

    Role of GLP-1 variants on basal GLP-1 levels, body weight and cardiovascular risk factors remains unclear in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs6923761 GLP-1 receptor polymorphism on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, basal GLP-1 levels and serum adipokine levels in naïve patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A sample of 104 naïve patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was enrolled in a prospective way. Basal fasting glucose, c-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides concentration, basal GLP-1, HbA1c and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) levels were determined. Weights, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass by bioimpedance and blood pressure measures were measured. Forty-nine patients (47.1%) had the genotype GG and 55 (52.9%) diabetic subjects had the next genotypes; GA (44 patients, 42.3%) or AA (11 study subjects, 10.6%) (second group). In A allele carriers, basal GLP-1 levels were higher than non-carriers (2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  11. NEUTROPHIL ACTIVATION IN RESPONSE TO MONOMERIC MYELOPEROXIDASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, Irina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Kostevich, Valeria A; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Syromiatnikova, Elena D; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M

    2018-03-27

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-producing enzyme that can also regulate cellular functions via its nonenzymatic effects. Mature active MPO isolated from normal human neutrophils is a 145 kDa homodimer, which consists of two identical protomers, connected by a single disulfide bond. By binding to CD11b/CD18 integrin, dimeric MPO induces neutrophil activation and adhesion augmenting leukocyte accumulation at sites of inflammation. This study was performed to compare the potency of dimeric and monomeric MPO to elicit selected neutrophil responses. Monomeric MPO (hemi-MPO) was obtained by treating the dimeric MPO by reductive alkylation. Analysis of the crucial signal transducer, intracellular Ca2+, showed that dimeric MPO induces Ca2+ mobilization from the intracellular calcium stores of neutrophils and influx of extracellular Ca2+ whereas effect of monomeric MPO on Са2+ increase in neutrophils was less. It was shown also that monomeric MPO was less sufficient than dimeric MPO to induce actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell survival and neutrophil degranulation. Furthermore, we have detected monomeric MPO in the blood plasma of patients with acute inflammation. Our data suggest that the decomposition of dimeric MPO into monomers can serve as a regulatory mechanism that controls MPO-dependent activation of neutrophils and reduces proinflammatory effects of MPO.

  12. Effects of 6-month treatment with the glucagon like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on arterial stiffness, left ventricular myocardial deformation and oxidative stress in subjects with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambadiari, Vaia; Pavlidis, George; Kousathana, Foteini; Varoudi, Maria; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Maratou, Eirini; Georgiou, Dimitrios; Andreadou, Ioanna; Parissis, John; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Lekakis, John; Iliodromitis, Efstathios; Dimitriadis, George; Ikonomidis, Ignatios

    2018-01-08

    Incretin-based therapies are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. We investigated the changes in arterial stiffness and left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation after 6-month treatment with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide in subjects with newly diagnosed T2DM. We randomized 60 patients with newly diagnosed and treatment-naive T2DM to receive either liraglutide (n = 30) or metformin (n = 30) for 6 months. We measured at baseline and after 6-month treatment: (a) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (b) LV longitudinal strain (GLS), and strain rate (GLSR), peak twisting (pTw), peak twisting velocity (pTwVel) and peak untwisting velocity (pUtwVel) using speckle tracking echocardiography. LV untwisting was calculated as the percentage difference between peak twisting and untwisting at MVO (%dpTw-Utw MVO ), at peak (%dpTw-Utw PEF ) and end of early LV diastolic filling (%dpTw-Utw EDF ) (c) Flow mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and percentage difference of FMD (FMD%) (d) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCs) and NT-proBNP. After 6-months treatment, subjects that received liraglutide presented with a reduced PWV (11.8 ± 2.5 vs. 10.3 ± 3.3 m/s), MDA (0.92 [0.45-2.45] vs. 0.68 [0.43-2.08] nM/L) and NT-proBNP (p < 0.05) in parallel with an increase in GLS (- 15.4 ± 3 vs. - 16.6 ± 2.7), GLSR (0.77 ± 0.2 vs. 0.89 ± 0.2), pUtwVel (- 97 ± 49 vs. - 112 ± 52°, p < 0.05), %dpTw-Utw MVO (31 ± 10 vs. 40 ± 14), %dpTw-Utw PEF (43 ± 19 vs. 53 ± 22) and FMD% (8.9 ± 3 vs. 13.2 ± 6, p < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences of the measured markers in subjects that received metformin except for an improvement in FMD. In all subjects, PCs levels at baseline were negatively related to the difference of GLS (r = - 0.53) post-treatment and the difference of MDA was associated with the difference of PWV (r = 0.52) (p < 0.05 for all associations

  13. Jejunal feeding is followed by a greater rise in plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucagon-like peptide 2 concentrations compared with gastric feeding in vivo in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttikhold, Joanna; van Norren, Klaske; Rijna, Herman

    2016-01-01

    ± SD age: 21 ± 2 y) received continuous enteral nutrition that contained noncoagulating proteins for 12 h via a nasogastric tube or a nasojejunal tube placed 30-40 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. Blood samples were collected during the 12-h postprandial period to assess the rise in plasma glucose...

  14. Efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide versus the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in young (<50 years obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Van Gaal

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In obese patients aged <50 years with T2DM, the proportion of patients with an HbA1c <7% with weight loss ≥5% was similar between groups. Lixisenatide, however, resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight and postprandial plasma glucose excursions than sitagliptin. Tolerability was similar between groups.

  15. Frog skin peptides (tigerinin-1R, magainin-AM1, -AM2, CPF-AM1, and PGla-AM1) stimulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by GLUTag cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, O O; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R; Abdel-Wahab, Y H A

    2013-02-01

    Skin secretions of several frog species contain host-defense peptides with multiple biological activities including in vitro and in vivo insulin-releasing actions. This study investigates the effects of tigerinin-1R from Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Dicroglossidae) and magainin-AM1, magainin-AM2, caerulein precursor fragment (CPF-AM1) and peptide glycine leucine amide (PGLa-AM1) from Xenopus amieti (Pipidae) on GLP-1 secretion from GLUTag cells. Tigerinin-1R showed the highest potency producing a significant (P<0.05) increase in GLP-1 release at a concentration of 0.1nM for the cyclic peptide and 0.3nM for the reduced form. All peptides from X. amieti significantly (P<0.05) stimulated GLP-1 release at concentrations ⩾300nM with magainin-AM2 exhibiting the greatest potency (minimum concentration producing a significant stimulation=1nM). The maximum stimulatory response (3.2-fold of basal rate, P<0.001) was produced by CPF-AM1 at a concentration of 3μM. No peptide stimulated release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase from GLUTag cells at concentrations up to 3μM indicating that the integrity of the plasma membrane had been preserved. The data indicate that frog skin peptides, by stimulating GLP-1 release as well as direct effects on insulin secretion, show therapeutic potential as agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Exenatide After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Hassager, Christian; Schmidt, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-hospital mortality in comatose patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is ≈50%. In OHCA patients, the leading cause of death is neurological injury secondary to ischemia and reperfusion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs are approved for type 2 diabetes...... mellitus; preclinical and clinical data have suggested their organ-protective effects in patients with ischemia and reperfusion injury. The aim of this trial was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide in resuscitated OHCA patients. METHODS: We randomly...

  17. Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on coronary microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes – a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Rebekka; Zander, Mette; Pena, Adam

    2015-01-01

    with either the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide or received no treatment for 10 weeks, in a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over setup with a 2 weeks wash-out period. The effect of liraglutide on coronary microcirculation was evaluated using non-invasive trans-thoracic Doppler-flow echocardiography during...... dipyridamole induced stress. Peripheral microvascular endothelial function was assessed by Endo-PAT2000®. Interventions were compared by two-sample t-test after ensuring no carry over effect. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were included. Twenty patients completed the study (15 male; mean age 57 ± 9; mean BMI...

  18. Effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on body weight, body fat area and body fat-related markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Toyoda, Masao; Kimura, Moritugu; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Eitaro; Kuriyama, Yusuke; Miyatake, Han; Abe, Makiko; Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of six-month liraglutide treatment on body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat and related markers in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with liraglutide (0.3 mg/day for ≥1 week and then 0.6 mg/day for ≥1 week, gradually increasing the dose to 0.9 mg/day) for six months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, the fasting blood glucose level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, hepatic and renal CT values and the associated markers proinsulin, adiponectin and pentraxin (PTX) 3 were measured. The study included one treatment-naïve patient, 10 patients who were switched from oral antidiabetic drugs and 35 patients who were switched from insulin therapy. At six months after treatment, the preprandial blood glucose levels were higher (148.8±40.5 mg/dL) than the baseline values (130.8±36.7, pbody weight, BMI and abdominal circumference were lower, and the liver/kidney CT ratio improved significantly from 1.64±0.44 at baseline to 1.78±0.42. An analysis of the patients who were not pretreated with insulin resistance ameliorators showed that six months of liraglutide treatment significantly decreased the subcutaneous but not visceral fat areas, significantly decreased the serum adiponectin levels and significantly increased the serum PTX3 levels. In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, liraglutide exhibits weight loss promotion actions, reducing subcutaneous fat areas in particular. The weight and total fat area reduction properties of liraglutide are likely to be beneficial when this medication is used in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin.

  19. Impact of exogenous hyperglucagonemia on postprandial concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Ritter, Peter R; Jacob, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been found diminished in some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high glucagon concentrations. We examined the effects of exogenous glucagon on the release of incretin hormones....

  20. Free radical-scavenging activity and DNA damaging potential of auxins IAA and 2-methyl-IAA evaluated in human neutrophils by the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopek-Sondi, Branka; Piljac-Zegarac, Jasenka; Magnus, Volker; Kopjar, Nevenka

    2010-01-01

    Auxins, of which indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most widespread representative, are plant hormones. In addition to plants, IAA also naturally occurs in humans in micromolar concentrations. In the presence of peroxidase, indolic auxins are converted to cytotoxic oxidation products and have thus been proposed for use in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug tumor therapy. Since data on the genotoxicity of IAA and its derivatives are not consistent, here we investigate the early DNA damaging effects (2-h treatment) of the auxins, IAA, and 2-methyl-indole-3-acetic acid (2-Me-IAA) by the alkaline comet assay and compare them with their free radical-scavenging activity measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Human neutrophils are chosen as the test system since they possess inherent peroxidase activity. The results of the comet assay indicate an increase in DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner up to 1.00 mM of both auxins. Generally, IAA applied in the same concentration had greater potential to damage DNA in human neutrophils than did 2-Me-IAA. The genotoxicities of the two examined auxins are negatively correlated with their antioxidant activities, as measured by the DPPH assay; 2-Me-IAA showed a higher antioxidant capacity than did IAA. We assume that differences in the molecular structure of the tested auxins contributed to differences in their metabolism, in particular, with respect to interactions with peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes in neutrophils. However, the exact mechanisms have to be elucidated in future studies. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Gastric Emptying Time, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), Ghrelin and Leptin in Non-morbidly Obese Subjects with BMI 30-35.0 kg/m2: a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshwaran, B; Wahal, Akshat; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Priyadarshini, Pratyusha; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Yadav, Rajkumar

    2016-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 . Possible mechanisms, including alterations in gastric emptying time (GET), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and leptin, were evaluated. Twenty obese patients with T2DM and with a BMI of 30.0-35.0 kg/m 2 underwent LSG during March 2012 to February 2015. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and GET were measured at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Fasting and post-prandial levels of serum GLP-1, ghrelin and leptin were measured pre-operatively and after 3 and 6 months. The average duration of follow-up was 17.6 months, and 10 patients had completed 2 years of follow-up. After 2 years, the average BMI decreased from 33.4 ± 1.2 to 26.7 ± 1.8 kg/m 2 . The mean HbA1c decreased from 8.7 ± 1.6 to 6.7 ± 1.5 %, respectively. Ten patients achieved complete remission. Insulin could be stopped in all six patients who were on it pre-operatively. Meal-stimulated GLP-1 response and serum insulin at 30 min showed a significant increase following surgery. There was a significant decrease in GET. This prospective study confirms the positive impact of LSG on diabetic status of non-morbidly obese patients. The possible mechanisms include the rise in post-prandial GLP-1 level induced by accelerated gastric emptying, leading to an increase in insulin secretion. LSG also leads to decreased ghrelin and leptin levels which may have a role in improving glucose homeostasis after surgery.

  2. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Christensen, Mikkel; Junker, Anders E

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether treatment with agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) result in weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus.......To determine whether treatment with agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) result in weight loss in overweight or obese patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus....

  3. TLR2, TLR4 and the MYD88 signaling pathway are crucial for neutrophil migration in acute kidney injury induced by sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Castoldi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 in sepsis-induced AKI. C57BL/6 TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/- and MyD88(-/- male mice were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Twenty four hours later, kidney tissue and blood samples were collected for analysis. The TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/- and MyD88(-/- mice that were subjected to CLP had preserved renal morphology, and fewer areas of hypoxia and apoptosis compared with the wild-type C57BL/6 mice (WT. MyD88(-/- mice were completely protected compared with the WT mice. We also observed reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidneys of the knockout mice compared with those of the WT mice and subsequent inhibition of increased vascular permeability in the kidneys of the knockout mice. The WT mice had increased GR1(+low cells migration compared with the knockout mice and decreased in GR1(+high cells migration into the peritoneal cavity. The TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/-, and MyD88(-/- mice had lower neutrophil infiltration in the kidneys. Depletion of neutrophils in the WT mice led to protection of renal function and less inflammation in the kidneys of these mice. Innate immunity participates in polymicrobial sepsis-induced AKI, mainly through the MyD88 pathway, by leading to an increased migration of neutrophils to the kidney, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, vascular permeability, hypoxia and apoptosis of tubular cells.

  4. Demonstration of the neutrophil granulocyte functional capacity in silicosis, using the NBT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, T; Cojocaru, M

    1995-01-01

    The functional capacity of neutrophils was studied using the NBT test in 68 patients with silicosis in various evolutive stages, comparatively with a group of 35 controls. The NBT test showed an initial increase of nonspecific cellular reactivity which decreased as the disease evolved. The results in the control group showed 9 +/- 5% NBT positive neutrophils. The highest proportion of NBT positive neutrophils (17.6 +/- 2.3, p NBT positive neutrophils may be considered as a biochemical marker of neutrophil functionality.

  5. Altered neutrophil trafficking during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ren-Feng; Riedemann, Niels C; Laudes, Ines J; Sarma, Vidya J; Kunkel, Robin G; Dilley, Kari A; Paulauskis, Joseph D; Ward, Peter A

    2002-07-01

    In sepsis, dysregulation of the inflammatory system is well known, as reflected in excessive inflammatory mediator production, complement activation, and appearance of defects in phagocytic cells. In the current study sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation/puncture. Early in sepsis the beta(1) and beta(2) integrin content on blood neutrophils increased in a nontranscriptional manner, and the increase in beta(2), but not beta(1), integrin content was C5a dependent. Similar changes could be induced in vitro on blood neutrophils following contact with phorbol ester or C5a. Direct injury of lungs of normal rats induced by deposition of IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC) caused 5-fold increases in the myeloperoxidase content that was beta(2), but not beta(1), dependent. In contrast, in cecal ligation/puncture lungs myeloperoxidase increased 10-fold after IgG immune complex deposition and was both beta(1) and beta(2) integrin dependent. These data suggest that sepsis causes enhanced neutrophil trafficking into the lung via mechanisms that are not engaged in the nonseptic state.

  6. Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibition of gastric emptying outweighs its insulinotropic effects in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Niedereichholz, U; Ettler, R

    1997-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying of liquid meals in type 2 diabetic patients. It was the aim of the present study to compare the action of physiological and pharmacological doses of intravenous GLP-1-(7-36) amide and GLP-1-(7-37) on gastric emptying...... a significant effect, 3) despite the known insulinotropic actions of GLP-1-(7-36) amide and -(7-37), the net effect of administering GLP-1 with a meal is no change or a reduction in meal-related insulin responses. These findings suggest a primarily inhibitory function for GLP-1 (ileal brake mechanisms)....

  7. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  8. Co-localisation of the Kir6.2/SUR1 channel complex with glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide expression in human ileal cells and implications for glycaemic control in new onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Bo; Ploug, K.B.; Swift, P.

    2007-01-01

    The ATP-dependent K+-channel (K(ATP)) is critical for glucose sensing and normal glucagon and insulin secretion from pancreatic endocrine alpha- and beta-cells. Gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells are also glucose-sensing cells secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent......The ATP-dependent K+-channel (K(ATP)) is critical for glucose sensing and normal glucagon and insulin secretion from pancreatic endocrine alpha- and beta-cells. Gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells are also glucose-sensing cells secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose...

  9. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Hiromasa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Nomiyama, Takashi, E-mail: tnomiyama@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  10. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. → Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. → Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. → Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Francisco Kerr; Sposito, Andrei C

    2014-10-22

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have a several-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease when compared with nondiabetic controls. Myocardial infarction and stroke are responsible for 75% of all death in patients with diabetes, who present a 2-4× increased incidence of death from coronary artery disease. Patients with diabetes are considered for cardiovascular disease secondary prevention because their risk level is similar to that reported in patients without diabetes who have already suffered a myocardial infarction. More recently, with a better risk factors control, mainly in intensive LDL cholesterol targets with statins, a significant decrease in acute cardiovascular events was observed in population with diabetes. Together with other major risk factors, type 2 diabetes must be considered as an important cause of cardiovascular disease.Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists represent a novel class of anti-hyperglycemic agents that have a cardiac-friendly profile, preserve neuronal cells and inhibit neuronal degeneration, an anti-inflammatory effect in liver protecting it against steatosis, increase insulin sensitivity, promote weight loss, and increase satiety or anorexia.This review is intended to rationally compile the multifactorial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists available for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Renal function and low-molecular-weight proteins (cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) in child and young adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Joanna; Owczuk, Radosław; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Owczarzak, Anna; Kurylak, Andrzej; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Balcerska, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We sought to verify the hypothesis that children and young adults with cancer who have completed treatment differ according to the type and degree of renal damage. This study included 144 children and young adults (73 female) who had completed treatment for leukemias and lymphomas (group L, n=45), Wilms tumor (group W, n=52) and other solid tumors (group S, n=47). The following parameters were evaluated: serum concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and urine excretion of albumin, and urinalysis with sediment. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated using the classic Schwartz (eGFRSch), Schwartz redux (eGFRSchred), and Filler (eGFRFiller) formulas and with the new Schwartz equation for patients with chronic kidney disease (eGFRSchCKD). Group S had the lowest eGFRSchCKD and eGFRFiller, the highest serum cystatin C and the highest albumin excretion compared with groups L and W. Groups S and W had lower eGFRSch and eGFRSchred and higher serum β2-microglobulin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin compared with group L. Group W had lower eGFRSchCKD than group L. Children and young adults with cancer who have completed treatment differ in the type and degree of renal damage they sustain.

  13. Baseline neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (≥2.8) as a prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lijun; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Fan, Ming; Wu, Yongxin; Zhu, Ji; Zhang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as an indicator of systemic inflammatory response and may predict the clinical outcome in some cancers, such as head and neck cancer and gastric cancer. However, the value of this ratio is variable in different cancers. Studies of the relationship between NLR and both survival and response to chemoradiation have been limited with respect to locally advanced rectal cancer. From 2006 to 2011, 199 consecutive locally advanced rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation in the Shanghai Cancer Center were enrolled and analysed retrospectively. Tumor response was evaluated by pathological findings. The baseline total white blood cell count (WBC) and the neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet counts were recorded. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the relationship with clinical outcomes such as overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed. With ROC analysis, the baseline NLR value was found to significantly predict prognosis in terms of OS well in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. A multivariate analysis identified that a cut-off value of NLR ≥ 2.8 could be used as an independent factor to indicate decreased OS (HR, 2.123; 95% CI, 1.140-3.954; P = 0.018). NLR ≥ 2.8 was also associated with worse DFS in univariate analysis (HR, 1.662; 95% CI, 1.037-2.664; P = 0.035), though it was not significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 1.363; 95% CI, 0.840-2.214; P = 0.210). There was no observed significant correlation of mean value of NLR to the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The mean NLR in the ypT0-2 N0 group was 2.68 ± 1.38, and it was 2.77 ± 1.38 in the ypT3-4/N+ group, with no statistical significance (P = 0.703). The mean NLR in the TRG 0–1 group was 2.68 ± 1.42, and it was 2.82 ± 1.33 in the TRG 2–3 group with no statistical significance (P = 0.873). An elevated baseline NLR is a valuable and easily available prognostic factor for OS in

  14. Neutrophil Elastase Activates Protease-activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) to Cause Inflammation and Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peishen; Lieu, TinaMarie; Barlow, Nicholas; Sostegni, Silvia; Haerteis, Silke; Korbmacher, Christoph; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Jimenez-Vargas, Nestor N; Vanner, Stephen J; Bunnett, Nigel W

    2015-05-29

    Proteases that cleave protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2)) at Arg(36)↓Ser(37) reveal a tethered ligand that binds to the cleaved receptor. PAR(2) activates transient receptor potential (TRP) channels of nociceptive neurons to induce neurogenic inflammation and pain. Although proteases that cleave PAR(2) at non-canonical sites can trigger distinct signaling cascades, the functional importance of the PAR(2)-biased agonism is uncertain. We investigated whether neutrophil elastase, a biased agonist of PAR(2), causes inflammation and pain by activating PAR2 and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). Elastase cleaved human PAR(2) at Ala(66)↓Ser(67) and Ser(67)↓Val(68). Elastase stimulated PAR(2)-dependent cAMP accumulation and ERK1/2 activation, but not Ca(2+) mobilization, in KNRK cells. Elastase induced PAR(2) coupling to Gαs but not Gαq in HEK293 cells. Although elastase did not promote recruitment of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK(2)) or β-arrestin to PAR(2), consistent with its inability to promote receptor endocytosis, elastase did stimulate GRK6 recruitment. Elastase caused PAR(2)-dependent sensitization of TRPV4 currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes by adenylyl cyclase- and protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent mechanisms. Elastase stimulated PAR(2)-dependent cAMP formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and a PAR(2)- and TRPV4-mediated influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in mouse nociceptors. Adenylyl cyclase and PKA-mediated elastase-induced activation of TRPV4 and hyperexcitability of nociceptors. Intraplantar injection of elastase to mice caused edema and mechanical hyperalgesia by PAR(2)- and TRPV4-mediated mechanisms. Thus, the elastase-biased agonism of PAR(2) causes Gαs-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase and PKA, which activates TRPV4 and sensitizes nociceptors to cause inflammation and pain. Our results identify a novel mechanism of elastase-induced activation of TRPV4 and expand the role of PAR(2) as a mediator of protease-driven inflammation and pain.

  15. Prognostic meaning of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ration (LMR) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated upfront with a PET-2 based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Vetro, Calogero; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Cerchione, Claudio; Ippolito, Massimo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Recent reports identify NLR (the ratio between absolute neutrophils counts, ANC, and absolute lymphocyte count, ALC), as predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in cancer patients. We retrospectively tested NLR and LMR (the ratio between absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated upfront with a PET-2 risk-adapted strategy. NLR and LMR were calculated using records obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) from 180 newly diagnosed HL patients. PFS was evaluated accordingly to Kaplan-Meier method. Higher NLR was associated to advanced stage, increased absolute counts of neutrophils and reduced count of lymphocytes, and markers of systemic inflammation. After a median follow-up of 68 months, PFS at 60 months was 86.6% versus 70.1%, respectively, in patients with NLR ≥ 6 or NLR PET-2 scan (p PET-2 was an independent predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis. Advanced-stage patients (N = 119) were treated according to a PET-2 risk-adapted protocol, with an early switch to BEACOPP regimen in case of PET-2 positivity. Despite this strategy, patients with positive PET-2 still had an inferior outcome, with PFS at 60 months of 84.7% versus 40.1% (negative and positive PET-2 patients, respectively, p PET-2 status and to a lesser extend NLR in advanced stage, while LMR maintained its significance in early stage. By focusing on PET-2 negative patients, we found that patients with NLR ≥ 6.0 or LMR PET-2 scan, NLR and LMR can result in a meaningful prognostic system that needs to be further validated in prospective series including patients treated upfront with PET-2 adapted-risk therapy.

  16. Effect of Isolation Techniques on Viability of Bovine Blood Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sláma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected isolation methods on the viability of neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils from the blood of healthy Holstein x Bohemian Red Pied crossbred heifers was evaluated. Two methods of neutrophil isolation were used: a neutrophil isolation on the basis of hypotonic erythrocyte lysis (in two variants: after the erythrocyte lysis proper, the cells were centrifuged at either 200 g or 1000 g, and b neutrophil isolation with FACS Lysing Solution as the lysing agent. The viability of the isolated neutrophils was evaluated on the basis of apoptosis and necrosis. The results obtained with flow cytometry (FCM suggest that, from the isolation techniques used, the method based on FACS Lysing Solution impaired the neutrophil viability least. After the application of this method, 5.36 ± 2.15% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 0.51 ± 0.12% were necrotic. In contrast, when the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis was used, the proportion of apoptotic neutrophils amounted to 42.14 ± 7.12% and 49.00 ± 14.70%, respectively, and 41.12 ± 5.55% and 36.91 ± 24.38% respectively of necrotic neutrophils (P < 0.01. This was also confirmed by the light microscopy. After the isolation with FASC Lysing Solution, 1.92 ± 1.74% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 1.05 ± 0.76% were necrotic, as distinct from after the hypotonic erythrocyte lysis where 9.43 ± 3.69% of neutrophils were apoptotic and 12.67 ± 4.74% of necrotic after centrifugation at 200 g, while 12.60 ± 4.35 were apoptotic and 14.96 ± 12.64% were necrotic after centrifugation at 1000 g. It follows from the above-mentioned data that hypotonic lysis is not a suitable method for the isolation of neutrophils, as the method itself markedly affects cell viability.

  17. Localization and Functionality of the Inflammasome in Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakele, Martina; Joos, Melanie; Burdi, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils represent the major fraction of circulating immune cells and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection and inflammation. The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the generation of IL-1 family proteins. The precise subcellular localization and functionality...... of the inflammasome in human neutrophils are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that highly purified human neutrophils express key components of the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes, particularly apoptosis-associated speck-like protein...... and released as protein, highly purified neutrophils neither expressed nor released IL-1α at baseline or upon stimulation. Upon inflammasome activation, highly purified neutrophils released substantially lower levels of IL-1β protein compared with partially purified neutrophils. Serine proteases and caspases...

  18. Haploinsufficiency of NADPH Oxidase Subunit Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor 2 Is Sufficient to Accelerate Full-Blown Lupus in NZM 2328 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Chaim O; Yu, Ning; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Perez-Zapata, Lizet J; Barbu, Emilia Alina; Kaplan, Mariana J; Purmalek, Monica; Pingel, Jeanette T; Idol, Rachel A; Dinauer, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    We have previously established that the gene for neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF-2) predisposes to lupus, and we have identified lupus patients with point mutations that are predicted to cause reduced NADPH oxidase activity. We undertook this study to investigate the relationship between reduced leukocyte NADPH oxidase activity and immune dysregulation associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We generated NCF-2-null mice, in which NADPH oxidase activity is absent, on the nonautoimmune C57BL/6 (B6) mouse background and on the NZM 2328 mouse background, a polygenic model in which mice spontaneously develop lupus. Clinical disease, serology, and immunopathology were evaluated. NCF-2-null mice on the B6 background were susceptible to Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia characteristic of chronic granulomatous disease, but did not develop systemic lupus disease. In contrast, NCF-2-null and even NCF-2-haploinsufficient mice on the NZM 2328 background developed accelerated full-blown lupus with significantly accelerated lupus kidney disease. This was characterized by more rapid development of hyperactive B cell and T cell immune compartments, increased expression of type I interferon-responsive genes, and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps, which were observed even in the absence of NADPH oxidase activity. Just as patients with chronic granulomatous disease who lack NADPH oxidase rarely develop SLE, NCF-2-null mice on a nonautoimmune background were susceptible to a chronic granulomatous disease-like opportunistic infection but did not develop lupus. In contrast, on a lupus-prone background, even haploinsufficiency of NCF-2 accelerated the development of full-blown lupus disease. This establishes an interaction between reduced oxidase activity and other lupus-predisposing genes, paralleling human SLE-associated variants predicted to have only reduced NADPH oxidase activity. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow from stem cells that proliferate and differentiate to mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules. These contain proteins that enable the neutrophil to deliver lethal hits against microorganisms, but also to cause great tissue damage. N...... microorganisms by microbicidal agents liberated from granules or generated by metabolic activation. As a final act, neutrophils can extrude stands of DNA with bactericidal proteins attached that act as extracellular traps for microorganisms....

  20. A Pepducin Derived from the Third Intracellular Loop of FPR2 Is a Partial Agonist for Direct Activation of This Receptor in Neutrophils But a Full Agonist for Cross-Talk Triggered Reactivation of FPR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabl, Michael; Winther, Malene; Skovbakke, Sarah Line

    2014-01-01

    We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR) and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R) transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) from a desensitized (non-signaling) state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H...... et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323:209, 2014). In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic...... signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils...

  1. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

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    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  2. Neutrophils, from marrow to microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow from stem cells that proliferate and differentiate to mature neutrophils fully equipped with an armory of granules. These contain proteins that enable the neutrophil to deliver lethal hits against microorganisms, but also to cause great tissue damage...

  3. Requirement for C-X-C chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) in IgG immune complex-induced lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Warner, R L

    1997-01-01

    by 125I-labeled albumin leakage from the pulmonary vasculature) and reduced neutrophil accumulation in the lung (as determined by myeloperoxidase (MPO content) and neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids); however, no change in TNF-alpha levels in BAL fluids was found. Chemotactic...

  4. The effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on the beta cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function. Treatments that prevent further beta-cell decline are therefore essential for the management of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that is known...... to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 appears to have multiple positive effects on beta cells. However, GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which limits the clinical relevance of GLP-1 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two main classes of GLP-1-based...... with type 2 diabetes, as assessed by homoeostasis model assessment-B analysis and proinsulin : insulin ratio. Additionally, liraglutide and exenatide are able to enhance first- and second-phase insulin secretion and are able to restore beta-cell sensitivity to glucose. Preclinical studies have shown...

  5. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1......; BMI 39.0 (sem 1.2) kg/m(2)) in a prospective randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Compared with the placebo, rGLP-1 administered as PSI and by CSI generated a 15 % reduction in mean food intake per meal (P=0.02) after 5 d treatment. A weight loss of 0.55 (sem 0.2) kg (P... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....

  6. Bacterial lipoprotein delays apoptosis in human neutrophils through inhibition of caspase-3 activity: regulatory roles for CD14 and TLR-2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Colm P

    2012-02-03

    The human sepsis syndrome resulting from bacterial infection continues to account for a significant proportion of hospital mortality. Neutralizing strategies aimed at individual bacterial wall products (such as LPS) have enjoyed limited success in this arena. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) is a major constituent of the wall of diverse bacterial forms and profoundly influences cellular function in vivo and in vitro, and has been implicated in the etiology of human sepsis. Delayed polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) apoptosis is a characteristic feature of human sepsis arising from Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacterial infection. Bacterial wall product ligation and subsequent receptor-mediated events upstream of caspase inhibition in neutrophils remain incompletely understood. BLP has been shown to exert its cellular effects primarily through TLR-2, and it is now widely accepted that lateral associations with the TLRs represent the means by which CD14 communicates intracellular messages. In this study, we demonstrate that BLP inhibits neutrophil mitochondrial membrane depolarization with a subsequent reduction in caspase-3 processing, ultimately leading to a significant delay in PMN apoptosis. Pretreatment of PMNs with an anti-TLR-2 mAb or anti-CD14 mAb prevented BLP from delaying PMN apoptosis to such a marked degree. Combination blockade using both mAbs completely prevented the effects of BLP (in 1 and 10 ng\\/ml concentrations) on PMN apoptosis. At higher concentrations of BLP, the antiapoptotic effects were observed, but were not as pronounced. Our findings therefore provide the first evidence of a crucial role for both CD14 and TLR-2 in delayed PMN apoptosis arising from bacterial infection.

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, obesity and psoriasis: diabetes meets dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, D J; Rosen, C F

    2011-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterised by beta cell failure, which frequently develops in the setting of insulin resistance. Inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes by impairing insulin action in peripheral tissues and via reduction of beta cell function. Inflammation may also play an important role in the development of complications that arise in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hence, the anti-inflammatory actions of commonly used glucose-lowering drugs may contribute, indirectly, to their mechanisms of action and therapeutic benefit. Herein we highlight the anti-inflammatory actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which exerts direct and indirect actions on immune function. The observations that GLP-1 receptor agonists exert anti-inflammatory actions in preclinical studies, taken together with case reports linking improvements in psoriasis with GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy, illustrates the emerging clinical implications of non-classical anti-inflammatory actions of incretin-based therapeutics.

  8. The role of glucagon-like peptide-1 impairment in obesity and potential therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S

    2014-01-01

    in obesity. Incretin impairment, probably associated with reduced insulinotropic potency of GLP-1, is also characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, it is possible that incretin impairment may contribute to the pathophysiological bridge between obesity and T2D. This review summarises current...... glucagon secretion from the pancreas in response to food ingestion. Evidence suggests that the action or effect of GLP-1 may be impaired in obese subjects, even in those with normal glucose tolerance. GLP-1 impairment may help explain the increased gastric emptying and decreased satiety signalling seen......The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from the gut in response to food intake. It acts as a satiety signal, leading to reduced food intake, and also as a regulator of gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 functions as an incretin hormone, stimulating insulin release and inhibiting...

  9. The glucagonostatic and insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 contribute equally to its glucose-lowering action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, Kristine J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Asmar, Meena

    2010-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells. Previous studies have focused on the improvements in beta-cell function, while the inhibition of alpha-cell secretion has received less attention. The aim of this research...... was to quantify the glucagonostatic contribution to the glucose-lowering effect of GLP-1 infusions in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  10. Salmonella transiently reside in luminal neutrophils in the inflamed gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Loetscher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enteric pathogens need to grow efficiently in the gut lumen in order to cause disease and ensure transmission. The interior of the gut forms a complex environment comprising the mucosal surface area and the inner gut lumen with epithelial cell debris and food particles. Recruitment of neutrophils to the intestinal lumen is a hallmark of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica infections in humans. Here, we analyzed the interaction of gut luminal neutrophils with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm in a mouse colitis model. RESULTS: Upon S. Tm(wt infection, neutrophils transmigrate across the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. We detected a majority of pathogens associated with luminal neutrophils 20 hours after infection. Neutrophils are viable and actively engulf S. Tm, as demonstrated by live microscopy. Using S. Tm mutant strains defective in tissue invasion we show that pathogens are mostly taken up in the gut lumen at the epithelial barrier by luminal neutrophils. In these luminal neutrophils, S. Tm induces expression of genes typically required for its intracellular lifestyle such as siderophore production iroBCDE and the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. This shows that S. Tm at least transiently survives and responds to engulfment by gut luminal neutrophils. Gentamicin protection experiments suggest that the life-span of luminal neutrophils is limited and that S. Tm is subsequently released into the gut lumen. This "fast cycling" through the intracellular compartment of gut luminal neutrophils would explain the high fraction of TTSS-2 and iroBCDE expressing intra- and extracellular bacteria in the lumen of the infected gut. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, live neutrophils recruited during acute S. Tm colitis engulf pathogens in the gut lumen and may thus actively engage in shaping the environment of pathogens and commensals in the inflamed gut.

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases intracerebral glucose content by activating hexokinase and changing glucose clearance during hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Egefjord, Lærke; Lerche, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia with the resulting increase of glucose concentrations in the brain impair the outcome of ischemic stroke, and may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reports indicate that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may be neuroprotective in models of AD...... and stroke: Although the mechanism is unclear, glucose homeostasis appears to be important. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study in nine healthy males. Positron emission tomography was used to determine the effect of GLP-1 on cerebral glucose transport and metabolism...... during a hyperglycemic clamp with (18)fluoro-deoxy-glucose as tracer. Glucagon-like peptide-1 lowered brain glucose (P=0.023) in all regions. The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was increased everywhere (P=0.039) but not to the same extent in all regions (P=0.022). The unidirectional glucose transfer...

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonism or DPP-4 inhibition does not accelerate neoplasia in carcinogen treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are secreted in parallel from the intestinal endocrine cells after nutrient intake. GLP-1 is an incretin hormone and analogues are available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-2 is an intestinal growth horm...

  13. Small Molecule Drug Discovery at the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S. Willard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic success of peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has inspired discovery efforts aimed at developing orally available small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. Although the GLP-1 receptor is a member of the structurally complex class B1 family of GPCRs, in recent years, a diverse array of orthosteric and allosteric nonpeptide ligands has been reported. These compounds include antagonists, agonists, and positive allosteric modulators with intrinsic efficacy. In this paper, a comprehensive review of currently disclosed small molecule GLP-1 receptor ligands is presented. In addition, examples of “ligand bias” and “probe dependency” for the GLP-1 receptor are discussed; these emerging concepts may influence further optimization of known molecules or persuade designs of expanded screening strategies to identify novel chemical starting points for GLP-1 receptor drug discovery.

  14. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    on cardiovascular parameters. These effects, possibly independent of the glucose-lowering activity, include changes in blood pressure, endothelial function, body weight, cardiac metabolism, lipid metabolism, left ventricular function, atherosclerosis, and the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, GLP-1......Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally, as opposed to intravenously, and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1-based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor......-based therapies could potentially target both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This Review highlights the mechanisms targeted by GLP-1-based therapies, and emphasizes current developments in incretin research that are relevant to cardiovascular risk and disease, as well as treatment with GLP-1...

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J; Adin, C A; Borin-Crivellenti, S; Rudinsky, A J; Rajala-Schultz, P; Lakritz, J; Gilor, C

    2015-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an intestinal hormone that induces glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 also increases beta cell mass and satiation while decelerating gastric emptying. Liraglutide is a fatty-acid derivative of GLP-1 with a protracted pharmacokinetic profile that is used in people for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of liraglutide in healthy cats. Hyperglycemic clamps were performed on days 0 (HGC) and 14 (LgHGC) in 7 healthy cats. Liraglutide was administered subcutaneously (0.6 mg/cat) once daily on days 8 through 14. Compared with the HGC (mean ± standard deviation; 455.5 ± 115.8 ng/L), insulin concentrations during LgHGC were increased (760.8 ± 350.7 ng/L; P = 0.0022), glucagon concentrations decreased (0.66 ± 0.4 pmol/L during HGC vs 0.5 ± 0.4 pmol/L during LgHGC; P = 0.0089), and there was a trend toward an increased total glucose infused (median [range] = 1.61 (1.11-2.54) g/kg and 2.25 (1.64-3.10) g/kg, respectively; P = 0.087). Appetite reduction and decreased body weight (9% ± 3%; P = 0.006) were observed in all cats. Liraglutide has similar effects and pharmacokinetics profile in cats to those reported in people. With a half-life of approximately 12 h, once daily dosing might be feasible; however, significant effects on appetite and weight loss may necessitate dosage or dosing frequency reductions. Further investigation of liraglutide in diabetic cats and overweight cats is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gabl

    Full Text Available We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1 from a desensitized (non-signaling state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323∶209, 2014. In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy, meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus.

  17. Experimental and Human Evidence for Lipocalin-2 (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin [NGAL]) in the Development of Cardiac Hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Prestes, Priscilla R; Byars, Sean G; Ritchie, Scott C; Würtz, Peter; Patel, Sheila K; Booth, Scott A; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Minoda, Yosuke; Berzins, Stuart P; Curl, Claire L; Bell, James R; Wai, Bryan; Srivastava, Piyush M; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ruohonen, Saku; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitoharju, Emma; Havulinna, Aki; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; McGlynn, Maree; Kelly, Jason; Wlodek, Mary E; Lewandowski, Paul A; Delbridge, Lea M; Burrell, Louise M; Inouye, Michael; Harrap, Stephen B; Charchar, Fadi J

    2017-06-14

    Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular death. The neutrophil inflammatory protein, lipocalin-2 (LCN2/NGAL), is elevated in certain forms of cardiac hypertrophy and acute heart failure. However, a specific role for LCN2 in predisposition and etiology of hypertrophy and the relevant genetic determinants are unclear. Here, we defined the role of LCN2 in concentric cardiac hypertrophy in terms of pathophysiology, inflammatory expression networks, and genomic determinants. We used 3 experimental models: a polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, a model of intrauterine growth restriction and Lcn2 -knockout mouse; cultured cardiomyocytes; and 2 human cohorts: 114 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 2064 healthy subjects of the YFS (Young Finns Study). In hypertrophic heart rats, cardiac and circulating Lcn2 was significantly overexpressed before, during, and after development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Lcn2 expression was increased in hypertrophic hearts in a model of intrauterine growth restriction, whereas Lcn2 -knockout mice had smaller hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Lcn2 activated molecular hypertrophic pathways and increased cell size, but reduced proliferation and cell numbers. Increased LCN2 was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. In the YFS, LCN2 expression was associated with body mass index and cardiac mass and with levels of inflammatory markers. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs13297295, located near LCN2 defined a significant cis -eQTL for LCN2 expression. Direct effects of LCN2 on cardiomyocyte size and number and the consistent associations in experimental and human analyses reveal a central role for LCN2 in the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Accelerated apoptosis of neutrophils in familial Mediterranean fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manukyan, Gayane; Aminov, Rustam; Hakobyan, Gagik

    2015-01-01

    not revealed any conventional mechanisms contributing to the enhanced apoptotic rate of neutrophils in FMF. Although the exact molecular mechanisms of accelerated neutrophil apoptosis in FMF remain unknown, it may provide a protection against excessive inflammation and tissue damage due to a massive...... of systemic neutrophil apoptosis as well as the levels of proteins involved in apoptosis were investigated ex vivo in patients with FMF using flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. The freshly collected neutrophils from the patients in FMF remission displayed a significantly larger number of cells spontaneously entering...... apoptosis compared to control (6.27 ± 2.14 vs. 1.69 ± 0.18%). This elevated ratio was retained after 24 h incubation of neutrophils in the growth medium (32.4 ± 7.41 vs. 7.65 ± 1.32%). Correspondingly, the mRNA level for caspase-3 was also significantly increased under these conditions. In response...

  19. Neutrophils Induced Licensing of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishiro Amano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells acquire effector function through a licensing process and exert anti-leukemia/tumor effect. However, there is no means to promote a licensing effect of allogeneic NK cells other than cytomegalovirus reactivation-induced licensing in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in human. In mice, a licensing process is mediated by Ly49 receptors which recognize self-major histocompatibility complex class I. The distribution of four Ly49 receptors showed similar pattern in congenic mice, B10, B10.BR, and B10.D2, which have B10 background. Forty Gy-irradiated 2×106 B10.D2 cells including splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells in untreated mice, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treated mice were injected intraperitoneally into B10 mice. We found that murine NK cells were effectively licensed by intraperitoneal injection of donor neutrophils with its corresponding NK receptor ligand in B10 mice as a recipient and B10.D2 as a donor. Mechanistic studies revealed that NK cells showed the upregulation of intracellular interferon-γ and CD107a expression as markers of NK cell activation. Moreover, enriched neutrophils enhanced licensing effect of NK cells; meanwhile, licensing effect was diminished by depletion of neutrophils. Collectively, injection of neutrophils induced NK cell licensing (activation via NK receptor ligand interaction.

  20. Tyrosine kinase Btk regulates E-selectin–mediated integrin activation and neutrophil recruitment by controlling phospholipase C (PLC) γ2 and PI3Kγ pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Helena; Stadtmann, Anika; Van Aken, Hugo; Hirsch, Emilio; Wang, Demin; Ley, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Selectins mediate leukocyte rolling, trigger β2-integrin activation, and promote leukocyte recruitment into inflamed tissue. E-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) leads to activation of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)–dependent pathway, which in turn activates the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). However, the signaling pathway linking Syk to integrin activation after E-selectin engagement is unknown. To identify the pathway, we used different gene-deficient mice in autoperfused flow chamber, intravital microscopy, peritonitis, and biochemical studies. We report here that the signaling pathway downstream of Syk divides into a phospholipase C (PLC) γ2– and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) γ–dependent pathway. The Tec family kinase Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is required for activating both pathways, generating inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), and inducing E-selectin–mediated slow rolling. Inhibition of this signal-transduction pathway diminished Gαi-independent leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration through endothelial cells in inflamed postcapillary venules of the cremaster. Gαi-independent neutrophil recruitment into the inflamed peritoneal cavity was reduced in Btk−/− and Plcg2−/− mice. Our data demonstrate the functional importance of this newly identified signaling pathway mediated by E-selectin engagement. PMID:20167705

  1. Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole E.; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were discovered as extracellular strands of decondensed DNA in complex with histones and granule proteins, which were expelled from dying neutrophils to ensnare and kill microbes. NETs are formed during infection in vivo by mechanisms different from those ori...

  2. The relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Sumritsopak, Rungtip; Saetung, Sunee; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 plays a role in glucose regulation. Sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnea, insufficient or poor sleep quality) have been shown to adversely affect glucose metabolism. This study aimed to explore the relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 regulation in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. Seventy-one adults with haemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and sleep duration and efficiency were obtained from 7-day actigraphy recordings. Obstructive sleep apnea was assessed using an overnight home monitor. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were measured during a 75-g glucose tolerance. The area under the curve of glucagon-like peptide 1 was calculated. The mean age (SD) was 55.1 (8.3) years and median (interquartile range) haemoglobin A1c was 5.97% (5.86, 6.23). There was no relationship between sleep duration or efficiency and fasting or area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels did not differ among those sleeping ≤ 5.75, > 5.75-sleep apnea severity, correlated with lower area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.242, P = 0.045), but not with fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.213, P = 0.079). After adjusting for sex, haemoglobin A1c and body mass index, increasing apnea-hypopnea index was negatively associated with having area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 in the highest quartile (odds ratio 0.581, P = 0.028, 95% CI 0.359, 0.942). This study demonstrated that increasing obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with lower glucagon-like peptide 1 response to glucose challenge. This could possibly be an additional mechanism by which obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism. Whether raising glucagon-like peptide 1 levels in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance with more severe obstructive sleep apnea will be beneficial should be explored. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European

  3. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: new advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights recent advances in our understanding of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) physiology and their various sites of action beyond the incretin effect.......This article highlights recent advances in our understanding of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) physiology and their various sites of action beyond the incretin effect....

  4. Plasma levels of glucagon like peptide-1 associate with diastolic function in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C

    2011-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Besides the glycaemic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimetics, their effects on the heart are of interest.......Congestive heart failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Besides the glycaemic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimetics, their effects on the heart are of interest....

  5. Distinct effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin secretion and gut motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miki, Takashi; Minami, Kohtaro; Shinozaki, Hidehiro

    2005-01-01

    lacking K(ATP) channels (Kir6.2(-/-) mice), we found that pretreatment with GIP in vivo failed to blunt the rise in blood glucose levels after oral glucose load. In Kir6.2(-/-) mice, potentiation of insulin secretion by GIP in vivo was markedly attenuated, indicating that K(ATP) channels are essential...... in the insulinotropic effect of GIP. In contrast, pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Kir6.2(-/-) mice potentiated insulin secretion and blunted the rise in blood glucose levels. We also found that GLP-1 inhibited gut motility whereas GIP did not. Perfusion experiments of Kir6.2(-/-) mice revealed...

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 by neutrophils from localized aggressive periodontitis and healthy donors: modulating actions of red blood cells and resolvin E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, C; Kantarci, A; Holmstrup, P; Hasturk, H; Nielsen, C H; Van Dyke, T E

    2017-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is regarded as a significant contributor in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and certain systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis. P. gingivalis occasionally translocates from periodontal pockets into the circulation, where it adheres to red blood cells (RBCs). This may protect the bacterium from contact with circulating phagocytes without affecting its viability. In this in vitro study, we investigated whether human peripheral blood neutrophils from 10 subjects with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) and 10 healthy controls release the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to challenge with P. gingivalis. In addition, the impact of RBC interaction with P. gingivalis was investigated. The actions of resolvin E1 (RvE1), a known regulator of P. gingivalis induced neutrophil responses, on the cytokine and ROS responses elicited by P. gingivalis in cultures of neutrophils were investigated. Upon stimulation with P. gingivalis, neutrophils from subjects with LAgP and healthy controls released similar quantities of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8, CCL2 and intracellular ROS. The presence of RBCs amplified the release of IL-6, TNF-α and CCL2 statistically significant in both groups, but reduced the generation of ROS in the group of healthy controls, and showed a similar tendency in the group of subjects with LAgP. RvE1 had no impact on the production of intracellular ROS, TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 by neutrophils from either group, but tended to reduce the generation of ROS in subjects with LAgP in the absence of RBCs. Our data support that binding to RBCs protects P. gingivalis from ROS and concomitantly enhances neutrophil release of proinflammatory cytokines providing a selective

  7. Neutrophil Activation During Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, Laure; Meziani, Ferhat; Helms, Julie

    2018-04-01

    In addition to their well-known role as the cellular mediators of immunity, key other roles have been identified for neutrophils during septic shock. Importantly, neutrophils indeed play a critical role in the recently described immunothrombosis concept and in septic shock-induced coagulopathy. Septic shock is one of the most severe forms of infection, characterized by an inadequate host response to the pathogenic organism. This host response involves numerous defense mechanisms with an intense cellular activation, including neutrophil activation. Neutrophils are key cells of innate immunity through complex interactions with vascular cells and their activation may participate in systemic tissue damages. Their activation also leads to the emission of neutrophil extracellular traps, which take part in both pathogen circumscription and phagocytosis, but also in coagulation activation. Neutrophils thus stand at the interface between hemostasis and immunity, called immunothrombosis.The present review will develop a cellular approach of septic shock pathophysiology focusing on neutrophils as key players of septic shock-induced vascular cell dysfunction and of the host response, associating immunity and hemostasis. We will therefore first develop the role of neutrophils in the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity, and will then highlight recent advances in our understanding of immunothrombosis septic shock-induced coagulopathy.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU augments neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael A; Lanter, Bernard B; Yonker, Lael M; Eaton, Alex D; Pirzai, Waheed; Gronert, Karsten; Bonventre, Joseph V; Hurley, Bryan P

    2017-08-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration of the lungs is a common contributor to immune-related pathology in many pulmonary disease states. In response to pathogenic infection, airway epithelial cells produce hepoxilin A3 (HXA3), initiating neutrophil transepithelial migration. Migrated neutrophils amplify this recruitment by producing a secondary gradient of leukotriene B4 (LTB4). We sought to determine whether this two-step eicosanoid chemoattractant mechanism could be exploited by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoU, a P. aeruginosa cytotoxin, exhibits phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity in eukaryotic hosts, an enzyme critical for generation of certain eicosanoids. Using in vitro and in vivo models of neutrophil transepithelial migration, we evaluated the impact of ExoU expression on eicosanoid generation and function. We conclude that ExoU, by virtue of its PLA2 activity, augments and compensates for endogenous host neutrophil cPLA2α function, leading to enhanced transepithelial migration. This suggests that ExoU expression in P. aeruginosa can circumvent immune regulation at key signaling checkpoints in the neutrophil, resulting in exacerbated neutrophil recruitment.

  9. Clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 measurement in children with microbial inflammatory kidney and urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Eremeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL measurement in children with urinary tract infection (я=15 and pyelonephritis (я=15. The patients' age was 1 to 16 years (mean age, 7.32+4.52 years. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and medical history and instrumental examination data. Urinary NGAL levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (a Bio\\fendor Laboratory Medicine kit and calculated with reference to mg of creatinine. Urinary NGAL levels were established to depend on the degree of renal parenchymal damage. The investigation showed a relationship between the excretion of NGAL during the acute phase of pyelonephritis and the detection of renal scarring, as evidenced by statistical DMCA nephroscintigraphy. The acute pyelonephritis group exhibited a moderate direct correlation between the renal excretion of NGAL and the degree of leukocytosis and the blood levels of C-reactive protein. The findings allow recommendations for measuring urinary NGAL levels as an additional noninvasive marker for the early detection of renal parenchymal damage.

  10. Salivary Thromboxane A2-Binding Proteins from Triatomine Vectors of Chagas Disease Inhibit Platelet-Mediated Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs Formation and Arterial Thrombosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella M Mizurini

    Full Text Available The saliva of blood-feeding arthropods contains a notable diversity of molecules that target the hemostatic and immune systems of the host. Dipetalodipin and triplatin are triatomine salivary proteins that exhibit high affinity binding to prostanoids, such as TXA2, thus resulting in potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation in vitro. It was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived TXA2 mediates the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, a newly recognized link between inflammation and thrombosis that promote thrombus growth and stability.This study evaluated the ability of dipetalodipin and triplatin to block NETs formation in vitro. We also investigated the in vivo antithrombotic activity of TXA2 binding proteins by employing two murine models of experimental thrombosis. Remarkably, we observed that both inhibitors abolished the platelet-mediated formation of NETs in vitro. Dipetalodipin and triplatin significantly increased carotid artery occlusion time in a FeCl3-induced injury model. Treatment with TXA2-binding proteins also protected mice from lethal pulmonary thromboembolism evoked by the intravenous injection of collagen and epinephrine. Effective antithrombotic doses of dipetalodipin and triplatin did not increase blood loss, which was estimated using the tail transection method.Salivary TXA2-binding proteins, dipetalodipin and triplatin, are capable to prevent platelet-mediated NETs formation in vitro. This ability may contribute to the antithrombotic effects in vivo. Notably, both molecules inhibit arterial thrombosis without promoting excessive bleeding. Our results provide new insight into the antihemostatic effects of TXA2-binding proteins and may have important significance in elucidating the mechanisms of saliva to avoid host's hemostatic responses and innate immune system.

  11. Crystal Structure of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in Complex with the Extracellular Domain of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Garibay, Patrick; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Peters, Günther H.; Rudolph, Rainer; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is an incretin released from intestinal L-cells in response to food intake. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor potentiates the synthesis and release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor belongs to class B of the G-protein-coupled receptors, a subfamily characterized by a large N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. Exendin-4 and GLP-1 are 50% identical, and exendin-4 is a full agonist with similar affinity and potency for the GLP-1 receptor. We recently solved the crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor extracellular domain in complex with the competitive antagonist exendin-4(9–39). Interestingly, the isolated extracellular domain binds exendin-4 with much higher affinity than the endogenous agonist GLP-1. Here, we have solved the crystal structure of the extracellular domain in complex with GLP-1 to 2.1 Åresolution. The structure shows that important hydrophobic ligand-receptor interactions are conserved in agonist- and antagonist-bound forms of the extracellular domain, but certain residues in the ligand-binding site adopt a GLP-1-specific conformation. GLP-1 is a kinked but continuous α-helix from Thr13 to Val33 when bound to the extracellular domain. We supplemented the crystal structure with site-directed mutagenesis to link the structural information of the isolated extracellular domain with the binding properties of the full-length receptor. The data support the existence of differences in the binding modes of GLP-1 and exendin-4 on the full-length GLP-1 receptor. PMID:19861722

  12. Crystal structure of glucagon-like peptide-1 in complex with the extracellular domain of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Garibay, Patrick; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Peters, Günther H; Rudolph, Rainer; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is an incretin released from intestinal L-cells in response to food intake. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor potentiates the synthesis and release of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor belongs to class B of the G-protein-coupled receptors, a subfamily characterized by a large N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. Exendin-4 and GLP-1 are 50% identical, and exendin-4 is a full agonist with similar affinity and potency for the GLP-1 receptor. We recently solved the crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor extracellular domain in complex with the competitive antagonist exendin-4(9-39). Interestingly, the isolated extracellular domain binds exendin-4 with much higher affinity than the endogenous agonist GLP-1. Here, we have solved the crystal structure of the extracellular domain in complex with GLP-1 to 2.1 Aresolution. The structure shows that important hydrophobic ligand-receptor interactions are conserved in agonist- and antagonist-bound forms of the extracellular domain, but certain residues in the ligand-binding site adopt a GLP-1-specific conformation. GLP-1 is a kinked but continuous alpha-helix from Thr(13) to Val(33) when bound to the extracellular domain. We supplemented the crystal structure with site-directed mutagenesis to link the structural information of the isolated extracellular domain with the binding properties of the full-length receptor. The data support the existence of differences in the binding modes of GLP-1 and exendin-4 on the full-length GLP-1 receptor.

  13. Genomics of chronic neutrophilic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Julia E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a distinct myeloproliferative neoplasm with a high prevalence (>80%) of mutations in the colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R). These mutations activate the receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are a hallmark of CNL. Recently, the World Health Organization guidelines have been updated to include CSF3R mutations as part of the diagnostic criteria for CNL. Because of the high prevalence of CSF3R mutations in CNL, it is tempting to think of this disease as being solely driven by this genetic lesion. However, recent additional genomic characterization demonstrates that CNL has much in common with other chronic myeloid malignancies at the genetic level, such as the clinically related diagnosis atypical chronic myeloid leukemia. These commonalities include mutations in SETBP1, spliceosome proteins (SRSF2, U2AF1), and epigenetic modifiers (TET2, ASXL1). Some of these same mutations also have been characterized as frequent events in clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, suggesting a more complex disease evolution than was previously understood and raising the possibility that an age-related clonal process of preleukemic cells could precede the development of CNL. The order of acquisition of CSF3R mutations relative to mutations in SETBP1, epigenetic modifiers, or the spliceosome has been determined only in isolated case reports; thus, further work is needed to understand the impact of mutation chronology on the clonal evolution and progression of CNL. Understanding the complete landscape and chronology of genomic events in CNL will help in the development of improved therapeutic strategies for this patient population. PMID:28028025

  14. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on glucagon secretion in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders E; Gluud, Lise L; van Hall, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated the glucagon-suppressive effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its potential effects on endogenous glucose production and whole body lipolysis in non-diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: On two separate days 10 non......-diabetic patients with liver biopsy-verified NAFLD (NAFLD activity score 2.5±1.0) and 10 matched controls underwent a 2-hour intravenous infusions of GLP-1 (0.8 pmol × kg(-1) × min(-1)) and placebo. Since GLP-1-mediated glucagon suppression has been shown to be glucose-dependent, plasma glucose was clamped...

  15. Targeting neutrophilic inflammation in severe neutrophilic asthma : can we target the disease-relevant neutrophil phenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeel, Piet L B; Uddin, Mohib; Koenderman, Leo

    2015-01-01

    In severe, neutrophilic asthma, neutrophils are thought to have an important role in both the maintenance of the disease and during exacerbations. These patients often display excessive, mucosal airway inflammation with unresolving neutrophilia. Because this variant of asthma is poorly controlled by

  16. Factor XII and uPAR upregulate neutrophil functions to influence wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Evi X; Fang, Chao; Bane, Kara L; Long, Andy T; Naudin, Clément; Kucukal, Erdem; Gandhi, Agharnan; Brett-Morris, Adina; Mumaw, Michele M; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Merkulova, Alona; Reynolds, Cindy C; Alhalabi, Omar; Nayak, Lalitha; Yu, Wen-Mei; Qu, Cheng-Kui; Meyerson, Howard J; Dubyak, George R; Gurkan, Umut A; Nieman, Marvin T; Sen Gupta, Anirban; Renné, Thomas; Schmaier, Alvin H

    2018-01-29

    Coagulation factor XII (FXII) deficiency is associated with decreased neutrophil migration, but the mechanisms remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine how FXII contributes to the inflammatory response. In 2 models of sterile inflammation, FXII-deficient mice (F12-/-) had fewer neutrophils recruited than WT mice. We discovered that neutrophils produced a pool of FXII that is functionally distinct from hepatic-derived FXII and contributes to neutrophil trafficking at sites of inflammation. FXII signals in neutrophils through urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated (uPAR-mediated) Akt2 phosphorylation at S474 (pAktS474). Downstream of pAkt2S474, FXII stimulation of neutrophils upregulated surface expression of αMβ2 integrin, increased intracellular calcium, and promoted extracellular DNA release. The sum of these activities contributed to neutrophil cell adhesion, migration, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps in a process called NETosis. Decreased neutrophil signaling in F12-/- mice resulted in less inflammation and faster wound healing. Targeting hepatic F12 with siRNA did not affect neutrophil migration, whereas WT BM transplanted into F12-/- hosts was sufficient to correct the neutrophil migration defect in F12-/- mice and restore wound inflammation. Importantly, these activities were a zymogen FXII function and independent of FXIIa and contact activation, highlighting that FXII has a sophisticated role in vivo that has not been previously appreciated.

  17. The major glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite, GLP-1-(9-36)-amide, does not affect glucose or insulin levels in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolin, Bidda; Deacon, Carolyn F; Carr, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a future treatment for type 2 diabetes, is efficiently degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), yielding the major metabolite GLP-1-(9-36)-amide. In this study, we examined the potential glucose lowering effect of GLP-1-(9-36)-amide in mice and fou...

  18. FOXO1 Regulates Bacteria-Induced Neutrophil Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyu Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play an essential role in the innate immune response to microbial infection and are particularly important in clearing bacterial infection. We investigated the role of the transcription factor FOXO1 in the response of neutrophils to bacterial challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis in vivo and in vitro. In these experiments, the effect of lineage-specific FOXO1 deletion in LyzM.Cre+FOXO1L/L mice was compared with matched littermate controls. FOXO1 deletion negatively affected several critical aspects of neutrophil function in vivo including mobilization of neutrophils from the bone marrow (BM to the vasculature, recruitment of neutrophils to sites of bacterial inoculation, and clearance of bacteria. In vitro FOXO1 regulated neutrophil chemotaxis and bacterial killing. Moreover, bacteria-induced expression of CXCR2 and CD11b, which are essential for several aspects of neutrophil function, was dependent on FOXO1 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, FOXO1 directly interacted with the promoter regions of CXCR2 and CD11b. Bacteria-induced nuclear localization of FOXO1 was dependent upon toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and/or TLR4 and was significantly reduced by inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide synthase and deacetylases (Sirt1 and histone deacetylases. These studies show for the first time that FOXO1 activation by bacterial challenge is needed to mobilize neutrophils to transit from the BM to peripheral tissues in response to infection as well as for bacterial clearance in vivo. Moreover, FOXO1 regulates neutrophil function that facilitates chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing.

  19. Human neutrophil peptides and complement factor Bb in pathogenesis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenjing; Pham, Huy P; Williams, Lance A; McDaniel, Jenny; Siniard, Rance C; Lorenz, Robin G; Marques, Marisa B; Zheng, X Long

    2016-11-01

    Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is primarily caused by the deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity resulting from autoantibodies against ADAMTS13. However, ADAMTS13 deficiency alone is often not sufficient to cause acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Infections or systemic inflammation may precede acute bursts of the disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Herein, 52 patients with acquired autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and 30 blood donor controls were recruited for the study. The plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and complement activation fragments (i.e. Bb, iC3b, C4d, and sC5b-9) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Univariate analyses were performed to determine the correlation between each biomarker and clinical outcomes. We found that the plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and Bb in patients with acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were significantly higher than those in the control (Ppurpura patients and the control. We conclude that innate immunity, i.e. neutrophil and complement activation via the alternative pathway, may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and a therapy targeted at these pathways may be considered in a subset of these patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Physiology and Emerging Biochemistry of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Francis S.; Sloop, Kyle W.

    2012-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor is one of the best validated therapeutic targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Over several years, the accumulation of basic, translational, and clinical research helped define the physiologic roles of GLP-1 and its receptor in regulating glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. These efforts provided much of the foundation for pharmaceutical development of the GLP-1 receptor peptide agonists, exenatide and liraglutide, as novel medicines for patients suffering from T2DM. Now, much attention is focused on better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in ligand induced signaling of the GLP-1 receptor. For example, advancements in biophysical and structural biology techniques are being applied in attempts to more precisely determine ligand binding and receptor occupancy characteristics at the atomic level. These efforts should better inform three-dimensional modeling of the GLP-1 receptor that will help inspire more rational approaches to identify and optimize small molecule agonists or allosteric modulators targeting the GLP-1 receptor. This article reviews GLP-1 receptor physiology with an emphasis on GLP-1 induced signaling mechanisms in order to highlight new molecular strategies that help determine desired pharmacologic characteristics for guiding development of future nonpeptide GLP-1 receptor activators. PMID:22666230

  1. Physiology and Emerging Biochemistry of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis S. Willard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor is one of the best validated therapeutic targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Over several years, the accumulation of basic, translational, and clinical research helped define the physiologic roles of GLP-1 and its receptor in regulating glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. These efforts provided much of the foundation for pharmaceutical development of the GLP-1 receptor peptide agonists, exenatide and liraglutide, as novel medicines for patients suffering from T2DM. Now, much attention is focused on better understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in ligand induced signaling of the GLP-1 receptor. For example, advancements in biophysical and structural biology techniques are being applied in attempts to more precisely determine ligand binding and receptor occupancy characteristics at the atomic level. These efforts should better inform three-dimensional modeling of the GLP-1 receptor that will help inspire more rational approaches to identify and optimize small molecule agonists or allosteric modulators targeting the GLP-1 receptor. This article reviews GLP-1 receptor physiology with an emphasis on GLP-1 induced signaling mechanisms in order to highlight new molecular strategies that help determine desired pharmacologic characteristics for guiding development of future nonpeptide GLP-1 receptor activators.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion in women with gestational diabetes mellitus during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, C; Resi, V; Romero, F; Lupi, R; Volpe, L; Bertolotto, A; Ghio, A; Del Prato, S; Marchetti, P; Di Cianni, G

    2011-10-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) predisposes women to future development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the two conditions share similar metabolic alterations. Recent observations suggest that a defective glucose stimulated insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP- 1) plays a role in the pathogenesis of DM2. Whether such a defect is impaired in GDM remains to be ascertained. We have determined GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in GDM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during and after pregnancy. 100-g-3h OGTT was performed in 12 GDM and 16 NGT women at 27.3 ± 4.1 weeks of gestation, for determination of plasma GLP-1, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide. Insulin sensitivity (ISI) and insulin secretion (first and second phase); as well as ISI-secretion index (ISSI) were also derived. NGT and GDM women were comparable for age pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain. GDM had higher glucose area under the curve (AUC): 27,575.5 ± 3448 vs 20,685.88 ± 2715 mg/dl min (pwomen (2542 ± 273 vs 10,092 ± 7367 pmol·l-1·min-1, pwomen is inadequate for the prevailing glycemic levels both in pregnancy and post partum. Moreover, we cannot exclude that other important aspects of the incretin effect may be involved in GDM development.

  3. Specificity and sensitivity of commercially available assays for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Monika Judyta; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Pedersen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate performances of commercially available glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) assays and implications for clinical studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Known concentrations (5-300 pmol/l) of synthetic GLP-1 isoforms (GLP-1 1-36NH2 , 7-36NH2 , 9-36NH2 , 1-37, 7-37 and 9-37) were added...... recovery of non-active forms was incomplete, especially in plasma. Millipore Total GLP-1 ELISA kit detected all isoforms in buffer, but mainly amidated forms in plasma. The Alpco, Phoenix and Bio-Rad kits detected only amidated GLP-1,but the Alpco kit had a limited measurement range (30 pmol....../l), the Phoenix kit had incomplete recovery in plasma and the Bio-Rad kit was insensitive (detection limit in plasma 40 pmol/l). The pattern of postprandial GLP-1 responses in clinical samples was similar between the kits tested, but the absolute concentrations measured varied. CONCLUSIONS: The specificity...

  4. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Cortés-Vieyra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  5. Monocytes and neutrophils as 'bad guys' for the outcome of interleukin-2 with and without histamine in metastatic renal cell carcinoma--results from a randomised phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Hokland, M; Marcussen, N

    2006-01-01

    mechanism clinically in two randomised phase II trials in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In parallel with the clinical trial in Denmark (n=63), we obtained serial blood samples and tumour biopsies searching for a potential histamine effect in situ. At baseline and on-treatment weeks 3 and 8, we...... monitored the 'good guys' (i.e. NK and T cells) and 'bad guys' (i.e. monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils) simultaneously in blood (n=59) and tumour tissue (n=44). Patients with high number of monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood had very poor survival, with apparently no benefit from either IL-2...... alone or IL-2/HDC treatment. Blood monocytes (r=-0.36, P=0.01) and neutrophils (r=-0.46, P=0.001) were negatively correlated with cytotoxicity, whereas blood NK cells were positively correlated with cytotoxicity (r=0.39, P=0.002). Treatment with IL-2 alone resulted in a significantly higher number...

  6. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2) is upregulated in gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Illemann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. The infection is established early in life and persists lifelong leading to a sustained chronic inflammation. Iron is essential for most living organisms. Bacteria use several mechanisms to acquire iron...... characterized here the pattern of expression of NGAL/Lcn2 in gastric mucosa (45 non-neoplastic and 38 neoplastic tissue samples) and explored the connection between NGAL/Lcn2 expression and H. pylori infection. Immunohistochemical analysis showed high NGAL/Lcn2 expression in normal and gastritis-affected mucosa...... compared to low expression in intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. In normal and gastritis-affected mucosa (n=36 tissue samples), NGAL/Lcn2 was more frequently seen in epithelial cells located at the neck and base of the glands in H. pylori-positive cases than in similar epithelial cells...

  7. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  8. Combining basal insulin analogs with glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Riccardo

    2011-09-01

    Basal insulin analogs are recognized as an effective method of achieving and maintaining glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the progressive nature of the disease means that some individuals may require additional ways to maintain their glycemic goals. Intensification in these circumstances has traditionally been achieved by the addition of short-acting insulin to cover postprandial glucose excursions that are not targeted by basal insulin. However, intensive insulin regimens are associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, which can contribute to a greater burden on patients. The combination of basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic is a potentially attractive solution to this problem for some patients with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 mimetics target postprandial glucose and should complement the activity of basal insulins; they are also associated with a relatively low risk of associated hypoglycemia and moderate, but significant, weight loss. Although the combination has not been approved by regulatory authorities, preliminary evidence from mostly small-scale studies suggests that basal insulins in combination with GLP-1 mimetics do provide improvements in A1c and postprandial glucose with concomitant weight loss and no marked increase in the risk of hypoglycemia. These results are promising, but further studies are required, including comparisons with basal-bolus therapy, before the complex value of this association can be fully appreciated.

  9. Gastrointestinal actions of glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies: glycaemic control beyond the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, M M; Tonneijck, L; Muskiet, M H A; Kramer, M H H; Cahen, D L; van Raalte, D H

    2016-03-01

    The gastrointestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers postprandial glucose concentrations by regulating pancreatic islet-cell function, with stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin and suppression of glucagon secretion. In addition to endocrine pancreatic effects, mounting evidence suggests that several gastrointestinal actions of GLP-1 are at least as important for glucose-lowering. GLP-1 reduces gastric emptying rate and small bowel motility, thereby delaying glucose absorption and decreasing postprandial glucose excursions. Furthermore, it has been suggested that GLP-1 directly stimulates hepatic glucose uptake, and suppresses hepatic glucose production, thereby adding to reduction of fasting and postprandial glucose levels. GLP-1 receptor agonists, which mimic the effects of GLP-1, have been developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Based on their pharmacokinetic profile, GLP-1 receptor agonists can be broadly categorized as short- or long-acting, with each having unique islet-cell and gastrointestinal effects that lower glucose levels. Short-acting agonists predominantly lower postprandial glucose excursions, by inhibiting gastric emptying and intestinal glucose uptake, with little effect on insulin secretion. By contrast, long-acting agonists mainly reduce fasting glucose levels, predominantly by increased insulin and reduced glucagon secretion, with potential additional direct inhibitory effects on hepatic glucose production. Understanding these pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences may allow personalized antihyperglycaemic therapy in type 2 diabetes. In addition, it may provide the rationale to explore treatment in patients with no or little residual β-cell function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Agonist Attenuates Acute Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema by Preventing Neutrophil Migration after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhao, Diana; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether JWH133, a selective cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonist, prevented neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by attenuating inflammation. Adult male rats were assigned to six groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) treatment 1 h after surgery, and SAH with JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) at 1 h with a selective CB2R antagonist, SR144528 (3.0 mg/kg). The perforation model of SAH was performed and pulmonary wet-to-dry weight ratio was evaluated 24 and 72 h after surgery. Western blot analyses and immunohistochemistry were evaluated 24 h after surgery. JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) significantly and most strongly improved lung edema 24 h after SAH. SR144528 administration significantly reversed the effects of JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg). SAH-induced increasing levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreasing levels of a tight junction (TJ) protein, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A, were ameliorated by JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) administration 24 h after SAH. Immunohistochemical assessment also confirmed substantial leukocyte infiltration in the outside of vessels in SAH, which were attenuated by JWH133 (1.0 mg/kg) injection. CB2R agonist ameliorated lung permeability by inhibiting leukocyte trafficking and protecting tight junction proteins in the lung of NPE after SAH.

  11. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Risat A.; Dembo, Micah; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micro-machined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the KD of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against β2-integrins leads to a significant reduction but not an elimination of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation. PMID:20473350

  12. Neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis depend on substrate mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannat, Risat A; Hammer, Daniel A [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 240 Skirkanich Hall, 210 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Robbins, Gregory P; Ricart, Brendon G [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, 311A Towne Building, 220 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dembo, Micah, E-mail: hammer@seas.upenn.ed [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Neutrophil adhesion to the vasculature and chemotaxis within tissues play critical roles in the inflammatory response to injury and pathogens. Unregulated neutrophil activity has been implicated in the progression of numerous chronic and acute diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma and sepsis. Cell migration of anchorage-dependent cells is known to depend on both chemical and mechanical interactions. Although neutrophil responses to chemical cues have been well characterized, little is known about the effect of underlying tissue mechanics on neutrophil adhesion and migration. To address this question, we quantified neutrophil migration and traction stresses on compliant hydrogel substrates with varying elasticity in a micromachined gradient chamber in which we could apply either a uniform concentration or a precise gradient of the bacterial chemoattractant fMLP. Neutrophils spread more extensively on substrates of greater stiffness. In addition, increasing the stiffness of the substrate leads to a significant increase in the chemotactic index for each fMLP gradient tested. As the substrate becomes stiffer, neutrophils generate higher traction forces without significant changes in cell speed. These forces are often displayed in pairs and focused in the uropod. Increases in the mean fMLP concentration beyond the K{sub D} of the receptor lead to a decrease in chemotactic index on all surfaces. Blocking with an antibody against {beta}{sub 2}-integrins leads to a significant reduction, but not an elimination, of directed motility on stiff materials, but no change in motility on soft materials, suggesting neutrophils can display both integrin-dependent and integrin-independent motility. These findings are critical for understanding how neutrophil migration may change in different mechanical environments in vivo and can be used to guide the design of migration inhibitors that more efficiently target inflammation.

  13. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  14. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  15. The structure and function of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor and its ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dan

    2012-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is a 30-residue peptide hormone released from intestinal L cells following nutrient consumption. It potentiates the glucose-induced secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, increases insulin expression, inhibits beta-cell apoptosis, promotes beta-cell neogenesis, reduces glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, promotes satiety and increases peripheral glucose disposal. These multiple effects have generated a great deal of interest in the discovery of long-lasting agonists of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in order to treat type 2 diabetes. This review article summarizes the literature regarding the discovery of GLP-1 and its physiological functions. The structure, function and sequence-activity relationships of the hormone and its natural analogue exendin-4 (Ex4) are reviewed in detail. The current knowledge of the structure of GLP-1R, a Family B GPCR, is summarized and discussed, before its known interactions with the principle peptide ligands are described and summarized. Finally, progress in discovering non-peptide ligands of GLP-1R is reviewed. GLP-1 is clearly an important hormone linking nutrient consumption with blood sugar control, and therefore knowledge of its structure, function and mechanism of action is of great importance. © 2011 The Author. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Design of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist for Diabetes Mellitus from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chieh Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a promising target for diabetes mellitus (DM therapy and reduces the occurrence of diabetes due to obesity. However, GLP-1 will be hydrolyzed soon by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4. We tried to design small molecular drugs for GLP-1 receptor agonist from the world's largest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Database@Taiwan. According to docking results of virtual screening, we selected 2 TCM compounds, wenyujinoside and 28-deglucosylchikusetsusaponin IV, for further molecular dynamics (MD simulation. GLP-1 was assigned as the control compound. Based on the results of root mean square deviation (RMSD, solvent accessible surface (SAS, mean square deviation (MSD, Gyrate, total energy, root mean square fluctuation (RMSF, matrices of smallest distance of residues, database of secondary structure assignment (DSSP, cluster analysis, and distance of H-bond, we concluded that all the 3 compounds could bind and activate GLP-1 receptor by computational simulation. Wenyujinoside and 28-deglucosylchikusetsusaponin IV were the TCM compounds that could be GLP-1 receptor agonists.

  17. The structure and function of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor and its ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is a 30-residue peptide hormone released from intestinal L cells following nutrient consumption. It potentiates the glucose-induced secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells, increases insulin expression, inhibits beta-cell apoptosis, promotes beta-cell neogenesis, reduces glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, promotes satiety and increases peripheral glucose disposal. These multiple effects have generated a great deal of interest in the discovery of long-lasting agonists of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in order to treat type 2 diabetes. This review article summarizes the literature regarding the discovery of GLP-1 and its physiological functions. The structure, function and sequence–activity relationships of the hormone and its natural analogue exendin-4 (Ex4) are reviewed in detail. The current knowledge of the structure of GLP-1R, a Family B GPCR, is summarized and discussed, before its known interactions with the principle peptide ligands are described and summarized. Finally, progress in discovering non-peptide ligands of GLP-1R is reviewed. GLP-1 is clearly an important hormone linking nutrient consumption with blood sugar control, and therefore knowledge of its structure, function and mechanism of action is of great importance. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Secretin Family (Class B) G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-1 PMID:21950636

  18. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T; Soroka, Vladyslav

    2016-01-01

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure...... of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro...... pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily...

  19. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  20. Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) could cause reactive hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens Juul

    1998-01-01

    The plasma concentrations of the insulinotropic incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are abnormally high after oral glucose in partially gastrectomised subjects with reactive hypoglycaemia, suggesting a causal relationship. Because of the glucose-dependency of its effects, it is impo......The plasma concentrations of the insulinotropic incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are abnormally high after oral glucose in partially gastrectomised subjects with reactive hypoglycaemia, suggesting a causal relationship. Because of the glucose-dependency of its effects...

  1. Rac1 deletion in mouse neutrophils has selective effects on neutrophil functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glogauer, Michael; Marchal, Christophe C.; Zhu, Fei; Worku, Aelaf; Clausen, Björn E.; Foerster, Irmgard; Marks, Peter; Downey, Gregory P.; Dinauer, Mary; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Defects in myeloid cell function in Rac2 knockout mice underline the importance of this isoform in activation of NADPH oxidase and cell motility. However, the specific role of Rac1 in neutrophil function has been difficult to assess since deletion of Rac1 results in embryonic lethality in mice. To

  2. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Chun; Gusdon, Aaron M; Liu, Huan; Qu, Shen

    2014-10-28

    Glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) is secreted from Langerhans cells in response to oral nutrient intake. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are a new class of incretin-based anti-diabetic drugs. They function to stimulate insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. GLP-1-based therapies are now well established in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and recent literature has suggested potential applications of these drugs in the treatment of obesity and for protection against cardiovascular and neurological diseases. As we know, along with change in lifestyles, the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in China is rising more than that of viral hepatitis and alcoholic fatty liver disease, and NAFLD has become the most common chronic liver disease in recent years. Recent studies further suggest that GLP-1RAs can reduce transaminase levels to improve NAFLD by improving blood lipid levels, cutting down the fat content to promote fat redistribution, directly decreasing fatty degeneration of the liver, reducing the degree of liver fibrosis and improving inflammation. This review shows the NAFLD-associated effects of GLP-1RAs in animal models and in patients with T2DM or obesity who are participants in clinical trials.

  3. Anandamide and neutrophil function in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Ines; Schelling, Gustav; Eisner, Christoph; Richter, Hans Peter; Krauseneck, Till; Vogeser, Michael; Hauer, Daniela; Campolongo, Patrizia; Chouker, Alexander; Beyer, Antje; Thiel, Manfred

    2008-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common stress-related painful disorder. There is considerable evidence of neuroimmunologic alterations in FM which may be the consequence of chronic stress and pain or causally involved in the development of this disorder. The endocannabinoid system has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian nociception, is activated under stressful conditions and can be an important signaling pathway for immune modulation. The endocannabinoid system could therefore be involved in the complex pathophysiology of FM. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the effects of stress hormones and the endocannabinoid anandamide on neutrophil function in patients with FM. We determined plasma levels of catecholamines, cortisol and anandamide in 22 patients with primary FM and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Neutrophil function was characterized by measuring the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release (oxidative stress) and the ingestion capabilities of neutrophils (microbicidal function). FM patients had significantly higher norepinephrine and anandamide plasma levels. Neutrophils of FM patients showed an elevated spontaneous H2O2 production. The ability of neutrophils to adhere was negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels. Adhesion and phagocytosis capabilities of neutrophils correlated positively with anandamide plasma levels. In conclusion, patients with FM might benefit from pharmacologic manipulation of endocannabinoid signaling which should be tested in controlled studies.

  4. Natural product HTP screening for attenuation of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo attractants (CINCs) and NO2- in LPS/IFNγ activated glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-01-15

    Chronic and acute central nervous system (CNS) inflammation are contributors toward neurological injury associated with head trauma, stroke, infection, Parkinsons or Alzheimers disease. CNS inflammatory illnesses can also contribute toward risk of developing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). With growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), we conduct a high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 natural herbs, plants and over the counter (OTC) products for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFNγ) activated C6 glioma cells. Validation studies were performed showing a pro-inflammatory profile of [LPS 3 µg/ml/ IFNγ 3 ng/ml] consistent with greater release [>8.5 fold] of MCP-1, NO2-, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo-attractants (CINC) 1, CINC 2a and CINC3. The data show no changes to the following, IL-13, TNF-a, fracktaline, leptin, LIX, GM-CSF, ICAM1, L-Selectin, activin A, agrin, IL-1α, MIP-3a, B72/CD86, NGF, IL-1b, MMP-8, IL-1 R6, PDGF-AA, IL-2, IL-4, prolactin R, RAGE, IL-6, Thymus Chemokine-1, CNTF,IL-10 or TIMP-1. A HTP screening was conducted, where we employ an in vitro efficacy index (iEI) defined as the ratio of toxicity (LC 50 )/anti-inflammatory potency (IC 50 ). The iEI was precautionary to ensure biological effects were occurring in fully viable cells (ratio > 3.8) independent of toxicity. Using NO2- as a guideline molecule, the data show that 1.77% (25 of 1410 tested) had anti-inflammatory effects with iEI ratios >3.8 and IC 50 s 1750.0μg/ml, and the compound with the greatest iEI was quercetin where the IC 50 /LC 50 was 10.0/>363.6μg/ml. These substances also downregulate the production of iNOS expression and attenuate CINC-3 release. In summary, this HTP screening provides guideline information about the efficacy of natural products that could prevent inflammatory processes associated with neurodegenerative disease and aggressive glioma tumor growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  5. Bovine Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Cast Neutrophil Extracellular Traps against the Abortive Parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra-Blanco, Rodolfo; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Yang, Zhengtao; Li, Jianhua; Gärtner, Ulrich; Taubert, Anja; Zhang, Xichen; Hermosilla, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses. Functional inhibitor treatments were applied to reveal the role of several enzymes [NADPH oxidase (NOX), NE, MPO, PAD4], ATP-dependent P2Y2 receptor, store-operated Ca++entry (SOCE), CD11b receptor, ERK1/2- and p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway in tachyzoite-triggered NETosis. N. caninum tachyzoites triggered NETosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed NET structures being released by bovine PMN and entrapping tachyzoites. N. caninum-induced NET formation was found not to be NOX-, NE-, MPO-, PAD4-, ERK1/2-, and p38 MAP kinase-dependent process since inhibition of these enzymes led to a slight decrease of NET formation. CD11b was also identified as a neutrophil receptor being involved in NETosis. Furthermore, N. caninum-triggered NETosis depends on Ca++ influx as well as neutrophil metabolism since both the inhibition of SOCE and of P2Y2-mediated ATP uptake diminished NET formation. Host cell invasion assays indicated that PMN-derived NETosis hampered tachyzoites from active host cell invasion, thereby inhibiting further intracellular replication. NET formation represents an early and effective mechanism of response of the innate immune system, which might reduce initial infection rates during the acute phase of cattle neosporosis. PMID:28611772

  6. Chemotactic Activity on Human Neutrophils to Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemotactic activity o neutrophil to S. mutans. Chemotaxis assay was performed in blind well chambers. Materials and Methods: Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS containing 106 S. mutans,  108 S. mutans, 10-8 M fMLP, or HBSS alone were placed in the lower wells of the chamber and covered with polycorbonate membrane filter. Neutrophils suspension (2x105 cells was then placed in the upper compartment. After incubation for 60 mins at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2, the filters were removed and stained with Giemsa. Result: ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences among groups (p<0.05, indicating that S. mutans induced neutrophils chemotaxis. The number of neutrophils migration in response to 108 S. mutans and 106 S. mutans were signifiantly greater compared to fMLP (p<0.05. Conclusion: S. mutans may activate human neutrophils, resulting in the chemotaxis of the neutrophils.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.99

  7. High fat diet impairs the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 producing L-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Paul; Pais, Ramona; Habib, Abdella M; Brighton, Cheryl A; Yeo, Giles S H; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts as a satiety signal and enhances insulin release. This study examined how GLP-1 production from intestinal L-cells is modified by dietary changes. Transgenic mouse models were utilized in which L-cells could be purified by cell specific expression of a yellow fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice were fed on chow or 60% high fat diet (HFD) for 2 or 16 weeks. L-cells were purified by flow cytometry and analysed by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. Enteroendocrine cell populations were examined by FACS analysis, and GLP-1 secretion was assessed in primary intestinal cultures. Two weeks HFD reduced the numbers of GLP-1 positive cells in the colon, and of GIP positive cells in the small intestine. Purified small intestinal L-cells showed major shifts in their gene expression profiles. In mice on HFD for 16 weeks, significant reductions were observed in the expression of L-cell specific genes, including those encoding gut hormones (Gip, Cck, Sct, Nts), prohormone processing enzymes (Pcsk1, Cpe), granins (Chgb, Scg2), nutrient sensing machinery (Slc5a1, Slc15a1, Abcc8, Gpr120) and enteroendocrine-specific transcription factors (Etv1, Isl1, Mlxipl, Nkx2.2 and Rfx6). A corresponding reduction in the GLP-1 secretory responsiveness to nutrient stimuli was observed in primary small intestinal cultures. Mice fed on HFD exhibited reduced expression in L-cells of many L-cell specific genes, suggesting an impairment of enteroendocrine cell function. Our results suggest that a western style diet may detrimentally affect the secretion of gut hormones and normal post-prandial signaling, which could impact on insulin secretion and satiety. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hidden truth of circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in periodontally healthy smoker subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco smoking is considered to be a major risk factor associated with periodontal disease. Smoking exerts a major effect on the protective elements of the immune response, resulting in an increase in the extent and severity of periodontal destruction. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess viability and phagocytic function of neutrophils in circulating blood of the smokers and nonsmokers who are periodontally healthy. Settings and Design: Two hundred subjects in the mean range of 20–30 years of age were included in the study population. It was a retrospective study carried out for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects were divided into four groups: 50 nonsmokers, 50 light smokers (15 cigarettes/day. Full mouth plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, and probing depths were measured. Percentage viability of circulating neutrophils and average number of phagocytosed Candida albicans were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Means and standard deviations were calculated from data obtained within the groups. Comparison between the smokers and nonsmokers was performed by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA analysis. Comparison between smoker groups was performed using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test. Results: Percentage viability of neutrophils was significantly less in heavy smokers (66.9 ± 4.0, moderate (76.6 ± 4.2, light smokers (83.1 ± 2.5 as compared to nonsmokers (92.3 ± 2.6 (P < 0.01. The ability of neutrophils to phagocytose, i.e., mean particle number was significantly less in light smokers (3.5 ± 0.5, moderate smokers (2.3 ± 0.5, and heavy smokers (1.4 ± 0.5 compared to nonsmokers (4.9 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01 with evidence of dose-response effect. Conclusions: Smoking significantly affects neutrophils viability and phagocytic function in periodontally healthy population.

  9. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, Dina; Wielen, van der Nikkie; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Meijerink, Jocelijn; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  10. Nutrient-induced glucagon like peptide-1 release is modulated by serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Wortelboer, H.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and serotonin are both involved in food intake regulation. GLP-1 release is stimulated upon nutrient interaction with G-protein coupled receptors by enteroendocrine cells (EEC), whereas serotonin is released from enterochromaffin cells (ECC). The central hypothesis

  11. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Niels B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-01-01

    trials for diabetes therapies. To determine if different glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) had varying effects on these CV risk factors, we reviewed 16 head-to-head trials directly comparing GLP-1RAs that included at least one of the five factors. Few trials reported statistical...

  12. Does Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Ameliorate Oxidative Stress in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Ekkelund; Rakipovski, Günaj; Raun, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has shown to influence the oxidative stress status in a number of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Well-known effects of GLP-1 including better glycemic control, decreased food intake, increased insulin release and increased insulin sensitivity may indirectl...

  13. Cell-based delivery of glucagon-like peptide-1 using encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallrapp, Christine; Thoenes, Eric; Thürmer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) CellBeads are cell-based implants for the sustained local delivery of bioactive factors. They consist of GLP-1 secreting mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a spherically shaped immuno-isolating alginate matrix. A highly standardized and reproducible encapsulati...

  14. Strain-Specific Impact of Fusobacterium nucleatum on Neutrophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Şivge; Kansal, Shevali; Nguyen, Daniel; Stephens, Danielle; Koroneos, Yannis; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2017-04-01

    Neutrophil function is critical for initiation and progression of infecto-inflammatory diseases. Key quorum-sensing plaque bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, act as bridging species between early and late colonizer pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, as the biofilm ages and periodontal inflammation increases. This study is designed to determine impact of different F. nucleatum strains on neutrophil function. Cells of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line-60 were differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and cultured with F. nucleatum strains of subspecies (ssp.) nucleatum ATCC 25586, ssp. polymorphum ATCC 10953, and ssp. vincentii ATCC 49256. Neutrophil phagocytosis of F. nucleatum strains and neutrophil apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured by cytochrome C reduction in the presence and absence of N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP) (1 μM) stimulation. Proinflammatory cytokine release was determined after 2, 6, and 24 hours of culture in the presence/absence of different F. nucleatum strains. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B mRNA levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Each experiment was repeated at least three times in triplicate. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by post hoc Bonferroni correction. All strains of F. nucleatum significantly increased phagocytic capacity of neutrophils. Neutrophil phagocytosis of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum was significantly greater than that of F. nucleatum ssp. vincentii and ssp. nucleatum (P nucleatum ssp. nucleatum and ssp. polymorphum significantly blocked fMLP-induced superoxide generation (P nucleatum vincentii also reduced superoxide generation (25%), the impact was not as strong as that of ssp. nucleatum (83%) and ssp. polymorphum (100%). All F. nucleatum strains stimulated significant increase in neutrophil apoptosis compared with control (P

  15. Synthesis and secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 by fetal rat intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Huang, T H; Brubaker, P L

    1995-07-01

    Secretion of the intestinal proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs) including the incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is regulated, at least in part, by the duodenal hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) through a protein kinase (PK) A-dependent pathway. It has been demonstrated that the activation of PKA increases the synthesis of some intestinal PGDPs, particularly the glucagon-like immunoreactive (GLI) peptides glicentin and oxyntomodulin. However, the effects of GIP on GLI and GLP-1 synthesis are not known. Fetal rat intestinal cells in culture were therefore treated for up to 24 h with 5MM: dbcAMP or 10(-6) M: GIP and the changes in glicentin, oxyntomodulin, GLP-1(x-37) and GLP-1(x-36NH2) secretion and synthesis were examined by RIA and HPLC. Both dbcAMP and GIP increased the acute (2 h; to 224±21 and 256±20% of controls, respectively,P<0.001) and chronic (24 h; to 230±22 and 130±6% of controls, respectively,P<0.001) secretion of intestinal PGDPs. In contrast, the total culture content of PGDPs was increased only after 24 h of incubation (to 156±15 and 125±7% of controls for dbcAMP and GIP, respectively,P<0.01). HPLC analysis confirmed that the intestinal cultures produced the GLI peptides glicentin and oxyntomodulin, as well as the biologically active forms of GLP-1, GLP-7(7-37) and GLP-1(7-36NH2). The relative proportion of these peptides was not altered by treatment with dbcAMP or GIP. Thus, in addition to its effects on GLP-1 release from the rat intestine, GIP appears to be an important regulator of the synthesis of this insulinotropic peptide.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide 1 improved glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and its agonists are under assessment in treatment of type 2 diabetes, by virtue of their antidiabetic actions, which include stimulation of insulin secretion, inhibition of glucagon release, and delay of gastric emptying. We examined the potential of GLP-1 to improve glycemic control in type 1 diabetes with no endogenous insulin secretion. Methods Dose-finding studies were carried out to establish mid range doses for delay of gastric emptying indicated by postponement of pancreatic polypeptide responses after meals. The selected dose of 0.63 micrograms/kg GLP-1 was administered before breakfast and lunch in 8-hour studies in hospital to establish the efficacy and safety of GLP-1. In outside-hospital studies, GLP-1 or vehicle was self-administered double-blind before meals with usual insulin for five consecutive days by five males and three females with well-controlled C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetes. Capillary blood glucose values were self-monitored before meals, at 30 and 60 min after breakfast and supper, and at bedtime. Breakfast tests with GLP-1 were conducted on the day before and on the day after 5-day studies. Paired t-tests and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results In 8-hour studies time-averaged incremental (delta areas under the curves(AUC for plasma glucose through 8 hours were decreased by GLP-1 compared to vehicle (3.2 ± 0.9, mean ± se, vs 5.4 ± 0.8 mmol/l, p Conclusion We have demonstrated that subcutaneous GLP-1 can improve glucose control in type 1 diabetes without adverse effects when self-administered before meals with usual insulin during established intensive insulin treatment programs.

  17. Effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Zhao, Songji; Tamaki, Nagara; Kuge, Yuji; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Takeshi; Takemoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is generally applicable as a strategy for increasing the activity of bioactive proteins. In this study, we examined the effect of glycosylation on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) as a bioactive peptide for type 2 diabetes. Noninvasive imaging studies were performed using a gamma camera after the intravenous administration of 123 I-GLP-1 or 123 I-α2, 6-sialyl N-acetyllactosamine (glycosylated) GLP-1 in rats. In ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-GLP-1 or 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1, organ samples were measured for radioactivity. Plasma samples were added to 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to obtain TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions. The radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble and TCA-soluble fractions was measured. In the noninvasive imaging studies, a relatively high accumulation level of 123 I-GLP-1 was found in the liver, which is the major organ to eliminate exogenous GLP-1. The area under the time-activity curve (AUC) of 123 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the liver was significantly lower (89%) than that of 123 I-GLP-1. These results were consistent with those of ex vivo biodistribution studies using 125 I-labeled peptides. The AUC of 125 I-glycosylated GLP-1 in the TCA-insoluble fraction was significantly higher (1.7-fold) than that of GLP-1. This study demonstrated that glycosylation significantly decreased the distribution of radiolabeled GLP-1 into the liver and increased the concentration of radiolabeled GLP-1 in plasma. These results suggested that glycosylation is a useful strategy for decreasing the distribution into the liver of bioactive peptides as desirable pharmaceuticals. (author)

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates calcium homeostasis and electrophysiological activities of HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chazo, Tze-Fan; Chen, Shih-Ann; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with antidiabetic effects through stimulating insulin secretion, β cell neogenesis, satiety sensation, and inhibiting glucagon secretion. Administration of GLP-1 provides cardioprotective effects through attenuating cardiac inflammation and insulin resistance. GLP-1 also modulates the heart rate and systolic pressure, which suggests that GLP-1 may have cardiac electrical effects. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate whether GLP-1 has direct cardiac effects and identify the underlying mechanisms. Patch clamp, confocal microscopy with Fluo-3 fluorescence, and Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the electrophysiological characteristics, calcium homeostasis, and calcium regulatory proteins in HL-1 atrial myocytes with and without GLP-1 (1 and 10nM) incubation for 24h. GLP-1 (1 and 10nM) and control cells had similar action potential durations. However, GLP-1 at 10nM significantly increased calcium transients and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) contents. Compared to the control, GLP-1 (10nM)-treated cells significantly decreased phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor at S2814 and total phospholamban, but there were similar protein levels of sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase and the sodium-calcium exchanger. Moreover, exendin (9-39) amide (a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, 10nM) attenuated GLP-1-mediated effects on total SR content and phosphorylated ryanodine receptor S2814. This study demonstrates GLP-1 may regulate HL-1 cell arrhythmogenesis through modulating calcium handling proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral Delivery of Pentameric Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 by Recombinant Lactobacillus in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Andersen, Kasper; Pelletier, Julien; Marcotte, Harold; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Hammarström, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone produced by intestinal cells and stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas in a glucose-dependent manner. Exogenously supplied GLP-1 analogues are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. An anti-diabetic effect of Lactobacillus in lowering plasma glucose levels and its use as a vehicle for delivery of protein and antibody fragments has been shown previously. The aim of this study was to employ lactobacilli as a vehicle for in situ production and delivery of GLP-1 analogue to normalize blood glucose level in diabetic GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rats. In this study, we designed pentameric GLP-1 (5×GLP-1) analogues which were both expressed in a secreted form and anchored to the surface of lactobacilli. Intestinal trypsin sites were introduced within 5×GLP-1, leading to digestion of the pentamer into an active monomeric form. The E. coli-produced 5×GLP-1 peptides delivered by intestinal intubation to GK rats resulted in a significant improvement of glycemic control demonstrated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Meanwhile, the purified 5×GLP-1 (trypsin-digested) from the Lactobacillus cultures stimulated insulin secretion from HIT-T15 cells, similar to the E. coli-produced 5×GLP-1 peptides. When delivered by gavage to GK rats, non-expressor L. paracasei significantly lowered the blood glucose level but 5×GLP-1 expression did not provide an additional anti-diabetic effect, possibly due to the low levels produced. Our results indicate that lactobacilli themselves might be used as an alternative treatment method for type 2 diabetes, but further work is needed to increase the expression level of GLP-1 by lactobacilli in order to obtain a significant insulinotropic effect in vivo. PMID:27610615

  20. Neutrophil extracellular traps go viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Schönrich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most numerous immune cells. Their importance as a first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens is well described. In contrast, the role of neutrophils in controlling viral infections is less clear. Bacterial and fungal pathogens can stimulate neutrophils to produce extracellular traps (NETs in a process called NETosis. Although NETosis has previously been described as a special form of programmed cell, there are forms of NET production that do not end with the demise of neutrophils. As an end result of NETosis, genomic DNA complexed with microbicidal proteins is expelled from neutrophils. These structures can kill pathogens or at least prevent their local spread within host tissue. On the other hand disproportionate NET formation can cause local or systemic damage. Only recently was it recognized that viruses can also induce NETosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which NETs are produced in the context of viral infection and how this may contribute to both antiviral immunity and immunopathology. Finally, we shed light on viral immune evasion mechanisms targeting NETs.

  1. Oxidative product formation in irradiated neutrophils. A flow cytometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, R.A.; Duque, R.E.; Robinson, J.P.; Oberman, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on neutrophil oxidative function was evaluated using a flow cytometric assay of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production. This assay quantitates the H 2 O 2 -dependent conversion of the nonfluorescent compound, 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH), into fluorescent 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) on a single-cell basis. Intracellular H 2 O 2 production in response to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate was not affected by neutrophil irradiation at doses up to 2500 rad. In addition, irradiation of intracellular DCFH and aqueous 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) resulted in DCF production, which suggested that oxidative molecules produced by aqueous radiolysis were detected by this assay. This study indicates that radiation doses of 1500 to 2500 rad, which are sufficient to prevent induction of graft-versus-host disease by transfused blood components, are not deleterious to neutrophil oxidative metabolism

  2. Pharmacology of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide extended-release in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, A J; Adin, C A; Borin-Crivellenti, S; Rajala-Schultz, P; Hall, M J; Gilor, C

    2015-04-01

    Exenatide extended-release (ER) is a microencapsulated formulation of the glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonist exenatide. It has a protracted pharmacokinetic profile that allows a once-weekly injection with comparable efficacy to insulin with an improved safety profile in type II diabetic people. Here, we studied the pharmacology of exenatide ER in 6 healthy cats. A single subcutaneous injection of exenatide ER (0.13 mg/kg) was administered on day 0. Exenatide concentrations were measured for 12 wk. A hyperglycemic clamp (target = 225 mg/dL) was performed on days -7 (clamp I) and 21 (clamp II) with measurements of insulin and glucagon concentrations. Glucose tolerance was defined as the amount of glucose required to maintain hyperglycemia during the clamp. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed on weeks 0, 2, and 6 after injection. Plasma concentrations of exenatide peaked at 1 h and 4 wk after injection. Comparing clamp I with clamp II, fasting blood glucose decreased (mean ± standard deviation = -11 ± 8 mg/dL, P = 0.02), glucose tolerance improved (median [range] +33% [4%-138%], P = 0.04), insulin concentrations increased (+36.5% [-9.9% to 274.1%], P = 0.02), and glucagon concentrations decreased (-4.7% [0%-12.1%], P = 0.005). Compared with preinjection values on continuous glucose monitoring, glucose concentrations decreased and the frequency of readings glucose tolerance 3 wk after a single injection. Further evaluation is needed to determine its safety, efficacy, and duration of action in diabetic cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists suppress water intake independent of effects on food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Naomi J.; Kanoski, Scott E.; Hayes, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by and released from the small intestine following ingestion of nutrients. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists applied peripherally or centrally decrease food intake and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects make the GLP-1 system an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In addition to these more frequently studied effects of GLP-1R stimulation, previous reports indicate that GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake. The present experiments were designed to provide greater temporal resolution and site specificity for the effect of GLP-1 and the long-acting GLP-1R agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, on unstimulated water intake when food was and was not available. All three GLP-1R ligands suppressed water intake after peripheral intraperitoneal administration, both in the presence of and the absence of food; however, the magnitude and time frame of water intake suppression varied by drug. GLP-1 had an immediate, but transient, hypodipsic effect when administered peripherally, whereas the water intake suppression by IP exendin-4 and liraglutide was much more persistent. Additionally, intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1R agonists suppressed water intake when food was absent, but the suppression of intake showed modest differences depending on whether the drug was administered to the lateral or fourth ventricle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GLP-1 receptor agonists affecting unstimulated, overnight intake in the absence of food, the first test for antidipsogenic effects of hindbrain application of GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the first test of a central effect (forebrain or hindbrain) of liraglutide on water intake. Overall, these results show that GLP-1R agonists have a hypodipsic effect that is independent of GLP-1R-mediated effects on food intake, and this occurs, in part, through central nervous system GLP-1R activation

  4. Acarbose improves hypoglycaemia following gastric bypass surgery without increasing glucagon-like peptide 1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas, Juan Patricio; Ahuad, Jessica; Rubio, Lorena; Escalona, Manuel; Pollak, Felipe; Maiz, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    Postprandial hypoglycaemia is a severe complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI), is employed in its treatment. Several studies have shown that AGIs increase the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). However, an excessive level of GLP-1 is one of the factors involved in the physiopathology of this condition. We analysed the effect of acarbose oral administration in eight RYBGP patients with clinically significant hypoglycaemia or dumping syndrome. Glucose, insulin and GLP-1 plasma levels in fasting and after ingestion of a standard meal (Ensure Plus®; 13 g protein, 50 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat) were measured. The test was repeated the following week with the oral administration of 100 mg of acarbose 15 min prior to the meal. Five patients developed asymptomatic hypoglycaemia during the test (glucose level <50 mg/dl) with inappropriately high insulin levels and exaggerated GLP-1 response. Acarbose ingestion avoided hypoglycaemia in all of the patients and increased the lowest plasma glucose level (46.4 ± 4.8 vs. 59.0 ± 2.6 mg/dl, p < 0.01). Acarbose ingestion decreased the area under the curve for serum insulin and GLP-1 levels at 15 min after the meal. Acarbose avoided postprandial hypoglycaemia following RYGBP by decreasing the hyperinsulinemic response. This was associated with a decrease in early GLP-1 secretion, in contrast to that observed in non-surgical subjects. This finding could be explained by the reduction of glucose load in the jejunum produced by the α-glucosidase inhibition, which is the main stimulus for GLP-1 secretion.

  5. Estradiol modulates the anorexic response to central glucagon-like peptide 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Calyn B; Jackson, Christine M; Terrill, Sarah J; Eckel, Lisa A; Williams, Diana L

    2017-07-01

    Estrogens suppress feeding in part by enhancing the response to satiation signals. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) acts on receptor populations both peripherally and centrally to affect food intake. We hypothesized that modulation of the central GLP-1 system is one of the mechanisms underlying the effects of estrogens on feeding. We assessed the anorexic effect of 0, 1, and 10μg doses of GLP-1 administered into the lateral ventricle of bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) female rats on a cyclic regimen of either 2μg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB) or oil vehicle 30min prior to dark onset on the day following hormone treatment. Central GLP-1 treatment significantly suppressed food intake in EB-treated rats at both doses compared to vehicle, whereas only the 10μg GLP-1 dose was effective in oil-treated rats. To follow up, we examined whether physiologic-dose cyclic estradiol treatment influences GLP-1-induced c-Fos in feeding-relevant brain areas of OVX females. GLP-1 significantly increased c-Fos expression in the area postrema (AP) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and the presence of estrogens may be required for this effect in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Together, these data suggest that modulation of the central GLP-1 system may be one of the mechanisms by which estrogens suppress food intake, and highlight the PVN as a region of interest for future investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Myeloperoxidase attracts neutrophils by physical forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, Anna; Nussbaum, Claudia; Kubala, Lukas; Friedrichs, Kai; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Rudolph, Volker; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Schroeder, Christine; Benten, Daniel; Lau, Denise; Szocs, Katalin; Furtmueller, Paul G.; Heeringa, Peter; Sydow, Karsten; Duchstein, Hans-Juergen; Ehmke, Heimo; Schumacher, Udo; Meinertz, Thomas; Sperandio, Markus; Baldus, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) remains a paramount prerequisite in innate immune defense and a critical cofounder in inflammatory vascular disease. Neutrophil recruitment comprises a cascade of concerted events allowing for capture, adhesion and extravasation of the leukocyte.

  7. Beyond glucose lowering: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, body weight and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergès, B; Bonnard, C; Renard, E

    2011-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) belongs to the incretin hormone family: in the presence of elevated blood glucose, it stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon production. In addition, GLP-1 slows gastric emptying. GLP-1 secretion has also been reported to potentially affect patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared with non-diabetics and, as enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) shortens the GLP-1 half-life to a few minutes, GLP-1 receptor agonists such as exenatide twice daily (BID) and liraglutide have been developed, and have become part of the management of patients with T2DM. This review focuses on the potential beneficial effects of these compounds beyond those associated with improvements in blood glucose control and weight loss, including changes in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. This was a state-of-the-art review of the literature to evaluate the relationships between GLP-1, GLP-1 receptor agonists, weight and the cardiovascular system. GLP-1 receptor agonists improve glucose control and do not significantly increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Also, this new class of antidiabetic drugs was shown to favour weight loss. Mechanisms may involve central action, direct action by reduction of food intake and probably indirect action through slowing of gastric emptying. The relative importance of each activity remains unclear. Weight loss may improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM, although GLP-1 receptor agonists may have other direct and indirect effects on the cardiovascular system. Reductions in myocardial infarct size and improvements in cardiac function have been seen in animal models. Beneficial changes in cardiac function were also demonstrated in patients with myocardial infarcts or heart failure. Indirect effects could involve a reduction in blood pressure and potential effects on oxidation. However, the mechanisms involved in the pleiotropic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists have yet to

  8. [Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Sesti, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    The results of the cardiovascular outcome trials comparing the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide to placebo have been recently published. Interestingly, empagliflozin and liraglutide treatments significantly reduce cardiovascular events in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying the observed cardioprotective effects of empagliflozin and liraglutide are speculative and future studies are needed to better understand these results. However, since reduction in the primary outcome was evident 3 months after starting empagliflozin and 24 months after starting liraglutide, it is tempting to hypothesize that the cardiovascular benefits observed in diabetic patients treated with empagliflozin are due to its hemodynamic effects and to metabolic substrate shift induced by the mild and persistent hyperketonemia, while the positive effects of liraglutide treatment may be attributable to biologic changes of atherosclerotic lesions.

  9. Role of Central Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in Stress Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosal, Sriparna; Myers, Brent; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is best known as an incretin hormone, secreted from L cells in the intestine in response to nutrient ingestion to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. However, GLP-1 is also expressed in neurons, and plays a major role in regulation of homeostatic function within the central nervous system (CNS). This review summarizes our current state of knowledge on the role GLP-1 plays in neural coordination of the organismal stress response. In brain, the primary...

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation increases GFR and suppresses proximal reabsorption in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Scott C.; Kashkouli, Ali; Singh, Prabhleen

    2012-01-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from the gut in response to fat or carbohydrate and contributes to negative feedback control of blood glucose by stimulating insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon, and slowing gastric emptying. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are also expressed in the proximal tubule, and possibly elsewhere in the kidney. Presently, we examined the effect of a GLP-1R agonist on single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (GFR; SNGFR), proximal reabsorpt...

  11. Immune modulation by neutrophil subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that human neutrophils can suppress T-cell proliferation in acute systemic inflammation and thus have anti-inflammatory functions, next to their well-known pro-inflammatory functions. The suppression is mediated by ROS production and integrin MAC-1, which are also important for the

  12. Involvement of neutrophil hyporesponse and the role of Toll-like receptors in human immunodeficiency virus 1 protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Hernandez

    Full Text Available Neutrophils contribute to pathogen clearance through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs activation. However, the role of PRRs in neutrophils in both HIV-1-infected [HIV-1(+] and HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN is unknown. Here, a study was carried out to evaluate the level of PRR mRNAs and cytokines produced after activation of neutrophils from HIV-1(+, HESN and healthy donors.The neutrophils were stimulated with specific agonists for TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the presence of HIV-1 particles. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production, expression of neutrophil activation markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were analyzed in neutrophils from HESN, HIV-1(+ and healthy donors (controls.We found that neutrophils from HESN presented reduced expression of PRR mRNAs (TLR4, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, NLRC4 and RIG-I and reduced expression of cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and TGF-β. Moreover, neutrophils from HESN were less sensitive to stimulation through TLR4. Furthermore, neutrophils from HESN challenged with HIV-1 and stimulated with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists, produced significantly lower levels of reactive oxygen species, versus HIV-1(+.A differential pattern of PRR expression and release of innate immune factors in neutrophils from HESN is evident. Our results suggest that lower neutrophil activation can be involved in protection against HIV-1 infection.

  13. Differential effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Martin; Lawson, Francesca; Owens, David; Raccah, Denis; Roy-Duval, Christine; Lehmann, Anne; Perfetti, Riccardo; Blonde, Lawrence

    2017-01-13

    While glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are known to increase heart rate (HR), it is insufficiently recognized that the extent varies greatly between the various agonists and is affected by the assessment methods employed. Here we review published data from 24-h time-averaged HR monitoring in healthy individuals and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with either short-acting GLP-1 RAs, lixisenatide or exenatide, or long-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, or dulaglutide (N = 1112; active-treatment arms). HR effects observed in two independent head-to-head trials of lixisenatide and liraglutide (N = 202; active-treatment arms) are also reviewed. Short-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide and lixisenatide, are associated with a transient (1-12 h) mean placebo- and baseline-adjusted 24-h HR increase of 1-3 beats per minute (bpm). Conversely, long-acting GLP-1 RAs are associated with more pronounced increases in mean 24-h HR; the highest seen with liraglutide and albiglutide at 6-10 bpm compared with dulaglutide and exenatide LAR at 3-4 bpm. For both liraglutide and dulaglutide, HR increases were recorded during both the day and at night. In two head-to-head comparisons, a small, transient mean increase in HR from baseline was observed with lixisenatide; liraglutide induced a substantially greater increase that remained significantly elevated over 24 h. The underlying mechanism for increased HR remains to be elucidated; however, it could be related to a direct effect at the sinus node and/or stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, with this effect related to the duration of action of the respective GLP-1 RAs. In conclusion, this review indicates that the effects on HR differ within the class of GLP-1 RAs: short-acting GLP-1 RAs are associated with a modest and transient HR increase before returning to baseline levels, while some long-acting GLP-1 RAs are associated with a more pronounced and sustained

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Egefjord, Lærke

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion...... potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over experimental design. The acute...... effect of GLP-1 on glucose transfer in the brain was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) during a hypoglycemic clamp (3 mM plasma glucose) with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) as tracer of glucose. In addition, we jointly analyzed cerebrometabolic effects of GLP-1 from the present...

  15. Effect of chenodeoxycholic acid and the bile acid sequestrant colesevelam on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Scheltema, Matthijs J; Sonne, David P

    2016-01-01

    of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the BAS, colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin as well as gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite......AIMS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, rectal administration of bile acids increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and reduces plasma glucose. In addition, oral bile acid sequestrants (BASs) reduce blood glucose by an unknown mechanism. In this study we evaluated the effects......, and delayed gastric emptying. We speculate that bile acid-induced activation of TGR5 on L cells increases GLP-1 secretion, which in turn may result in amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore our data suggest that colesevelam does not have an acute effect on GLP-1 secretion in humans....

  16. Aging and cancer: The role of macrophages and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackaman, Connie; Tomay, Federica; Duong, Lelinh; Abdol Razak, Norbaini Bintu; Pixley, Fiona J; Metharom, Pat; Nelson, Delia J

    2017-07-01

    Impaired immune function has been implicated in the declining health and higher incidence of cancer in the elderly. However, age-related changes to immunity are not completely understood. Neutrophils and macrophages represent the first line of defence yet their ability to phagocytose pathogens decrease with aging. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are critical in eliminating tumors, but T cell function is also compromised with aging. T cell responses can be regulated by macrophages and may depend on the functional phenotype macrophages adopt in response to microenvironmental signals. This can range from pro-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic M1 to anti-inflammatory, pro-tumorigenic M2 macrophages. Macrophages in healthy elderly adipose and hepatic tissue exhibit a more pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype compared to young hosts whilst immunosuppressive M2 macrophages increase in elderly lymphoid tissues, lung and muscle. These M2-like macrophages demonstrate altered responses to stimuli. Recent studies suggest that neutrophils also regulate T cell function and, like macrophages, neutrophil function is modulated with aging. It is possible that age-modified tissue-specific macrophages and neutrophils contribute to chronic low-grade inflammation that is associated with dysregulated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression, which together are responsible for development of multiple pathologies, including cancer. This review discusses recent advances in macrophage and neutrophil biology in healthy aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral neutrophil transcriptome changes result in a pro-survival phenotype in periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Aboodi, Guy M; Glogauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are inflammatory processes that occur following the influx of neutrophils into the periodontal tissues in response to the subgingival bacterial biofilm. Current literature suggests that while neutrophils are protective and prevent bacterial infections, they also appear to contribute to damage of the periodontal tissues. In the present study we compare the gene expression profile changes in neutrophils as they migrate from the circulation into the oral tissues in patients with chronic periodontits and matched healthy subjects. We hypothesized that oral neutrophils in periodontal disease patients will display a disease specific transcriptome that differs from the oral neutrophil of healthy subjects. Venous blood and oral rinse samples were obtained from healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients for neutrophil isolation. mRNA was isolated from the neutrophils, and gene expression microarray analysis was completed. Results were confirmed for specific genes of interest by qRT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Chronic periodontitis patients presented with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the oral cavity. Gene expression analysis revealed differences in the expression levels of genes from several biological pathways. Using hierarchical clustering analysis, we found that the apoptosis network was significantly altered in patients with chronic inflammation in the oral cavity, with up-regulation of pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family and down-regulation of pro-apoptosis members in the same compartment. Additional functional analysis confirmed that the percentages of viable neutrophils are significantly increased in the oral cavity of chronic periodontitis patients. Oral neutrophils from patients with periodontal disease displayed an altered transcriptome following migration into the oral tissues. This resulted in a pro-survival neutrophil phenotype in chronic periodontitis patients when compared with healthy subjects, resulting in a

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor ligand interactions: structural cross talk between ligands and the extracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham M West

    Full Text Available Activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R in pancreatic β-cells potentiates insulin production and is a current therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Like other class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, the GLP-1R contains an N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. N-terminal truncations on the peptide agonist generate antagonists capable of binding to the extracellular domain, but not capable of activating full length receptor. The main objective of this study was to use Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX to identify how the amide hydrogen bonding network of peptide ligands and the extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R were altered by binding interactions and to then use this platform to validate direct binding events for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands. The HDX studies presented here for two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R peptide ligands indicates that the antagonist exendin-4[9-39] is significantly destabilized in the presence of nonionic detergents as compared to the agonist exendin-4. Furthermore, HDX can detect stabilization of exendin-4 and exendin-4[9-39] hydrogen bonding networks at the N-terminal helix [Val19 to Lys27] upon binding to the N-terminal extracellular domain of GLP-1R (nGLP-1R. In addition we show hydrogen bonding network stabilization on nGLP-1R in response to ligand binding, and validate direct binding events with the extracellular domain of the receptor for putative GLP-1R small molecule ligands.

  19. Monosodium glutamate stimulates secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and reduces postprandial glucose after a lipid-containing meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, H; Kusano, M; Zai, H; Kawada, A; Kuribayashi, S; Shimoyama, Y; Nagoshi, A; Maeda, M; Kawamura, O; Mori, M

    2012-11-01

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is known to influence the endocrine system and gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The mechanism of postprandial glycemic control by food in the GI tract is mostly unknown and of great interest. To investigate the effect of MSG on glucose homeostasis, incretin secretion and gastric emptying in humans after a lipid-containing meal. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.5 years) and with no Helicobcter pylori infection were enrolled. A 400 mL (520 kcal) liquid meal with MSG (2 g, 0.5% wt:vol) or NaCl (control) was ingested in a single-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study. Blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. Gastric emptying was monitored by a 13C acetate breath test. Postprandial symptoms were assessed on a visual analogue scale. The 30-min postprandial glucose concentration was significantly reduced by adding MSG to the test meal. The area under the glucose concentration vs. time curve (0-60 min) was also significantly reduced by adding MSG (40.6 ± 3.51 mg·1 hr/dL with MSG vs. 49.2 ± 3.86 mg·1 hr/dL with NaCl, P = 0.047), whereas, the 30-min postprandial plasma GLP-1 level was significantly increased (58.1 ± 15.8 pmol/L with MSG vs. 13.4 ± 15.8 pmol/L with NaCl, P = 0.035). MSG did not affect the half gastric emptying time or postprandial symptoms. Monosodium l-glutamate improved early postprandial glycaemia after a lipid-containing liquid meal. This effect was not associated with a change in gastric emptying, but was possibly related to stimulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

  20. Imaging neutrophil migration dynamics using micro-optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kengyeh K.; Yonker, Lael; Som, Avira; Pazos, Michael; Kusek, Mark E.; Hurley, Bryan P.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophils are immune cells that undergo chemotaxis, detecting and migrating towards a chemical signal gradient. Neutrophils actively migrate across epithelial boundaries, interacting with the epithelium to selectively permit passage without compromising the epithelial barrier. In many inflammatory disorders, excessive neutrophil migration can cause damage to the epithelium itself. The signaling pathways and mechanisms that facilitate trans-epithelial migration are not fully characterized. Our laboratory has developed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), which has 2 μm lateral resolution and 1 μm axial resolution. As a high-resolution native contrast modality, μOCT can directly visualize individual neutrophils as they interact with a cell layer cultured on a transwell filter. A chemoattractant can be applied to the apical side of inverted monolayer, and human neutrophils placed in the basolateral compartment, while μOCT captures 3D images of the chemotaxis. μOCT images can also generate quantitative metrics of migration volume to study the dependence of chemotaxis on monolayer cell type, chemoattractant type, and disease state of the neutrophils. For example, a disease known as leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) can be simulated by treating neutrophils with antibodies that interfere with the CD18 receptor, a facilitator of trans-epithelial migration. We conducted a migration study of anti-CD18 treated and control neutrophils using T84 intestinal epithelium as a barrier. After one hour, μOCT time-lapse imaging indicated a strong difference in the fraction of neutrophils that remain attached to the epithelium after migration (0.67 +/- 0.12 attached anti-CD18 neutrophils, 0.23 +/- 0.08 attached control neutrophils, n = 6, p < 0.05), as well as a modest but non-significant decrease in total migration volume for treated neutrophils. We can now integrate μOCT-derived migration metrics with simultaneously acquired measurements of transepithelial electrical

  1. Neutrophil-mediated protection of cultured human vascular endothelial cells from damage by growing Candida albicans hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.E. Jr.; Rotrosen, D.; Fontaine, J.W.; Haudenschild, C.C.; Diamond, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Interactions were studied between human neutrophils and cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells invaded by Candida albicans. In the absence of neutrophils, progressive Candida germination and hyphal growth extensively damaged endothelial cell monolayers over a period of 4 to 6 hours, as determined both by morphological changes and release of 51 Cr from radiolabeled endothelial cells. Monolayers were completely destroyed and replaced by hyphae after 18 hours of incubation. In contrast, when added 2 hours after the monolayers had been infected with Candida, neutrophils selectively migrated toward and attached to hyphae at points of hyphal penetration into individual endothelial cells (observed by time-lapse video-microscopy). Attached neutrophils spread over hyphal surfaces both within and beneath the endothelial cells; neutrophil recruitment to initial sites of leukocyte-Candida-endothelial cell interactions continued throughout the first 60 minutes of observation. Neutrophil spreading and stasis were observed only along Candida hyphae and at sites of Candida-endothelial cell interactions. These events resulted in 58.0% killing of Candida at 2 hours and subsequent clearance of Candida from endothelial cell monolayers, as determined by microcolony counts and morphological observation. On introduction of additional neutrophils to yield higher ratios of neutrophils to endothelial cells (10 neutrophils:1 endothelial cell), neutrophil migration toward hyphal elements continued. Despite retraction or displacement of occasional endothelial cells by invading Candida and neutrophils, most endothelial cells remained intact, viable, and motile as verified both by morphological observations and measurement of 51 Cr release from radiolabeled monolayers

  2. Iodinated contrast media induce neutrophil apoptosis through a mitochondrial and caspase mediated pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, N F

    2012-02-03

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in renal, myocardial and endothelial cells. Following intravascular injection, circulating immune cells are exposed to high concentrations of ICM. As neutrophils constitutively undergo apoptosis we hypothesized that ICM may adversely affect neutrophil survival. Our aim was to investigate the effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophils were isolated from healthy subjects and cultured in vitro with ionic (diatrizoate and ioxaglate) and non-ionic (iohexol and iotrolan) ICM. The effect of ICM on neutrophil apoptosis in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated neutrophils was determined by annexin V flow cytometry. The influence of physicochemical properties of the different ICM on apoptosis of neutrophils was also studied. We further investigated the effects of ICM on key intracellular signal pathways, including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by Western blotting, and mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activity by flow cytometry. Isoiodine concentrations (20 mg ml(-1)) of ionic (diatrizoate 69.6+\\/-2.9%; ioxaglate 58.9+\\/-2.0%) and non-ionic (iohexol 57.3+\\/-2.9%; iotrolan 57.1+\\/-2.6%) ICM significantly induced neutrophil apoptosis over control levels (47.7+\\/-1.4%). The apoptotic effect of ICM was influenced by their chemical structure, with ionic ICM having a more significant (p<0.01) apoptotic effect than non-ionic ICM (p<0.05). Furthermore, ICM reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of lipopolysaccharide (1000 ng ml(-1)) treated neutrophils to control levels (23.0+\\/-3.5% to 61.2+\\/-5.3%; n=4; p<0.05). These agents induce apoptosis through a p38 MAPK independent pathway that results in mitochondrial depolarization, and is dependent on caspase activation. As neutrophils play a central role in host response to infection and injury, ICM, through induction of neutrophil apoptosis, could have a significant deleterious effect on host immune defence and

  3. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty......-four patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive adjuvant treatment with ranitidine hydrochloride (100 mg) administered twice a day intravenously from skin incision for 4 days, followed by oral ranitidine hydrochloride (150 mg) administered twice a day for 5 days (n = 11...

  4. Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi isolates induce activation and apoptosis of human neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Luísa M. D.; Viana, Agostinho; de Jesus, Augusto C.; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lúcia; Gomes, Juliana A.; Gollob, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are critical players in the first line of defense against pathogens and in the activation of subsequent cellular responses. We aimed to determine the effects of the interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with human neutrophils, using isolates of the two major discrete type units (DTUs) associated with Chagas’ disease in Latin America (clone Col1.7G2 and Y strain, DTU I and II, respectively). Thus, we used CFSE-stained trypomastigotes to measure neutrophil-T. cruzi interaction, neutrophil activation, cytokine expression and death, after infection with Col1.7G2 and Y strain. Our results show that the frequency of CFSE+ neutrophils, indicative of interaction, and CFSE intensity on a cell-per-cell basis were similar when comparing Col1.7G2 and Y strains. Interaction with T. cruzi increased neutrophil activation, as measured by CD282, CD284, TNF and IL-12 expression, although at different levels between the two strains. No change in IL-10 expression was observed after interaction of neutrophils with either strain. We observed that exposure to Y and Col1.7G2 caused marked neutrophil death. This was specific to neutrophils, since interaction of either strain with monocytes did not cause death. Our further analysis showed that neutrophil death was a result of apoptosis, which was associated with an upregulation of TNF-receptor, TNF and FasLigand, but not of Fas. Induction of TNF-associated neutrophil apoptosis by the different T. cruzi isolates may act as an effective common mechanism to decrease the host’s immune response and favor parasite survival. PMID:29176759

  5. Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi isolates induce activation and apoptosis of human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa M D Magalhães

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are critical players in the first line of defense against pathogens and in the activation of subsequent cellular responses. We aimed to determine the effects of the interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with human neutrophils, using isolates of the two major discrete type units (DTUs associated with Chagas' disease in Latin America (clone Col1.7G2 and Y strain, DTU I and II, respectively. Thus, we used CFSE-stained trypomastigotes to measure neutrophil-T. cruzi interaction, neutrophil activation, cytokine expression and death, after infection with Col1.7G2 and Y strain. Our results show that the frequency of CFSE+ neutrophils, indicative of interaction, and CFSE intensity on a cell-per-cell basis were similar when comparing Col1.7G2 and Y strains. Interaction with T. cruzi increased neutrophil activation, as measured by CD282, CD284, TNF and IL-12 expression, although at different levels between the two strains. No change in IL-10 expression was observed after interaction of neutrophils with either strain. We observed that exposure to Y and Col1.7G2 caused marked neutrophil death. This was specific to neutrophils, since interaction of either strain with monocytes did not cause death. Our further analysis showed that neutrophil death was a result of apoptosis, which was associated with an upregulation of TNF-receptor, TNF and FasLigand, but not of Fas. Induction of TNF-associated neutrophil apoptosis by the different T. cruzi isolates may act as an effective common mechanism to decrease the host's immune response and favor parasite survival.

  6. Cigarette smoke-induced damage-associated molecular pattern release from necrotic neutrophils triggers proinflammatory mediator release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Irene H; Pouwels, Simon D; Leijendekker, Carin; de Bruin, Harold G; Zijlstra, G Jan; van der Vaart, Hester; ten Hacken, Nick H T; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Nawijn, Martijn C; van der Toorn, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, the major causative factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure can induce a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in airway epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that CS promotes neutrophil necrosis with subsequent release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), alarming the innate immune system. We studied the effect of smoking two cigarettes on sputum neutrophils in healthy individuals and of 5-day CS or air exposure on neutrophil counts, myeloperoxidase, and HMGB1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of BALB/c mice. In human peripheral blood neutrophils, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis/necrosis markers, caspase activity, and DAMP release were studied after CS exposure. Finally, we assessed the effect of neutrophil-derived supernatants on the release of chemoattractant CXCL8 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Cigarette smoking caused a significant decrease in sputum neutrophil numbers after 3 hours. In mice, neutrophil counts were significantly increased 16 hours after repeated CS exposure but reduced 2 hours after an additional exposure. In vitro, CS induced necrotic neutrophil cell death, as indicated by mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of apoptosis, and DAMP release. Supernatants from CS-treated neutrophils significantly increased the release of CXCL8 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Together, these observations show, for the first time, that CS exposure induces neutrophil necrosis, leading to DAMP release, which may amplify CS-induced airway inflammation by promoting airway epithelial proinflammatory responses.

  7. On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent...... of the external glucose concentration and the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production are 180 degrees out of phase with the oscillations in NAD(P)H. Cytochalasin B blocked the oscillations in shape and size whereas it increased the period of the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. 1- and 2-butanol also blocked...... the oscillations in shape and size, but only 1-butanol inhibited the oscillations in H(2)O(2) production. We conjecture that the oscillations are likely to be due to feedback regulations in the signal transduction cascade involving phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). We have tested this using a simple mathematical...

  8. Dihydroxyoctadecamonoenoate esters inhibit the neutrophil ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    The leukotoxins (±)9(10)-epoxy-12Z- and (±)12(13)-epoxy-. 9Z-octadecenoic acid [9(10)- and 12(13)]-EpOME (figure. 1A) are produced by inflammatory leukocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages (Ozawa et al 1988b; Zhang et al 1995; Hayakawa et al 1986). Plasma levels of the. EpOMEs are elevated in patients ...

  9. Neutrophil activation by Campylobacter concisus

    OpenAIRE

    S?rensen, Nina B; Nielsen, Hans L; Varming, Kim; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen associated with prolonged diarrhoea and possibly inflammatory bowel disease in children as well as adults, but the interaction with cells of the innate immune system is unclear. The magnitude of systemic immunoglobulin response in acute infection is unknown. Methods Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were activated with five faecal isolates of C. concisus from patients with gastroenteritis as well as the oral reference strain ...

  10. Radiation-induced muscositis and neutrophil granulocytes in oral mucosa; Strahleninduzierte Mukositis und neutrophile Granulozyten in der Mundschleimhaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidberger, H.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Kim, S.; Hille, A.; Pradier, O.; Hess, C.F. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Univ. Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced mucositis can be related to a decrease in oral neutrophils. We tested the relationship between radiation-induced mucositis and oral neutrophil counts. Patients and Methods: Oral neutrophil counts were obtained for ten patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy of the pharynx and oral cavity. Four patients received additional chemotherapy (5-FU, Mitomycin). Counts were obtained before and during treatment; four healthy volunteers were included in the study as well. For evaluation, a quantitative mouth rinse assay, including neutrophil-staining with acridin-orange, was applied. Results: We observed large inter-individual variations with respect to neutrophil counts for patients and control persons (Table 1). During treatment (irradiation or chemoirradiation), large intra-individual variations were seen additionally (Figure 1). We found a correlation between neutrophil counts and clinical reaction grade. Neutrophil counts increased with increasing mucositis (Figure 2). This increase was more pronounced for patients treated with chemoirradiation compared to radiation alone. Treatment breaks at weekends had no clear influence on neutrophil counts. Conclusions: We observed a weak correlation between neutrophil counts and clinical reaction grade. However, the variations in neutrophil counts are too large to utilize this parameter as a surrogate for clinical mucositis grading. The assumption that a decrease in oral neutrophils is associated with radiation-induced mucositis was clearly negated. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die chemotherapieinduzierte Mukositis kann mit einer Verarmung der Mundschleimhaut an neutrophilen Granulozyten vergesellschaftet sein. Wir ueberprueften den Zusammenhang zwischen der radiogenen Mukositis und der Anzahl neutrophiler Granulozyten. Patienten und Methoden: Bei zehn Patienten mit Tumoren der Kopf-Hals-Region, die sich einer Strahlentherapie unterzogen, wurde die Anzahl enoraler neutrophiler

  11. Activation of Neutrophils by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Goncalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs has increased in the past few years in various fields, including defence, aerospace, electronics, biology, medicine, and so forth. and in applications such as diagnostic technology, bioimaging, and drug/gene delivery. Thus, human exposure to NPs and nanomaterials is unavoidable and will certainly expand in the future resulting in a growing interest in nanotoxicology, the study of toxicity of nanomaterials. A number of studies have reported the effects of NPs in respect to pulmonary inflammation by investigating in vitro activation of pulmonary cells with NPs and in vivo in a variety of models in which neutrophils appear to be the predominant leukocyte cell type in lungs and in bronchoalveolar lavages following inhalation or intratracheal instillation of NPs. Despite the fact that several studies have reported an increased number of neutrophils, the literature dealing with the direct activation of neutrophils by a given NP is poorly documented. This paper will summarize the current literature in this latter area of research and will end with a perspective view in which our laboratory will be involved in the following years.

  12. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  13. Effect of sevoflurane on human neutrophil apoptosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyther, R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Both chronic occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetic agents and acute in vitro exposure of neutrophils to isoflurane have been shown to inhibit the rate of apoptosis of human neutrophils. It is possible that inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis arises through delaying mitochondrial membrane potential collapse. We assessed mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in unexposed neutrophils and neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo. METHODS: A total of 20 mL venous blood was withdrawn pre- and postinduction of anaesthesia, the neutrophils isolated and maintained in culture. At 1, 12 and 24 h in culture, the percentage of neutrophil apoptosis was assessed by dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. Mitochondrial depolarization was measured using the dual emission styryl dye JC-1. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly inhibited in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane in vivo at 24 (exposed: 38 (12)% versus control: 28 (11)%, P = 0.001), but not at 1 or 12 h, in culture. Mitochondrial depolarization was not delayed in neutrophils exposed to sevoflurane. CONCLUSIONS: The most important findings are that sevoflurane inhibits neutrophil apoptosis in vivo and that inhibition is not mediated primarily by an effect on mitochondrial depolarization.

  14. Neutrophil trafficking into inflamed joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and the effects of methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, P P; Cormack, J; Evill, C A; Peter, D T; Roberts-Thomson, P J; Ahern, M J; Smith, M D

    1996-02-01

    To investigate the trafficking of circulating blood neutrophils and synovial fluid neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and the influence of a 1,000-mg intravenous pulse of methylprednisolone succinate (MP). Neutrophils were isolated from the circulation and from the knee synovial compartments of subjects with RA. Circulating neutrophils were labeled with technetium-99 hexametazime (99mTc-HMPAO) and reinjected intravenously. Synovial fluid neutrophils were labeled from indium-111 oxine and reinjected into the knee from which they were isolated. Gamma camera images were obtained at intervals up to 24 hours post MP. Each patient had a baseline study (no MP) and a study in which MP was administered either 4 hours before (2 patients), 10 minutes before (1 patient), or 30 minutes to 1.5 hours after (6 patients) injection of the radiolabeled neutrophils. Subsequent analysis allowed quantitation of the neutrophil uptake into and clearance from the knee as a function of time. Nine patients who had not received glucocorticoids in the previous 3 months were studied. MP significantly decreased neutrophil ingress in 13 of the 16 knees studied (almost total inhibition in 5 knees), and this occurred within 1.5 hours of MP administration in all except 1 knee. At 24 hours after MP administration, there was a significant increase in visual analog scale (VAS) scores for well-being and significant decreases in scores on the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (PVAS for pain (p<0.005), and generalized stiffness (P<0.005), as well as a decrease in the C-reactive protein level (P<0.05). MP had no effect on neutrophil egress (2 patients). Two additional patients who were receiving oral glucocorticoids were studied. One of them was clinically unresponsive to oral prednisolone, and MP had no effect on neutrophil ingress. The other patient showed no neutrophil ingress during the baseline study. This was confirmed by the presence of a noninflammatory synovial fluid at

  15. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  16. Effects of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imteyaz Khan,1 Liying Zhang,2 Moiz Mohammed,1 Faith E Archer,1 Jehan Abukharmah,1 Zengrong Yuan,2 S Saif Rizvi,1 Michael G Melek,1 Arnold B Rabson,1,2 Yufang Shi,2 Barry Weinberger,1 Anna M Vetrano1,21Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 2Rutgers Child Health Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USABackground: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been proposed as autologous therapy for inflammatory diseases in neonates. MSCs from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJ-MSCs are accessible, with high proliferative capacity. The effects of WJ-MSCs on neutrophil activity in neonates are not known. We compared the effects of WJ-MSCs on apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory, oxidant, and antioxidant mediators in adult and neonatal neutrophils.Methods: WJ-MSCs were isolated, and their purity and function were confirmed by flow cytometry. Neutrophils were isolated from cord and adult blood by density centrifugation. The effects of neutrophil/WJ-MSC co-culture on apoptosis and gene and protein expression were measured.Results: WJ-MSCs suppressed neutrophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. WJ-MSCs decreased gene expression of NADPH oxidase-1 in both adult and neonatal neutrophils, but decreased heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor and increased catalase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the presence of lipopolysaccharide only in adult cells. Similarly, generation of interleukin-8 was suppressed in adult but not neonatal neutrophils. Thus, WJ-MSCs dampened oxidative, vascular, and inflammatory activity by adult neutrophils, but neonatal neutrophils were less responsive. Conversely, Toll-like receptor-4, and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated in WJ-MSCs only in the presence of adult neutrophils, suggesting an inflammatory MSC phenotype that is not induced by neonatal neutrophils.Conclusion: Whereas WJ-MSCs altered gene expression in adult neutrophils in ways suggesting anti

  17. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 and the Central/Peripheral Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released in response to meals and exerts important roles in the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 is also important in the regulation of neurologic and cognitive functions. These actions are mediated via neurons in the nucleus of the solitary trac...... human trials report a neuroprotective effect of GLP-1-RAs in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In this review, we discuss the role of GLP-1 and GLP-1-RAs in the nervous system with focus on GLP-1 actions on appetite regulation, glucose homeostasis, and neuroprotection....

  18. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1989-01-01

    intestine of the proglucagon precursor were determined by pairs of basic amino acid residues flanking the two peptides. Earlier studies have shown that synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) synthesized according to the proposed structure (proglucagon 71-108 or because residue 108 is Gly, 72-107 amide...... by hydrophobic, gel permeation, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. By analysis of composition and sequence it was determined that the peptide corresponded to PG 78-107. By mass spectrometry the molecular mass was determined to be 3295, corresponding to PG 78-107 amide. Furthermore, mass...

  19. Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosál, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 56-60 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * tharapeutical drugs * natural antioxidants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/intox.2017.10.issue-2/intox-2017-0009/intox-2017-0009.pdf

  20. Crystal Structure of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 in Complex with the Extracellular Domain of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Garibay, P.; Knudsen, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is an incretin released from intestinal L-cells in response to food intake. Activation of the GLP-1 receptor potentiates the synthesis and release of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in a glucose-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor belongs to class B of the G-protein....... The structure shows that important hydrophobic ligand-receptor interactions are conserved in agonist-and antagonist-bound forms of the extracellular domain, but certain residues in the ligand-binding site adopt a GLP-1-specific conformation. GLP-1 is a kinked but continuous alpha-helix from Thr(13) to Val(33......-coupled receptors, a subfamily characterized by a large N-terminal extracellular ligand binding domain. Exendin-4 and GLP-1 are 50% identical, and exendin-4 is a full agonist with similar affinity and potency for the GLP-1 receptor. We recently solved the crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor extracellular domain...

  1. Relationship between neutrophil-binding affinity and suitability for infection imaging: comparison of (99m)Tc-labeled NAP-2 (CXCL-7) and 3 C-terminally truncated isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, Huub J. J. M.; Frielink, Cathelijne; Brandt, Ernst; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Corstens, Frans H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The CXC chemokines are a family of closely related chemoattractant cytokines that bind to, attract, and activate neutrophils to variable degrees. In this study, the relationship between neutrophil-binding affinity and suitability for infection imaging was investigated in a selected group of CXC

  2. Relationship between neutrophil-binding affinity and suitability for infection imaging: comparison of (99m)Tc-labeled NAP-2 (CXCL-7) and 3 C-terminally truncated isoforms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Frielink, C.; Brandt, E.; Zaat, S.A.; Boerman, O.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The CXC chemokines are a family of closely related chemoattractant cytokines that bind to, attract, and activate neutrophils to variable degrees. In this study, the relationship between neutrophil-binding affinity and suitability for infection imaging was investigated in a selected group of CXC

  3. A Neutrophil Phenotype Model for Extracorporeal Treatment of Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Malkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play a central role in eliminating bacterial pathogens, but may also contribute to end-organ damage in sepsis. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, a key modulator of neutrophil function, signals through neutrophil specific surface receptors CXCR-1 and CXCR-2. In this study a mechanistic computational model was used to evaluate and deploy an extracorporeal sepsis treatment which modulates CXCR-1/2 levels. First, a simplified mechanistic computational model of IL-8 mediated activation of CXCR-1/2 receptors was developed, containing 16 ODEs and 43 parameters. Receptor level dynamics and systemic parameters were coupled with multiple neutrophil phenotypes to generate dynamic populations of activated neutrophils which reduce pathogen load, and/or primed neutrophils which cause adverse tissue damage when misdirected. The mathematical model was calibrated using experimental data from baboons administered a two-hour infusion of E coli and followed for a maximum of 28 days. Ensembles of parameters were generated using a Bayesian parallel tempering approach to produce model fits that could recreate experimental outcomes. Stepwise logistic regression identified seven model parameters as key determinants of mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that parameters controlling the level of killer cell neutrophils affected the overall systemic damage of individuals. To evaluate rescue strategies and provide probabilistic predictions of their impact on mortality, time of onset, duration, and capture efficacy of an extracorporeal device that modulated neutrophil phenotype were explored. Our findings suggest that interventions aiming to modulate phenotypic composition are time sensitive. When introduced between 3-6 hours of infection for a 72 hour duration, the survivor population increased from 31% to 40-80%. Treatment efficacy quickly diminishes if not introduced within 15 hours of infection. Significant harm is possible with treatment durations ranging from 5

  4. Structure-Based Design of Peptidic Inhibitors of the Interaction between CC Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) and Human Neutrophil Peptides 1 (HNP1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichapong, Kanin; Alard, Jean-Eric; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Weber, Christian; Hackeng, Tilman M.; Soehnlein, Oliver; Nicolaes, Gerry A. F.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are receiving increasing interest, much sparked by the realization that they represent druggable targets. Recently, we successfully developed a peptidic inhibitor, RRYGTSKYQ ("SKY" peptide), that shows high potential in vitro and in vivo to interrupt a PPI between

  5. Integrative function of adrenaline receptors for glucagon-like peptide-1 exocytosis in enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2015-05-15

    Adrenaline reacts with three types of adrenergic receptors, α1, α2 and β-adrenergic receptors (ARs), inducing many physiological events including exocytosis. Although adrenaline has been shown to induce glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal L cells, the precise molecular mechanism by which adrenaline regulates GLP-1 secretion remains unknown. Here we show by live cell imaging that all types of adrenergic receptors are stimulated by adrenaline in enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag cells and are involved in GLP-1 exocytosis. We performed RT-PCR analysis and found that α1B-, α2A-, α2B-, and β1-ARs were expressed in GLUTag cells. Application of adrenaline induced a significant increase of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP concentration ([Ca(2+)]i and [cAMP]i, respectively), and GLP-1 exocytosis in GLUTag cells. Blockade of α1-AR inhibited adrenaline-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase and exocytosis but not [cAMP]i increase, while blockade of β1-AR inhibited adrenaline-induced [cAMP]i increase and exocytosis but not [Ca(2+)]i increase. Furthermore, overexpression of α2A-AR suppressed the adrenaline-induced [cAMP]i increase and exocytosis. These results suggest that the fine-turning of GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells is established by the balance between α1-, α2-, and β-ARs activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formylpeptide receptors are critical for rapid neutrophil mobilization in host defense against Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyong; Chen, Keqiang; Yoshimura, Teizo; Liu, Ying; Gong, Wanghua; Wang, Aimin; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.; Wang, Ji Ming

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts with high mortality. Resistance to Listeria depends on immune responses and recruitment of neutrophils of the immune system into infected sites is an early and critical step. Mouse neutrophils express two G protein-coupled formylpeptide receptor subtypes Fpr1 and Fpr2 that recognize bacterial and host-derived chemotactic molecules including Listeria peptides for cell migration and activation. Here we report deficiency in Fprs exacerbated the severity of the infection and increased the mortality of infected mice. The mechanism involved impaired early neutrophil recruitment to the liver with Fpr1 and Fpr2 being sole receptors for neutrophils to sense Listeria chemoattractant signals and for production of bactericidal superoxide. Thus, Fprs are essential sentinels to guide the first wave of neutrophil infiltration in the liver of Listeria-infected mice for effective elimination of the invading pathogen. PMID:23139859

  7. Neutrophil Responses to Sterile Implant Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jhunjhunwala

    Full Text Available In vivo implantation of sterile materials and devices results in a foreign body immune response leading to fibrosis of implanted material. Neutrophils, one of the first immune cells to be recruited to implantation sites, have been suggested to contribute to the establishment of the inflammatory microenvironment that initiates the fibrotic response. However, the precise numbers and roles of neutrophils in response to implanted devices remains unclear. Using a mouse model of peritoneal microcapsule implantation, we show 30-500 fold increased neutrophil presence in the peritoneal exudates in response to implants. We demonstrate that these neutrophils secrete increased amounts of a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Further, we observe that they participate in the foreign body response through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs on implant surfaces. Our results provide new insight into neutrophil function during a foreign body response to peritoneal implants which has implications for the development of biologically compatible medical devices.

  8. Neutrophil Reverse Migration Becomes Transparent with Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Starnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation is critical for both host defense and the prevention of immunopathology. In vivo imaging studies in zebrafish, and more recently in mice, have made the novel observation that neutrophils leave a site of inflammation through a process called neutrophil reverse migration. The application of advanced imaging techniques to the genetically tractable, optically transparent zebrafish larvae was critical for these advances. Still, the mechanisms underlying neutrophil reverse migration and its effects on the resolution or priming of immune responses remain unclear. Here, we review the current knowledge of neutrophil reverse migration, its potential roles in host immunity, and the live imaging tools that make zebrafish a valuable model for increasing our knowledge of neutrophil behavior in vivo.

  9. Neutrophils in Tuberculosis: Heterogeneity Shapes the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Infection with M. tuberculosis remains one of the most common infections in the world. The outcome of the infection depends on host ability to mount effective protection and balance inflammatory responses. Neutrophils are innate immune cells implicated in both processes. Accordingly, during M. tuberculosis infection, they play a dual role. Particularly, they contribute to the generation of effector T cells, participate in the formation of granuloma, and are directly involved in tissue necrosis, destruction, and infection dissemination. Neutrophils have a high bactericidal potential. However, data on their ability to eliminate M. tuberculosis are controversial, and the results of neutrophil depletion experiments are not uniform. Thus, the overall roles of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and factors that determine these roles are not fully understood. This review analyzes data on neutrophil defensive and pathological functions during tuberculosis and considers hypotheses explaining the dualism of neutrophils during M. tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease. PMID:28626346

  10. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    microscopy and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: We identified and quantified 5711 different proteins with proteomics. The abundance of the proteins calprotectin and lactotransferrin in the tissue correlated with the degree of tissue inflammation as determined by histology. However, fecal calprotectin did...... not correlate. Forty-six proteins were measured with a statistically significant differences in abundances between the UC colon tissue and controls. Eleven of the proteins with increased abundances in the UC biopsies were associated with neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps. The findings were...... validated by microscopy, where an increased abundance of neutrophils and the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps by extracellular DNA present in the UC colon tissue were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Neutrophils, induced neutrophil extracellular traps, and several proteins that play a part in innate...

  11. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O- 2 and H 2 O 2 . This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O- 2 generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O- 2 responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils

  12. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  13. Re-Examining Neutrophil Participation in GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Dawn J; Powell, David W; Miralda, Irina; Ward, Richard A; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2017-08-01

    Significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of GN have occurred in recent decades. Among those advances is the finding that both innate and adaptive immune cells contribute to the development of GN. Neutrophils were recognized as key contributors in early animal models of GN, at a time when the prevailing view considered neutrophils to function as nonspecific effector cells that die quickly after performing antimicrobial functions. However, advances over the past two decades have shown that neutrophil functions are more complex and sophisticated. Specifically, research has revealed that neutrophil survival is regulated by the inflammatory milieu and that neutrophils demonstrate plasticity, mediate microbial killing through previously unrecognized mechanisms, demonstrate transcriptional activity leading to the release of cytokines and chemokines, interact with and regulate cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, and contribute to the resolution of inflammation. Therefore, neutrophil participation in glomerular diseases deserves re-evaluation. In this review, we describe advances in understanding classic neutrophil functions, review the expanded roles of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immune responses, and summarize current knowledge of neutrophil contributions to GN. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. HMGB1 promotes neutrophil extracellular trap formation through interactions with Toll-like receptor 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadie, Jean-Marc; Bae, Hong-Beom; Jiang, Shaoning; Park, Dae Won; Bell, Celeste P.; Yang, Huan; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Tracey, Kevin; Thannickal, Victor J.; Abraham, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Although neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form to prevent dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, excessive release of DNA and DNA-associated proteins can also perpetuate sterile inflammation. In this study, we found that the danger-associated molecular pattern protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can induce NET formation. NET formation was found after exposure of wild-type and receptor for advanced glycation end products-deficient neutrophil to HMGB1, whereas deficiency of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 diminished the ability of neutrophils to produce NETs. Incubation of neutrophils with HMGB1 significantly increased the amount of DNA and histone 3 released as well as intracellular histone 3 citrullination, a signaling event that precedes chromatin decondensation. In vivo, neutrophils isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages of mice exposed to LPS and HMGB1 showed consistently greater ability to produce NETs compared with pulmonary neutrophils from mice that received LPS alone. In contrast, mice treated with LPS and neutralizing antibody to HMGB1 had decreased amounts of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein 2, as well as of free DNA and histone 3 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Airway neutrophils from LPS-exposed mice that had been treated with anti-HMGB1 antibodies showed decreased citrullination of histone 3. These results demonstrate that interactions between HMGB1 and TLR4 enhance the formation of NETs and provide a novel mechanism through which HMGB1 may contribute to the severity of neutrophil-associated inflammatory conditions. PMID:23316068

  15. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Kostrzewa, Artur; Łuczak, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response. Incubation of neutrophils with betanin in the concentration range 2-500 µM resulted in significant inhibition of ROS production (by 15-46%, depending on the ROS detection assay). The antioxidant capacity of betanin was most prominently expressed in the chemiluminescence measurements. This compound decreased also the percentage of DNA in comet tails in stimulated neutrophils, but only at the 24 h time point. In resting neutrophils an increased level of DNA in comet tails was observed. Betanin did not affect the activity of caspase-3, in resting neutrophils, but significantly enhanced the enzyme activity in stimulated neutrophils. The western blot analysis showed, however, an increased level of caspase-3 cleavage products as a result of betanin treatment both in resting and stimulated neutrophils. The results indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Complement Activation Induces Neutrophil Adhesion and Neutrophil-Platelet Aggregate Formation on Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Riedl

    2017-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, our findings of (i neutrophils adhering to complement-activated endothelial cells, (ii the formation of neutrophil-platelet aggregates on endothelial cells, and (iii the ability of aHUS serum to induce similar effects identify a possible role for neutrophils in aHUS manifestation.

  17. Neutrophils degrade subendothelial matrices in the presence of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor. Cooperative use of lysosomal proteinases and oxygen metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S J; Regiani, S

    1984-01-01

    Triggered neutrophils rapidly degraded labeled matrices secreted by cultured, venous endothelial cells via a process dependent on elastase but not oxygen metabolites. In the presence of high concentrations of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor, the ability of the stimulated neutrophil to solubilize the matrix was impaired. However, at lower concentrations of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor the neutrophil could enhance the degradative potential of its released elastase by a H2O2-dependent process. Coin...

  18. (neutrophil) Activity, Chronic Gastritis, Gastric Atrophy And Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental (early gastric) cancer was found in 3%, dysplasia in 2% and reactive gastropathy in 7% of the cases. A statistically significant relationship was found between Helicobacter pylori colonization intensity and the degrees of neutrophil activity, chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia. Conclusion: We concluded ...

  19. Changes in neutrophil count, creatine kinases and muscle soreness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A primary objective was to examine circulating neutrophil count after repeated bouts of downhill running. An additional aim was to determine creatine kinase (CK) levels during the initial 12 hours, after repeated DHRs. Design. Eleven healthy, untrained Caucasian males performed 2 x 60 min bouts of DHR ...

  20. On the pharmacology of oxidative burst of neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.; Harmatha, Juraj; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2011), A51-A51 ISSN 1337-6853. [TOXCON 2011. Interdisciplinary Toxicology Conference /16./. 17.05.2011-20.05.2011, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : N-feruloyl- serotonin * oxidative burst * inhibition of neutrophil activation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  1. The Antidiabetic Mechanisms of Polyphenols Related to Increased Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP1) and Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Avila, J Abraham; Rodrigo García, Joaquín; González Aguilar, Gustavo A; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2017-05-30

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an endocrine disease related to impaired/absent insulin signaling. Dietary habits can either promote or mitigate the onset and severity of T2DM. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been correlated with a decreased incidence of T2DM, apparently due to their high polyphenol content. Polyphenols are compounds of plant origin with several documented bioactivities related to health promotion. The present review describes the antidiabetic effects of polyphenols, specifically related to the secretion and effects of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), an enteric hormone that stimulates postprandial insulin secretion. The evidence suggests that polyphenols from various sources stimulate L-cells to secrete GLP1, increase its half-life by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4), stimulate β-cells to secrete insulin and stimulate the peripheral response to insulin, increasing the overall effects of the GLP1-insulin axis. The glucose-lowering potential of polyphenols has been evidenced in various acute and chronic models of healthy and diabetic organisms. Some polyphenols appear to exert their effects similarly to pharmaceutical antidiabetics; thus, rigorous clinical trials are needed to fully validate this claim. The broad diversity of polyphenols has not allowed for entirely describing their mechanisms of action, but the evidence advocates for their regular consumption.

  2. Plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and markers of obesity among young and healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stouwe, Jan Gerrit; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Krisai, Philipp; Schoen, Tobias; Meyre, Pascal; Todd, John; Estis, Joel; Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Conen, David

    2015-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-related pathways may partially explain the strong relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes. We therefore aimed to evaluate the relationships between fasting GLP-1 levels, body fat mass and other obesity markers in a large sample of young and healthy adults. Our population-based study included 2096 individuals aged 24-44. Exclusion criteria were prevalent cardiovascular disease, diabetes or a body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2) . Body fat mass was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to assess the relationships of GLP-1 with various measures of body composition. Median age of our population was 37 years, median BMI 24·1 kg/m(2) and median body fat 25·1%. A strong positive correlation was observed in age-adjusted models between GLP-1 and fat mass in men (β (95% confidence interval) 1·38 (0·69; 2·07), P young and healthy adults, GLP-1 levels are strongly and independently related to body fat mass especially in men but not BMI or waist circumference. These results raise the hypothesis that GLP-1 may be implicated in body fat mass regulation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Antidiabetic Mechanisms of Polyphenols Related to Increased Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP1 and Insulin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abraham Domínguez Avila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is an endocrine disease related to impaired/absent insulin signaling. Dietary habits can either promote or mitigate the onset and severity of T2DM. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been correlated with a decreased incidence of T2DM, apparently due to their high polyphenol content. Polyphenols are compounds of plant origin with several documented bioactivities related to health promotion. The present review describes the antidiabetic effects of polyphenols, specifically related to the secretion and effects of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1, an enteric hormone that stimulates postprandial insulin secretion. The evidence suggests that polyphenols from various sources stimulate L-cells to secrete GLP1, increase its half-life by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4, stimulate β-cells to secrete insulin and stimulate the peripheral response to insulin, increasing the overall effects of the GLP1-insulin axis. The glucose-lowering potential of polyphenols has been evidenced in various acute and chronic models of healthy and diabetic organisms. Some polyphenols appear to exert their effects similarly to pharmaceutical antidiabetics; thus, rigorous clinical trials are needed to fully validate this claim. The broad diversity of polyphenols has not allowed for entirely describing their mechanisms of action, but the evidence advocates for their regular consumption.

  4. Semi-Automatic Rating Method for Neutrophil Alkaline Phosphatase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Kanae; Hashi, Kotomi; Goto, Misaki; Nishi, Kiyotaka; Maeda, Rie; Kono, Keigo; Yamamoto, Mai; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Miwa, Keiko; Mikami, Taisei; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score is a valuable test for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but it has still manually rated. Therefore, we developed a semi-automatic rating method using Photoshop ® and Image-J, called NAP-PS-IJ. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase staining was conducted with Tomonaga's method to films of peripheral blood taken from three healthy volunteers. At least 30 neutrophils with NAP scores from 0 to 5+ were observed and taken their images. From which the outer part of neutrophil was removed away with Image-J. These were binarized with two different procedures (P1 and P2) using Photoshop ® . NAP-positive area (NAP-PA) and granule (NAP-PGC) were measured and counted with Image-J. The NAP-PA in images binarized with P1 significantly (P < 0.05) differed between images with NAP scores from 0 to 3+ (group 1) and those from 4+ to 5+ (group 2). The original images in group 1 were binarized with P2. NAP-PGC of them significantly (P < 0.05) differed among all four NAP score groups. The mean NAP-PGC with NAP-PS-IJ indicated a good correlation (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) to results by human examiners. The sensitivity and specificity of NAP-PS-IJ were 60% and 92%, which might be considered as a prototypic method for the full-automatic rating NAP score. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Different innate neutrophil responses in controlled and uncontrolled asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Francesca; Foxley, Gloria; Gibson, Peter; Burgess, Janette; Baines, Katherine; Oliver, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory viruses are a major cause of asthma exacerbations. Neutrophilic inflammation occurs during infections and is associated with difficult to treat asthma. The role of neutrophils in viral infections and whether neutrophil dysfunction contributes to exacerbation pathogenesis

  6. Peritoneal neutrophil chemotaxis is impaired in biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy, O J; Grogan, J B; Griswold, J A; Scott-Conner, C E

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown impaired reticuloendothelial function in biliary obstruction. The chemotactic response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid of jaundiced rats (Group 1) was compared to that of sham operated controls (Group 2) and normal rats (Group 3). Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bile duct ligation or sham celiotomy. Studies were performed from 1 to 3 weeks after surgery. Mean serum bilirubin was 6.8 mg percent in Group 1 and normal in Groups 2 and 3. Peritoneal neutrophils were induced by intraperitoneal injection of 10 ml of 10 percent peptone broth 16 hours before the study, harvested from peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood, and isolated on Ficoll-Hypaque. F-met-leu-phe (FMLP) chemoattractant (10(-7) M) was used to induce migration of neutrophils across 3 mu filters. The filters were removed, mounted on slides, stained, and counts averaged for five oil immersion fields for each of three wells. Data were expressed as number of neutrophils per oil immersion field. Peritoneal neutrophil chemotaxis was significantly decreased in Group 1 (10.3 +/- 8.1) compared with Groups 2 (17.0 +/- 7.3) and 3 (20.2 +/- 6.4). A similar trend was noted in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from peripheral blood (Group 1: 13.1 +/- 7.8, Group 2: 18.2 +/- 6.7, Group 3: 17.4 +/- 5.9; P = 0.1). This impairment in neutrophil chemotaxis may contribute to the high rate of septic complications observed in the jaundiced host.

  7. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonists in the Treatment of Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Karras, Spyridon N; Katsiki, Niki

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females and is often associated with a number of cardiometabolic disorders such as central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone secreted after a meal, enhances glucosestimulated insulin secretion and additionally suppresses appetite and gastric motility. Most studies found impaired GLP-1 kinetics in obese individuals, whereas small studies in PCOS reported reduced, normal or even elevated GLP-1 levels. Apart from their efficacy in patients with T2DM, some GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) have been successfully tested in terms of both efficiency and safety in obese individuals without diabetes and liraglutide 3 mg once daily has been approved as an antiobesity drug in the USA and the European Union. Recently, some small trials of short duration using GLP-1 RAs as monotherapy or combined with metformin in obese PCOS women showed positive results regarding weight reduction and a decrease in testosterone levels but without significant effects on insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and menstrual patterns. Longer term studies with more patients and higher doses of liraglutide (as this drug is already approved for obese individuals) are required to determine the precise indications of GLP-1 RAs in PCOS and to evaluate safety issues. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Nucleases from Prevotella intermedia can degrade neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, M; Fukamachi, H; Morisaki, H; Arimoto, T; Kataoka, H; Kuwata, H

    2017-08-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease caused by periodontal bacteria in subgingival plaque. These bacteria are able to colonize the periodontal region by evading the host immune response. Neutrophils, the host's first line of defense against infection, use various strategies to kill invading pathogens, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular net-like fibers comprising DNA and antimicrobial components such as histones, LL-37, defensins, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase from neutrophils that disarm and kill bacteria extracellularly. Bacterial nuclease degrades the NETs to escape NET killing. It has now been shown that extracellular nucleases enable bacteria to evade this host antimicrobial mechanism, leading to increased pathogenicity. Here, we compared the DNA degradation activity of major Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. We found that Pr. intermedia showed the highest DNA degradation activity. A genome search of Pr. intermedia revealed the presence of two genes, nucA and nucD, putatively encoding secreted nucleases, although their enzymatic and biological activities are unknown. We cloned nucA- and nucD-encoding nucleases from Pr. intermedia ATCC 25611 and characterized their gene products. Recombinant NucA and NucD digested DNA and RNA, which required both Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ for optimal activity. In addition, NucA and NucD were able to degrade the DNA matrix comprising NETs. © 2016 The Authors Molecular Oral Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neutrophil migration under normal and sepsis conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Yelena V; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil migration is critical for pathogen clearance and host survival during severe sepsis. Interaction of neutrophil adhesion receptors with ligands on endothelial cells results in firm adhesion of the circulating neutrophils, followed by neutrophil activation and directed migration to sites of infection through the basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix. Proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species are produced and released by neutrophils in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Although these mediators are important for host defense, they also promote tissue damage. Excessive neutrophil migration during the early stages of sepsis may lead to an exaggerated inflammatory response with associated tissue damage and subsequent organ dysfunction. On the other hand, dysregulation of migration and insufficient migratory response that occurs during the latter stages of severe sepsis contributes to neutrophils' inability to contain and control infection and impaired wound healing. This review discusses the major steps and associated molecules involved in the balance of neutrophil trafficking, the precise regulation of which during sepsis spells life or death for the host.

  10. Neutrophils Cause an Intravascular Traffic Jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minns, Martin S; Pearlman, Eric

    2018-01-10

    Neutrophil swarming is defined by large numbers of cells simultaneously and rapidly migrating to a site of injury or infection. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2018) demonstrate that intravascular swarming of neutrophils occurs in response to Candida albicans infection and causes vascular occlusion and pathological sequelae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutrophil heterogeneity: implications for homeostasis and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestre-Roig, Carlos; Hidalgo, Andres; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the phagocytic system that act as first line of host defense against invading pathogens but are also important mediators of inflammation-induced injury. In contrast to other members of the innate immune system, neutrophils are classically considered a

  12. Neutrophil Segmentation Index Anomaly in Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil lobe count was conducted on the blood films of 262 patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus (AIDS) and 204 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody-negative apparently healthy controls. The count for each group was evaluated for neutrophil segmentation index by standard method.

  13. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann H Allen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.

  14. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, Liraglutide, delays onset of experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Valle, Brian William; Brix, Gitte S.; Brock, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent findings indicate that metabolic disturbances are involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology and influence the susceptibility to treatment, directing attention toward anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and pioglitazone. Liraglutide, a drug of the glucagon-like peptide-1......, that liraglutide treatment delays onset of EAE in Lewis rats and is associated with improved protective capacity against oxidative stress. These data suggest GLP-1 receptor agonists should be investigated further as a potential therapy for MS...... by blinded observers. Animals were killed at peak disease severity (day 11) or if exceeding humane endpoint (clinical score ≥4). Protein levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), amyloid precursor protein (APP), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were determined. Results: Liraglutide...

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits blood-brain glucose transfer in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has many effects on glucose homeostasis, and GLP-1 receptors are broadly represented in many tissues including the brain. Recent research in rodents suggests a protective effect of GLP-1 on brain tissue. The mechanism is unknown. We therefore tested...... whether these neuroprotective effects could relate to changes of glucose transport and consumption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 10 healthy men in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over experiment. We used positron emission tomography to determine the acute insulin......-independent effect of GLP-1 on unidirectional glucose transport into the brain during a pituitary-pancreatic normoglycemic (plasma glucose approximately 4.5 mmol/l) clamp with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose as tracer. RESULTS: On average, GLP-1 reduced cerebral glucose transport by 27% in total cerebral gray matter (P = 0...

  16. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Niels B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-01-01

    trials for diabetes therapies. To determine if different glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) had varying effects on these CV risk factors, we reviewed 16 head-to-head trials directly comparing GLP-1RAs that included at least one of the five factors. Few trials reported statistical...... differences between GLP-1RAs in terms of systolic blood pressure (SBP), body weight and total cholesterol. Liraglutide increased heart rate vs its comparators in three separate trials. All GLP-1RAs reduced glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), but exenatide twice daily and lixisenatide had statistically smaller...... effects compared with other GLP-1RAs. These descriptive data indicate that individual GLP-1RAs affect CV risk factors differently, potentially because of their individual pharmacokinetics and/or size. Short-acting GLP-1RAs appeared to result in smaller changes in SBP and total cholesterol compared...

  17. Determination of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, Glucagon and Oxyntomodulin in Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Monika Judyta

    Glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon and oxyntomodulin are three peptide hormones which play a significant role in diabetes, however there is a major controversy regarding their exact roles due to difficulties in measuring of these peptides because of molecular heterogeneity, low circulating concent...... of the studies from the literature that have provided reliable measurements and thereby help resolve controversies regarding the metabolic roles of the peptides. The improved technology should also provide better reliability of future publications in the field......., the addition of aprotinin to plasma prior to glucagon sample analysis was investigated. Aprotinin addition has been recommended for many years to avoid peptide degradation during sampling and storage. To make sure that the analysed samples are handled correctly and that the peptides are not degraded, a study...

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, in experimental cerebral malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Valle, Brian William; Hempel, Casper; Staalsoe, Trine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria from Plasmodium falciparum infection is major cause of death in the tropics. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the brain is incompletely understood. Insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1) mimetics have potent neuroprotective effects in animal models of neuropathology associated with ROS/RNS dysfunction. This study investigates the effect of the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide against the clinical outcome of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) and Plasmodium falciparum growth....... Furthermore the role of oxidative stress on ECM pathogenesis is evaluated. METHODS: ECM was induced in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57Bl/6j mice. Infected Balb/c (non-cerebral malaria) and uninfected C57Bl/6j mice were included as controls. Mice were treated twice-daily with vehicle or liraglutide (200...

  19. Glucagon-like peptide 1: A potential anti-inflammatory pathway in obesity-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dan-Vinh; Linderholm, Angela; Haczku, Angela; Kenyon, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Alterations in arginine metabolism and accelerated formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), crucial mechanisms in obesity-related asthma, can be modulated by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). l-arginine dysregulation in obesity promotes inflammation and bronchoconstriction. Prolonged hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress leads to production of AGEs, that bind to their receptor (RAGE) further potentiating inflammation. By binding to its widely distributed receptor, GLP-1 blunts the effects of RAGE activation and arginine dysregulation. The GLP-1 pathway, while comprehensively studied in the endocrine and cardiovascular literature, is under-recognized in pulmonary research. Insights into GLP-1 and the lung may lead to novel treatments for obesity-related asthma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Secretion, degradation, and elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kranz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and have a promising therapeutic potential. Alterations of their secretion, in vivo degradation, and elimination in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI...... elimination of GIP and GLP-1. The initial dipeptidyl peptidase IV-mediated degradation of both hormones is almost unaffected by impairments in renal function. Delayed elimination of GLP-1 and GIP in renal insufficiency may influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dipeptidyl peptidase IV...

  1. Allosteric Modulation of the Activity of the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Metabolite GLP-1 9–36 Amide at the GLP-1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Naichang; Lu, Jing; Willars, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal L cells in response to nutrients has many physiological effects but particularly enhances glucose-dependent insulin release through the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1 7-36 amide, the predominant circulating active form of GLP-1, is rapidly truncated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 to GLP-1 9-36 amide, which is generally considered inactive. Given its physiological roles, the GLP-1R is targeted for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently 'compo...

  2. Contribution of neutrophils to acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Jochen; Soehnlein, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), remain unsolved problems of intensive care medicine. ALI/ARDS are characterized by lung edema due to increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation. Lung edema, endothelial and epithelial injury are accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the interstitium and broncheoalveolar space. Hence, activation and recruitment of neutrophils are regarded to play a key role in progression of ALI/ARDS. Neutrophils are the first cells to be recruited to the site of inflammation and have a potent antimicrobial armour that includes oxidants, proteinases and cationic peptides. Under pathological circumstances, however, unregulated release of these microbicidal compounds into the extracellular space paradoxically can damage host tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment into the lung and on the contribution of neutrophils to tissue damage in ALI.

  3. Purification of family B G protein-coupled receptors using nanodiscs: Application to human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Cai

    Full Text Available Family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play vital roles in hormone-regulated homeostasis. They are drug targets for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Despite their importance, the signaling mechanisms for family B GPCRs at the molecular level remain largely unexplored due to the challenges in purification of functional receptors in sufficient amount for biophysical characterization. Here, we purified the family B GPCR human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R, whose agonists, e.g. exendin-4, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The receptor was expressed in HEK293S GnTl- cells using our recently developed protocol. The protocol incorporates the receptor into the native-like lipid environment of reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL particles, also known as nanodiscs, immediately after the membrane solubilization step followed by chromatographic purification, minimizing detergent contact with the target receptor to reduce denaturation and prolonging stabilization of receptor in lipid bilayers without extra steps of reconstitution. This method yielded purified GLP1R in nanodiscs that could bind to GLP-1 and exendin-4 and activate Gs protein. This nanodisc purification method can potentially be a general strategy to routinely obtain purified family B GPCRs in the 10s of microgram amounts useful for spectroscopic analysis of receptor functions and activation mechanisms.

  4. An Emerging Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Preventing Advanced-Glycation-End-Product-Mediated Damages in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Puddu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gut hormone produced in the intestinal epithelial endocrine L cells by differential processing of the proglucagon gene. Released in response to the nutrient ingestion, GLP-1 plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 has been shown to regulate blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and inhibiting glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and food intake. These antidiabetic activities highlight GLP-1 as a potential therapeutic molecule in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes, (a disease characterized by progressive decline of beta-cell function and mass, increased insulin resistance, and final hyperglycemia. Since chronic hyperglycemia contributed to the acceleration of the formation of Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs, a heterogeneous group of compounds derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with free amino groups of proteins implicated in vascular diabetic complications, the administration of GLP-1 might directly counteract diabetes pathophysiological processes (such as pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. This paper outlines evidence on the protective role of GLP-1 in preventing the deleterious effects mediated by AGEs in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Exocrine Gland-Secreting Peptide 1 Is a Key Chemosensory Signal Responsible for the Bruce Effect in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Osakada, Takuya; Masaoka, Takuto; Ooyama, Rumi; Horio, Nao; Mogi, Kazutaka; Nagasawa, Miho; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Touhara, Kazushige; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-10-23

    The Bruce effect refers to pregnancy termination in recently pregnant female rodents upon exposure to unfamiliar males [1]. This event occurs in specific combinations of laboratory mouse strains via the vomeronasal system [2, 3]; however, the responsible chemosensory signals have not been fully identified. Here we demonstrate that the male pheromone exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) is one of the key factors that causes pregnancy block. Female mice exhibited high pregnancy failure rates upon encountering males that secreted different levels of ESP1 compared to the mated male. The effect was not observed in mice that lacked the ESP1 receptor, V2Rp5, which is expressed in vomeronasal sensory neurons. Prolactin surges in the blood after mating, which are essential for maintaining luteal function, were suppressed by ESP1 exposure, suggesting that a neuroendocrine mechanism underlies ESP1-mediated pregnancy failure. The single peptide pheromone ESP1 conveys not only maleness to promote female receptivity but also the males' characteristics to facilitate memorization of the mating partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ITAM signaling by Vav family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulates interstitial transit rates of neutrophils in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Graham

    Full Text Available In response to infection, neutrophils are quickly recruited from the blood into inflamed tissues. The interstitial migration of neutrophils is crucial for the efficient capture and control of rapidly proliferating microbes before microbial growth can overwhelm the host's defenses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate interstitial migration are incompletely understood.Here, we use two-photon microscopy (2PM to study discrete steps of neutrophil responses during subcutaneous infection with bacteria. Our study demonstrates that signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors mediated by Vav family Rho GEFs control the velocity, but not the directionality, of neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection.Here we show that during neutrophil migration towards sites of bacterial infection, signals emanating from ITAM-containing receptors specifically control interstitial neutrophil velocity.

  7. Dynamic interactions of neutrophils and biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Hirschfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of microbial infections in humans are biofilm-associated and difficult to treat, as biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and protect themselves from external threats in various ways. Biofilms are tenaciously attached to surfaces and impede the ability of host defense molecules and cells to penetrate them. On the other hand, some biofilms are beneficial for the host and contain protective microorganisms. Microbes in biofilms express pathogen-associated molecular patterns and epitopes that can be recognized by innate immune cells and opsonins, leading to activation of neutrophils and other leukocytes. Neutrophils are part of the first line of defense and have multiple antimicrobial strategies allowing them to attack pathogenic biofilms. Objective/design: In this paper, interaction modes of neutrophils with biofilms are reviewed. Antimicrobial strategies of neutrophils and the counteractions of the biofilm communities, with special attention to oral biofilms, are presented. Moreover, possible adverse effects of neutrophil activity and their biofilm-promoting side effects are discussed. Results/conclusion: Biofilms are partially, but not entirely, protected against neutrophil assault, which include the processes of phagocytosis, degranulation, and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. However, virulence factors of microorganisms, microbial composition, and properties of the extracellular matrix determine whether a biofilm and subsequent microbial spread can be controlled by neutrophils and other host defense factors. Besides, neutrophils may inadvertently contribute to the physical and ecological stability of biofilms by promoting selection of more resistant strains. Moreover, neutrophil enzymes can degrade collagen and other proteins and, as a result, cause harm to the host tissues. These parameters could be crucial factors in the onset of periodontal inflammation and the subsequent tissue breakdown.

  8. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Circulating neutrophil transcriptome may reveal intracranial aneurysm signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Tutino

    Full Text Available Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs.Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls. Samples from the two groups were paired based on demographics and comorbidities. RNA was extracted from isolated neutrophils and subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing to obtain differential expressions for identification of an IA-associated signature. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene set enrichment analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, were used to investigate the biological function of all differentially expressed transcripts.Transcriptome profiling identified 258 differentially expressed transcripts in patients with and without IAs. Expression differences were consistent with peripheral neutrophil activation. An IA-associated RNA expression signature was identified in 82 transcripts (p<0.05, fold-change ≥2. This signature was able to separate patients with and without IAs on hierarchical clustering. Furthermore, in an independent, unpaired, replication cohort of patients with IAs (n = 5 and controls (n = 5, the 82 transcripts separated 9 of 10 patients into their respective groups.Preliminary findings show that RNA expression from circulating neutrophils carries an IA-associated signature. These findings highlight a potential to use predictive biomarkers from peripheral blood samples to identify patients with IAs.

  10. Pathogen response-like recruitment and activation of neutrophils by sterile immunogenic dying cells drives neutrophil-mediated residual cell killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Vandenberk, Lien; Fang, Shentong; Fasche, Tekele; Van Eygen, Sofie; Maes, Jan; Van Woensel, Matthias; Koks, Carolien; Vanthillo, Niels; Graf, Norbert; de Witte, Peter; Van Gool, Stefaan; Salven, Petri; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-05-01

    Innate immune sensing of dying cells is modulated by several signals. Inflammatory chemokines-guided early recruitment, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns-triggered activation, of major anti-pathogenic innate immune cells like neutrophils distinguishes pathogen-infected stressed/dying cells from sterile dying cells. However, whether certain sterile dying cells stimulate innate immunity by partially mimicking pathogen response-like recruitment/activation of neutrophils remains poorly understood. We reveal that sterile immunogenic dying cancer cells trigger (a cell autonomous) pathogen response-like chemokine (PARC) signature, hallmarked by co-release of CXCL1, CCL2 and CXCL10 (similar to cells infected with bacteria or viruses). This PARC signature recruits preferentially neutrophils as first innate immune responders in vivo (in a cross-species, evolutionarily conserved manner; in mice and zebrafish). Furthermore, key danger signals emanating from these dying cells, that is, surface calreticulin, ATP and nucleic acids stimulate phagocytosis, purinergic receptors and toll-like receptors (TLR) i.e. TLR7/8/9-MyD88 signaling on neutrophil level, respectively. Engagement of purinergic receptors and TLR7/8/9-MyD88 signaling evokes neutrophil activation, which culminates into H 2 O 2 and NO-driven respiratory burst-mediated killing of viable residual cancer cells. Thus sterile immunogenic dying cells perform 'altered-self mimicry' in certain contexts to exploit neutrophils for phagocytic targeting of dead/dying cancer cells and cytotoxic targeting of residual cancer cells.

  11. The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist enhances intrinsic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuma, Hirohisa; Inukai, Kouichi, E-mail: kinukai@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Nishida, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • PPARγ activation was involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action. • Exendin-4 enhanced endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity in HUVECs. • H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement. • The anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 may be explained by PPARγ activation. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) signaling to exert anti-inflammatory effects on endothelial cells, although the precise underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether PPARγ activation is involved in the GLP-1-mediated anti-inflammatory action on endothelial cells. When we treated HUVEC cells with 0.2 ng/ml exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, endogenous PPARγ transcriptional activity was significantly elevated, by approximately 20%, as compared with control cells. The maximum PPARγ activity enhancing effect of exendin-4 was observed 12 h after the initiation of incubation with exendin-4. As H89, a PKA inhibitor, abolished GLP-1-induced PPARγ enhancement, the signaling downstream from GLP-1 cross-talk must have been involved in PPARγ activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that GLP-1 has the potential to induce PPARγ activity, partially explaining the anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 on endothelial cells. Cross-talk between GLP-1 signaling and PPARγ activation would have major impacts on treatments for patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  12. A mechanism for agonist activation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor through modelling & molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Santiago, Carla; Paci, Emanuele; Donnelly, Dan

    2018-03-29

    The receptor for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1R) is a validated drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Recently the first three structures of GLP-1R were published - an X-ray structure of the apo transmembrane domain in the inactive conformation; an X-ray structure of the full-length receptor bound to a truncated peptide agonist; and a cryo-EM structure of the full-length receptor bound with GLP-1 and coupled to the G protein G s . Since the inactive structure was incomplete, and the two active-state structures shared significant differences, we utilised all available knowledge to build hybrid models of the full length active and inactive state receptors. The two models were simulated using molecular dynamics and the output trajectories analysed and compared to reveal insights into the mechanism for agonist-mediated receptor activation. His-7, Glu-9 and Asp-15 of GLP-1 act together to destabilise transmembrane helix 6 and extracellular loop 3 in order to generate an active conformation of GLP-1R. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Duplexed High-Throughput Screen to Identify Allosteric Modulators of the Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Glucagon Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lindsey C.; Days, Emily L.; Turney, Maxine; Mi, Dehui; Lindsley, Craig W.; Weaver, C. David; Niswender, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable, degradation-resistant peptide agonists for the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), such as exenatide and liraglutide, activate the GLP-1R via a complex orthosteric-binding site and are effective therapeutics for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Orally bioavailable orthosteric small-molecule agonists are unlikely to be developed, whereas positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) may offer an improved therapeutic profile. We hypothesize that allosteric modulators of the GLP-1R would increase the potency and efficacy of native GLP-1 in a spatial and temporally preserved manner and/or may improve efficacy or side effects of injectable analogs. We report the design, optimization, and initial results of a duplexed high-throughput screen in which cell lines overexpressing either the GLP-1R or the glucagon receptor were coplated, loaded with a calcium-sensitive dye, and probed in a three-phase assay to identify agonists, antagonists, and potentiators of GLP-1, and potentiators of glucagon. 175,000 compounds were initially screened, and progression through secondary assays yielded 98 compounds with a variety of activities at the GLP-1R. Here, we describe five compounds possessing different patterns of modulation of the GLP-1R. These data uncover PAMs that may offer a drug-development pathway to enhancing in vivo efficacy of both endogenous GLP-1 and peptide analogs. PMID:24525870

  14. The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exendin-4 reduces cocaine self-administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Reddy, India A; Weikop, Pia; Graham, Devon L; Stanwood, Gregg D; Wortwein, Gitta; Galli, Aurelio; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The ability of the GLP-1 system to decrease food intake in rodents has been well described and parallels results from clinical trials. GLP-1 receptors are expressed in the brain, including within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Dopaminergic neurons in the VTA project to the NAc, and these neurons play a pivotal role in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Based on the anatomical distribution of GLP-1 receptors in the brain and the well-established effects of GLP-1 on food reward, we decided to investigate the effect of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4 on cocaine- and dopamine D1-receptor agonist-induced hyperlocomotion, on acute and chronic cocaine self-administration, on cocaine-induced striatal dopamine release in mice and on cocaine-induced c-fos activation. Here, we report that GLP-1 receptor stimulation reduces acute and chronic cocaine self-administration and attenuates cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. In addition, we show that peripheral administration of exendin-4 reduces cocaine-induced elevation of striatal dopamine levels and striatal c-fos expression implicating central GLP-1 receptors in these responses. The present results demonstrate that the GLP-1 system modulates cocaine's effects on behavior and dopamine homeostasis, indicating that the GLP-1 receptor may be a novel target for the pharmacological treatment of drug addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathogen induced chemo-attractant hepoxilin A3 drives neutrophils, but not eosinophils across epithelial barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, S A; Patil, S U; Shreffler, W G; Hurley, B P

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen induced migration of neutrophils across mucosal epithelial barriers requires epithelial production of the chemotactic lipid mediator, hepoxilin A3 (HXA3). HXA3 is an eicosanoid derived from arachidonic acid. Although eosinophils are also capable of penetrating mucosal surfaces, eosinophilic infiltration occurs mainly during allergic processes whereas neutrophils dominate mucosal infection. Both neutrophils and eosinophils can respond to chemotactic gradients of certain eicosanoids, however, it is not known whether eosinophils respond to pathogen induced lipid mediators such as HXA3. In this study, neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from human blood and placed on the basolateral side of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable Transwell filters and challenged by various chemotactic gradients of distinct lipid mediators. We observed that both cell populations migrated across epithelial monolayers in response to a leukotriene B4 (LTB4) gradient, whereas only eosinophils migrated toward a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) gradient. Interestingly, while pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration was substantial, pathogen induced eosinophil trans-epithelial migration was not observed. Further, gradients of chemotactic lipids derived from pathogen infected epithelial cells known to be enriched for HXA3 as well as purified HXA3 drove significant numbers of neutrophils across epithelial barriers, whereas eosinophils failed to respond to these gradients. These data suggest that although the eicosanoid HXA3 serves as an important neutrophil chemo-attractant at mucosal surfaces during pathogenic infection, HXA3 does not appear to exhibit chemotactic activity toward eosinophils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucagon like peptide-1-induced glucose metabolism in differentiated human muscle satellite cells is attenuated by hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Charlotte J; Henriksen, Tora I; Pedersen, Bente K

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose-dependent, the......Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas but also has extra-pancreatic effects. GLP-1 may stimulate glucose uptake in cultured muscle cells but the mechanism is not clearly defined. Furthermore, while the pancreatic effects of GLP-1 are glucose...

  17. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases - Anti-inflammatory Effects of Rutin on Neutrophils -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abd Nikfarjam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO and myeloperoxidase (MPO. These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM, after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001. Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect

  18. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    GLP-1 is a peptide hormone from the intestinal mucosa. It is secreted in response to meal ingestion and normally functions in the so-called ileal brake, that is, inhibition of upper gastrointestinal motility and secretion when nutrients are present in the distal small intestine. It also induces...

  20. Treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus based on glucagon-like peptide-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    , inhibition of gastrointestinal secretion and motility, and inhibition of appetite and food intake. Physiologically, therefore, GLP-1 is thought to act as an incretin hormone (intestinal hormones that enhance meal-related insulin secretion) and as one of the hormones of the ileal brake mechanism (endocrine...

  1. The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 on microcirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Ambrus, Rikard; Lindhe, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    authors in the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Of 1111 screened papers, 20 studies were included in this review: 16 studies in animals, three in humans, and one in humans and rats. CONCLUSION: The studies were few and heterogeneous and had a high...

  2. Additive effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 and pioglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Mette; Christiansen, Allan; Madsbad, Sten

    2004-01-01

    different treatment regimens in random order: saline therapy, monotherapy with continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 (4.8 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), monotherapy with pioglitazone (30-mg tablet of Actos), and combination therapy with GLP-1 and pioglitazone. The observation period was 48 h. End points were...

  3. The effect of lidocaine on neutrophil respiratory burst during induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Swanton, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory burst is an essential component of the neutrophil\\'s biocidal function. In vitro, sodium thiopental, isoflurane and lidocaine each inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the effect of a standard clinical induction\\/tracheal intubation sequence on neutrophil respiratory burst and (b) to determine the effect of intravenous lidocaine administration during induction of anaesthesia on neutrophil respiratory burst. METHODS: Twenty ASA I and II patients, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective surgery were studied. After induction of anaesthesia [fentanyl (2 microg kg-1), thiopental (4-6 mg kg-1), isoflurane (end-tidal concentration 0.5-1.5%) in nitrous oxide (66%) and oxygen], patients randomly received either lidocaine 1.5 mg kg-1 (group L) or 0.9% saline (group S) prior to tracheal intubation. Neutrophil respiratory burst was measured immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia, immediately before and 1 and 5 min after lidocaine\\/saline. RESULTS: Neutrophil respiratory burst decreased significantly after induction of anaesthesia in both groups [87.4 +\\/- 8.2% (group L) and 88.5 +\\/- 13.4% (group S) of preinduction level (P < 0.01 both groups)]. After intravenous lidocaine (but not saline) administration, neutrophil respiratory burst returned towards preinduction levels, both before (97.1 +\\/- 23.6%) and after (94.4 +\\/- 16.6%) tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation using thiopentone and isoflurane, inhibit neutrophil respiratory burst. This effect may be diminished by the administration of lidocaine.

  4. Giant Neutrophil Granules in the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome of Man, Mink, Cattle and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, R. S.; Padgett, G. A.; Wolff, S. M.; Bennett, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    The percent of conventionally stained circulating neutrophils containing abnormal giant granules in Chediak-Higashi mink, cattle and mice is highly variable and strikingly less than the 100% found in neutrophils from similarly affected humans. In contrast, using either peroxidase or Sudan Black, it can be demonstrated that 100% of circulating neutrophils in all affected individuals of the four species studied contain the abnormal granules. Minor species differences in the shape of the granules were noted. The significance of these findings as well as the variations in granular staining by the several techniques employed are discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4187790

  5. Activated Protein C Attenuates Severe Inflammation by Targeting VLA-3high Neutrophil Subpopulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Pranita P; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lerman, Yelena V; Trzeciak, Alissa; Harrower, Eric J; Rezaie, Alireza R; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-10-15

    The host injury involved in multiorgan system failure during severe inflammation is mediated, in part, by massive infiltration and sequestration of hyperactive neutrophils in the visceral organ. A recombinant form of human activated protein C (rhAPC) has shown cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory functions in some clinical and animal studies, but the direct mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that, during endotoxemia and severe polymicrobial peritonitis, integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) is specifically upregulated on hyperinflammatory neutrophils and that targeting the VLA-3 high neutrophil subpopulation improved survival in mice. In this article, we report that rhAPC binds to human neutrophils via integrin VLA-3 (CD49c/CD29) with a higher affinity compared with other Arg-Gly-Asp binding integrins. Similarly, there is preferential binding of activated protein C (PC) to Gr1 high CD11b high VLA-3 high cells isolated from the bone marrow of septic mice. Furthermore, specific binding of rhAPC to human neutrophils via VLA-3 was inhibited by an antagonistic peptide (LXY2). In addition, genetically modified mutant activated PC, with a high affinity for VLA-3, shows significantly improved binding to neutrophils compared with wild-type activated PC and significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration into the lungs of septic mice. These data indicate that variants of activated PC have a stronger affinity for integrin VLA-3, which reveals novel therapeutic possibilities. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Rapid Sequestration of Leishmania mexicana by Neutrophils Contributes to the Development of Chronic Lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Hurrell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Leishmania mexicana parasite causes chronic non-healing cutaneous lesions in humans and mice with poor parasite control. The mechanisms preventing the development of a protective immune response against this parasite are unclear. Here we provide data demonstrating that parasite sequestration by neutrophils is responsible for disease progression in mice. Within hours of infection L. mexicana induced the local recruitment of neutrophils, which ingested parasites and formed extracellular traps without markedly impairing parasite survival. We further showed that the L. mexicana-induced recruitment of neutrophils impaired the early recruitment of dendritic cells at the site of infection as observed by intravital 2-photon microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Indeed, infection of neutropenic Genista mice and of mice depleted of neutrophils at the onset of infection demonstrated a prominent role for neutrophils in this process. Furthermore, an increase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells was also observed in draining lymph nodes of neutropenic mice, correlating with subsequent increased frequency of IFNγ-secreting T helper cells, and better parasite control leading ultimately to complete healing of the lesion. Altogether, these findings show that L. mexicana exploits neutrophils to block the induction of a protective immune response and impairs the control of lesion development. Our data thus demonstrate an unanticipated negative role for these innate immune cells in host defense, suggesting that in certain forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, regulating neutrophil recruitment could be a strategy to promote lesion healing.

  7. Extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation enhances neutrophil response to particulate agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Gusev, Alexandr A; Balabushevich, Nadezhda G; Gusev, Sergey A; Kazarinov, Konstantin D

    2018-02-01

    The growing use of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in information and communication technology and in biomedical applications has raised concerns regarding the potential biological impact of millimeter waves (MMWs). Here, we elucidated the effects of MMW radiation on neutrophil activation induced by opsonized zymosan or E. coli in whole blood ex vivo. After agonist addition to blood, two samples were prepared. A control sample was incubated at ambient conditions without any treatment, and a test sample was exposed to EHF EMR (32.9-39.6 GHz, 100 W/m 2 ). We used methods that allowed us to assess the functional status of neutrophils immediately after exposure: oxidant production levels were measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, and morphofunctional changes to neutrophils were observed in blood smears. Results revealed that the response of neutrophils to both agonists was intensified if blood was exposed to MMW radiation for 15 min. Neutrophils were intact in both the control and irradiated samples if no agonist was added to blood before incubation. Similarly, exposing suspensions of isolated neutrophils in plasma to MMW radiation enhanced cell response to both zymosan and E. coli. Heating blood samples was shown to be the primary mechanism underlying enhanced EHF EMR-induced oxidant production by neutrophils in response to particulate agonists. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:144-155, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Quantification of deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts in dogs with 111In-labeled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Solis, E.; Mackey, S.T.; Socher, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Wu, F.P.; Kaye, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new radioisotopic technique has been developed for quantification of deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts. Nine healthy mongrel dogs underwent bilateral femoral artery resection and reconstruction with grafts of the femoral vein and Gore-Tex. Pure granulocytes that had been separated from whole blood by centrifugal elutriation were labeled with 111 In-tropolone in plasma. The granulocyte harvesting efficiency was 25 +/- 12%, and the labeling efficiency was 87 +/- 7%. Three hours after injection of labeled granulocytes and 2 hours after reperfusion, the grafts were harvested and cut into several segments for study of areas of anastomoses and midsections. On the basis of the radioactivity in the blood and in anastomotic and graft sections, the area of graft sections, and the neutrophilic granulocyte and differential leukocyte counts, the number of neutrophilic granulocytes adherent to a unit area and the total number of neutrophilic granulocytes on graft sections were calculated. These quantifications of the deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes indicated that the midsections of Gore-Tex grafts retained more neutrophilic granulocytes than did the midsections of vein grafts. Although the anastomotic areas retained more neutrophilic granulocytes than did the midsections of vein grafts, the opposite finding prevailed for the Gore-Tex grafts. A major fraction of neutrophilic granulocytes on Gore-Tex grafts was incorporated into the thrombus. Semiquantitative information obtained by scintigraphy of the deposition of neutrophilic granulocytes on vascular grafts also confirmed this observation

  9. Comparable Neutrophil Responses for Arm and Intensity-matched Leg Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Christof A; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2017-08-01

    Arm exercise is performed at lower absolute intensities than lower body exercise. This may impact on intensity-dependent neutrophil responses, and it is unknown whether individuals restricted to arm exercise experience the same changes in the neutrophil response as found for lower body exercise. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the importance of exercise modality and relative exercise intensity on the neutrophil response. Twelve moderately trained men performed three 45-min constant load exercise trials after determination of peak oxygen uptake for arm exercise (V˙O2peak arms) and cycling (V˙O2peak legs): 1) arm cranking exercise at 60% V˙O2peak arms, 2) moderate cycling at 60% V˙O2peak legs, and 3) easy cycling at 60% V˙O2peak arms. Neutrophil numbers in the circulation increased for all exercise trials, but were significantly lower for easy cycling when compared with arm exercise (P = 0.009), mirroring the blunted increase in HR and epinephrine during easy cycling. For all trials, exercising HR explained some of the variation of the neutrophil number 2 h postexercise (R = 0.51-0.69), epinephrine explaining less of this variation (R = 0.21-0.34). The number of neutrophils expressing CXCR2 decreased in the recovery from exercise in all trials (P Arm and leg exercise elicits the same neutrophil response when performed at the same relative intensity, implying that populations restricted to arm exercise might achieve a similar exercise induced neutrophil response as those performing lower body exercise. A likely explanation for this is the higher sympathetic activation and cardiac output for arm and relative intensity-matched leg exercise when compared with easy cycling, which is partly reflected in HR. This study further shows that the downregulation of CXCR2 may be implicated in exercise-induced neutrophilia.

  10. Human neutrophil calmodulin-binding proteins: identification of the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, W.D.; Tallant, E.A.; Wallace, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    The molecular events in linking neutrophil activation and ligand binding to specific membrane receptors are mediated in part by an increase in intracellular Ca 2+ . One mechanism by which Ca 2+ may trigger neutrophil activation is through Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-regulated proteins and enzymes. To determine which Ca 2+ /CaM-regulated enzymes may be present in the neutrophil, they have used Western blotting techniques and 125 I-CaM to identify neutrophil CaM-binding proteins. Eleven proteins with molecular weights ranging from 230K to 13.5K bound 125 I-CaM in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. One predominant region of 125 I-Cam binding was to a 59K protein; a protein with an identical mobility was labeled by an antisera against brain CaM-dependent phosphatase. Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase activity, which was inhibited by the CaM antagonist trifluoperazine, was detected in a neutrophil extract; a radioimmunoassay for the phosphatase indicated that it was present in the extract at approximately 0.2 μg/mg protein. Most of the CaM-binding proteins, including the 59K protein, were rapidly degraded upon lysis of the neutrophil. There was a close correlation between the degradation of the 59K protein and the loss of Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase activity in the neutrophil extract. Thus, human neutrophils contain numerous CaM-binding proteins which are presumably Ca 2+ /calmodulin-regulated enzymes and proteins; the 59K protein is a CaM-dependent phosphatase

  11. Agonist-induced internalisation of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is mediated by the Gαq pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiysha; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and an important target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Upon stimulation with agonist, the GLP-1R signals through both Gαs and Gαq coupled pathways to stimulate insulin secretion. The agonist-induced GLP-1R internalisation has recently been shown to be important for insulin secretion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GLP-1R internalisation remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of GLP-1R downstream signalling pathways in its internalisation. Agonist-induced human GLP-1R (hGLP-1R) internalisation and activity were examined using a number of techniques including immunoblotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence and luciferase assays to determine cAMP production, intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and ERK phosphorylation. Agonist-induced hGLP-1R internalisation is dependent on caveolin-1 and dynamin. Inhibition of the Gαq pathway but not the Gαs pathway affected hGLP-1R internalisation. Consistent with this, hGLP-1R mutant T149M and small-molecule agonists (compound 2 and compound B), which activate only the Gαs pathway, failed to induce internalisation of the receptor. Chemical inhibitors of the Gαq pathway, PKC and ERK phosphorylation significantly reduced agonist-induced hGLP-1R internalisation. These inhibitors also suppressed agonist-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation demonstrating that the phosphorylated ERK acts downstream of the Gαq pathway in the hGLP-1R internalisation. In summary, agonist-induced hGLP-1R internalisation is mediated by the Gαq pathway. The internalised hGLP-1R stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, indicating the importance of GLP-1 internalisation for insulin secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutrophils and Snail Orchestrate the Establishment of a Pro-tumor Microenvironment in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, Julien; Groeneveld, Svenja; Boivin, Gael; Sankar, Martial; Zangger, Nadine; Garcia, Miguel; Guex, Nicolas; Zlobec, Inti; Steiner, Loïc; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Xenarios, Ioannis; Meylan, Etienne

    2017-12-12

    Understanding the immune compartment of tumors facilitates the development of revolutionary new therapies. We used a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse model of lung cancer to establish an immune signature and identified a contribution of Gr1 + neutrophils to disease progression. Depletion experiments showed that Gr1 + cells (1) favor tumor growth, (2) reduce T cell homing and prevent successful anti-PD1 immunotherapy, and (3) alter angiogenesis, leading to hypoxia and sustained Snail expression in lung cancer cells. In turn, Snail accelerated disease progression and increased intratumoral Cxcl2 secretion and neutrophil infiltration. Cxcl2 was produced mainly by neutrophils themselves in response to a factor secreted by Snail-expressing tumor cells. We therefore propose a vicious cycle encompassing neutrophils and Snail to maintain a deleterious tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutrophils and Snail Orchestrate the Establishment of a Pro-tumor Microenvironment in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Faget

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the immune compartment of tumors facilitates the development of revolutionary new therapies. We used a Kras(G12D-driven mouse model of lung cancer to establish an immune signature and identified a contribution of Gr1+ neutrophils to disease progression. Depletion experiments showed that Gr1+ cells (1 favor tumor growth, (2 reduce T cell homing and prevent successful anti-PD1 immunotherapy, and (3 alter angiogenesis, leading to hypoxia and sustained Snail expression in lung cancer cells. In turn, Snail accelerated disease progression and increased intratumoral Cxcl2 secretion and neutrophil infiltration. Cxcl2 was produced mainly by neutrophils themselves in response to a factor secreted by Snail-expressing tumor cells. We therefore propose a vicious cycle encompassing neutrophils and Snail to maintain a deleterious tumor microenvironment.

  14. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: yes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies, these novel drugs offer some advantages such as an absence of weight gain and a negligible risk of hypoglycaemia and, possibly, better cardiovascular and β-cell protection. The physician has now multiple choices to manage his/her patient after secondary failure of metformin, and the question whether it is preferable to add an oral dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (gliptin) or an injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist will emerge. Obviously, DPP-4 inhibitors offer several advantages compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially regarding easiness of use, tolerance profile and cost. However, because they can only increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations to physiological (rather than pharmacological) levels, they are less potent to improve glucose control, promote weight reduction ("weight neutrality") and reduce blood pressure compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists. Of note, none of the two classes have proven long-term safety and positive impact on diabetic complications yet. The role of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is rapidly evolving, but their respective potential strengths and weaknesses should be better defined in long-term head-to-head comparative controlled trials. Instead of trying to answer the question whether DPP-4 inhibitors are favourable to GLP-1 receptor agonists (or vice versa), it is probably more clinically relevant to look at which T2DM patient will benefit more from one or the other therapy considering all his/her individual clinical characteristics ("personalized medicine"). Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myeloperoxidase activity and the oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov-Luchanskiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Kolesnikova, Yevgeniya

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of our investigation was to study myeloperoxidase activity and concentration of oxidized proteins in blood neutrophils of patients with ambulant pneumonia and secondary pneumonia which has arisen on a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were divided into 2 groups. 17 patients with ambulant pneumonia moderate severity and respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 1-st group. 20 COPD patients with secondary pneumonia moderate severity and with respiratory insufficiency of grade 2 were included in the 2-nd group. The control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. The reactive protein carbonyl derivates, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and myeloperoxidase activity were detected in neutrophils. In neutrophils of 1-st group patients the augmentation of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the slight decrease of reactive protein carbonyl derivates was observed in comparison with healthy ones (by 17%). In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients the significant increasing AOPP in comparison with healthy ones (p <0.01) and 1 group patients (p <0.05) was fixed. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in neutrophils of 1-th group patients in comparison with healthy ones. In neutrophils of 2-nd group patients myeloperoxidase activity was higher in comparison with the same of 1 group patients (by 67%, p <0.05). Our results showed the different direction of oxidized proteins formation neutrophils of patients with primary and secondary pneumonia. Besides that the varied degree of myeloperoxidase activity was fixed. Our results require more detailed understanding because they can reflect peculiar mechanisms of pneumonia development and determine the characteristics of their progression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers adapted to highly oxic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    indicate that neutrophilic iron oxidizers in highly oxic environments like drinking water treatment systems can be abundant (5 E+04 to 7 E+05 cells per gram of wet sand material). It was furthermore observed that the diversity of the cultivated dominant iron oxidizers differs substantially from those......Rapid sand filtration is an economical way to treat anoxic groundwaters and involves aeration followed by particulate and soluble substrate removal via deep bed filtration. The anoxic source groundwater can contain several potential electron donors (CH4, Fe2+, Mn2+, NH4+ and assimilable organic...... carbon) while oxygen (O2) is the electron acceptor provided during the aeration process. Numerous previous studies have described neutrophilic iron oxidizers as a bacterial guild with a special niche preference, especially the transition zone between aerobic and anoxic regions, where abiotic chemical...

  17. Mathematical Modelling of Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 following Ingestion of Glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rikke M; Bagger, Jonatan I; Alskär, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    The incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), play an important role in glucose homeostasis by potentiating glucose-induced insulin secretion. Furthermore, GLP-1 has been reported to play a role in glucose homeostasis by inhibiting ...

  18. Different domains of the glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors provide the critical determinants of ligand selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, S; Wulff, B S; Madsen, K

    2003-01-01

    (1) Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are homologous peptide hormones with important functions in glucose metabolism. The receptors for glucagon and GLP-1 are homologous family B G-protein coupled receptors. The GLP-1 receptor amino-terminal extracellular domain is a major determinant...

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling in acinar cells causes growth dependent release of pancreatic enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Bremholm, l

    2016-01-01

    -like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on the exocrine pancreas. Here, we identify GLP-1 receptors on pancreatic acini and analyze the impact of receptor activation in humans, rodents, isolated acini, and cell lines from the exocrine pancreas. GLP-1 did not directly stimulate amylase or lipase release. However, we saw...

  20. Involvement of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 in regulation of gastric motility and pancreatic endocrine secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Grybäck, Per; Jacobsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on gastric emptying rates of a solid meal as well as postprandial hormone secretion and glucose disposal. Material and methods. In nine healthy subjects, gastric emptying of a 310-kcal radio-labelled solid meal and plasma ...

  1. Exendin-4, but not glucagon-like peptide-1, is cleared exclusively by glomerular filtration in anaesthetised pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Holst, Jens Juul; Deacon, C F

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is rapidly degraded in vivo as a result of the combination of extensive enzymatic degradation and renal extraction. The GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, has a longer duration of action, and has recently been approved ...

  2. Encapsulated glucagon-like peptide-1-producing mesenchymal stem cells have a beneficial effect on failing pig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; Farrell, Kelly A; Malik, Nadim

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is an exciting and emerging treatment option to promote post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) healing; however, cell retention and efficacy in the heart remain problematic. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with cardioprotective properties but a short half...

  3. Activation of spinal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors specifically suppresses pain hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Nian; Xiao, Qi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Chang-Yue; Wang, Yan-Chao; Fan, Hui; Ma, Ai-Niu; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2014-04-09

    This study aims to identify the inhibitory role of the spinal glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in pain hypersensitivity and its mechanism of action in rats and mice. First, GLP-1Rs were identified to be specifically expressed on microglial cells in the spinal dorsal horn, and profoundly upregulated after peripheral nerve injury. In addition, intrathecal GLP-1R agonists GLP-1(7-36) and exenatide potently alleviated formalin-, peripheral nerve injury-, bone cancer-, and diabetes-induced hypersensitivity states by 60-90%, without affecting acute nociceptive responses. The antihypersensitive effects of exenatide and GLP-1 were completely prevented by GLP-1R antagonism and GLP-1R gene knockdown. Furthermore, exenatide evoked β-endorphin release from both the spinal cord and cultured microglia. Exenatide antiallodynia was completely prevented by the microglial inhibitor minocycline, β-endorphin antiserum, and opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. Our results illustrate a novel spinal dorsal horn microglial GLP-1R/β-endorphin inhibitory pathway in a variety of pain hypersensitivity states.

  4. Male fertility and obesity: are ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 pharmacologically relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marco G; Jesus, Tito T; Sousa, Mário; Goldberg, Erwin; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is rising to unprecedented numbers, affecting a growing number of children, adolescents and young adult men. These individuals face innumerous health problems, including subfertility or even infertility. Overweight and obese men present severe alterations in their body composition and hormonal profile, particularly in ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. It is well known that male reproductive health is under the control of the individual's nutritional status and also of a tight network of regulatory signals, particularly hormonal signaling. However, few studies have been focused on the effects of ghrelin, leptin and GLP-1 in male reproduction and how energy homeostasis and male reproductive function are linked. These hormones regulate body glucose homeostasis and several studies suggest that they can serve as targets for anti-obesity drugs. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms of action of these hormones has grown significantly. Curiously, their effect on male reproductive potential, that is highly dependent of the metabolic cooperation established between testicular cells, remains a matter of debate. Herein, we review general concepts of male fertility and obesity, with a special focus on the effects of ghrelin, leptin and GLP-1 on male reproductive health. We also discuss the possible pharmacological relevance of these hormones to counteract the fertility problems that overweight and obese men face.

  5. Indirect effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on the peripheral circadian clocks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ando

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are powerfully entrained by feeding. The mechanisms underlying this food entrainment remain unclear, although various humoral and neural factors have been reported to affect peripheral clocks. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, which is rapidly secreted in response to food ingestion, influences multiple humoral and neural signaling pathways, we suggest that GLP-1 plays a role in the food entrainment of peripheral clocks. To test this, we compared the effects of exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on mRNA expression of the clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Nr1d1, Per1, Per2, and Cry1 with those of refeeding. In addition, we investigated whether exendin-4 could affect the rhythms of the peripheral clocks. In male C57BL/6J mice, although refeeding rapidly (within 2 h altered mRNA levels of Per1 and Per2 in the liver and that of Per1 in adipose tissue, a single i.p. injection of exendin-4 did not cause such changes. However, unlike the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39, exendin-4 significantly influenced Per1 mRNA levels in the liver at 12 h after injection. Moreover, pretreatment with exendin-4 affected the rapid-feeding-induced change in Per1 not only in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, without effect on food intake. Furthermore, during light-phase restricted feeding, repeated dosing of exendin-4 at the beginning of the dark phase profoundly influenced both the food intake and daily rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral tissues. Thus, these results suggest that exendin-4 modulates peripheral clocks via multiple mechanisms different from those of refeeding.

  6. Indirect effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on the peripheral circadian clocks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hitoshi; Ushijima, Kentarou; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks in peripheral tissues are powerfully entrained by feeding. The mechanisms underlying this food entrainment remain unclear, although various humoral and neural factors have been reported to affect peripheral clocks. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is rapidly secreted in response to food ingestion, influences multiple humoral and neural signaling pathways, we suggest that GLP-1 plays a role in the food entrainment of peripheral clocks. To test this, we compared the effects of exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on mRNA expression of the clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Nr1d1, Per1, Per2, and Cry1) with those of refeeding. In addition, we investigated whether exendin-4 could affect the rhythms of the peripheral clocks. In male C57BL/6J mice, although refeeding rapidly (within 2 h) altered mRNA levels of Per1 and Per2 in the liver and that of Per1 in adipose tissue, a single i.p. injection of exendin-4 did not cause such changes. However, unlike the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39), exendin-4 significantly influenced Per1 mRNA levels in the liver at 12 h after injection. Moreover, pretreatment with exendin-4 affected the rapid-feeding-induced change in Per1 not only in the liver, but also in adipose tissue, without effect on food intake. Furthermore, during light-phase restricted feeding, repeated dosing of exendin-4 at the beginning of the dark phase profoundly influenced both the food intake and daily rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral tissues. Thus, these results suggest that exendin-4 modulates peripheral clocks via multiple mechanisms different from those of refeeding.

  7. Immunophenotypical characterization of human neutrophil differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helena Mora; Jendholm, Johan; Fossum, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The current study reports a flow cytometry-based protocol for the prospective purification of human BM populations representing six successive stages of terminal neutrophil differentiation, including early promyelocytes and late promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band cells, and PMN neutr...

  8. What really happens in the neutrophil phagosome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Current viewpoints concerning the bactericidal mechanisms of neutrophils are reviewed from a perspective that emphasizes challenges presented by the inability to duplicate ex vivo the intracellular milieu. Among the challenges considered are the influences of confinement upon substrate availability and reaction dynamics, direct and indirect synergistic interactions between individual toxins, and bacterial responses to stressors. Approaches to gauging relative contributions of various oxidative and nonoxidative toxins within neutrophils using bacteria and bacterial mimics as intrinsic probes are also discussed. PMID:22609248

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfia eQureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this work, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and NK cells (Tgε26 mice. To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike C. albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. Next, we monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not heat-killed fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We next studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similarly to previous observations in the isogenic wild type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  10. Glucose-induced glucagon-like Peptide 1 secretion is deficient in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bernsmeier

    Full Text Available The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP are gastrointestinal peptide hormones regulating postprandial insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. GLP-1 agonism is a treatment strategy in Type 2 diabetes and is evaluated in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. However, the role of incretins in its pathophysiology is insufficiently understood. Studies in mice suggest improvement of hepatic steatosis by GLP-1 agonism. We determined the secretion of incretins after oral glucose administration in non-diabetic NAFLD patients.N=52 patients (n=16 NAFLD and n=36 Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH patients and n=50 matched healthy controls were included. Standardized oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and GIP plasma levels were measured sequentially for 120 minutes after glucose administration.Glucose induced GLP-1 secretion was significantly decreased in patients compared to controls (p<0.001. In contrast, GIP secretion was unchanged. There was no difference in GLP-1 and GIP secretion between NAFLD and NASH subgroups. All patients were insulin resistant, however HOMA2-IR was highest in the NASH subgroup. Fasting and glucose-induced insulin secretion was higher in NAFLD and NASH compared to controls, while the glucose lowering effect was diminished. Concomitantly, fasting glucagon secretion was significantly elevated in NAFLD and NASH.Glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion is deficient in patients with NAFLD and NASH. GIP secretion is contrarily preserved. Insulin resistance, with hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia, is present in all patients, and is more severe in NASH compared to NAFLD. These pathophysiologic findings endorse the current evaluation of GLP-1 agonism for the treatment of NAFLD.

  11. Neural effects of gut- and brain-derived glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Kenichi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from both the enteroendocrine L cells and preproglucagon-expressing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. As GLP-1 is cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 yielding a half-life of less than 2 min, it is plausible that the gut-derived GLP-1, released postprandially, exerts its effects on the brain mainly by interacting with vagal afferent neurons located at the intestinal or hepatic portal area. GLP-1 neurons in the NTS widely project in the central nervous system and act as a neurotransmitter. One of the physiological roles of brain-derived GLP-1 is restriction of feeding. GLP-1 receptor agonists have recently been used to treat type 2 diabetic patients, and have been shown to exhibit pleiotropic effects beyond incretin action, which involve brain functions. GLP-1 receptor agonist administered in the periphery is stable because of its resistance to dipeptidyl peptidase-4, and is highly likely to act on the brain by passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), as well as interacting with vagal afferent nerves. Central actions of GLP-1 have various roles including regulation of feeding, weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, cardiovascular functions, cognitive functions, and stress and emotional responses. In the present review, we focus on the source of GLP-1 and the pathway by which peripheral GLP-1 informs the brain, and then discuss recent findings on the central effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36) amide stimulates exocytosis in human pancreatic beta-cells by both proximal and distal regulatory steps in stimulus-secretion coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Bokvist, K; Ding, W G

    1998-01-01

    The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide [GLP-1(7-36) amide] on membrane potential, whole-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K[ATP]) and Ca2+ currents, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and exocytosis was explored in single human beta-cells. GLP-1(7-36) amide induced membrane depolariza......The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide [GLP-1(7-36) amide] on membrane potential, whole-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K[ATP]) and Ca2+ currents, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and exocytosis was explored in single human beta-cells. GLP-1(7-36) amide induced membrane...... incretin. The present data suggest that the strong insulinotropic action of GLP-1(7-36) amide and GIP in humans results from its interaction with several proximal as well as distal important regulatory steps in the stimulus-secretion coupling....

  13. CD177 modulates human neutrophil migration through activation-mediated integrin and chemoreceptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ming; Grieshaber-Bouyer, Ricardo; Wang, Junxia; Schmider, Angela B; Wilson, Zachary S; Zeng, Liling; Halyabar, Olha; Godin, Matthew D; Nguyen, Hung N; Levescot, Anaïs; Cunin, Pierre; Lefort, Craig T; Soberman, Roy J; Nigrovic, Peter A

    2017-11-09

    CD177 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein expressed by a variable proportion of human neutrophils that mediates surface expression of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody antigen proteinase 3. CD177 associates with β2 integrins and recognizes platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1), suggesting a role in neutrophil migration. However, CD177 pos neutrophils exhibit no clear migratory advantage in vivo, despite interruption of in vitro transendothelial migration by CD177 ligation. We sought to understand this paradox. Using a PECAM-1-independent transwell system, we found that CD177 pos and CD177 neg neutrophils migrated comparably. CD177 ligation selectively impaired migration of CD177 pos neutrophils, an effect mediated through immobilization and cellular spreading on the transwell membrane. Correspondingly, CD177 ligation enhanced its interaction with β2 integrins, as revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, leading to integrin-mediated phosphorylation of Src and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). CD177-driven cell activation enhanced surface β2 integrin expression and affinity, impaired internalization of integrin attachments, and resulted in ERK-mediated attenuation of chemokine signaling. We conclude that CD177 signals in a β2 integrin-dependent manner to orchestrate a set of activation-mediated mechanisms that impair human neutrophil migration. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Rapid and label-free microfluidic neutrophil purification and phenotyping in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Han Wei; Petchakup, Chayakorn; Tay, Hui Min; Tam, Zhi Yang; Dalan, Rinkoo; Chew, Daniel Ek Kwang; Li, King Ho Holden; Boehm, Bernhard O.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced management of dysmetabolic syndromes such as diabetes will benefit from a timely mechanistic insight enabling personalized medicine approaches. Herein, we present a rapid microfluidic neutrophil sorting and functional phenotyping strategy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using small blood volumes (fingerprick ~100 μL). The developed inertial microfluidics technology enables single-step neutrophil isolation (>90% purity) without immuno-labeling and sorted neutrophils are used to characterize their rolling behavior on E-selectin, a critical step in leukocyte recruitment during inflammation. The integrated microfluidics testing methodology facilitates high throughput single-cell quantification of neutrophil rolling to detect subtle differences in speed distribution. Higher rolling speed was observed in T2DM patients (P risk factors (cholesterol, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) and HbA1c). Rolling phenotype can be modulated by common disease risk modifiers (metformin and pravastatin). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed neutrophil rolling as an important functional phenotype in T2DM diagnostics. These results suggest a new point-of-care testing methodology, and neutrophil rolling speed as a functional biomarker for rapid profiling of dysmetabolic subjects in clinical and patient-oriented settings.

  15. Distinct neutrophil subpopulations phenotype by flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikentiou, Myrofora; Psarra, Katerina; Kapsimali, Violetta; Liapis, Konstantinos; Michael, Michalis; Tsionos, Konstantinos; Lianidou, Evi; Papasteriades, Chryssa

    2009-03-01

    The cardinal feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is dysplasia involving one or more myeloid cell lineages. In the present study, we used 4-color flow cytometric analysis to investigate dysgranulopoiesis in bone marrow specimens from 65 patients with MDS. The antigen expression patterns of total neutrophil granulocytes (TNG) and of the two distinct neutrophil granulocytic subpopulations (NGSs), NGS-1 (dimmer CD45 expression) and NGS-2 (stronger CD45 expression) identified on the side scatter (SS) vs. CD45-intensity plot, were studied. The neutrophil granulocytes from patients with MDS showed characteristic antigen expression aberrancies which were more pronounced in NGS-2 subpopulation. Studying separately the NGS-2 subpopulation with the CD16/MPO/LF combination, the low CD16(+)/MPO(+) and low CD16(+)/LF(+) percentages seemed to discriminate between lower-risk and higher-risk patients with MDS in most occasions. Furthermore, a detailed assessment of the NGS-1 and NGS-2 immunophenotypic patterns revealed early dysplastic changes, not otherwise observed by standard TNG analysis, especially in cases of lower-risk MDS.

  16. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorph...

  17. Protective effects of an aptamer inhibitor of neutrophil elastase in lung inflammatory injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Smith, D; Charlton, J

    1997-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important part in the development of acute inflammatory injury. Human neutrophils contain high levels of the serine protease elastase, which is stored in azurophilic granules and is secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. Elastase is capable of degrading many components...... of extracellular matrix [1-4] and has cytotoxic effects on endothelial cells [5-7] and airway epithelial cells. Three types of endogenous protease inhibitors control the activity of neutrophil elastase, including alpha-1 protease inhibitor (alpha-1PI), alpha-2 macroglobulin and secreted leukoproteinase inhibitor...... (SLPI) [8-10]. A disturbed balance between neutrophil elastase and these inhibitors has been found in various acute clinical conditions (such as adult respiratory syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury) and in chronic diseases. We investigated the effect of NX21909, a selected oligonucleotide (aptamer...

  18. Exendin-4, a Glucagonlike Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, Attenuates Breast Cancer Growth by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaya, Chikayo; Nomiyama, Takashi; Komatsu, Shiho; Kawanami, Takako; Tsutsumi, Yoko; Hamaguchi, Yuriko; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Yasuteru; Yamashita, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Terawaki, Yuichi; Tanabe, Makito; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Akinori; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Incretin therapies have received much attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients who have diabetes mellitus. We previously reported antiprostate cancer effects of the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer. GLP-1R was expressed in human breast cancer tissue and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and KPL-1 cell lines. We found that 0.1 to 10 nM Ex-4 significantly decreased the number of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Although Ex-4 did not induce apoptosis, it attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation significantly and dose-dependently. However, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin did not affect breast cancer cell proliferation. When MCF-7 cells were transplanted into athymic mice, Ex-4 decreased MCF-7 tumor size in vivo. Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed that breast cancer cell proliferation was significantly reduced in tumors extracted from Ex-4-treated mice. In MCF-7 cells, Ex-4 significantly inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB ) nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Furthermore, Ex-4 decreased both Akt and IκB phosphorylation. These results suggest that GLP-1 could attenuate breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of GLP-1R and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Electrical stimulation of the isolated rat intestine in the presence of nutrient stimulus enhances glucagon-like peptide-1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Ann; Ort, Tatiana; Kajekar, Radhika; Hornby, Pamela J; Wade, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    The release of small intestinal hormones by constituents of ingested food, such as fatty acids, is integral to post-prandial responses that reduce food intake. Recent evidence suggests that small intestinal electrical stimulation reduces food intake, although the mechanism of action is debated. To test the hypothesis that intestinal stimulation directly alters hormone release locally we used isolated rat distal ileum and measured glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released in the presence or absence of linoleic acid (LA) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Intact segments were oriented longitudinally between bipolar stimulating electrodes in organ bath chambers containing modified Krebs–Ringers bicarbonate (KRB) buffer including protease inhibitors. Incubation in LA (3 mg ml −1 ) for 45 min increased GLP-1 concentration (21.9 ± 2.6 pM versus KRB buffer alone 3.6 ± 0.1 pM). Eleven electrical stimulation conditions were tested. In the presence of LA none of the stimulation conditions inhibited LA-evoked GLP-1 release, whereas two high frequency short pulse widths (14 V, 20 Hz, 5 ms and 14 V, 40 Hz, 5 ms) and one low frequency long pulse width (14 V, 0.4 Hz, 300 ms) EFS conditions enhanced LA-evoked GLP-1 release by >250%. These results are consistent with a local effect of intestinal electrical stimulation to enhance GLP-1 release in response to luminal nutrients in the intestines. Enhancing hormone release could improve the efficacy of intestinal electrical stimulation and provide a potential treatment for obesity and metabolic conditions

  20. Distinct effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on islet morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Mukai, Eri; Hiratsuka, Ayano; Takatani, Tomozumi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Lee, Eun Young; Miki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Although the two anti-diabetic drugs, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP1RAs), have distinct effects on the dynamics of circulating incretins, little is known of the difference in their consequences on morphology and function of pancreatic islets. We examined these in a mouse model of β cell injury/regeneration. The model mice were generated so as to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor and a fluorescent protein (Tomato) specifically in β cells. The mice were treated with a DPP4i (MK-0626) and a GLP1RA (liraglutide), singly or doubly, and the morphology and function of the islets were compared. Prior administration of MK-0626 and/or liraglutide similarly protected β cells from DT-induced cell death, indicating that enhanced GLP-1 signaling can account for the cytoprotection. However, 2-week intervention of MK-0626 and/or liraglutide in DT-injected mice resulted in different islet morphology and function: β cell proliferation and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) were increased by MK-0626 but not by liraglutide; α cell mass was decreased by liraglutide but not by MK-0626. Although liraglutide administration nullified MK-0626-induced β cell proliferation, their co-administration resulted in increased GSIS, decreased α cell mass, and improved glucose tolerance. The pro-proliferative effect of MK-0626 was lost by co-administration of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39), indicating that GLP-1 signaling is required for this effect. Comparison of the effects of DPP4is and/or GLP1RAs treatment in a single mouse model shows that the two anti-diabetic drugs have distinct consequences on islet morphology and function.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Interacting Glucose-Sensing Mechanisms and Electrical Activity Underlying Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Riz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal L-cells sense glucose and other nutrients, and in response release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, peptide YY and other hormones with anti-diabetic and weight-reducing effects. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still poorly understood, although it is known that GLP-1 secreting cells use sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT and ATP-sensitive K+-channels (K(ATP-channels to sense intestinal glucose levels. Electrical activity then transduces glucose sensing to Ca2+-stimulated exocytosis. This particular glucose-sensing arrangement with glucose triggering both a depolarizing SGLT current as well as leading to closure of the hyperpolarizing K(ATP current is of more general interest for our understanding of glucose-sensing cells. To dissect the interactions of these two glucose-sensing mechanisms, we build a mathematical model of electrical activity underlying GLP-1 secretion. Two sets of model parameters are presented: one set represents primary mouse colonic L-cells; the other set is based on data from the GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cell line. The model is then used to obtain insight into the differences in glucose-sensing between primary L-cells and GLUTag cells. Our results illuminate how the two glucose-sensing mechanisms interact, and suggest that the depolarizing effect of SGLT currents is modulated by K(ATP-channel activity. Based on our simulations, we propose that primary L-cells encode the glucose signal as changes in action potential amplitude, whereas GLUTag cells rely mainly on frequency modulation. The model should be useful for further basic, pharmacological and theoretical investigations of the cellular signals underlying endogenous GLP-1 and peptide YY release.

  2. 5 Year Expression and Neutrophil Defect Repair after Gene Therapy in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Gernoux, Gwladys; Gruntman, Alisha M; Borel, Florie; Reeves, Emer P; Calcedo, Roberto; Rouhani, Farshid N; Yachnis, Anthony; Humphries, Margaret; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Messina, Louis; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Trapnell, Bruce; Wilson, James M; McElvaney, Noel G; Flotte, Terence R

    2017-06-07

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a monogenic disorder resulting in emphysema due principally to the unopposed effects of neutrophil elastase. We previously reported achieving plasma wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations at 2.5%-3.8% of the purported therapeutic level at 1 year after a single intramuscular administration of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 alpha-1 antitrypsin vector in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. We analyzed blood and muscle for alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and immune cell response. We also assayed previously reported markers of neutrophil function known to be altered in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient patients. Here, we report sustained expression at 2.0%-2.5% of the target level from years 1-5 in these same patients without any additional recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-1 alpha-1 antitrypsin vector administration. In addition, we observed partial correction of disease-associated neutrophil defects, including neutrophil elastase inhibition, markers of degranulation, and membrane-bound anti-neutrophil antibodies. There was also evidence of an active T regulatory cell response (similar to the 1 year data) and an exhausted cytotoxic T cell response to adeno-associated virus serotype-1 capsid. These findings suggest that muscle-based alpha-1 antitrypsin gene replacement is tolerogenic and that stable levels of M-AAT may exert beneficial neutrophil effects at lower concentrations than previously anticipated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of neutrophil depletion on gelatinase expression, edema formation and hemorrhagic transformation after focal ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Livia S

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity is increased after focal ischemia/reperfusion injury in the brain, the relative contribution of neutrophils to the MMP activity and to the development of hemorrhagic transformation remains unknown. Results Anti-PMN treatment caused successful depletion of neutrophils in treated animals. There was no difference in either infarct volume or hemorrhage between control and PMN depleted animals. While there were significant increases in gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity and edema formation associated with ischemia, neutrophil depletion failed to cause any change. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that, in the absence of circulating neutrophils, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity are still up-regulated following focal cerebral ischemia. Additionally, neutrophil depletion had no influence on indicators of ischemic brain damage including edema, hemorrhage, and infarct size. These findings indicate that, at least acutely, neutrophils are not a significant contributor of gelatinase activity associated with acute neurovascular damage after stroke.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mediates cardioprotection by remote ischaemic conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalay, Marina V; Mastitskaya, Svetlana; Mrochek, Aleksander; Ackland, Gareth L; Del Arroyo, Ana Gutierrez; Sanchez, Jenifer; Sjoquist, Per-Ove; Pernow, John; Gourine, Alexander V; Gourine, Andrey

    2016-12-01

    Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used. Remote ischaemic pre- (RIPre) or perconditioning (RIPer) was induced by 15 min occlusion of femoral arteries applied prior to or during the myocardial ischaemia. The degree of RIPre and RIPer cardioprotection was determined in conditions of cervical or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, or following blockade of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) using specific antagonist Exendin(9-39). Phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 was assessed. RIPre and RIPer reduced infarct size by ∼50%. In conditions of bilateral cervical or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy RIPer failed to establish cardioprotection. GLP-1R blockade abolished cardioprotection induced by either RIPre or RIPer. Exendin(9-39) also prevented RIPre-induced AKT phosphorylation. Cardioprotection induced by GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 was preserved following cervical vagotomy, but was abolished in conditions of M3 muscarinic receptor blockade. These data strongly suggest that GLP-1 functions as a humoral factor of remote ischaemic conditioning cardioprotection. This phenomenon requires intact vagal innervation of the visceral organs and recruitment of GLP-1R-mediated signalling. Cardioprotection induced by GLP-1R activation is mediated by a mechanism involving M3 muscarinic receptors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation increases GFR and suppresses proximal reabsorption in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Scott C; Kashkouli, Ali; Singh, Prabhleen

    2013-01-15

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from the gut in response to fat or carbohydrate and contributes to negative feedback control of blood glucose by stimulating insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon, and slowing gastric emptying. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are also expressed in the proximal tubule, and possibly elsewhere in the kidney. Presently, we examined the effect of a GLP-1R agonist on single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (GFR; SNGFR), proximal reabsorption (Jprox), tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) responses, and urine flow rate in hydropenic male Wistar and Wistar-Froemter rats. Micropuncture and whole-kidney data were obtained before and during infusion of the GLP-1 agonist exenatide (1 nmol/h iv). SNGFR and Jprox were measured by late proximal collection at both extremes of TGF activation, which was achieved by perfusing Henle's loop at 0 or 50 nl/min. Primary changes in Jprox were revealed by analysis of covariance for Jprox with SNGFR as a covariate. Effects on TGF activation were determined in a separate set of experiments by comparing early distal and late proximal collections. Exenatide increased SNGFR by 33-50%, suppressed proximal tubular reabsorption by 20-40%, doubled early distal flow rate, and increased urine flow rate sixfold without altering the efficiency of glomerulotubular balance, TGF responsiveness, or the tonic influence of TGF. This implies that exenatide is both a proximal diuretic and a renal vasodilator. Since the natural agonist for the GLP-1R is regulated by intake of fat and carbohydrate, but not by salt or fluid, the control of salt excretion by the GLP-1R system departs from the usual negative-feedback paradigm for regulating salt balance.

  6. Suppression of neutrophil superoxide production by conventional peritoneal dialysis solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, B L; Gupta, D K; Nawab, Z M; Zhou, F Q; Rahman, M A; Daugirdas, J T

    1988-09-01

    The pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution is normally in the range of 5.0 to 5.5, because acid has been added during the manufacturing process to prevent caramelization of dextrose during sterilization. We studied the effects of normalizing the pH of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution on superoxide production by normal human neutrophils. At a pH of 6.0, superoxide generation was 4.07 +/- 2.56 (SD) nanomoles per million cells. With normalization of pH to 7.4, superoxide production was 19.3 +/- 7.3 (p less than 0.001). The results suggest that the unphysiologic acidity of conventional peritoneal dialysis solution has deleterious consequences on neutrophil superoxide formation.

  7. Synthesis and optimization of 2-pyridin-3-yl-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one based inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreder, Kevin R; Cajica, Julia; Du, Lingling; Fraser, Allister; Hu, Yi; Kohno, Yasushi; Lin, Emme C K; Liu, Steve J; Okerberg, Eric; Pham, Lan; Wu, Jiangyue; Kozarich, John W

    2009-08-15

    The hit-to-lead optimization of the HNE inhibitor 5-methyl-2-(2-phenoxy-pyridin-3-yl)-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one is described. A structure-activity relationship study that focused on the 5 and 7 benzoxazinone positions yielded the optimized 5-ethyl-7-methoxy-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one core structure. 2-[2-(4-Methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl] derivatives of this core were shown to yield HNE inhibitors of similar potency with significantly different stabilities in rat plasma.

  8. Amplification loop of the inflammatory process is induced by P2X7R activation in intestinal epithelial cells in response to neutrophil transepithelial migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Annabelle; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Véronique; Hébuterne, Xavier; Wildman, Scott; Ferrua, Bernard; Marchetti, Sandrine; Doglio, Alain; Vouret-Craviari, Valérie; Galland, Franck; Naquet, Philippe; Mograbi, Baharia; Unwin, Robert; Hofman, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized during their active phase by polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) transepithelial migration. The efflux of PMNL into the mucosa is associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the release of ATP from damaged and necrotic cells. The expression and function of purinergic P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and its potential role in the "cross talk" between IEC and PMNL have not been explored. The aims of the present study were 1) to examine P2X(7)R expression in IEC (T84 cells) and in human intestinal biopsies; 2) to detect any changes in P2X(7)R expression in T84 cells during PMNL transepithelial migration, and during the active and quiescent phases of IBD; and 3) to test whether P2X(7)R stimulation in T84 monolayers can induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release by IEC. We found that a functional ATP-sensitive P2X(7)R is constitutively expressed at the apical surface of IEC T84 cells. PMNL transmigration regulates dynamically P2X(7)R expression and alters its distribution from the apical to basolateral surface of IEC during the early phase of PMNL transepithelial migration in vitro. P2X(7)R expression was weak in intestinal biopsies obtained during the active phase of IBD. We show that activation of epithelial P2X(7)R is mandatory for PMNL-induced caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release by IEC. Overall, these changes in P2X(7)R function may serve to tailor the intensity of the inflammatory response and to prevent IL-1beta overproduction and inflammatory disease.

  9. Quantification of neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruparelia, Prina; Summers, Charlotte; Chilvers, Edwin R. [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Szczepura, Katherine R. [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Solanki, Chandra K.; Balan, Kottekkattu [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Newbold, Paul [AstraZeneca R and D Charnwood, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Bilton, Diana [Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cystic Fibrosis and Lung Defence Unit, Papworth Everard (United Kingdom); Peters, A.M. [University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Brighton Sussex Medical School, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    To quantify neutrophil migration into the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Neutrophil loss via airways was assessed by dedicated whole-body counting 45 min, 24 h and 2, 4, 7 and 10 days after injection of very small activities of {sup 111}In-labelled neutrophils in 12 healthy nonsmokers, 5 healthy smokers, 16 patients with COPD (of whom 7 were ex-smokers) and 10 patients with bronchiectasis. Lung accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled neutrophils was assessed by sequential SPECT and Patlak analysis in six COPD patients and three healthy nonsmoking subjects. Whole body {sup 111}In counts, expressed as percentages of 24 h counts, decreased in all subjects. Losses at 7 days (mean {+-} SD) were similar in healthy nonsmoking subjects (5.5 {+-} 1.5%), smoking subjects (6.5 {+-} 4.4%) and ex-smoking COPD patients (5.8 {+-} 1.5%). In contrast, currently smoking COPD patients showed higher losses (8.0 {+-} 3.0%) than healthy nonsmokers (p = 0.03). Two bronchiectatic patients lost 25% and 26%, indicating active disease; mean loss in the remaining eight was 6.9 {+-} 2.5%. The rate of accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-neutrophils in the lungs, determined by sequential SPECT, was increased in COPD patients (0.030-0.073 min{sup -1}) compared with healthy nonsmokers (0-0.002 min{sup -1}; p = 0.02). In patients with COPD, sequential SPECT showed increased lung accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled neutrophils, while whole-body counting demonstrated subsequent higher losses of {sup 111}In-labelled neutrophils in patients who continued to smoke. Sequential SPECT as a means of quantifying neutrophil migration deserves further evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Glycogen storage disease type Ib neutrophils exhibit impaired cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Goo-Young; Lee, Young Mok; Kwon, Joon Hyun; Jun, Hyun Sik; Chou, Janice

    2017-01-22

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, neutropenia, and neutrophil dysfunction, is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Neutrophils play an essential role in the defense against invading pathogens. The recruitment of neutrophils towards the inflammation sites in response to inflammatory stimuli is a tightly regulated process involving rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. In this study, we investigated the role of G6PT in neutrophil adhesion and migration using in vivo and in vitro models. We showed that the GSD-Ib (G6pt -/- ) mice manifested severe neutropenia in both blood and bone marrow, and treating G6pt -/- mice with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) corrected neutropenia. However, upon thioglycolate challenge, neutrophils from both untreated and G-CSF-treated G6pt -/- mice exhibited decreased ability to migrate to the peritoneal cavity. In vitro migration and cell adhesion of G6PT-deficient neutrophils were also significantly impaired. Defects in cell migration were not due to enhanced apoptosis or altered fMLP receptor expression. Remarkably, the expression of the β2 integrins CD11a and CD11b, which are critical for cell adhesion, was greatly decreased in G6PT-deficient neutrophils. This study suggests that deficiencies in G6PT cause impairment in neutrophil adhesion and migration via aberrant expression of β2 integrins, and our finding should facilitate the development of novel therapies for GSD-Ib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) and truncated GLP-1, fragments of human proglucagon, inhibit gastric acid secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, B T; Mortensen, P E; Christiansen, J

    1989-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 amide (GLP-1 amide), a predicted product of the glucagon gene (proglucagon 72-107-amide), and truncated GLP-1 (proglucagon 78-107-amide), recently isolated from porcine small intestine, were infused in doses of 100 and 400 ng/kg/hr and 12.5 and 50 ng/kg/hr, respectively...... of truncated GLP increased from approximately 7 pmol/liter to 28 +/- 3 pmol/liter during the high rate of infusion. A similar increase was seen in response to a mixed meal in eight normal volunteers. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of GLP-1 was 2.2 +/- 0.3 and 2.6 +/- 0.3 ml/kg/min, respectively...

  12. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Uribe-Querol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions.

  13. Total leukocyte and neutrophil count as preventive tools in reducing negative appendectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Salman; Khan, Mah Muneer; Khan, Ataullah; Ahmad, Bilal

    2015-03-01

    Negative appendectomies result in unnecessary admissions, health care burden, and cost. This study was conducted to assess total leukocyte and neutrophil counts as preventive tools in reducing negative appendectomies. Data of admitted patients who underwent appendectomies was analyzed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of total leukocyte and neutrophil counts was calculated for various cut-off points. Optimum sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, and area under the curve was determined. Of the four hundred and eightpatients, true and negative appendicitis by operative assessment was 294 (72.1%) and 114 (27.9%) compared to 311 (76.2%) and 97 (23.8%) by histopathology, respectively. Optimal cut-off for total leukocyte count was >11.9x10(9)/Liter with 87.14% sensitivity and 91.75% specificity. Optimal cut-off point for neutrophil count was >7.735x10(9)/Liter with 98.71% sensitivity and 91.75% specificity. Area under the curve for total leukocyte and neutrophil counts was 0.9603 and 0.9872, respectively with overall accuracy of 91.2% and 97.1%, respectively. Normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts are strongly associated with negative appendectomies. Non-operative measures and careful observation of total leukocyte and neutrophil counts are of paramount importance.

  14. Propensity of crocin to offset Vipera russelli venom induced oxidative stress mediated neutrophil apoptosis: a biochemical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Sundaram, M Shanmuga; Sunitha, K; Jnaneshwari, S; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2016-01-01

    Viper envenomation results in inflammation at the bitten site as well as target organs. Neutrophils and other polymorphonuclear leukocytes execute inflammation resolving mechanism and will undergo apoptosis after completing the task. However, the target specific toxins induce neutrophil apoptosis at the bitten site and in circulation prior to their function, thus reducing their number. Circulating activated neutrophils are major source of inflammatory cytokines and leakage of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/other toxic intermediates resulting in aggravation of inflammatory response at the bitten/target site. Therefore, neutralization of venom induced neutrophil apoptosis reduces inflammation besides increasing the functional neutrophil population. Therefore, the present study investigates the venom induced perturbances in isolated human neutrophils and its neutralization by crocin (Crocus sativus) a potent antioxidant carotenoid. Human neutrophils on treatment with venom resulted in altered ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA damage. On the other hand significant protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis were evidenced in crocin pre-treated groups. In conclusion the viper venom induces neutrophil apoptosis and results in aggravation of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study demands the necessity of an auxiliary therapy in addition to antivenin therapy to treat secondary/overlooked complications of envenomation.

  15. Peptidylarginine deiminase 2 is required for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced citrullination and arthritis, but not neutrophil extracellular trap formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bawadekar, Mandar; Shim, Daeun; Johnson, Chad J

    2017-01-01

    Citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginines to citrullines, may contribute to rheumatoid arthritis development given the generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). However, it is not known which peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) catalyzes the citrullination seen...... and pathological scoring were all reduced in the absence of PAD2. Thus, PAD2 contributes to TNFα-induced citrullination and arthritis, but is not required for NETosis. In contrast, PAD4, which is critical for NETosis, is dispensable for generalized citrullination supporting the possibility that NETs may...

  16. Neutrophils reduce the parasite burden in Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico Vinícius de Souza Carmo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the role of neutrophils in Leishmania infection were mainly performed with L. (L major, whereas less information is available for L. (L amazonensis. Previous results from our laboratory showed a large infiltrate of neutrophils in the site of infection in a mouse strain resistant to L. (L. amazonensis (C3H/HePas. In contrast, the susceptible strain (BALB/c displayed a predominance of macrophages harboring a high number of amastigotes and very few neutrophils. These findings led us to investigate the interaction of inflammatory neutrophils with L. (L. amazonensis-infected macrophages in vitro.Mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. (L. amazonensis were co-cultured with inflammatory neutrophils, and after four days, the infection was quantified microscopically. Data are representative of three experiments with similar results. The main findings were 1 intracellular parasites were efficiently destroyed in the co-cultures; 2 the leishmanicidal effect was similar when cells were obtained from mouse strains resistant (C3H/HePas or susceptible (BALB/c to L. (L. amazonensis; 3 parasite destruction did not require contact between infected macrophages and neutrophils; 4 tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, neutrophil elastase and platelet activating factor (PAF were involved with the leishmanicidal activity, and 5 destruction of the parasites did not depend on generation of oxygen or nitrogen radicals, indicating that parasite clearance did not involve the classical pathway of macrophage activation by TNF-α, as reported for other Leishmania species.The present results provide evidence that neutrophils in concert with macrophages play a previously unrecognized leishmanicidal effect on L. (L. amazonensis. We believe these findings may help to understand the mechanisms involved in innate immunity in cutaneous infection by this Leishmania species.

  17. Neutrophil killing ofStaphylococcus aureusin diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome: a prospective cellular surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Ingrid Lea; McNeil, Lisa Kristin; Pathirana, Sudam; Singer, Christine Lee; Liu, Yongdong; Mullen, Stanley; Girgenti, Douglas; Gurtman, Alejandra; Pride, Michael W; Jansen, Kathrin Ute; Huang, Paul L; Anderson, Annaliesa S

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes are frequent in surgical populations and can enhance susceptibility to postoperative surgical site infections. Reduced neutrophil function has been linked with diabetes and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Therefore, neutrophil function in diabetic and obese subjects (± MetS) was assessed in this prospective serological and cellular surveillance study to determine whether vaccines administered to protect against infections after surgery could be effective in these populations. Neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus ) was assessed in subjects classified according to diabetes status, body mass index, and presence/absence of MetS. Neutrophils were characterized within functional subsets by flow cytometry. A serologic assay was used to measure baseline antibody presence to each antigen in SA4Ag: capsular polysaccharide (CP) type 5, CP8, recombinant mutant Clumping factor A (rmClfA), and recombinant Manganese transport protein C (rMntC). Neutrophil function was similar for comorbid and healthy cohorts, with no significant between-group differences in cell counts, migration, phagocytosis ability, neutrophil subset proportions, and S. aureus killing ability when neutrophils were isolated 3-6 months apart (Visit 1 [n = 90] and Visit 2 [n = 70]) and assessed. Median pre-existing antibody titers to CP5, CP8, and rmClfA were comparable for all cohorts (insufficient subjects with rMntC titers for determination). MetS, diabetes, and obesity do not impact in vitro neutrophil function with regard to S. aureus killing, suggesting that if an effective S. aureus vaccine is developed it may be effective in individuals with these comorbidities.

  18. Neutrophils Promote Mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-Induced Lung Inflammation via the Mincle Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Bin Lee

    Full Text Available Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, a cord factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, is an important regulator of immune responses during Mtb infections. Macrophages recognize TDM through the Mincle receptor and initiate TDM-induced inflammatory responses, leading to lung granuloma formation. Although various immune cells are recruited to lung granulomas, the roles of other immune cells, especially during the initial process of TDM-induced inflammation, are not clear. In this study, Mincle signaling on neutrophils played an important role in TDM-induced lung inflammation by promoting adhesion and innate immune responses. Neutrophils were recruited during the early stage of lung inflammation following TDM-induced granuloma formation. Mincle expression on neutrophils was required for infiltration of TDM-challenged sites in a granuloma model induced by TDM-coated-beads. TDM-induced Mincle signaling on neutrophils increased cell adherence by enhancing F-actin polymerization and CD11b/CD18 surface expression. The TDM-induced effects were dependent on Src, Syk, and MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK. Moreover, coactivation of the Mincle and TLR2 pathways by TDM and Pam3CSK4 treatment synergistically induced CD11b/CD18 surface expression, reactive oxygen species, and TNFα production by neutrophils. These synergistically-enhanced immune responses correlated with the degree of Mincle expression on neutrophil surfaces. The physiological relevance of the Mincle-mediated anti-TDM immune response was confirmed by defective immune responses in Mincle⁻/⁻ mice upon aerosol infections with Mtb. Mincle-mutant mice had higher inflammation levels and mycobacterial loads than WT mice. Neutrophil depletion with anti-Ly6G antibody caused a reduction in IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression upon TDM treatment, and reduced levels of immune cell recruitment during the initial stage of infection. These findings suggest a new role of Mincle signaling on neutrophils

  19. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D

    1991-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma...... undergoing GM-CSF treatment. Patients with either Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with various dosages (2-16 micrograms kg-1 body weight per day for 5 days) of rhGM-CSF by intravenous or subcutaneous route. Prior to and on day 5 of rhGM-CSF treatment, neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis...... by up to 43-fold. rhGM-CSF treatment did not affect degranulation of the neutrophils as measured by release of vitamin B12 binding protein. Degree of modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by rhGM-CSF was independent of rhGM-CSF dosages administered. These data suggest that phagocytic defence...

  20. A specific p47phox -serine phosphorylated by convergent MAPKs mediates neutrophil NADPH oxidase priming at inflammatory sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Pham My-Chan; Stensballe, Allan; Boussetta, Tarek

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophil NADPH oxidase plays a key role in host defense and in inflammation by releasing large amounts of superoxide and other ROSs. Proinflammatory cytokines such as GM-CSF and TNF-alpha prime ROS production by neutrophils through unknown mechanisms. Here we used peptide sequencing by tandem......-CSF-induced phosphorylation of Ser345, while p38 MAPK inhibitor abrogated TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of Ser345. Transfection of HL-60 cells with a mutated p47phox (S345A) inhibited GM-CSF- and TNF-alpha-induced priming of ROS production. This event was also inhibited in neutrophils by a cell-permeable peptide...... containing a TAT-p47phox-Ser345 sequence. Furthermore, ROS generation, p47phox-Ser345 phosphorylation, and ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation were increased in synovial neutrophils from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and TAT-Ser345 peptide inhibited ROS production by these primed neutrophils...

  1. Dietary sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract attenuates hyperglycaemia by enhancing the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Rika; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Hira, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Takanori

    2014-09-01

    'Suioh', a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivar developed in Japan, has edible leaves and stems. The sweet potato leaves contain polyphenols such as caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. It has multiple biological functions and may help to regulate the blood glucose concentration. In this study, we first examined whether sweet potato leaf extract powder (SP) attenuated hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of dietary SP for 5 weeks significantly lowered glycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Second, we conducted in vitro experiments, and found that SP and CQA derivatives significantly enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Third, pre-administration of SP significantly stimulated GLP-1 secretion and was accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion in rats, which resulted in a reduced glycaemic response after glucose injection. These results indicate that oral SP attenuates postprandial hyperglycaemia, possibly through enhancement of GLP-1 secretion.

  2. Peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 contribute to decreased food intake after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, M S; Jørgensen, Nils B; Bojsen-Møller, K N

    2016-01-01

    -regulating gut hormones and appetite ratings during a standard mixed-meal test and effects on subsequent ad libitum food intake were evaluated in two studies: in study 1, nine patients with type 2 diabetes were examined prospectively before and 3 months after RYGB with and without Ex-9. In study 2, 12 RYGB...... increased secretion of the other, probably explaining the absent effect on food intake on these experimental days. Combined blockade of GLP-1 and PYY actions increased food intake after RYGB, supporting that these hormones have a role in decreased food intake postoperatively.International Journal of Obesity......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exaggerated postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) may explain appetite reduction and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but causality has not been established. We hypothesized that food intake decreases after surgery...

  3. Serotonin and its 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI hydrochloride inhibit the oxidative burst in total leukocytes but not in isolated neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prachařová, Lucie; Okénková, Kateřina; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 86, 13-14 (2010), s. 518-523 ISSN 0024-3205 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/07/1511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemiluminescence * oxidative burst * serotonin Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2010

  4. Invariant NKT cells promote skin wound healing by preventing a prolonged neutrophilic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Kanno, Emi; Suzuki, Aiko; Takagi, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Hideki; Ishii, Keiko; Imai, Yoshimichi; Maruyama, Ryoko; Tachi, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    The wound-healing process consists of the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases. In chronic wounds, the inflammation phase is prolonged with persistent neutrophil infiltration. The inflammatory response is critically regulated by cytokines and chemokines that are secreted from various immune cells. Recently, we showed that skin wound healing was delayed and the healing process was impaired under conditions lacking invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, an innate immune lymphocyte with potent immuno-regulatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of iNKT cell deficiency on the neutrophilic inflammatory response during the wound healing process. Neutrophil infiltration was prolonged in wound tissue in mice genetically lacking iNKT cells (Jα18KO mice) than in wild-type (WT) control mice on days 1 and 3 after wounding. MIP-2, KC, and IL-17A were produced at a significantly higher level in Jα18KO mice than in WT mice. In addition, neutrophil apoptosis was significantly reduced in the wound tissue in Jα18KO mice than in WT mice. Treatment with anti-IL-17A mAb, anti-Gr-1 mAb, or neutrophil elastase inhibitor reversed the impaired wound healing in Jα18KO mice. These results suggest that iNKT cells may promote the wound healing process through preventing the prolonged inflammatory response mediated by neutrophils. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. Preliminary study on overproduction of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan, Noridzzaida; John, Cini Mathew; Sandrasaigaran, Pratheep; Maqbool, Maryam; Liew, Lee Chuen; Lim, Jonathan; Ramasamy, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the amount and pattern of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in diabetic patient-derived neutrophils. METHODS: Blood samples from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and volunteers (controls) were subjected to neutrophil isolation and the assessment of neutrophil oxidative burst using chemiluminescence assay. Neutrophils were activated by using phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and neutrophils without activation were kept as a negative control. The chemiluminescence readings were obtained by transferring cell suspension into a 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube, with PMA and luminol. Reaction mixtures were gently vortexed and placed inside luminometer for a duration of 5 min. RESULTS: Our results showed that in the resting condition, the secretion of ROS in normal non-diabetic individuals was relatively low compared to diabetic patients. However, the time scale observation revealed that the secreted ROS declined accordingly with time in non-diabetic individuals, yet such a reduction was not detected in diabetic patients where at all the time points, the secretion of ROS was maintained at similar magnitudes. This preliminary study demonstrated that ROS production was significantly higher in patients with DM compared to non-diabetic subjects in both resting and activated conditions. CONCLUSION: The respiratory burst activity of neutrophils could be affected by DM and the elevation of ROS production might be an aggravating factor in diabetic-related complications. PMID:27433296

  6. The paradox of the neutrophil's role in tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Halterman, Marc W; Lichtman, Marshall A

    2011-03-01

    The neutrophil is an essential component of the innate immune system, and its function is vital to human life. Its production increases in response to virtually all forms of inflammation, and subsequently, it can accumulate in blood and tissue to varying degrees. Although its participation in the inflammatory response is often salutary by nature of its normal interaction with vascular endothelium and its capability to enter tissues and respond to chemotactic gradients and to phagocytize and kill microrganisms, it can contribute to processes that impair vascular integrity and blood flow. The mechanisms that the neutrophil uses to kill microorganisms also have the potential to injure normal tissue under special circumstances. Its paradoxical role in the pathophysiology of disease is particularly, but not exclusively, notable in seven circumstances: 1) diabetic retinopathy, 2) sickle cell disease, 3) TRALI, 4) ARDS, 5) renal microvasculopathy, 6) stroke, and 7) acute coronary artery syndrome. The activated neutrophil's capability to become adhesive to endothelium, to generate highly ROS, and to secrete proteases gives it the potential to induce local vascular and tissue injury. In this review, we summarize the evidence for its role as a mediator of tissue injury in these seven conditions, making it or its products potential therapeutic targets.

  7. Protection of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Cisplatin-Induced Renal Injury Elucidates Gut-Kidney Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Katagiri, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Doi, Kent; Okamoto, Koji; Negishi, Kousuke; Nangaku, Masaomi; Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence of the beyond-glucose lowering effects of a gut-released hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has been reported in the context of remote organ connections of the cardiovascular system. Specifically, GLP-1 appears to prevent apoptosis, and inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), which cleaves GLP-1, is renoprotective in rodent ischemia-reperfusion injury models. Whether this renoprotection involves enhanced GLP-1 signaling is unclear, however, because DPP-4 cle...

  8. Acute renal haemodynamic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide in healthy overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskiet, M H A; Tonneijck, L; Smits, M M; Kramer, M H H; Diamant, M; Joles, J A; van Raalte, D H

    2016-02-01

    To determine the acute effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist exenatide and the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) on renal haemodynamics and tubular function, in healthy overweight men. Renal haemodynamics and tubular electrolyte handling were measured in 10 healthy overweight men (aged 20-27 years; BMI 26-31 kg/m(2)) during intravenous administration of placebo (saline 0.9%), exenatide, and exenatide combined with the NO-synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined by inulin and para-aminohippurate clearance techniques, respectively, based on timed urine sampling. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure and vascular resistance of afferent and efferent renal arterioles were calculated using the Gomez formulae. Urinary electrolytes, osmolality and pH were also measured. GFR increased by a mean of 18 ± 20 (+20%; p = 0.021) and ERPF increased by a median (interquartile range) of 68 (26; 197) ml/min/1.73 m(2) (+14%; p = 0.015) during exenatide infusion versus placebo. During L-NMMA infusion, exenatide increased GFR by mean 8 ± 12 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (+9%; p = 0.049). Exenatide increased estimated glomerular pressure by +6% (p = 0.015) and reduced afferent renal vascular resistance by -33% (p = 0.038), whereas these effects were blunted during L-NMMA infusion. Exenatide increased absolute and fractional sodium excretion, urinary osmolality and urinary pH. The tubular effects of exenatide were not altered by concomitant L-NMMA infusion. Exenatide infusion in healthy overweight men acutely increases GFR, ERPF and glomerular pressure, probably by reducing afferent renal vascular resistance, and at least partially in an NO-dependent manner. As baseline renal haemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes differ from those in healthy individuals, clinical studies on the renal effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists are warranted.

  9. Cardiovascular Actions and Clinical Outcomes With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Michael A; Meier, Juris J; Cavender, Matthew A; Abd El Aziz, Mirna; Drucker, Daniel J

    2017-08-29

    Potentiation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) action through selective GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonism or by prevention of enzymatic degradation by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) promotes glycemic reduction for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by glucose-dependent control of insulin and glucagon secretion. GLP-1R agonists also decelerate gastric emptying, reduce body weight by reduction of food intake and lower circulating lipoproteins, inflammation, and systolic blood pressure. Preclinical studies demonstrate that both GLP-1R agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors exhibit cardioprotective actions in animal models of myocardial ischemia and ventricular dysfunction through incompletely characterized mechanisms. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials in human subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased cardiovascular risk have demonstrated a cardiovascular benefit (significant reduction in time to first major adverse cardiovascular event) with the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide (LEADER trial [Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Ourcome Results], -13%) and semaglutide (SUSTAIN-6 trial [Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide], -24%). In contrast, cardiovascular outcome trials examining the safety of the shorter-acting GLP-1R agonist lixisenatide (ELIXA trial [Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrom]) and the DPP-4 inhibitors saxagliptin (SAVOR-TIMI 53 trial [Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53]), alogliptin (EXAMINE trial [Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes With Alogliptin Versus Standard of Care in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome]), and sitagliptin (TECOS [Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes With Sitagliptin]) found that these agents neither increased nor decreased cardiovascular events. Here we review the

  10. Protective Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog on Renal Tubular Injury in Mice on High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study aimed to investigate the renoprotective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 against renal tubular injury in C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Ten of these mice were treated with GLP-1 at 200 µg/kg subcutaneously twice daily for 4 weeks (HFDG group, and the other ten mice received vehicle only (HFD group. Ten mice fed standard rodent chow served as controls (Con group. Body weight, kidney weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure were measured. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis in the kidney were examined utilizing western blotting, immunohistochemistry and TUNEL, respectively. Angiotensin II and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R were examined by ELISA. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK2 were treated with GLP-1(150 nM followed by treatment with palmitic acid (500 nM [PA] for 24 h. HK2 cells treated with BSA were used as controls. The protein levels of ERS markers, apoptosis-associated protein, and AT1R were measured by western blotting. Results: Increase of body weight, food intake, and systolic blood pressure was less pronounced in GLP-1 treated HFDG mice compared to HFD mice. The levels of ERS markers (BIP, p-eIF2α, ATF4, and CHOP and apoptosis decreased following GLP-1 treatment in vivo and in vitro (p<0.05. Increased AT1R induced by HFD and PA were blocked with GLP-1 treatment. In contrast, the level of angiotensin II after GLP-1 treatment was not significantly different between the HFD and HFDG mice. Conclusion: The study indicated that saturated fatty acids induced ERS and apoptosis in the kidney and increased AT1R expression. GLP-1 treatment exerted renoprotective effects against saturated fatty acid-induced kidney tubular cell ERS and apoptosis together with inhibition of AT1R expression in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Accumulation of 111In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules

  12. Neutrophils in Homeostasis, Immunity, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás-Ávila, José Ángel; Adrover, José M; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2017-01-17

    Neutrophils were among the first leukocytes described and visualized by early immunologists. Prominent effector functions during infection and sterile inflammation classically placed them low in the immune tree as rapid, mindless aggressors with poor regulatory functions. This view is currently under reassessment as we uncover new aspects of their life cycle and identify transcriptional and phenotypic diversity that endows them with regulatory properties that extend beyond their lifetime in the circulation. These properties are revealing unanticipated roles for neutrophils in supporting homeostasis, as well as complex disease states such as cancer. We focus this review on these emerging functions in order to define the true roles of neutrophils in homeostasis, immunity, and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutrophil granules in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häger, M; Cowland, J B; Borregaard, N

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil granules store proteins that are critically important for the neutrophil to move from the vascular bed to tissues and to kill microorganisms. This is illustrated in nature when individual proteins are deleted due to inherited mutations of their cognate genes, and such deficiencies result...... in the conditions leucocyte adhesion deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease. The granules of the neutrophil have traditionally been divided into two or three major types but are instead a continuum where several subtypes can be identified with differences in protein content and propensity for mobilization....... This is explained by the 'targeting by timing hypothesis' which states that granules are filled with granule proteins that are synthesized at the time the granule is formed. The heterogeneity of granules arises because the synthesis of granule proteins is individually controlled and major differences exist...

  14. Granulopoiesis and granules of human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowland, Jack B; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Granules are essential for the ability of neutrophils to fulfill their role in innate immunity. Granule membranes contain proteins that react to environmental cues directing neutrophils to sites of infection and initiate generation of bactericidal oxygen species. Granules are densely packed...... with proteins that contribute to microbial killing when liberated to the phagosome or extracellularly. Granules are, however, highly heterogeneous and are traditionally subdivided into azurophil granules, specific granules, and gelatinase granules in addition to secretory vesicles. This review will address...... issues pertinent to formation of granules, which is a process intimately connected to maturation of neutrophils from their precursors in the bone marrow. We further discuss possible mechanisms by which decisions are made regarding sorting of proteins to constitutive secretion or storage in granules...

  15. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  16. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  17. GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS CIRCUMVENTS NEUTROPHILS AND NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS DURING AMNIOTIC CAVITY INVASION AND PRETERM LABOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldenow, Erica; Gendrin, Claire; Ngo, Lisa; Bierle, Craig; Vornhagen, Jay; Coleman, Michelle; Merillat, Sean; Armistead, Blair; Whidbey, Christopher; Alishetti, Varchita; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Ogle, Jason; Gough, Michael; Srinouanprachanh, Sengkeo; MacDonald, James W; Bammler, Theo K; Bansal, Aasthaa; Liggitt, H. Denny; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy. This model allows monitoring of uterine contractions, timing of MIAC and immune responses during pregnancy-associated infections. Here, we show that adverse outcomes such as preterm labor, MIAC, and fetal sepsis were observed more frequently during infection with hemolytic GBS when compared to nonhemolytic GBS. Although MIAC was associated with systematic progression in chorioamnionitis beginning with chorionic vasculitis and progressing to neutrophilic infiltration, the ability of the GBS hemolytic pigment toxin to induce neutrophil cell death and subvert killing by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in placental membranes in vivo facilitated MIAC and fetal injury. Furthermore, compared to maternal neutrophils, fetal neutrophils exhibit decreased neutrophil elastase activity and impaired phagocytic functions to GBS. Collectively, our studies demonstrate how a unique bacterial hemolytic lipid toxin enables GBS to circumvent neutrophils and NETs in placental membranes to induce fetal injury and preterm labor. PMID:27819066

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential biological processes in healthy neonatal cord neutrophils and adult neutrophils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiang

    2014-06-11

    Neonatal neutrophils are characterized by the immaturity of bactericidal mechanisms that contributes largely to neonatal mortality. However, underlying molecular mechanism associated with the immaturity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis on neonatal neutrophils derived from human cord blood and adult peripheral neutrophils. A total of 1332 proteins were identified and quantified, and 127 proteins were characterized as differentially expressed between adult and cord neutrophils. The differentially expressed proteins are mapped in KEGG pathways into five clusters and indicated impaired functions of neonatal neutrophils in proteasome, lysosome, phagosome, and leukocyte transendothelial migration. In particular, many proteins associated with NETosis, a critical mechanism for antimicrobial process and auto-clearance, were also found to be downregulated in cord neutrophils. This study represents a first comparative proteome profiling of neonatal and adult neutrophils, and provides a global view of differentially expressed proteome for enhancing our understanding of their various functional difference. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Insulinoma imaging with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor targeting probe (18)F-FBEM-Cys (39)-exendin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuping; Pan, Donghui; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Chen; Wang, Lizhen; Chen, Fei; Yang, Runlin; Luo, Shineng; Yang, Min

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a specific target for insulinomas imaging since it is overexpressed in the tumor. Exendin-4 exhibits high affinity for the GLP-1R. In this study, a novel (18)F-labeled exendin-4 analog, (18)F-FBEM-Cys(39)-exendin-4, was synthesized and its potentials for GLP-1R imaging were also evaluated. (18)F-FBEM was synthesized by coupling (18)F-fluorobenzoic acid ((18)F-FBA) with N-(2-aminoethyl) maleimide, and the reaction conditions were optimized. Cys(39)-exendin-4 was then conjugated with (18)F-FBEM to obtain (18)F-FBEM-Cys(39)-exendin-4. The GLP-1R targeting potential and pharmacokinetic profile of the tracer were analyzed in INS-1 insulinoma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor model, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of radiolabeled (18)F-FBEM was 49.1 ± 2.0 % (based on (18)F-FBA, non-decay corrected). The yield of (18)F-FBEM-Cys(39)-exendin-4 was 35.1 ± 2.6 % (based on the starting (18)F-FBEM, non-decay corrected). The radiochemical purity of (18)F-FBEM-Cys(39)-exendin-4 is >95 %, and the specific activity was at least 35 GBq/μmol. The GLP-1R-positive INS-1 insulinoma xenograft was clearly visible with good contrast to background, whereas GLP-1R-negative MDA-MB435 breast tumor was barely visible. Low levels of radioactivity were also detected at pancreas and lungs due to few GLP-1R expressions. GLP-1R binding specificity was demonstrated by reduced INS-1 tumor uptake of the tracer after coinjection with an excess of unlabeled Cys(39)-exendin-4 at 1 h postinjection. The thiol-reactive reagent, (18)F-FBEM, was prepared with high yield and successfully conjugated to Cys(39)-exendin-4. Favorable preclinical data showing specific and effective tumor targeting by (18)F-FBEM-Cys(39)-exendin-4 suggest that the tracer may be a potential probe for insulinomas imaging.

  20. Crucial Involvement of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils in the Regulation of Chronic Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhen; Gu, Hong-Yu; Du, Xiang; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Chun-Lei; Chi, Ya-Yun; Mukaida, Naofumi; Li, Ying-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of chronic inflammation that can frequently progress to colon cancer. Several studies have demonstrated massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lamina propria and submucosa in the progression of UC-associated colon carcinogenesis. Macrophages contribute to the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the role of neutrophils is not well understood. To better understand the involvement of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in the regulation of CAC, we used a mouse CAC model produced by administering azoxymethane (AOM), followed by repeated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) ingestion. This causes severe colonic inflammation and subsequent development of multiple tumors in mice colon. We observed that colorectal mucosal inflammation became increasingly severe with AOM and DSS treatment. Macrophages infiltrated the lamina propria and submucosa, together with a marked increase in neutrophil infiltration. The chemokine CXCL2 increased in the lamina propria and submucosal regions of the colons of the treated mice, together with the infiltration of neutrophils expressing CXCR2, a specific receptor for CXCL2. This process was followed by neoplastic transformation. After AOM and DSS treatment, the mice showed enhanced production of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and neutrophil elastase (NE), accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, CXCL2 promoted neutrophil recruitment and induced neutrophils to express MMP-9 and NE in vitro. Furthermore, administration of neutrophil-neutralizing antibodies after the last DSS cycle markedly reduced the number and size of tumors and decreased the expression of CXCR2, CXCL2, MMP-9, and NE. These observations indicate a crucial role for TANs in the initiation and progression of CAC and suggest that the CXCL2–CXCR2 axis might be useful in reducing the risk of UC-associated colon cancer. PMID:23272179

  1. Crucial involvement of tumor-associated neutrophils in the regulation of chronic colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Shang

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a major form of chronic inflammation that can frequently progress to colon cancer. Several studies have demonstrated massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lamina propria and submucosa in the progression of UC-associated colon carcinogenesis. Macrophages contribute to the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC. However, the role of neutrophils is not well understood. To better understand the involvement of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs in the regulation of CAC, we used a mouse CAC model produced by administering azoxymethane (AOM, followed by repeated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS ingestion. This causes severe colonic inflammation and subsequent development of multiple tumors in mice colon. We observed that colorectal mucosal inflammation became increasingly severe with AOM and DSS treatment. Macrophages infiltrated the lamina propria and submucosa, together with a marked increase in neutrophil infiltration. The chemokine CXCL2 increased in the lamina propria and submucosal regions of the colons of the treated mice, together with the infiltration of neutrophils expressing CXCR2, a specific receptor for CXCL2. This process was followed by neoplastic transformation. After AOM and DSS treatment, the mice showed enhanced production of metalloproteinase (MMP-9 and neutrophil elastase (NE, accompanied by excessive vessel generation and cell proliferation. Moreover, CXCL2 promoted neutrophil recruitment and induced neutrophils to express MMP-9 and NE in vitro. Furthermore, administration of neutrophil-neutralizing antibodies after the last DSS cycle markedly reduced the number and size of tumors and decreased the expression of CXCR2, CXCL2, MMP-9, and NE. These observations indicate a crucial role for TANs in the initiation and progression of CAC and suggest that the CXCL2-CXCR2 axis might be useful in reducing the risk of UC-associated colon cancer.

  2. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Protects Human Islets against Cytokine-Mediated β-Cell Dysfunction and Death: A Proteomic Study of the Pathways Involved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondas, Dieter; Bugliani, Marco; D’Hertog, Wannes

    2013-01-01

    of human islets of Langerhans treated with cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) in the presence or absence of GLP-1 by 2D difference gel electrophoresis and subsequent protein interaction network analysis to understand the molecular pathways involved in GLP-1-mediated β-cell protection. Co-incubation of cytokine......-exposed human islets while protecting them against cytokine-mediated cell death and dysfunction. These data illustrate the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on human islets under immune attack, leading to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved, a prerequisite for improving therapies for diabetic......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cells against cytokine-induced dysfunction and destruction. The mechanisms through which GLP-1 exerts its effects are complex and still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the protein expression profiles...

  3. Secretion, degradation, and elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kranz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and have a promising therapeutic potential. Alterations of their secretion, in vivo degradation, and elimination in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI......, C-peptide, GLP-1 (total and intact), and GIP (total and intact; specific immunoassays). Plasma levels of GIP (3-42) and GLP-1 (9-36 amide) were calculated. Statistics were performed using repeated-measures and one-way ANOVA. After the oral glucose load, plasma concentrations of intact GLP-1...... (9-36 amide) and GIP (3-42) reached higher plasma concentrations in the CRI patients than in the control subjects (P plasma levels of intact GLP-1 and GIP were not different between the groups (P = 0.29 and P = 0.27, respectively). Plasma half...

  4. Increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after neoadjuvant therapy is associated with worse survival after resection of borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Evan S; Rashid, Omar M; Pimiento, Jose M; Hodul, Pamela J; Malafa, Mokenge P

    2016-11-01

    The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neutrophil count divided by lymphocyte count) is a marker of inflammation associated with poor cancer outcomes. The role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unknown. We hypothesized that increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant therapy is inversely associated with survival. We used our borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma database to identify patients who had completed neoadjuvant therapy and underwent resection. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio difference was calculated as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after neoadjuvant therapy minus the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio before neoadjuvant therapy. Patients were assigned to the increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort if the difference was ≥2.5 units; all others were assigned to the stable neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort. Statistical analyses were performed with t test and regression. Of 62 patients identified, 43 were assigned to the stable neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort, and 19 to the increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort. There were no differences in stage, age, or sex. The preneoadjuvant neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was 3.1 ± 2.4, whereas the postneoadjuvant neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was 4.4 ± 3.5 (P = .002). Overall survival was worse in the increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort compared with the stable neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio cohort (P = .009) with a Cox hazard ratio of 2.9 (P = .02). N0 disease conferred a survival advantage over N1 disease (Cox hazard ratio = 0.3, P = .01). On multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis, both increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and N1 stage were associated with worse survival (P ratio in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic d