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Sample records for neutron-deficient kr isotopes

  1. New neutron-deficient isotopes from $^{78}$Kr fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B; Ascher, P; Gerbaux, M; Giovinazzo, J; Grevy, S; Nieto, T Kurtukian; Magron, C; Agramunt, J; Algora, A; Guadilla, V; Montaner-Piza, A; Morales, A I; Orrigo, S E A; Rubio, B; Ahn, D S; Doornenbal, P; Fukuda, N; Inabe, N; Kiss, G; Kubo, T; Kubono, S; Nishimura, S; Phong, V H; Sakurai, H; Shimizu, Y; Soderstrom, P -A; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, H; Takeda, H; Wu, J; Fujita, Y; Tanaka, M; Gelletly, W; Aguilera, P; Molina, F; Diel, F; Lubos, D; de Angelis, G; Napoli, D; Borcea, C; Boso, A; Cakirli, R B; Ganioglu, E; Chiba, J; Nishimura, D; Oikawa, H; Takei, Y; Yagi, S; Wimmer, K; de France, G; Go, S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment with the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN Nishina Center, the fragmentation of a $^{78}$Kr beam allowed the observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes at the proton drip-line. Clean identification spectra could be produced and $^{63}$Se, $^{67}$Kr, and $^{68}$Kr were identified for the first time. In addition, $^{59}$Ge was also observed. Three of these isotopes, $^{59}$Ge, $^{63}$Se, and $^{67}$Kr, are potential candidates for ground-state two-proton radioactivity. In addition, the isotopes $^{58}$Ge, $^{62}$Se, and $^{66}$Kr were also sought but without success. The present experiment also allowed the determination of production cross sections for some of the most exotic isotopes. These measurements confirm the trend already observed that the empirical parameterization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, significantly overestimates experimental cross sections in this mass region.

  2. New neutron-deficient isotopes from 78Kr fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, B.; Goigoux, T.; Ascher, P.; Gerbaux, M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Kurtukian Nieto, T.; Magron, C.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Guadilla, V.; Montaner-Piza, A.; Morales, A. I.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Rubio, B.; Ahn, D. S.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kiss, G.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Nishimura, S.; Phong, V. H.; Sakurai, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Söderström, P.-A.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Wu, J.; Fujita, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Gelletly, W.; Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Diel, F.; Lubos, D.; de Angelis, G.; Napoli, D.; Borcea, C.; Boso, A.; Cakirli, R. B.; Ganioglu, E.; Chiba, J.; Nishimura, D.; Oikawa, H.; Takei, Y.; Yagi, S.; Wimmer, K.; de France, G.; Go, S.

    2016-06-01

    In an experiment with the RIKEN projectile fragment separator called BigRIPS at the RIKEN Nishina Center, the fragmentation of a 78Kr beam allowed the observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes at the proton drip line. Clean identification spectra could be produced and 63Se,67Kr, and 68Kr were identified for the first time. In addition, 59Ge was also observed. Three of these isotopes, 59Ge,63Se, and 67Kr, are potential candidates for ground-state two-proton radioactivity. In addition, the isotopes 58Ge,62Se, and 66Kr were also sought but without success. The present experiment also allowed the determination of production cross sections for some of the most exotic isotopes. These measurements confirm the trend already observed that the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, significantly overestimates experimental cross sections in this mass region.

  3. Systematical study of high-spin rotational bands in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes by the extended projected shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Yi; Ghorui, S. K.; Wang, Long-Jun; Kaneko, K.; Sun, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the high-spin structure of the even-even 72-80Kr isotopes using the Projected Shell Model (PSM). With the help of the Pfaffian formulas, we have vigorously extended the quasi-particle (qp) basis of the PSM code and applied in this mass region for the first time. We consider a sufficiently large multi-qp configuration space in order to describe high-spin rotational behavior. The results show that the calculation can reproduce most of the known rotational bands with positive- or negative-parity. Moreover, some side bands appearing in the near-yrast region are predicted. The main structure for each band is discussed in terms of multi-qp configurations. The variations in moment of inertia with spin are explained in terms of successive band crossings among the 2-qp, 4-qp, 6-qp, and 8-qp states. The B (E 2) transition probabilities in these bands are also calculated. To further understand the high-spin behavior of these neutron-deficient nuclei and to confirm predictions of the present work, good high-spin data, especially for B (E 2) transitions, are called for.

  4. Laser spectroscopy of neutron deficient Sn isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the ground state properties of neutron-deficient Sn isotopes towards the doubly-magic nucleus $^{100}$Sn. Nuclear spins, changes in the rms charge radii and electromagnetic moments of $^{101-121}$Sn will be measured by laser spectroscopy using the CRIS experimental beam line. These ground-state properties will help to clarify the evolution of nuclear structure properties approaching the $\\textit{N = Z =}$ 50 shell closures. The Sn isotopic chain is currently the frontier for the application of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations. Our knowledge of the nuclear structure of the Sn isotopes will set a benchmark for the advances of many-body methods, and will provide an important test for modern descriptions of the nuclear force.

  5. Radiochemical studies of neutron deficient actinide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.

    1978-04-01

    The production of neutron deficient actinide isotopes in heavy ion reactions was studied using alpha, gamma, x-ray, and spontaneous fission detection systems. A new isotope of berkelium, /sup 242/Bk, was produced with a cross-section of approximately 10 ..mu..b in reactions of boron on uranium and nitrogen on thorium. It decays by electron capture with a half-life of 7.0 +- 1.3 minutes. The alpha-branching ratio for this isotope is less than 1% and the spontaneous fission ratio is less than 0.03%. Studies of (Heavy Ion, pxn) and (Heavy Ion, ..cap alpha..xn) transfer reactions in comparison with (Heavy ion, xn) compound nucleus reactions revealed transfer reaction cross-sections equal to or greater than the compound nucleus yields. The data show that in some cases the yield of an isotope produced via a (H.I.,pxn) or (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) reaction may be higher than its production via an xn compound nucleus reaction. These results have dire consequences for proponents of the ''Z/sub 1/ + Z/sub 2/ = Z/sub 1+2/'' philosophy. It is no longer acceptable to assume that (H.I.,pxn) and (H.I.,..cap alpha..xn) product yields are of no consequence when studying compound nucleus reactions. No evidence for spontaneous fission decay of /sup 228/Pu, /sup 230/Pu, /sup 232/Cm, or /sup 238/Cf was observed indicating that strictly empirical extrapolations of spontaneous fission half-life data is inadequate for predictions of half-lives for unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes.

  6. Shell Model Description of Neutron-Deficient Sn Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Dikmen

    2009-01-01

    The shell model calculations in the sdgh major shell for the neutron-deficient 106,107,108,109Sn isotopes have been carried out by using CD-Bonn and Nijmegenl two-body effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. The single-shell states and the corresponding matrix elements needed for describing Sn isotopes are reconstructed to calculate the coefficient of fractional parantage by reducing the calculation requirements. This reconstruction allows us to do the shell model calculations of the neutron deficient Sn isotopes in very reasonable time. The results are compared to the recent high-resolution experimental data and found to be in good agreement with experiments.

  7. Collectivity of the neutron-deficient odd yttrium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata, G.; Ivascu, M.; Zamfir, N.V.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.

    1988-08-01

    Multishell IBFM-1 calculations are reported for the neutron-deficient odd yttrium isotopes (79-85), which give a good description of both the positive and negative parity levels known experimentally. An exchange force whose intensity varies with the mass number is required. This phenomenological variation reflects qualitatively the microscopic origin of the exchange term, and also points to possible systematics of the model parameters in the ALPHA approx. = 80 region of the Nsub(p)Nsub(n) type.

  8. β Decay in the Region of Neutron-deficient {sup 69,70,71}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.M., E-mail: ARogers@lbl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175, Gardignan Cedex (France); Lister, C.J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Blank, B.; Canchel, G. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1, UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175, Gardignan Cedex (France); Clark, J.A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); France, G. de; Grévy, S. [GANIL CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP55027, 14076 CEAN Cedex 5 (France); Gros, S.; McCutchan, E.A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Oliveira Santos, F. de [GANIL CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP55027, 14076 CEAN Cedex 5 (France); Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stefan, I.; Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP55027, 14076 CEAN Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-06-15

    Decay spectroscopy was performed for neutron-deficient nuclei ranging from zinc to krypton with isospin −3/2 ≤T{sub z}≤0. Measurements of correlated β-delayed protons allowed us to determine the isobaric analog states fed from the decay of {sup 65}Se and {sup 69}Kr, constraining the spin of the {sup 69}Kr ground state. Preliminary results regarding the half lives for the T{sub z}=−1 systems, relevant to the rapid proton capture (rp) process, are discussed.

  9. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Budincevic, I; Procter, T J; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Cocolios, T E; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Billowes, J; Rothe, S; Bissell, M L; Wendt, K D A; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1\\% was measured for Fr-202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr-205, with a departure observed in Fr-203 (N = 116).

  10. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: rodriguez@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay-Campus(France); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Beck, D. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kellerbauer, A. [CERN, Division EP, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Sauvan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2006-04-17

    The masses of {sup 72-78,80,82,86}Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for {sup 72-75}Kr outweighed previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  11. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Äystö, J; Beck, D

    2006-01-01

    The masses of $^{72–78,80,82,86}$Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for $^{72–75}$Kr being more precise than the previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  12. Description of the shape coexistence in neutron-deficient 74,76Kr with IBM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, DaLi; Mu, ChengFu

    2016-08-01

    The shape deformation and shape coexistence in 74,76Kr isotopes are investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting boson model (IBM2). By considering the relative energy of the d proton boson to be different from that of the neutron boson, the low-lying energy spectrum is in good agreement with experimental results both qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, the low-lying 0 2 + states associated with the shape-coexistence phenomenon are reproduced quite well. The calculated key sensitive quantities of B(E2) transition branch ratios are fairly consistent with the experimental data except for R 4. The predicated deformation parameter is very similar for the ground states in 74Kr and 76Kr, showing good agreement with the experimental result, and the calculated deformation parameter for the second 0+ state in 74Kr is close to the experimental data. The calculated results of the triaxiality parameter indicated an almost purely prolate shape for the ground state of 76Kr and a mostly prolate shape with a little triaxiality for the ground state of 74Kr. The calculations also show an oblate triaxial shape for the second 0+ state in 76Kr and maximum triaxiality for the second 0+ state in 74Kr. These results confirm the importance of the triaxial deformation for the description of such shape coexistence.

  13. Study of Neutron-Deficient $^{202-205}$Fr Isotopes with Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    De Schepper, Stijn; Cocolios, Thomas; Budincevic, Ivan

    The scope of this master’s thesis is the study of neutron-deficient $^{202−205}$Fr isotopes. These isotopes are inside the neutron-deficient lead region, a region that has shown evidence of shape coexistence. For this thesis, this discussion is limited to the phenomenon where a low lying excited state has a different shape than the ground state. Shape coexistence is caused by intruder states. These are single-particle Shell Model states that are perturbed in energy due to the interaction with a deformed core. In the neutron-deficient lead region the main proton intruder orbit is the 3s$_{1/2}$orbit. When going towards more neutron-deficient isotopes, deformation increases. The $\\pi3s_{1/2}$orbit will rise in energy and will eventually become the ground state in odd- A bismuth (Z=83) isotopes. It is also observed in odd-A astatine (Z=85) isotopes, already in less neutron-deficient nuclei. The same phenomenon is expected to be present francium (Z=87) isotopes already at $^{199}$Fr. Although it is currently ...

  14. Search for long-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lachner, J; Fästermann, T; Korschinek, G; Poutivtsev, M; Rugel, G; 10.1103/PhysRevC.78.064313

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of naturally occurring long-lived isomeric states (t_1/2 > 10^8 yr) in the neutron-deficient isotopes 211,213,217,218Th [A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium isotopes and provide upper limits for their abundances.

  15. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Marinov, A; Kashiv, Y; Halicz, L; Segal, I; Pape, A; Gentry, R V; Miller, H W; Kolb, D; Brandt, R

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of long-lived neutron-deficient isotopes has been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using iductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. They are interpreted as belonging to the recently discovered class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomers.

  16. β-decay properties of neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: p.sarriguren@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Boillos, J. M. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Moreno, O. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moya de Guerra, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Neutron-deficient isotopes in the lead region are well established examples of the shape coexistence phenomenon in nuclei. In this work, bulk and decay properties, including deformation energy curves, charge mean square radii, Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions, and β-decay half-lives, are studied in neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes. The nuclear structure involved is described microscopically from deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels, performed on top of a self-consistent deformed quasiparticle Skyrme Hartree-Fock basis. The sensitivity to deformation of the GT strength distributions in those isotopes is proposed as an additional complementary signature of the nuclear shape. The β-decay half-lives resulting from the GT strength distributions are compared to experiment to demonstrate the ability of the method.

  17. New neutron-deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, D D; Karnaukhov, V A; Petrov, L A; Plochocki, A; Subbotin, V G; Voboril, J

    1976-01-01

    The authors present an investigation of the short-lived neutron- deficient isotopes of barium and rare-earth elements. By using the BEMS-2 isotope separator on a heavy ion beam, 19 new isotopes were produced with mass numbers ranging from 117 to 138. Five of these (/sup 117/Ba, /sup 129,131/Nd and /sup 133,135/Sm) turned out to be delayed proton emitters. The beta -decay probabilities for the new isotopes have been analyzed in terms of the beta -strength function. An analysis of the proton spectrum shape has been performed using the statistical model for delayed proton emission.

  18. Observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes with Z≥92 in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Devaraja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions of 48Ca + 248Cm we observed about 100 residual nuclei with proton numbers between Z=82 and Z=100. Among them, there are five new neutron-deficient isotopes: 216U, 219Np, 223Am, 229Am and 233Bk. As separator for the transfer products we used the velocity filter SHIP of GSI while the isotope identification was performed via the α decay chains of the nuclei. These first results reveal that multinucleon transfer reactions together with here applied fast and sensitive separation and detection techniques are promising for the synthesis of new isotopes in the region of heaviest nuclei.

  19. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzakh, A. E., E-mail: barzakh@mail.ru; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  20. Indication of Negative Triaxial Deformation in the Very Neutron-Deficient Odd-A Re Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小红; 许甫荣; 郑勇; 张玉虎

    2003-01-01

    For the 9/2-[514] bands in light odd-A Re isotopes, the energy signature splitting and its relation with the signature dependence of M1 transition matrix elements are investigated in connection with the deviation of nuclear shape from axial symmetry. By comparing the energy signature splittings and relative magnetic transition rates between the experimental values and the theoretical calculations assuming axially symmetric shapes, it is found that discrepancies increase with the decreasing neutron number. These discrepancies strongly suggest an appreciable negative γ deformation for the very neutron-deficient odd-A Re isotopes.

  1. Production and identification of new neutron-deficient isotope 235Am in region of transuranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘再国; 郭俊盛; 刘洪业; 石立军; 杨维凡; 牟万统; 郭天瑞; 方克明; 沈水法; 袁双贵; 张学谦; 秦芝; 马瑞昌; 钟纪泉; 罗亦孝; 王书鸿; 孔登明; 乔际民

    1997-01-01

    A new transuranium neutron-deficient isotope 235Am was produced by 35 MeV proton to bombard the rare radioactive 238Pu target The products were transported and collected by the He-jet system. The Am isotopes were separated and purified by radiochemtstry method and the γ-ray, X-ray and γ-X(γ) coincidence of the samples was measured The synthesis of 235 Am was definitely identified Its measured half-life is (15±5) mom.

  2. Deformation and mixing of co-existing shapes in the neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078559; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes, with only 2 protons outside the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart. In the neighboring lead (Z = 82) and mercury (Z = 80) isotopes, experimental and theoretical efforts identified evidence of shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur in states of the same angular momentum and similar excitation energy in a nucleus. The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes have also been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically. The closed neutron-shell nucleus 210Po (N = 126) manifests itself as a two-particle nucleus where most of the excited states can be explained by considering the degrees of freedom of the two valence protons outside of 208Pb. The near-constant behavior of the yrast 2+1 and 4+1 states in the isotopes with mass 200 ≤ A ≤ 208 can be explained by coupling the two valence protons to a vibrating lead core. 200Po seems to ...

  3. Further studies of neutron-deficient Sn-isotopes using REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Larsen, A; Syed naeemul, H; Siem, S

    2007-01-01

    Encouraged by the committee to submit the latter part of our latest addendum to experiment IS418 under a new heading this proposal focuses on the second physics case mentioned there. We propose to use Coulomb excitation of odd mass neutron-deficient Sn isotopes to study some dominantly "one quasi-particle" states in these nuclei. Due to spin selection rules these states are difficult to populate following either $\\beta$-decay or in a cascade after a fusion-evaporation reactions, whereas the excitation from the ground-state is of E2 character for some of the most interesting cases.

  4. Coulomb Excitation of Neutron Deficient Sn-Isotopes using REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Di julio, D D; Kownacki, J M; Marechal, F; Andreoiu, C; Siem, S; Perrot, F; Van duppen, P L E; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to study the evolution of the reduced transition probabilities, B(E2; 0$^{+} \\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}$), for neutron deficient Sn isotopes by Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics using REX-ISOLDE and the MINIBALL detector array. Measurements of the reduced transition matrix element for the transition between the ground state and the first excited 2$^{+}$ state in light even-even Sn isotopes provide a means to study e.g. core polarization effects in the $^{100}$Sn core. Previous attempts to measure this quantity have been carried out using the decay of isomeric states populated in fusion evaporation reactions. We thus propose to utilize the unique opportunity provided by REX-ISOLDE, after the energy upgrade to 3.1 MeV/u, to use the more model-independent approach of Coulomb excitation to measure this quantity in a number of isotopes in this region.

  5. Nuclear moments of neutron-deficient iridium isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Verney, D; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Huber, G; Ibrahim, F; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Pinard, J; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V

    2000-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron- deficient iridium isotopes. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the optical Ir I transition 5d/sup 7/6s/sup 2/ /sup 4/F/sub 9/2/ to 5d/sup 7/6s6p /sup 6/F/sub 11/2/ at 351.5 nm have been studied for the /sup 182-189/Ir, /sup 186/Ir/sup m/ and /sup 191,193/Ir isotopes. The nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments were obtained from the HFS measurements and the changes of the mean square charge radii from the IS measurements. A large mean square charge radius change between /sup 187/Ir and /sup 186/Ir and between /sup 186/Ir/sup m/ and /sup 186/Ir/sup g/ has been observed. (18 refs).

  6. Laser-assisted decay and optical spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient thallium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beveren, Céline; Huyse, Mark

    The neutron-deficient thallium isotopes with one proton less than the Z = 82 shell closure, are situated in an interesting region of the nuclear chart, notorious for intruder states and shape coexistence. Shape coexistence is the remarkable phenomenon in which two or more distinct types of deformation occur at low energy in the same atomic nucleus. Shape coexistence has been studied intensively, experimentally as well as theoretically in different nuclei in the light-lead region and the isomerism in the thallium isotopes was among the first indications of this phenomenon. Different shapes, whose structure has been linked to specific proton orbitals above and below the Z = 82 shell closure, are present at low energy in the neutron-deficient odd-mass thallium nuclei. In the odd-odd nuclei, the coupling of an unpaired proton and unpaired neutron gives rise to multiplets of low-lying states from which some can be isomeric. Since thallium has one proton missing in the major proton shell, and when approaching neutr...

  7. Multi-quasiparticle {gamma}-band structure in neutron-deficient Ce and Nd isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, J.A. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Bhat, G.H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, 190 006 (India); Palit, R.; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, 400 005 (India); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: sunyang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2009-06-01

    The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce- and Nd-isotopes. It is observed that {gamma}-bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K-states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface {gamma}-oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground-state to {gamma}-bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in {sup 134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.

  8. Multi-Quasiparticle Gamma-Band Structure in Neutron-Deficient Ce and Nd Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, Javid [ORNL; Bhat, G. H. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India; Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India; Sun, Y. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai

    2009-01-01

    The newly developed multi-quasiparticle triaxial projected shell-model approach is employed to study the high-spin band structures in neutron-deficient even-even Ce and Nd isotopes. It is observed that gamma bands are built on each intrinsic configuration of the triaxial mean-field deformation. Due to the fact that a triaxial configuration is a superposition of several K states, the projection from these states results in several low-lying bands originating from the same intrinsic configuration. This generalizes the well-known concept of the surface gamma oscillation in deformed nuclei based on the ground state to gamma bands built on multi-quasiparticle configurations. This new feature provides an alternative explanation on the observation of two I=10 aligning states in ^{134}Ce and both exhibiting a neutron character.

  9. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  10. Deformation and mixing of coexisting shapes in neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot, N.; Bastin, B.; Gaffney, L. P.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Auranen, K.; Bauer, C.; Bender, M.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bönig, S.; Bree, N.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Damyanova, A.; Darby, I.; De Witte, H.; Di Julio, D.; Diriken, J.; Fransen, C.; García-Ramos, J. E.; Gernhäuser, R.; Grahn, T.; Heenen, P.-H.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Huyse, M.; Iwanicki, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Laurent, B.; Lecesne, N.; Lutter, R.; Pakarinen, J.; Peura, P.; Piselli, E.; Próchniak, L.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Sferrazza, M.; Siebeck, B.; Sjodin, M.; Tornqvist, H.; Traykov, E.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; Zielińska, M.

    2015-11-01

    Coulomb-excitation experiments are performed with postaccelerated beams of neutron-deficient Po 196 ,198 ,200 ,202 isotopes at the REX-ISOLDE facility. A set of matrix elements, coupling the low-lying states in these isotopes, is extracted. In the two heaviest isotopes, Po,202200, the transitional and diagonal matrix elements of the 21+ state are determined. In Po,198196 multistep Coulomb excitation is observed, populating the 41+,02+ , and 22+ states. The experimental results are compared to the results from the measurement of mean-square charge radii in polonium isotopes, confirming the onset of deformation from 196Po onwards. Three model descriptions are used to compare to the data. Calculations with the beyond-mean-field model, the interacting boson model, and the general Bohr Hamiltonian model show partial agreement with the experimental data. Finally, calculations with a phenomenological two-level mixing model hint at the mixing of a spherical structure with a weakly deformed rotational structure.

  11. Beta-decay energies and masses of neutron-deficient rubidium and caesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    D'Auria, J M; Westgaard, L; Nyman, G H; Peuser, P; Roeckl, E; Otto, H

    1976-01-01

    Total beta-decay energies were measured by a beta-gamma coincidence method for /sup 76/Rb, /sup 78/Rb, /sup 118/Cs, /sup 120/Cs and /sup 122/Cs. The resulting Q-values and masses together with experimental data from the literature are compared with mass formulae, with particular emphasis on Kr and Rb isotopes in the N=Z region.

  12. Description of the neutron deficient Sr and Zr isotopes in the interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata, G.; Cutoiu, D.; Constantinescu, G.; Ivascu, M.; Zamfir, N.V. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))

    1983-05-30

    The available experimental data for the neutron deficient isotopes of Sr (78 to 86) and Zr (80 to 86) are collected and compared to the predictions of IBA-1 model calculations. The variations of the collectivity along these two isotopic chains is well reproduced with a set of smoothly varying parameters of the model. The description of both the energy levels and the B(E2) transition probabilities improves with decreasing N, the hamiltonian evolving towards an SU(3) dynamical symmetry. Both the large B(E2) value of the 2/sub 1//sup +/->0/sup +/sub(g.s.) transition and the predicted prolate shape for the very light isotopes, agree well with the recent findings of superdeformed nuclei around Z, N proportional 38. Transition strengths for the (p,t) reaction are calculated and compared to experimental observations for 0/sup +/ states, and a discussion is made about the possible intruder character of the O/sub 2//sup +/ state. The interacting boson-fermion approximation (IBFA) model is used to extend the calculations to some odd nuclei. Two shell (1gsub(9/2), 2dsub(5/2)) calculations are performed for the positive-parity states in /sup 83/Sr, /sup 81/Sr and /sup 85/Y and they compare well with the experimental level scheme of these nuclei below 3 MeV excitation.

  13. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient mercury isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Bree, Nick

    This thesis describes the analysis and results of a series of Coulomb-excitation experiments on even-even neutron-deficient mercury isotopes aimed at obtaining a more detailed description of shape coexistence. Two experimental campaigns have been undertaken in the Summer of 2007 and 2008. Pure beams of 182,184,186,188Hg were produced and accelerated at the REX-ISOLDE radioactive-beam facility, located at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). The beams were guided to collide with a stable target to induce Coulomb excitation. The scattered particles were registered by a double-sided silicon strip detector, and the emitted gamma rays by the MINIBALL gamma-ray spectrometer. The motivation to study these mercury isotopes, focused around shape coexistence in atomic nuclei, is addressed in chapter 1, as well as an overview of the knowledge in this region of the nuclear chart. A theoretical description of Coulomb excitation is presented in the second chapter, while the third chapter describes the setup employed for the experim...

  14. Rotational Bands of Some Neutron Deficient Odd-A Pt Isotopes in Particle-Triaxial-Rotor Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-Ming; LIU Yu-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are performed for neutron deficient Pt isotopes 177pt and 175,173,171pt in the particle-triaxial-rotor model with variable moment of inertia. The obtained energy spectra agree with experimental data quite well. The calculated results indicate that all these nuclei are in triaxial rotation with 177pt being in prolate and 175,173,171pt in oblate. Several levels are predicted for the 13/2+ band in 169pt.

  15. Study of the Neutron Deficient Pb and Bi Isotopes by Simultaneous Atomic- and Nuclear-Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Kessler, T

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study systematically nuclear properties of the neutron deficient lead $^{183-189}$Pb, $^{191g}$Pb, $^{193g}$Pb and bismuth isotopes $^{188-200}$Bi by atomic spectroscopy with the ISOLDE resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) combined with simultaneous nuclear spectroscopy at the detection set-up. The main focus is the determination of the mean square charge radii of $^{183-190}$Pb and $^{188-193}$Bi from which the influence of low-lying intruder states should become obvious. Also the nuclear spin and magnetic moments of ground-states and long-lived isomers will be determined unambiguously through evaluation of the hyperfine structure, and new isomers could be discovered. The decay properties of these nuclei can be measured by $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ and $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ spectroscopy. With this data at hand, possible shape transitions around mid-shell at N$\\sim$104 will be studied. This data is crucial for the direct test of nuclear theory in the context of intruder state influence (e.g. energy ...

  16. Experimental investigation of decay properties of neutron deficient $^{116-118}$Ba isotopes and test of $^{112-115}$Ba beam counts

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study decay of neutron deficient isotopes $^{116-118}$Ba using Double Sided Silicon Strip Detector (DSSSD). To study delayed-proton and $\\alpha$-decay branching ratios of $^{116-118}$Ba are of special interest because of their vicinity to the proton drip line. The nuclear life-times and properties of the proton unstable states of Cs isotopes, populated through decay of $^{116-118}$Ba isotopes will be measured. In addition to that we propose beam development of $^{112-115}$Ba to study exotic decay properties of these neutron deficient nuclei and to search for super-allowed $\\alpha$-decay in future.

  17. Changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2013-08-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron-deficient thallium isotopes at the 276.9-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and the hyperfine structure for 183-207Tl isotopes and isomers are presented. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic-moment values are deduced. It is shown that nuclear properties of Tl isotopes and isomers smoothly change at the neutron midshell and beyond without development of strong deformation in contrast to the adjacent Hg nuclei. A rather great isomer shift between I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 states for odd Tl isotopes is preserved for both sides of the previously investigated mass range. For the first time, a similar isomer shift is found for the odd-odd isotope 186Tl. The close resemblance of the charge radii isotopic behavior for the Tl and Pb ground states is demonstrated.

  18. Measurements of competing structures in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes by employing Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S

    Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.

  19. Study of oblate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Guttormsen, M S; Reiter, P; Larsen, A; Korten, W; Clement, E; Siem, S; Renstrom, T; Buerger, A; Jenkins, D G

    We propose to investigate nuclear shapes and shape coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure at the ISOLDE facility by employing Coulomb excitation of Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy beams from the REX accelerator and the Miniball experiment. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region of the nuclear chart. The measurement of electric quadrupole moments of excited states and the transition rates between them serves as a stringent test of theoretical models and effective nucleon-nucleon interactions.

  20. Shape transition and coexistence in neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study spectroscopic quadrupole moments of excited states and electromagnetic transition rates between them in the neutron-deficient rare earth nuclei $^{140}$Sm and $^{142}$Gd using projectile Coulomb excitation at energies of 4.7 MeV per nucleon. The rare earth nuclei below the N=82 shell closure form one of the few regions of the nuclear chart where oblate shapes are expected to occur near the ground state. Nuclear shapes are expected to change rapidly in this region, with coexistence of oblate and prolate shapes in some nuclei. The measurement of electromagnetic matrix elements represents therefore a particularly sensitive test of theoretical nuclear structure models.

  1. Search for EC-decayed neutron-deficient actinide isotopes using gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    To study the nuclear properties of unknown neutron deficient actinide isotopes which decay mainly via orbital electron capture (EC), we have developed a composite system consisting of a gas-jet transport apparatus and a thermal ion-source at the JAERI-ISOL. With this system, search for {sup 236}Am produced in the {sup 235}U({sup 6}Li, 5n) reaction has been performed. Pu KX-rays associated with the EC decay of {sup 236}Am are observed at the mass-236 fraction. The half-life of {sup 236}Am is evaluated to be 4.4min. The outline of the gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL system and typical performance are given. (author)

  2. Ground-state properties and symmetry energy of neutron-rich and neutron-deficient Mg isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidarov, M K; Antonov, A N; de Guerra, E Moya

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of various ground-state properties of neutron-rich and neutron-deficient Mg isotopes with $A$=20-36 is performed in the framework of the self-consistent deformed Skyrme-Hartree-Fock plus BCS method. The correlation between the skin thickness and the characteristics related with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is investigated for this isotopic chain following the theoretical approach based on the coherent density fluctuation model and using the Brueckner energy-density functional. The results of the calculations show that the behavior of the nuclear charge radii and the nuclear symmetry energy in the Mg isotopic chain is closely related to the nuclear deformation. We also study, within our theoretical scheme, the emergence of an "island of inversion" at neutron-rich $^{32}$Mg nucleus, that was recently proposed from the analyses of spectroscopic measurements of $^{32}$Mg low-lying energy spectrum and the charge rms radii of all magnesium isotopes in the $sd$ shell.

  3. Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient polonium isotopes studied at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Neven, Michiel

    The polonium isotopes represent an interesting region of the nuclear chart having only two protons outside the Z = 82 closed shell. These isotopes have already been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. The heavier isotopes (A > 200) seem to follow a "regular seniority-type regime" while for the lighter isotopes (A < 200) a more collective behavior is observed. Many questions remain regarding the transition between these two regimes and the configuration mixing between quantum states. Experiments in the lighter polonium isotopes point to the presence of shape coexistence, however the phenomenon is not fully understood. A Coulomb excitation study of the polonium isotopes whereby the dynamic properties are investigated can provide helpful insights in understanding the shape coexistence phenomena. In this thesis $^{202}$Po was studied via Coulomb excitation. The $^{202}$Po isotope was part of an experimental campaign in which the $^{196,198,200,206}$Po isotopes were studied as well via Coulomb...

  4. Competition between α and β decays for heavy deformed neutron-deficient Pa, U, Np, and Pu isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-01-01

    The competition between α and β decays is investigated for neutron-deficient Pa, U, Np, and Pu isotopes. β+/electron-capture (EC) decay rates are calculated within the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interactions. Contributions from allowed Gamow-Teller and Fermi transitions as well as first-forbidden transitions are considered. α -decay calculations are performed within the generalized density-dependent cluster model. Effects of differences between neutron and proton distributions and nuclear deformation are taken into account. In the calculations, Reid-93 N N interactions are used for β+/EC decays, while Michigan three-range Yukawa effective interactions, based on the G -matrix elements of Reid N N potentials, are used for α decay. The calculated β -decay half-lives show good agreement with the experimental data over a range of magnitude from 102 to 105 s. The resulting total half-lives including α and β contributions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, together with the α /β -decay branching ratios.

  5. Laser Spectroscopy Study on the Neutron-Rich and Neutron-Deficient Te Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform laser spectroscopy measurements on the Te isotopes. This will give access to fundamental properties of the ground and rather long-lived isomeric states such as the change in the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\langle$r$^2_c\\rangle$) and the nuclear moments. For these medium-mass isotopes, at this moment the optical resolution obtained with RILIS is not high enough to perform isotope shift measurements. Thus we will use the COMPLIS experimental setup which allows Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) on laser desorbed atoms. The 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{3}$S$_{1}$ and 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{5}$S$_{2}$ optical transitions have been used to perform, on the stable Te isotopes, the tests required by the INTC committee. For this purpose stable-ion sources have been built and Te isotopes have been delivered as stable beams by the injector coupled to the COMPLIS setup. ISOLDE offers the opportunity for studying the Te isotope series over a ...

  6. Early onset of deformation in the neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolios, T. E.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Dexters, W.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Mané, E.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2012-09-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy has been performed at CERN-ISOLDE with the RILIS laser ion source on 191-204,206,208-211,216,218Po. New information on the β decay of 199Po were extracted in the process, challenging previous results. Large-scale atomic calculations were performed to extract the changes in the mean-square charge radius δlangler2rangle from the isotope shifts. The δlangler2rangle for the even-A isotopes reveal a large deviation from the spherical droplet model for N < 116.

  7. Early onset of ground state deformation in neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cocolios, T E; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A E; Bastin, B; Buscher, J; Darby, I G; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseyev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Fritzsche, S; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Keupers, M; Koster, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Mane, E; Marsh, B A; Molkanov, P L; Page, R D; Sjoedin, A M; Stefan, I; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Zemlyanoy, S G; Bender, M; Heenen, P-H

    2011-01-01

    In-source resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of the even-A polonium isotopes $^{192-210,216,218}$Po has been performed using the $6p^{3} 7s^{5} S_{2}$ to $6p^{3} 7p^{5} P_{2} (\\lambda$ = 843.38 nm) transition in the polonium atom (Po-I) at the CERN ISOLDE facility. The comparison of the measured isotope shifts in $^{200-210}$Po with a previous data set allows us to test for the first time recent large-scale atomic calculations that are essential to extract the changes in the mean-square charge radius of the atomic nucleus. When going to lighter masses, a surprisingly large and early departure from sphericity is observed, which is only partly reproduced by beyond mean field calculations.

  8. Early onset of ground-state deformation in the neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cocolios, T E; Seliverstov, M D; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A E; Bastin, B; Buscher, J; Darby, I G; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseyev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Fritzsche, S; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Keupers, M; Koster, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Mane, E; Marsh, B A; Molkanov, P L; Page, R D; Sjoedin, A M; Stefan, I; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Zemlyanoy, S G; Bender, M; Heenen, P H

    2011-01-01

    In-source resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of the even-$A$ polonium isotopes $^{192-210,216,218}$Po has been performed using the $6p^37s$ $^5S_2$ to $6p^37p$ $^5P_2$ ($\\lambda=843.38$ nm) transition in the polonium atom (Po-I) at the CERN ISOLDE facility. The comparison of the measured isotope shifts in $^{200-210}$Po with a previous data set allows to test for the first time recent large-scale atomic calculations that are essential to extract the changes in the mean-square charge radius of the atomic nucleus. When going to lighter masses, a surprisingly large and early departure from sphericity is observed, which is only partly reproduced by Beyond Mean Field calculations.

  9. Direct mass measurements of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes using the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dilling, J; Beck, D; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G

    2004-01-01

    The masses of the noble-gas Xe isotopes with 114 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 123 have been directly measured for the first time. The experiments were carried out with the ISOLTRAP triple trap spectrometer at the online mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. A mass resolving power of the Penning trap spectrometer of $m/\\Delta m$ of close to a million was chosen resulting in an accuracy of $\\delta m \\leq 13$ keV for all investigated isotopes. Conflicts with existing, indirectly obtained, mass data by several standard deviations were found and are discussed. An atomic mass evaluation has been performed and the results are compared to information from laser spectroscopy experiments and to recent calculations employing an interacting boson model.

  10. Early Onset of Ground State Deformation in Neutron Deficient Polonium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Mané, E.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjoedin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; van de Walle, J.; van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.; Bender, M.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2011-02-01

    In-source resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of the even-A polonium isotopes Po192-210,216,218 has been performed using the 6p37s S25 to 6p37p P25 (λ=843.38nm) transition in the polonium atom (Po-I) at the CERN ISOLDE facility. The comparison of the measured isotope shifts in Po200-210 with a previous data set allows us to test for the first time recent large-scale atomic calculations that are essential to extract the changes in the mean-square charge radius of the atomic nucleus. When going to lighter masses, a surprisingly large and early departure from sphericity is observed, which is only partly reproduced by beyond mean field calculations.

  11. Shape coexistence measurements in even-even neutron-deficient polonium isotopes by Coulomb excitation, using REX-ISOLDE and the Ge MINIBALL array

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...

  12. Beta-delayed proton emission in neutron-deficient lanthanide isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmarth, P.A.

    1988-09-30

    Forty-two ..beta..-delayed proton precursors with 56less than or equal toZless than or equal to71 and 63less than or equal toNless than or equal to83 were produced in heavy-ion reactions at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC and their radioactive decay properties studied at the on-line mass separation facility OASIS. Twenty-five isotopes and eight delayed proton branches were identified for the first time. Delayed proton energy spectra and proton coincident ..gamma..-ray and x-ray spectra were measured for all precursors. In a few cases, proton branching ratios were also determined. The precursor mass numbers were determined by the separator, while the proton coincident x-ray energies provided unambiguous Z identifications. The proton coincident ..gamma..-ray intensities were used to extract final state branching ratios. Proton emission from ground and isomeric states was observed in many cases. The majority of the delayed proton spectra exhibited the smooth bell-shaped distribution expected for heavy mass precursors. The experimental results were compared to statistical model calculations using standard parameter sets. Calculations using Nilsson model/RPA ..beta..-strength functions were found to reproduce the spectral shapes and branching ratios better than calculations using either constant or gross theory ..beta..-strength functions. Precursor half-life predictions from the Nilsson model/RPA ..beta..-strength functions were also in better agreement with the measured half-lives than were gross theory predictions. The ratios of positron coincident proton intensities to total proton intensities were used to determine Q/sub EC/-B/sub p/ values for several precursors near N=82. The statistical model calculations were not able to reproduce the experimental results for N=81 precursors. 154 refs., 82 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Hg isotopes studied via lifetime measurements in $^{184,186}$Hg and two-state mixing calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Page, R.D.; Grahn, T.; Scheck, M.; Butler, P.A.; Bertone, P.F.; Bree, N.; Carroll, R.J.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chiara, C.J.; Dewald, A.; Filmer, F.; Fransen, C.; Huyse, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Joss, D.T.; Julin, R.; Kondev, F.G.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rigby, S.V.; Rother, W.; Van Duppen, P.; Watkins, H.V.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes, $^{184,186}$Hg, were studied with the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) method using the Gammasphere array and the K\\"oln Plunger device. The Differential Decay Curve Method (DDCM) was employed to determine the lifetimes of the yrast states in $^{184,186}$Hg. An improvement on previously measured values of yrast states up to $8^{+}$ is presented as well as first values for the $9_{3}$ state in $^{184}$Hg and $10^{+}$ state in $^{186}$Hg. $B(E2)$ values are calculated and compared to a two-state mixing model which utilizes the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model, allowing for extraction of spin-dependent mixing strengths and amplitudes.

  14. Production of very neutron-deficient isotopes near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn via reactions involving light-particle and cluster emission

    CERN Document Server

    La Commara, M; D'Onofrio, A; Gadea, A; Glogowski, M; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Belcari, N; Borcea, R; De Angelis, G; Fahlander, C; aGórska, M; Grawe, H; Hellström, M; Kirchner, R; Rejmund, M; Roca, V; Roeckl, E; Romano, M; Rykaczewski, K; Schmidt, K; Terrasi, F

    2000-01-01

    The production of very neutron-deficient isotopes near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn has been investigated by using on-line mass separation of evaporation residues produced by heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. We measured the cross sections for sup 9 sup 9 Cd, sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 In, sup 1 sup 0 sup 1 Sn and sup 1 sup 0 sup 2 In via sup 5 sup 8 Ni+ sup 5 sup 8 Ni fusion reactions followed by cluster emission, and via sup 5 sup 8 Ni+ sup 5 sup 0 Cr fusion reactions accompanied by evaporation of protons, neutrons or alpha particles. Both types of reactions yield similar cross sections for the production of exotic nuclei near sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Sn. The data are discussed in comparison with results obtained from statistical-model calculations.

  15. Mass measurements of very neutron-deficient Mo and Tc isotopes and their impact on rp process nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Haettner, E; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Block, M; Eliseev, S; Fleckenstein, T; Herfurth, F; Heßberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Kluge, H -J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Novikov, Yu N; Plaß, W R; Rahaman, S; Rauscher, T; Rodríguez, D; Schatz, H; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Sun, B; Thirolf, P G; Vorobjev, G; Wang, M; Weber, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.122501

    2011-01-01

    The masses of ten proton-rich nuclides, including the N=Z+1 nuclides 85-Mo and 87-Tc, were measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. Compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 a systematic shift of the mass surface by up to 1.6 MeV is observed causing significant abundance changes of the ashes of astrophysical X-ray bursts. Surprisingly low alpha-separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc are found, making the formation of a ZrNb cycle in the rp process possible. Such a cycle would impose an upper temperature limit for the synthesis of elements beyond Nb in the rp process.

  16. Possible shape phase transition in the heavy Kr isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Constantinescu, G.; Cutoiu, D.; Ivascu, M.; Zamfir, N.V. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania))

    1981-06-01

    Potential energy surfaces of Kr isotopes computed in the variables (epsilon,..gamma..) are presented. They account qualitatively for the main features observed experimentally for the lighter isotopes and predict that a shape phase transition, similar to that known for the heavy (A of the order of 100) Sr and Zr nuclei, should be observed in the neutron-rich isotopes between the neutron numbers 58 and 60.

  17. Photodissociation of neutron deficient nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnabend, K.; Babilon, M.; Hasper, J.; Mueller, S.; Zarza, M.; Zilges, A. [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    The knowledge of the cross sections for photodissociation reactions like e.g. ({gamma}, n) of neutron deficient nuclei is of crucial interest for network calculations predicting the abundances of the so-called p nuclei. However, only single cross sections have been measured up to now, i.e., one has to rely nearly fully on theoretical predictions. While the cross sections of stable isotopes are accessible by experiments using real photons, the bulk of the involved reactions starts from unstable nuclei. Coulomb dissociation (CD) experiments in inverse kinematics might be a key to expand the experimental database for p-process network calculations. The approach to test the accuracy of the CD method is explained. (orig.)

  18. Study of neutron deficient iridium isotopes by using laser spectroscopy; Etude des noyaux d'iridium deficients en neutrons par spectroscopie laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verney, D

    2000-12-19

    Resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed on neutron deficient iridium isotopes {sup 182-189}Ir, {sup 186}Ir{sup m} and stable isotopes {sup 191,193}Ir. Hyperfine spectra were recorded from the optical transition at 351,7 nm between the 5d{sup 7}6s{sup 2} {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} ground state and the 5d{sup 7}6s6p {sup 6}F{sub 11/2} excited state. Radioactive iridium isotopes were obtained from {beta}{sup +}/EC decay of radioactive mercury nuclei deposited on a graphite substrate. The radioactive mercury nuclei were produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN through spallation reactions, by bombarding a molten lead target with the 1 GeV proton beam delivered by the PS-Booster. Magnetic dipole moments and spectroscopic quadrupole moments were extracted from the hyperfine spectra. The mean square charge radius variations, as deduced from the measured isotopic shift, show a sharp change between {sup 187}Ir and {sup 186}Ir{sup g}, accompanied by a sudden increase in deformation: from {beta}2 {approx} 0,16 to {beta}2 > 0, 2. These results were analysed in the framework of an axial rotor plus one or two quasiparticles. The wave functions of the osmium and platinum cores which are used in order to describe the iridium nuclei were calculated from the HF+BCS method with the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. The cores were constrained to take the deformation parameters extracted from the isotopic shift measurements. One shows then that this sudden deformation change corresponds also to a change in the proton state that describes the odd nuclei ground state or that participates in the coupling with the neutron in odd-odd nuclei. This state is identified with the {pi}3/2{sup +}[402] orbital for the smaller deformations nuclei and with the {pi}1/2{sup -}[541] orbital stemming from the h{sub 9/2} subshell for bigger deformations nuclei. (author)

  19. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient Sr and neutron-rich Sn isotopes with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikler, G. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany) and TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: g.sikler@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Batiment 108, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Beck, D. [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kellerbauer, A. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Batiment 108, 91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Oinonen, M. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Szerypo, J. [LMU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-12-26

    The atomic masses of {sup 76,77,80,81,86,88}Sr and {sup 124,129,130,131,132}Sn were measured by means of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. {sup 76}Sr is now the heaviest N=Z nucleus for which the mass is measured to a precision better than 35 keV. For the tin isotopes in the close vicinity of the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn, mass uncertainties below 20 keV were achieved. An atomic mass evaluation was carried out taking other experimental mass values into account by performing a least-squares adjustment. Some discrepancies between older experimental values and the ones reported here emerged and were resolved. The results of the new adjustment and their impact will be presented.

  20. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient Sr and neutron-rich Sn isotopes with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Oinonen, M; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    2005-01-01

    The atomic masses of $^{76,77,80,81,86,88}$Sr and $^{124,129,130,131,132}$Sn were measured by means of the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. $^{76}$Sr is now the heaviest N=Z nucleus for which the mass is measured to a precision better than 35 keV. For the tin isotopes in the close vicinity of the doubly magic nucleus $^{132}$Sn, mass uncertainties below 20 keV were achieved. An atomic mass evaluation was carried out taking other experimental mass values into account by performing a least-squares adjustment. Some discrepancies between older experimental values and the ones reported here emerged and were resolved. The results of the new adjustment and their impact will be presented.

  1. Study of neutron-deficient isotopes of Fl in the 239Pu, 240Pu + 48Ca reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A. A.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of Fl isotopes in the 239Pu + 48Ca and 240Pu + 48Ca reactions are presented. The experiment was performed using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator at the U400 cyclotron. In the 239Pu+48Ca experiment one decay of spontaneously fissioning 284Fl was detected at 245-MeV beam energy. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment three decay chains of 285Fl were detected at 245 MeV and four decays were assigned to 284Fl at the higher 48Ca beam energy of 250 MeV. The α-decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined more precisely. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3n)284Fl reaction was observed to be about 20 times lower than those predicted by theoretical models and 50 times less than the value measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. The cross sections of the 240Pu(48Ca,4-3n)284,285Fl at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei and their production cross sections indicate rapid decrease of stability of superheavy nuclei with departing from the neutron number N=184 predicted to be the next magic number.

  2. High-accuracy mass measurements of neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Blaum, K; Carrel, F; George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2006-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-rich krypton isotopes 84,86-95Kr have been determined with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with uncertainties ranging from 20 to 220 ppb. The masses of the short-lived isotopes 94Kr and 95Kr were measured for the first time. The masses of the radioactive nuclides 89Kr and 91Kr disagree by 4 and 6 standard deviations, respectively, from the present Atomic-Mass Evaluation database. The resulting modification of the mass surface with respect to the two-neutron separation energies as well as implications for mass models and stellar nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  3. β+/EC decay rates of deformed neutron-deficient nuclei in the deformed QRPA with realistic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Ni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The weak-decay (β+ and EC rates of neutron-deficient Kr, Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes are investigated within the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon–nucleon interactions. The particle–particle and particle–hole channels of residual interactions are handled in large single-particle model spaces, based on the Brückner G-matrix with charge-dependent Bonn nucleon–nucleon forces. Contributions from allowed Gamow–Teller and Fermi transitions as well as first-forbidden transitions are calculated. The calculated half-lives show good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of magnitude, from 10−2 to 107 s. Moreover, predictions of β-decay half-lives are made for some extremely proton-rich isotopes, which could be useful for future experiments.

  4. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, K M; Bissell, M L; Budincevic, I; Cocolios, T E; De Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly-sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes $^{202-206}$Fr, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of $^{202,204}$Fr performed at the CRIS experiment.

  5. ALPHA-DECAY PROPERTIES OF NEUTRON-DEFICIENT POLONIUM AND RADON NUCLEI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAUTERS, J; DENDOOVEN, P; HUYSE, M; REUSEN, G; VANDUPPEN, P; LIEVENS, P

    Chemically purified and mass-separated Rn isotopes are used to deduce the a branching ratios of the Po daughter nuclei. The obtained values are systematically lower than the previously known values. Combined with more accurate measurements of the half-lives of the neutron-deficient Po isotopes, a

  6. ALPHA-DECAY PROPERTIES OF NEUTRON-DEFICIENT POLONIUM AND RADON NUCLEI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAUTERS, J; DENDOOVEN, P; HUYSE, M; REUSEN, G; VANDUPPEN, P; LIEVENS, P

    1993-01-01

    Chemically purified and mass-separated Rn isotopes are used to deduce the a branching ratios of the Po daughter nuclei. The obtained values are systematically lower than the previously known values. Combined with more accurate measurements of the half-lives of the neutron-deficient Po isotopes, a pr

  7. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes at ISOLTRAP and the development of an ultra-stable voltage source for the PENTATRAP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Atomic masses and hence binding energies of nuclides are of great importance for studies of nuclear structure since they reflect all effective interactions in a nucleus. Within this thesis the masses of seven nuclides, namely {sup 194}Au, {sup 194}Hg, {sup 190,193,198}Tl and {sup 202,208}Pb, were determined at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. The thallium region in the chart of isotopes is of special interest due to the occurrence of nuclear structure effects like low-lying isomers, level inversion, shape coexistence and deformations. These effects are investigated by applying finite-difference mass formulas, such as the two-neutron separation energies or the so-called empirical pairing gaps. The second topic addressed within the present thesis is an ultra-stable voltage source, called StaReP (Stable Reference for Penning Trap Experiments), which was developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik. It is one of the key components of the high-precision mass spectrometer PENTATRAP, containing a tower of five Penning traps. A 25-channel voltage source with a relative stability of few 10{sup -8} over a period of 10 minutes in the range of 0 to -100V is mandatory for PENTATRAP aiming for mass measurements with relative mass uncertainties of ≤ 10{sup -11}. Mass values with such a high precision allow for stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in strong electric fields, testing Einstein's mass-energy relation E = mc{sup 2} as well as measurements of decay energies (Q-values) with applications in neutrino physics.

  8. Independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes for the photofission of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gangrskij, Y P; Mishinskij, G V; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Szoelloes, O; Zhemenik, V I

    2002-01-01

    Presented are the yields of primary fission fragments (produced in the process of the rupture of the nucleus) of Kr (A = 87- 93) and Xe (A 148-143) for the photofission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu, which were measured using Bremsstrahlung from a microtron, the energy of accelerated electrons being 25 MeV. A technique was used that includes transportation of fragments escaped from the target with a gas flow through a capillary and the condensation of Kr and Xe inert gases in a cryostat at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Fragments of all the other elements were retained with a filter at the entrance of the capillary. Kr and Xe isotopes were identified by the gamma spectra of their daughter products. The mass number distributions are obtained of the independent yields of Kr and Xe isotopes, which are compared with the similar characteristics for the fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons; the charge shifts for the fragments under study relative to the unchanged...

  9. Coulomb excitation of $^{94,96}$Kr beam Deformation in the neutron-rich krypton isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Cederkall, J A; Di julio, D D; Zamfir, N - V; Srebrny, J; Wadsworth, R; Siem, S; Marginean, R; Iwanicki, J S

    Recently the energy of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in the N=60 $^{96}$Kr nucleus was determinated to be 241 keV. This was the first experimental observation of an excited state in this highly exotic nucleus. The 2$_{1}^{+}$ state in $^{94}$Kr is located at 665.5 keV, i.e. E(2$_{1}^{+}$) drops by more than 400 keV at N=60. This lowering of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ energy indicates a sharp shape transition behavior which is somewhat similar to that discovered in the Sr and Zr isotopic chains at N=60. The deformation expected for the 2$_{1}^{+}$ state of $^{96}$Kr, as resulting from the E(2$_{1}^{+}$) energy based on the semi-empirical relation of Raman et al. is $\\beta_{2}$ = 0.31, which is, however, considerably smaller than that for Sr and Zr ($\\geq$0.40). The sudden decrease of E(2$_{1}^{+}$) from N=50 to N=60 does not fully agree with the more gradual change of deformation deduced from laser spectroscopy measurements of mean square charge radii, although for $^{96}$Kr, in particular, these are consistent with a $\\beta_{2}...

  10. Shape evolution at high spin states in Kr and Br isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, T. [Department of Pure and Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur-495009 (India); Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Jain, H. C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India); Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Pancholi, S. C.; Bhowmik, R. K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Yang, Y.-C.; Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheikh, J. A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Raja, M. K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Choudhury, D. [Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Jain, A. K.; Mehrotra, I. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    The high spin states in A = 75, Kr and Br isotopes have been populated via fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 90 MeV. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected utilizing the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Lifetime of these excited high spin states were determined by Doppler-shift attenuation method. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the frame work of projected shell-model to get better insight into the evolution of collectivity. Comparison of the calculations of the model with transitional quadrupole moments Q{sub t} of the positive and negative parity bands firmly established their configurations.

  11. Weak interaction rates for Kr and Sr waiting-point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: sarriguren@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-12

    Weak interaction rates are studied in neutron deficient Kr and Sr waiting-point isotopes in ranges of densities and temperatures relevant for the rp process. The nuclear structure is described within a microscopic model (deformed QRPA) that reproduces not only the half-lives but also the Gamow-Teller strength distributions recently measured. The various sensitivities of the decay rates to both density and temperature are discussed. Continuum electron capture is shown to contribute significantly to the weak rates at rp-process conditions.

  12. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  13. Four-Quasiparticle High-K States in Neutron-Deficient Lead and Polonium Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue; Xu, Furong

    2012-06-01

    Configuration-constrained potential energy surface calculations have been performed to investigate four-quasiparticle high-K configurations in neutron-deficient lead and polonium isotopes. A good agreement between the calculations and the experimental data has been found for the excitation energy of the observed Kπ = 19- state in 188Pb. Several lowly excited high-K states are predicted, and the large oblate deformation and low energy indicate high-K isomerism in these nuclei.

  14. Spontaneous-fission decay properties and production cross-sections for the neutron-deficient nobelium isotopes formed in the sup 4 sup 4 sup , sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 sup , sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Belozerov, A V; Chepigin, V I; Drobina, T P; Gorshkov, V A; Kabachenko, A P; Malyshev, O N; Merkin, I M; Oganessian, Yu T; Popeko, A G; Sagaidak, R N; Svirikhin, A I; Yeremin, A V; Berek, G; Brida, I; Sáro, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy-ion fusion reactions sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 4 Pb and sup 4 sup 4 Ca+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb leading to the same compound nucleus sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 No sup * were run in attempts to produce new neutron-deficient spontaneous-fission isotopes of sup 2 sup 4 sup 9 sup , sup 2 sup 5 sup 0 No using the electrostatic separator VASSILISSA. Production cross-sections for the spontaneous-fission activities with the half-lives 5.6 and 54 mu s observed in these reactions are compared with the measured ones for the well-known isotopes of sup 2 sup 5 sup 1 sup - sup 2 sup 5 sup 5 No formed in the heavy-ion fusion reactions sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 Pb and sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb. The obtained excitation functions for the reaction products formed after the evaporation of 1-4 neutrons from the corresponding compound No nuclei have been compared with similar data obtained earlier and results of statistical model calculations. (orig.)

  15. Evidence for a Smooth Onset of Deformation in the Neutron-Rich Kr Isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, M.; Warr, N.; Nomura, K.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Muecher, D.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Bernards, C.; Bettermann, L.; Bildstein, V.; Butterworth, J.; Cappellazzo, M.; Cederkaell, J.; Cline, D.; Darby, I.; Das Gupta, S.; Daugas, J. M.; Davinson, T.; De Witte, H.; Diriken, J.; Filipescu, D.; Fiori, E.; Fransen, C.; Gaffney, L. P.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Hackstein, M.; Heinze, S.; Hess, H.; Huyse, M.; Jenkins, D.; Konki, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Litzinger, J.; Lutter, R.; Marginean, N.; Mihai, C.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P.; Singh, B. S. Nara; Nowak, K.; Otsuka, T.; Pakarinen, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radeck, D.; Reiter, P.; Rigby, S.; Robledo, L. M.; Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Rudigier, M.; Sarriguren, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Simpson, G.; Thoele, P.; Thomas, T.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Wadsworth, R.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; Zell, K. O.; Zielinska, M.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich nuclei Kr-94,Kr-96 were studied via projectile Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Level energies of the first excited 2(+) states and their absolute E2 transition strengths to the ground state are determined and discussed in the context of the E(2(1)(+)) and

  16. Coulomb Excitation of a Neutron-Rich $^{88}$Kr Beam Search for Mixed Symmetry States

    CERN Multimedia

    Andreoiu, C; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the ISOLDE/REX/MINIBALL/CD set-up to perform a Coulomb Excitation experiment with a $^{88}$Kr radioactive beam. The motivation includes a search for $Mixed$ $Symmetry$ states predicted by the IBM-2 model, gathering more spectroscopy data about the $^{88}$Kr nucleus and extending shape coexistence studies (performed previously by the proposers for neutron-deficient Kr isotopes) to the neutron-rich side. The proposed experiment will provide data complementary to the Coulomb Excitation of a relativistic $^{88}$Kr beam proposed by D. Tonev et al. for a RISING experiment. A total of 12 days of beam time is necessary for the experiment, equally divided into two runs. One run with a 2.2 MeV/A beam energy on a $^{48}$Ti target and a second run with the maximum available REX energy of 3.1 MeV/A on a $^{208}$Pb target are requested. Using either a UC$_{x}$ or ThC$_{x}$ fissioning primary target coupled with a plasma source by a cooled transfer line seems to be the best choice for the proposed experime...

  17. Shape evolutions of $^{72,74}$Kr with temperature in the covariant density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The rich phenomena of deformations in neutron-deficient krypton isotopes such as the shape evolution with neutron number and the shape coexistence attract the interests of nuclear physicists for decades. It will be interesting to study such shape phenomena using a novel way, i.e., by thermally exciting the nucleus. So in this work, we study the shape evolutions in $^{72,74}$Kr with increasing temperatures within the covariant density functional theory with parameter set PC-PK1. While $^{72}$Kr displays simple oblate to spherical transition at $T$=3.35 MeV, $^{74}$Kr displays three shape transitions, namely, 0.6 MeV from oblate to prolate, 1.65 MeV from prolate to oblate, and 2.95 MeV from oblate to spherical. Together with the shape transitions, two shape coexistence ranges are obtained for $^{74}$Kr, namely, from 0 MeV to 0.75 MeV, and from 1.45 to 1.8 MeV. Such shape transitions can be understood by disintegrating the total energy into particle energy and field energy.

  18. Nuclear binding around the RP-process waiting points $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Encouraged by the success of mass determinations of nuclei close to the Z=N line performed at ISOLTRAP during the year 2000 and of the recent decay spectroscopy studies on neutron-deficient Kr isotopes (IS351 collaboration), we aim to measure masses and proton separation energies of the bottleneck nuclei defining the flow of the astrophysical rp-process beyond A$\\sim$70. In detail, the program includes mass measurements of the rp-process waiting point nuclei $^{68}$Se and $^{72}$Kr and determination of proton separation energies of the proton-unbound $^{69}$Br and $^{73}$Rb via $\\beta$-decays of $^{69}$Kr and $^{73}$Sr, respectively. The aim of the project is to complete the experimental database for astrophysical network calculations and for the liquid-drop type of mass models typically used in the modelling of the astrophysical rp process in the region. The first beamtime is scheduled for the August 2001 and the aim is to measure the absolute mass of the waiting-point nucleus $^{72}$Kr.

  19. On the interference of 86Kr2+ during carbon isotope analysis of atmospheric methane using continuous flow combustion – isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane (δ13C of CH4 on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled to a combustion-preconcentration unit. This report shows that the atmospheric trace gas krypton can severely interfere during the mass spectrometric measurement leading to significant biases in δ13C of CH4 if krypton is not sufficiently separated during the analysis. The effect comes about by the lateral tailing of the peak of doubly charged 86Kr in the neighbouring m/z, 44, 45, and 46 Faraday cups. Accordingly, the introduced bias is dependent on the chromatographic separation, the Kr to CH4 mixing ratio in the sample, the mass spectrometer source tuning as well as the detector configuration and can amount to up to several permil in δ13C. Apart from technical solutions to avoid this interference we present correction routines to a posteriori remove the bias.

  20. Study of Neutron Deficient ^9C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belarge, Joseph; Rogachev, G. V.; Blackmon, J.; Wiedenhover, I.; Baby, L.; Johnson, E. D.; Kuchera, A. N.; Koshchiy, E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L.; Macon, K.; Matos, M.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.

    2012-10-01

    Development of theoretical framework that allows the combination of nuclear structure calculations with the continuum is an important objective of modern nuclear theory [1,2]. Due to the low binding energy of exotic isotopes even the lowest excited states are unbound and therefore it is essential to take the continuum into account. We studied the structure of the lightest bound carbon isotope, ^9C, through ^8B+p resonance scattering using the new active target detector ANASEN [3]. The experiment was performed at the John D. Fox Superconducting Accelerator Laboratory at FSU. A rare isotope beam of ^8B ions was produced using the radioactive nuclear beam facility RESOLUT. Pure hydrogen gas was used as a target and also as an active medium for the gas proportional counters of the ANASEN detector. The analysis of the p+^8B excitation functions was performed using the R-Matrix approach. The preliminary results will be presented.[4pt] [1] A. Volya, Phys. Rev. C 79, 044308 (2009).[0pt] [2] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, PRL 101, 092501 (2008).[0pt] [3] M. Matos, et al.,Proc. Intern. Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos XI, July 19-23 2010, Heidelberg, Germany, p.226(2010).

  1. Study of Neutron Deficient 13O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belarge, Joseph; Rogachev, G. V.; Blackmon, J.; Wiedenhover, I.; Baby, L.; Johnson, E. D.; Kuchera, A. N.; Koshchiy, E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L.; Macon, K.; Matos, M.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.

    2013-10-01

    Development of theoretical framework that allows the combination of nuclear structure calculations with the continuum is an important objective of modern nuclear theory [A. Volya, PRC 79, 044308 (2009), S. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, PRL 101092501 (2008)]. Due to the low binding energy of exotic isotopes even the lowest excited states are unbound and therefore it is essential to take the continuum into account. We studied the structure of the lightest bound oxygen isotope, 13O, through 12N+p resonance scattering using the new active target detector ANASEN [M. Matos et al., Proc. Intern. Symp. on Nuclei in the Cosmos, July 19-23, Heidelberg, Germany, p. 226 (2010)]. The experiment was performed at the John D. Fox Superconducting Accelerator Laboratory at Florida State University. A rare isotope beam of 12N ions was produced using the radioactive nuclear beam facility RESOLUT. Methane gas was used as a target and also as an active medium for the gas proportional counters of the ANASEN detector. The analysis of the p+12N excitation functions was performed using the R-Matrix approach. The preliminary results of the experiment will be presented.

  2. Measurements of fusion cross sections in the systems {sup 58,64}Ni +, {sup 78,86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the nuclear structure dependence of the sub-barrier fusion enhancement in heavy-ion induced reactions by studying the systems {sup 58,64}Ni + {sup 78,86}Kr at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. These {sup 78,86}Kr selected because, similar to the Mo case discussed isotopes were above, there are strong changes in nuclear structure as a function of the neutron number. However, contrary to Mo, where the {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} of the nucleus increases with higher neutron number, the most collective nucleus for the Kr case is the neutron-deficient {sup 78}Kr. The experiment was performed with Kr beams from the positive-ion injector using enriched {sup 78,86}Kr gas in the ECR ion source. The separation of evaporation residues from the elastically-scattered particles was achieved by using their difference in time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The excitation functions for the four systems were compared to coupled-channels calculations including inelastic excitations of one- and two-phonon states in projectile and target. For systems involving {sup 86}Kr, good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, while for {sup 78}Kr + {sup 58,64}Ni an additional enhancement of the cross sections persisted at the lowest energies. It was found that this fusion enhancement correlates with the nuclear structure of the individual nucleus. Characterizing the structure of vibrational even-even nuclei by their restoring force parameter C{sub 2}, which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the associated B(E2) value, one observes that nuclei with small C{sub 2} values exhibit a large sub-barrier fusion enhancement, while nuclei with high values of C{sub 2} (usually closed-shell nuclei), show smaller fusion yields.

  3. Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Nuclei Near the Z=82 Closed Shell via Symmetric Fusion Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondev F.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam and decay-spectroscopy studies of neutron-deficient nuclei near the Z=82 shell closure were carried out using the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA and the Gammasphere array, in conjunction with symmetric fusion reactions and the Recoil Decay Tagging (RDT technique. The primary motivation was to study properties of 179Tl and 180Tl, and their daughter, and grand-daughter isotopes. For the first time, in-beam structures associated with 179Tl and 180Tl were observed, as well as γ rays associated with the 180Tl α decay. No long-lived isomer was identified in 180Tl, in contrast with the known systematics for the heavier odd-odd Tl isotopes.

  4. Deformation properties of the neutron-deficient ODD-A Pt and Hg nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvage, J.; Libert, J.; Roussiere, B.; Verney, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Le Blanc, F.; Oms, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Cabaret, L.; Pinard, J. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, 91 - Orsay (France); Crawford, J.E.; Lee, J.K.P. [Physics Dept., Mc Gill University, Montreal (Canada); Genevey, J. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, IN2P3-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Huber, G. [Institut fur Physik der Universitat Mainz (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Nuclear and atomic spectroscopy measurements have provided a great number of data on the neutron-deficient Pt and Hg nuclei. The odd-A Pt and Hg with A<186 have a prolate shape, the even-even isotopes have a triaxial shape while the nuclear shape of the odd-A Pt and Hg with A>186 is still an open question. The energy of the low-lying levels and the nuclear moments have been calculated in the framework of a semi-microscopic axial-rotor + I quasiparticle coupling model. The predictions are compared with the experimental data and discussed. The results strongly suggest a prolate shape for the negative-parity low-lying states of the odd-A {sup 187-191}Pt and {sup 187-193}Hg isotopes. (authors)

  5. Kr and Xe isotopic compositions of Fe-Mn crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean and implications for their genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Wenrui; SHI Xuefa; LI Li; ZHANG Mingjie; GP Glasby; LIU Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Kr and Xe nuclide abundance and isotopic ratios of the uppermost layer of Fe-Mn Crusts from the western and central Pacific Ocean have been determined. The results indicate that the Kr and Xe isotopic composi-tions, like that of He, Ne and Ar, can be classified into two types: low3He/4He type and high3He/4He type. The low3He/4He type crusts have low84Kr and132Xe abundance, while the high3He/4He type crusts have high84Kr and132Xe abundance. The82Kr/84Kr ratios of the low3He/4He type crusts are lower than that of the air, while the83Kr/84Kr and86Kr/84Kr ratios are higher than those of the air. The Kr isotopic ratios of the high-er3He/4He type crusts are quite similar to those of the air. The128Xe/132Xe,130Xe/132Xe and131Xe/132Xe ratios of the low3He/4He type sample are distinctly lower than those of the air, whereas the129Xe/132Xe,134Xe/132Xe and136Xe/132Xe ratios are higher than those of the air. The low3He/4He type samples have the diagnostic characteristics of the MORB, with excess129, 131, 132, 134, 136Xe relative to130Xe compared with the solar wind. The128Xe/132Xe,130Xe/132Xe and131Xe/132Xe ratios of the high3He/4He type samples are slightly higher than those of the air, and the129Xe/132Xe,134Xe/132Xe and136Xe/132Xe ratios are qiute similar to those of the air. The noble gases in the Fe-Mn crusts are derived from the lower mantle, and they are a mixture of lower mantle primitive component, radiogenic component and subduction recycled component. The helium isotopic ra-tios of the low mantle reservoir are predominantly controlled by primitive He (3He) and U and Th radiogenic decayed He (4He), but the isotopic ratios of the heavier noble gases, such as Ar, Kr and Xe, are controlled to different extent by recycling of subduction components. The difference of the noble isotopic compositions of the two type crusts is the result of the difference of the noble isotopic composition of the mantle source reservoir underneath the seamounts the crusts occurred, the noble

  6. Evidence for a smooth onset of deformation in the neutron-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Albers, M; Nomura, K; Blazhev, A; Jolie, J; Mucher, D; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Bernards, C; Bettermann, L; Bildstein, V; Butterworth, J; Cappellazzo, M; Cederkall, J; Cline, D; Darby, I; Das Gupta, S; Daugas, J M; Davinson, T; De Witte, H; Diriken, J; Filipescu, D; Fiori, E; Fransen, C; Gaffney, L P; Georgiev, G; Gernhauser, R; Hackstein, M; Heinze, S; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, T; Krucken, R; Litzinger, J; Lutter, R; Marginean, N; Mihai, C; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Nara Singh, B S; Nowak, K; Otsuka, T; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Rigby, S; Robledo, L M; Rodriguez-Guzman, R; Rudigier, M; Sarriguren, P; Scheck, M; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Simpson, G; Thole, P; Thomas, T; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Wadsworth, R; Wenander, F; Wimmer, K; Zell, K O; Zielinska, M

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich nuclei $^{94,96}$Kr were studied via projectile Coulomb excitation at the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. Level energies of the first excited 2$^{+}$ states and their absolute $E2$ transition strengths to the ground state are determined and discussed in the context of the $E(2^{+}_{1})$ and $B(E2;2^{+}_{1} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})$ systematics of the krypton chain. Contrary to previously published results no sudden onset of deformation is observed. This experimental result is supported by a new proton-neutron interacting boson model calculation based on the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach using the microscopic Gogny-D1M energy density functional.

  7. Measurements of electric quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient Au, Pt, and Ir nuclei with NMR-ON in hcp-Co

    CERN Multimedia

    Smolic, E; Hagn, E; Zech, E; Seewald, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiments is the measurement of $\\,$i) nuclear magnetic moments and electric quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient isotopes in the region Os-Ir-Pt-Au with the methods of quadrupole-interaction-resolved NMR on oriented nuclei " QI-NMR-ON " and modulated adiabatic passage on oriented nuclei " MAPON " and $\\,$ii) the magnetic hyperfine field, electric field gradient (EFG), and spin-lattice relaxation of 5d elements in ferromagnetic Fe, Ni, fcc-Co and hcp-Co.\\\\ The measurements on Au isotopes have been finished successfully. The quadrupole moments of $^{186}$Au, $^{193m}$Au, $^{195}$Au, $^{195m}$Au, $^{197m}$Au, $^{198}$Au and $^{199}$Au were determined with high precision.\\\\ For neutron-deficient Ir isotopes QI-NMR-ON measurements were performed after implantation of Hg precursors. The EFG of Ir in hcp-Co has been calibrated. Thus precise values for the spectroscopic quadrupole mo...

  8. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, U., E-mail: ulrjak@kth.se; Cederwall, B. [KTH, The Division of Nuclear Physics, AlbaNova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  9. Flow Characterization of Vapor Phase of Geothermal Fluid in Pipe Using Isotope 85Kr and Residence Time Distribution Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of vapor flow in geothermal pipe faces great challenges due to fast fluids flow in high-temperature and high-pressure environment. In present study the flow rate measurement has been performed to characterization the geothermal vapor flow in a pipe. The experiment was carried out in a pipe which is connected to a geothermal production well, KMJ-14. The pipe has a 10” outside diameter and contains dry vapor at a pressure of 8 kg/cm2 and a temperature of 170 oC. Krypton-85 gas isotope (85Kr has been injected into the pipe. Three collimated radiation detectors positioned respectively at 127, 177 and 227m from injection point were used to obtain experimental data which represent radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD in the pipe. The last detector at the position of 227 m did not respond, which might be due to problems in cable connections. Flow properties calculated using mean residence time (MRT shows that the flow rate of the vapor in pipe is 10.98 m/s, much faster than fluid flow commonly found in various industrial process plants. Best fitting evaluated using dedicated software developed by IAEA expert obtained the Péclet number Pe as 223. This means that the flow of vapor of geothermal fluids in pipe is plug flow in character. The molecular diffusion coefficient is 0.45 m2/s, calculated from the axial dispersion model.

  10. Isomers of astrophysical interest in neutron-deficient nuclei at masses A=81,85 and 86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankainen, A.; Huang, W.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Vorobjev, G.K.; Novikov, Yu.N. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eliseev, S.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Popov, A.V.; Seliverstov, D.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Schatz, H. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Suslov, Yu.P. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    Decay properties of neutron-deficient exotic nuclei close to A=80 have been investigated at the IGISOL facility. The studied nuclei, {sup 81}Y, {sup 81}Sr, {sup 81m}Kr, {sup 85}Nb, {sup 85}Zr, {sup 86}Mo and {sup 86}Nb, were produced by a {sup 32}S beam from the Jyvaeskylae isochronous cyclotron on {sup 54}Fe and {sup nat}Ni targets. The internal conversion coefficient for a 190.5 keV isomeric transition in {sup 81m}Kr has been measured and the internal transition rate has been determined. The internal transition rate has been used to estimate a neutrino capture rate on {sup 81}Br, which yields a log ft of 5.13{+-}0.09 for the reaction {sup 81}Br({nu},e{sup -}){sup 81m}Kr. A new isomer with a half-life of 3.3{+-}0.9 s has been observed in {sup 85}Nb. The existence of an earlier reported isomer with a half-life of 56 s in {sup 86}Nb has not been confirmed. (orig.)

  11. Beta-decay in odd-A and even-even proton-rich Kr isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sarriguren, P; Escuderos, A

    2001-01-01

    Beta-decay properties of proton-rich odd-A and even-even Krypton isotopes are studied in the framework of a deformed selfconsistent Hartree-Fock calculation with density-dependent Skyrme forces, including pairing correlations between like nucleons in BCS approximation. Residual spin-isospin interactions are consistently included in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels and treated in Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation. The similarities and differences in the treatment of even-even and odd-A nuclei are stressed. Comparison to available experimental information is done for Gamow-Teller strength distributions, summed strengths, and half-lives. The dependence of these observables on deformation is particularly emphasized in a search for signatures of the shape of the parent nucleus.

  12. Limits on the release of Rb isotopes from a zeolite based 83mKr calibration source for the XENON project

    CERN Document Server

    Hannen, V; Arneodo, F; Baudis, L; Beck, M; Bokeloh, K; Ferella, A D; Giboni, K; Lang, R F; Lebeda, O; Ortjohann, H -W; Schumann, M; Spalek, A; Venos, D; Weinheimer, C

    2011-01-01

    The isomer 83mKr with its half-life of 1.83 h is an ideal calibration source for a liquid noble gas dark matter experiment like the XENON project. However, the risk of contamination of the detector with traces of the much longer lived mother isotop 83Rb (86.2 d half-life) has to be ruled out. In this work the release of 83Rb atoms from a 1.8 MBq 83Rb source embedded in zeolite beads has been investigated. To do so, a cryogenic trap has been connected to the source for about 10 days, after which it was removed and probed for the strongest 83Rb gamma-rays with an ultra-sensitive Germanium detector. No signal has been found. The corresponding upper limit on the released 83Rb activity means that the investigated type of source can be used in the XENON project and similar low-background experiments as 83mKr generator without a significant risk of contaminating the detector. The measurements also allow to set upper limits on the possible release of the isotopes 84Rb and 86Rb, traces of which were created alongside ...

  13. Competition between α decay and proton radioactivity of neutron-deficient nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Cui, J. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, S.; Gu, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The α decay and proton radioactivity half-lives of some neutron-deficient nuclei are calculated using an effective liquid drop model (ELDM). It is found that the experimental half-lives of the two decay modes and the dominant decay mode can be well reproduced by the ELDM. Moreover, the predicted penetration probabilities (P ) of proton radioactivity by the ELDM are in agreement with those by a microscopic model (MM). This allows us to make predictions on the competition of the two decay modes for nuclei whose experimental data are not available, which are useful for future measurements. In addition, the comparison between the predicted reduced proton radioactivity half-lives by the ELDM and the ones by a standard formula suggests that one is unlikely to observe large angular momentum transfers for nuclei with a very large Coulomb parameter χ . Last, we find that in most isotope chains the proton radioactivity is the dominant decay mode for nuclei that are very close to the proton drip line. But with increasing neutron number N the main decay mode is changed into α decay. With the decay energies the decay mode anomaly of 184Bi is discussed.

  14. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of neutron-deficient einsteinium nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Electron-capture delayed fission (ECDF) properties of neutron-deficient einsteinium isotopes were investigated using a combination of chemical separations and on-line radiation detection methods. 242Es was produced via the 233U(14N,5n)242Es reaction at a beam energy of 87 MeV (on target) in the lab system, and was found to decay with a half-life of 11 ± 3 seconds. The ECDF of 242Es showed a highly asymmetric mass distribution with an average pre-neutron emission total kinetic energy (TKE) of 183 ± 18 MeV. The probability of delayed fission (PDF) was measured to be 0.006 ± 0.002. In conjunction with this experiment, the excitation functions of the 233U(14N,xn)247-xEs and 233U(15N,xn)248-xEs reactions were measured for 243Es, 244Es and 245Es at projectile energies between 80 MeV and 100 MeV.

  15. Coulomb excitation of $^{182-184}$ Hg: Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region

    CERN Multimedia

    We put forward a study of the interplay between individual nucleon behavior and collective degrees of freedom in the nucleus, as manifested in shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region. As a first step of this experimental campaign, we propose to perform Coulomb excitation on light mercury isotopes to probe their excited states and determine transitional and diagonal E2 matrix elements, especially reducing the current uncertainties. The results from previous Coulomb excitation measurements in this mass region performed with 2.85 MeV/u beams from REX-ISOLDE have shown the feasibility of these experiments. Based on our past experience and the results obtained, we propose a detailed study of the $^{182-184}$Hg nuclei, that exhibit a pronounced mixing between 2 low-lying excited states of apparently different deformation character, using the higher energy beams from HIE-ISOLDE which are crucial to reach our goal. The higher beam energy should result in an increased sensitivity with respect to the qua...

  16. Study of the odd-${A}$, high-spin isomers in neutron-deficient trans-lead nuclei with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Huyse, M L; Wienholtz, F

    We propose to measure the excitation energy of the $\\frac{13^{+}}{2}$ isomers in the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{193,195,197}$Po with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer. The assignment of the low- and high-spin isomers will be made by measuring the energy of the $\\alpha$- particles emitted in the decay of purified beams implanted in a windmill system. Using $\\alpha$-decay information, it is then also possible to determine the excitation energy of the similar isomers in the $\\alpha$-daughter nuclei $^{189,191,193}$Pb, $\\alpha$-parent nuclei $^{197,199,201}$Rn, and $\\alpha$-grand-parent nuclei $^{201,203,205}$Ra. The polonium beams are produced with a UC$_{\\textrm{x}}$ target and using the RILIS.

  17. Shape evolution of 72,74Kr with temperature in covariant density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yi-Fei

    2017-09-01

    The rich phenomena of deformations in neutron-deficient krypton isotopes, such as shape evolution with neutron number and shape coexistence, have attracted the interest of nuclear physicists for decades. It is interesting to study such shape phenomena using a novel way, e.g. by thermally exciting the nucleus. In this work, we develop the finite temperature covariant density functional theory for axially deformed nuclei with the treatment of pairing correlations by the BCS approach, and apply this approach for the study of shape evolution in 72,74Kr with increasing temperature. For 72Kr, with temperature increasing, the nucleus firstly experiences a relatively quick weakening in oblate deformation at temperature T ∼0.9 MeV, and then changes from oblate to spherical at T ∼2.1 MeV. For 74Kr, its global minimum is at quadrupole deformation β2 ∼ ‑0.14 and abruptly changes to spherical at T∼ 1.7 MeV. The proton pairing transition occurs at critical temperature 0.6 MeV following the rule Tc=0.6Δp(0), where Δp(0) is the proton pairing gap at zero temperature. The signatures of the above pairing transition and shape changes can be found in the specific heat curve. The single-particle level evolutions with temperature are presented. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105042, 11305161, 11505157), Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Time and Frequency Primary Standards, CAS, and Support from Henan Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs

  18. Direct mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{86}$Kr projectile fragments and the persistence of neutron magic number $N$ = 32 in Sc isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xing; Zhang, Yu-hu; Xu, Hu-shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-lin; Litvinov, Yuri A; Zhou, Xiao-hong; Sun, Bao-hua; Yuan, You-jin; Xia, Jia-wen; Yang, Jian-cheng; Blaum, KLaus; Chen, Rui-jiu; Chen, Xiang-cheng; Fu, Chao-yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-guo; Huang, Wen-jia; Liu, Da-wei; Lam, Yi-hua; Ma, Xin-wen; Mao, Rui-shi; Uesaka, T; Xiao, Guo-ging; Xing, Yuan-ming; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-liang; Zhao, Hong-wei; Zhao, Tie-cheneg; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-long

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{86}$Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of $^{52-54}$Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, $^{53}$Sc and $^{54}$Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number $N$ = 32 in Sc isotopes.

  19. On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M; van der Veen, C.; Möller, L.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Röckmann, T.; Fischer, H

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane ( 13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled to a combustion-preconcentra

  20. Comparison of 85KR and 3H Apparent Ground-Water Ages for Source Water Vulterability in the COLLYER RIVER CATCHMENT, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent ground-water ages as determined by the noble gas isotope 85Kr and the water isotope 3H are compared. Refined gas extraction methodology at the wellhead permits efficient collection of Kr for 85Kr isotope enrichment. 85Kr isoch...

  1. Two-neutron knockout from neutron-deficient $^{34}$Ar, $^{30}$S, and $^{26}$Si

    CERN Document Server

    Yoneda, K; Brown, B A; Campbell, C M; Cook, J M; Cottle, P D; Davies, A D; Dinca, D C; Gade, A; Glasmacher, T; Hansen, P G; Hoagland, T; Kemper, K W; Lecouey, J L; Müller, W F; Obertelli, A; Reynolds, R R; Terry, J R; Tostevin, J A; Zwahlen, H

    2006-01-01

    Two-neutron knockout reactions from nuclei in the proximity of the proton dripline have been studied using intermediate-energy beams of neutron-deficient $^{34}$Ar, $^{30}$S, and $^{26}$Si. The inclusive cross sections, and also the partial cross sections for the population of individual bound final states of the $^{32}$Ar, $^{28}$S and $^{24}$Si knockout residues, have been determined using the combination of particle and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Similar to the two-proton knockout mechanism on the neutron-rich side of the nuclear chart, these two-neutron removal reactions from already neutron-deficient nuclei are also shown to be consistent with a direct reaction mechanism.

  2. Theoretical predictions on production of neutron-deficient nuclei with Z ≥ 93 in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2017-08-01

    Within the framework of dinuclear system model, the transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U, 58Ni + 238U, and 64Ni + 238U are investigated. The influences of projectile and target neutron numbers on cross sections of producing neutron-deficient actinide nuclei in transfer reactions are studied. It is found that the system 58Ni + 233U with smaller neutron excess is favorable to produce neutron-deficient nuclei. We predict the production cross sections of neutron-deficient nuclei with Z = 93- 98 in transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U and 40Ca + 245Cm with different incident energies. We find the transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U and 40Ca + 245Cm are feasible for producing neutron-deficient actinide nuclei in future experiments.

  3. Lifetime measurements of 22 very neutron rich isotopes in the Ti-Ni region produced by {sup 86} Kr fragmentation at 500 A.MeV; Mesures de periodes de 22 isotopes tres excedentaires en neutrons de la region Ti-Ni produits par fragmentation de {sup 86} Kr a 500 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameil, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3 Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1997-12-31

    Beta decay half-lives have been measured for 22 isotopes far off from stability (5 < T{sub z} < 10) in the region of Ti and Ni. The very exotic nuclei are produced by {sup 86} Kr projectile fragmentation at 500 A.MeV. The ions delivered by SIS (Darmstadt) are impinging a thick Be target. Fragments are separated and identified with the FRS using standard detectors ToF and ionization chamber. In the monoenergetic mode, the fragments are dispersed in the final focal space. They are selectively implanted in a set of 20 PIN-diodes, 500 {mu}m thick. The beta particles emitted in the same PIN-diode are registered and the time correlation between the nuclei far off stability beta decay chains are analysed. They make the half life evaluation even more reliable. Comparisons with theoretical values obtained by QRPA developments, based on FRDM mass by P.Moeller or the revised gross theory by Tashibana show large discrepancies with our experimental results. Those significant gaps indicate that the measurements are really needed to improve nuclear models for extremely n-rich nuclei. Those measurements should be extended to the many new isotopes discovered in U-projected fission which reach the r-process path. (author). 90 refs.

  4. In-beam studies of very neutron-deficient heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julin, R.; Greenlees, P.T.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.; Juutinen, S.; Leppaenen, A.P.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (JYFL), FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Joss, D.T.; Williams, S.J. [School of Sciences, Staffordshire University, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Jenkins, D.G.; Kelsall, N.S. [Department of Physics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Wadsworth, R.; Hauschild, K.; Huerstel, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Andreyev, A.N.; Van Duppen, P.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Moore, C.J.; O' Leary, C.D.; Page, R.D.; Taylor, M.J.; Reviol, W.; Smith, M.B.

    2002-10-01

    The JYFL gas-filled recoil separator RITU, combined with Ge detector arrays and a SACRED magnetic solenoid spectrometer, has been successfully employed in recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) experiments in order to probe structures of very neutron-deficient heavy nuclei. The present contribution focuses on the light Pb region where the new data extend the systematics of shape-coexisting yrast states towards the proton dripline. Similarities between band structures and their relation to possible multi-particle multi-hole intruder excitations will be discussed. (orig.)

  5. Isotopes for fundamental research {sup 83m}Kr for KATRIN and {sup 101}Rh and {sup 109}Cd for XRD studies on planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulbaev, Makhsud

    2011-12-16

    The feasibility of production of {sup 83}Rb from liquid, natural Br at the Bonn Cyclotron was shown. Production of {sup 83}Rb/{sup 83m}Kr generators for KATRIN Collaboration was optimized. {sup 83m}Kr release from RbBr residue after the evaporation of the excess Br was studied. A possibility of {sup 83}Rb implantation with 38 % efficiency was shown in the example of non-radioactive {sup 85}Rb implantation. Production optimization of X-ray sources, {sup 101}Rh and {sup 109}Cd, for implementation in XRD analysis set-up at Technical University of Dresden was experimentally investigated at the Bonn Cyclotron. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron deficient $^{58-62}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Blaum, K; Forest, D H; Stroke, H H; Kramer, J; Kreim, K; De Rydt, M; Geppert, C; Sanchez, R; Honma, M; Krieger, A; Papuga, J; Billowes, J; Vingerhoets, P; Nortershauser, W; Bissell, M L; Neyens, G; Rajabali, M M; Yordanov, D T; Cheal, B; Neugart, R; Procter, T J

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the ground state nuclear moments measured in (58-62)Cu using collinear laser spectroscopy at the ISOLDE facility. The quadrupole moments for (58-60)Cu have been measured for the first time as Q ((58)Cu) = 15(3) efm(2), Q ((59)Cu) = -19.3(19) efm(2), Q((60)Cu) = +11.6(12) efm(2) and with higher precision for (61.62)Cu as Q ((61)Cu) = -21.1(10) efm(2), Q((62)Cu) = -2.2(4) efm(2). The magnetic moments of (58.59)Cu are measured with a higher precision as(IL)((58)Cu) = +0.570(2)(ILN) and (IL)((59)Cu) = +1.8910(9)(ILN). The experimental nuclear moments are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations with the GXPF1 and GXPF1A effective interactions, allowing the softness of the (56)Ni core to be studied. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. β -decay study of 94Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miernik, K.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Grzywacz, R.; Gross, C. J.; Madurga, M.; Miller, D.; Stracener, D. W.; Batchelder, J. C.; Brewer, N. T.; Cartegni, L.; Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Królas, W.; Mazzocchi, C.; Mendez, A. J., II; Padgett, S. W.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Winger, J. A.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    β decay of neutron-rich nuclide 94Kr was reinvestigated by means of a high resolution on-line mass separator and β -γ spectroscopy. In total 22 γ -ray transitions were assigned to the decay of 94Kr, and a new isomeric state was identified. The new information allows us to build detailed levels systematics in a chain of odd-odd rubidium isotopes and draw conclusions on nuclear structure for some of the observed states. The discussed level structure affects the evolution of β -decay half-lives for neutron-rich selenium, krypton, and strontium isotopes.

  8. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  9. Tentative study of nuclear charge radii for neutron-deficient nuclei around the Z = 82 shell from experimental α decay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Yibin, E-mail: qyibin@njust.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ren, Zhongzhou [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy-Ion Accelerator, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-15

    We tentatively investigate the root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radii of odd-A Po and Pb isotopes plus Tl isotopes, particularly concerning these difficultly-detected nuclei along with short lifetimes, via various data on α decay. Within the density-dependent cluster model, the density distributions of studied daughter nuclei are determined by exactly reproducing the corresponding experimental α decay half-lives, which leads the final results of nuclear charge radii. In addition, our recently proposed formula deducing the charge radii is extended to this study for comparison. Whether it concerns the ground or isomeric state of target nuclei, the extracted nuclear charge radii are found to be in good agreement with the measured values. Sequential predictions on the rms charge radii are subsequently made for these neutron-deficient nuclei and especially for the rarely detected Bi isotopic chain, which are expected to be useful for future measurements. Moreover, the variety of α-preformation factors is analyzed in the scheme of valence nucleon number to pursue the further improvement of the model. This may be considered as an effective effort to obtain the charge radii of ground and even low-lying excited states for exotic nuclei near the proton-dripline.

  10. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  11. $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

    CERN Document Server

    Fornal, B; Bednarczyk, P; Cieplicka, N; Krolas, W; Maj, A; Leoni, S; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Bottoni, S; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Crespi, F; Million, B; Morales, A; Wieland, O; Rusek, K; Lunardi, S; Mengoni, D; Recchia, F; Ur, CA; Valiente-Dobon, J; de France, G; Clement, E; Elseviers, J; Flavigny, F; Huyse, M; Raabe, R; Sambi, S; Van Duppen, P; Sferrazza, M; Simpson, G; Georgiev, G; Sotty, C; Blazhev, A; German, R; Siebeck, B; Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Boenig, S; Ilieva, S; Kroell, T; Scheck, M; Thurauf, M; Gernhaeuser, R; Mucher, D; Janssens, R; Carpenter, MP; Zhu, S; Marginean, NM; Balabanski, D; Kowalska, M

    2012-01-01

    $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

  12. Mass mapping of a new area of neutron-deficient suburanium nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, Y N; Bosch, F; Falch, M; Geissel, H; Hausmann, M; Kerscher, T; Klepper, O; Kluge, H J; Kozhuharov, C; Litvinov, Y A; Löbner, K E G; Münzenberg, G; Patyk, Z; Radon, T; Scheidenberger, C; Wapstra, A H; Wollnik, H

    2002-01-01

    The masses of 64 short-lived neutron-deficient nuclides covering the element range from tungsten to uranium have been obtained for the first time. They have been evaluated by combining directly measured masses from Schottky mass spectrometry with linked experimental Q-values in alpha-decay chains. Based on these new mass data we have determined the one-proton and two-proton drip-lines as well as the size of the 'littoral shallow' of the sea of instability. No evidence of a Thomas-Ehrman shift has been found in the region of the investigated heavy nuclides. A peculiar behavior of two-proton separation energies has been observed in the lead region. The predictive power of various mass models is investigated.

  13. Alpha decay as a probe for the structure of neutron-deficient nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The advent of radioactive ion beam facilities and new detector technologies have opened up new possibilities to investigate the radioactive decays of highly unstable nuclei, in particular the proton emission, $\\alpha$ decay and heavy cluster decays from neutron-deficient (or proton-rich) nuclei around the proton drip line. It turns out that these decay measurements can serve as a unique probe for studying the structure of the nuclei involved. On the theoretical side, the development in nuclear many-body theories and supercomputing facilities have also made it possible to simulate the nuclear clusterization and decays from a microscopic and consistent perspective. In this article we would like to review the current status of these structure and decay studies in heavy nuclei, regarding both experimental and theoretical opportunities. We then discuss in detail the recent progress in our understanding of the nuclear $\\alpha$ formation probabilities in heavy nuclei and their indication on the underlying nuclear st...

  14. The thermal neutron scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terburg, B.P.

    1992-05-01

    The availability of 27 1 STP krypton-86 gas, an isotope with unknown thermal neutron scattering cross section, was an excellent occasion to determine the (bound atom) scattering cross section and its coherent part by application of the neutron transmission method and neutron interferometry. The transmission method was applied in a diffractometer, a Larmor spectrometer and a TOF-spectrometer. In addition to {sup 86}Kr also natural krypton ({sup n}Kr) was used for sample in the diffractometer. The diffractometer measurements result in bound atom scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub s}=8.92(46) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub s}=7.08(95) b for {sup n}Kr. The Larmor transmission measurements lead to a final result {sigma}{sub s}=8.44(9) b for {sup 86}Kr. In the TOF-spectrometer the wavelength-dependent total cross section of water was determined. Coherent neutron scattering lengths were determined using the neutron interferometry method with a skew symmetric neutron interferometer. Scans with {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr led to b{sub c}=8.07(26) fm for {sup 86}Kr and 7.72(33) fm for {sup n}Kr, corresponding to coherent scattering cross sections {sigma}{sub c}=8.18(53) b and 7.49(64) b respectively. Due to the large errors in the bound atom scattering cross section and coherent scattering cross section of {sup 86}Kr and {sup n}Kr, the incoherent cross section of both gases, {sigma}{sub i} = 0 within its inaccuracy, {sigma}{sub i}=0.26(54) b for {sup 86}Kr and {sigma}{sub i}=0.41(1.15) b for {sup n}Kr. (orig.).

  15. The Krásná Hora, Milešov, and Příčovy Sb-Au ore deposits, Bohemian Massif: mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and stable isotope constraints on the deposit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němec, Matěj; Zachariáš, Jiří

    2017-04-01

    The Krásná Hora-Milešov and Příčovy districts (Czech Republic) are the unique examples of Sb-Au subtype orogenic gold deposits in the Bohemian Massif. They are represented by quartz-stibnite veins and massive stibnite lenses grading into low-grade, disseminated ores in altered host rocks. Gold postdates the stibnite and is often replaced by aurostibite. The ore zones are hosted by hydrothermally altered dikes of lamprophyres (Krásná Hora-Milešov) or are associated with local strike-slip faults (Příčovy). Formation of Sb-Au deposits probably occurred shortly after the main gold-bearing event (348-338 Ma; Au-only deposits) in the central part of the Bohemian Massif. Fluid inclusion analyses suggest that stibnite precipitated at 250 to 130 °C and gold at 200 to 130 °C from low-salinity aqueous fluids. The main quartz gangue hosting the ore precipitated from the same type of fluid at about 300 °C. Early quartz-arsenopyrite veins are not associated with the Sb-Au deposition and formed from low-salinity, aqueous-carbonic fluid at higher pressure and temperature ( 250 MPa, 400 °C). The estimated oxygen isotope composition of the ore-bearing fluid (4 ± 1‰ SMOW; based on post-ore calcite) suggests its metamorphic or mixed magmatic-metamorphic origin and excludes the involvement of meteoric water. Rapid cooling of warm hydrothermal fluids reacting with "cold" host rock was probably the most important factor in the formation of both stibnite and gold.

  16. Shape coexistence in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei probed by quadrupole moment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: bujor@ifin.nipne.ro; Iordachescu, A. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Marginean, N. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-06-28

    The spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the 11{sup -} and 12{sup +} isomers in {sup 192,194}Pb, described by the 3s{sub 1/2}{sup -2}1h{sub 9/2}1i{sub 13/2} intruder two-proton and 1i{sub 13/2}{sup 2} two-quasineutron configurations, respectively, have been determined by the method of time-differential observation of the {gamma}-ray perturbed angular distribution. The derived values are vertical bar Q{sub s} vertical bar (12{sup +},{sup 192}Pb)=0.32(4) eb, vertical bar Q{sub s} vertical bar (11{sup -},{sup 192}Pb)=2.9(3) eb and vertical bar Q{sub s} vertical bar (11{sup -},{sup 194}Pb)=3.6(4) eb. The 8{sup +} 2304 keV and 9{sup -} 2514 keV states in {sup 192}Pb have been identified as isomers, with half-lives of 3.9(3) and 3.3(2) ns, respectively. The experimental spectroscopic quadrupole moments for the 11{sup -} and 12{sup +} isomers in neutron deficient Pb nuclei have been described in the framework of the pairing plus quadrupole model. The intrinsic quadrupole moments and deformation of the 11{sup -} isomers are compared with the predictions of mean-field and interacting boson models.

  17. Isomeric states in neutron-deficient A~80-90 nuclei populated in the fragmentation of Ag107

    OpenAIRE

    Garnsworthy, A.B.; Cáceres, Lucía; Estévez Aguado, María Esther; Jungclaus, Andrea; Kurtukian Nieto, Teresa; Wieland, O.

    2009-01-01

    The relativistic projectile fragmentation of a 750 MeV per nucleon beam of Ag107 was used to populate isomeric states in neutron-deficient nuclei around A=80-90. Reaction products were separated and unambiguously identified using the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) and its ancillary detectors. At the final focal plane, the fragments were slowed from relativistic energies by means of an aluminium degrader and implanted in a passive stopper in the center of the high-efficiency, high-granularity St...

  18. Structure of krypton isotopes within the interacting boson model derived from the Gogny energy density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Humadi, Y. M.; Robledo, L. M.; Abusara, H.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution and coexistence of the nuclear shapes as well as the corresponding low-lying collective states and electromagnetic transition rates are investigated along the krypton isotopic chain within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM). The IBM Hamiltonian is determined through mean-field calculations based on the several parametrizations of the Gogny energy density functional and the relativistic mean-field Lagrangian. The mean-field energy surfaces, as functions of the axial β and triaxial γ quadrupole deformations, are mapped onto the expectation value of the interacting-boson Hamiltonian that explicitly includes the particle-hole excitations. The resulting boson Hamiltonian is then used to compute low-energy excitation spectra as well as E 2 and E 0 transition probabilities for Kr-10070. Our results point to a number of examples of prolate-oblate shape transitions and coexistence both on the neutron-deficient and neutron-rich sides. A reasonable agreement with the available experimental data is obtained for the considered nuclear properties.

  19. Reinvestigation of {sup 85}Kr branching in the light of new {sup 82,} {sup 84,} {sup 86}Kr neutron capture cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble Cedex (France); Beer, Hermann [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brusegan, Antonio; Corvi, Franco [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg, Geel (Belgium)

    2002-08-01

    High resolution neutron capture cross section measurements of 3 stable krypton isotopes, {sup 82}Kr, {sup 84}Kr and {sup 86}Kr, have been performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA) on both resolved and unresolved resonance region. In addition, a total cross section measurement on {sup 84}Kr has also been performed in the energy range from 1 eV up to 120 kev. Accurate values of the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross section have been derived for all isotopes for stellar temperatures ranging from kT=5 up to 100 keV. A re-investigation of the s-process in the mass region around the prominent branching at {sup 85}Kr has been undertaken in the light of our new results. (author)

  20. Production cross-sections and momentum distributions of fragments from neutron-deficient 36Ar at 1.05 A.GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Caamano, M; Sümmerer, K; Benlliure, J; Casarejos, E; Geissel, H; Münzenberg, G; Pereira, J

    2004-01-01

    We have measured production cross sections and longitudinal momentum distributions of fragments from neutron-deficient 36Ar at 1.05 A.GeV. The production cross-sections show excellent agreement with the predictions of the semiempirical formula EPAX. We have compared these results, involving extremly neutron deficient nuclei, with model calculations to extract informa tion about the response of these models close to the driplines. The longitudinal momentum distributions have also been extracted and are compared with the Goldhaber and Morrissey systematics.

  1. Laser assisted nuclear decay spectroscopy: A new method for studying neutron-deficient francium

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Kara Marie

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive decay studies of rare isotopes produced at radioactive ion beam facilities have often been hindered by the presence of isobaric and isomeric contamination. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN uses laser radiation to stepwise excite and ionize an atomic beam in a particular isomeric state. Deflection of this selectively ionized beam of exotic nuclei, from the remaining neutral contaminants, allows ultra-sensitive detection of rare isotopes and nuclear structure measurements in background-free conditions.\

  2. Alt koster 10 kr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2014-01-01

    Jeg havde engang en elev, som fortalte, at når han gik i byen for at købe ind, så var det nemt at beregne, om han havde nok penge med i byen. Han sagde bare, at alle varerne kun kostede 10 kr. Det kan lyde som lidt af en tilsnigelse, så klassen og jeg besluttede at undersøge om hans metode virkede....

  3. Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....

  4. Determination of fission gas yields from isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a method of calculating the actual fission yield of Kr and Xe in nuclear fuel including the effect of neutron capture reactions and decay. The bases for this calculation are the cumulative yields (ref. 1) of Kr and Xe isotopes (or pairs of isotopes) which are unaffected...... by neutron capture reactions, and measured Kr and Xe isotope ratios. Also the burnup contribution from the different fissile heavy isotopes must be known in order to get accurate fission gas yields....

  5. Mass measurement on the rp-process waiting point {sup 72}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (FR)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    The mass of one of the three major waiting points in the astrophysical rp-process {sup 72}Kr was measured for the first time with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m=1.2 x 10{sup -7} ({delta}m=8 keV). Other Kr isotopes, also needed for astrophysical calculations, were measured with more than one order of magnitude improved accuracy. We use the ISOLTRAP masses of{sup 72-74}Kr to reanalyze the role of the {sup 72}Kr waiting point in the rp-process during X-ray bursts. (orig.)

  6. Mass Measurement on the rp-Process Waiting Point 72Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D; Audi, G; Äystö, J; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Jokinen, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Oinonen, M; Schatz, H; Sauvan, E; Schwarz, S

    2004-01-01

    The mass of one of the three major waiting points in the astrophysical rp-process 72Kr was measured for the first time with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of delta m/m = 1.2x10-7 (delta m=8keV). Other Kr isotopes, also needed for astrophysical calculations, were measured with more than one order of magnitude improved accuracy. We use the ISOLTRAP masses of 72-74Kr to reanalyse the role of the 72Kr waiting point in the rp-process during X-ray bursts.

  7. Production of neutron deficient rare isotope beams at IGISOL; on-line and off-line studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huikari, J. E-mail: jussi.huikari@phys.jyu.fi; Dendooven, P.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Penttilae, H.; Peraejaervi, K.; Popov, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on recent on-line yield measurements employing the light-ion and heavy-ion reaction-based ion guide systems and new results on {alpha}-recoil ion transport properties in ion guides with and without electric fields. In addition, the presently used ion guide designs for fusion evaporation reactions are introduced. The present study investigated different schemes for ion extraction from the gas cell. The addition of an extra ring electrode between the traditional skimmer electrode and the exit hole led to transmission independent of the primary beam intensity as opposed to strong intensity dependence observed earlier with the plain skimmer only. Furthermore, the mass resolving power of the IGISOL mass separator was increased to 1100 as compared to 250 with the skimmer system when using the RF-sextupole for the extraction from the heavy-ion ion guide. As a new method, the possibility to increase the ion guide efficiency by injecting electrons into the stopping volume is introduced. The efficiency of the electron emitter ion guide was a factor of ten higher in off-line conditions. Also, the influence of the buffer gas purity on the ion survival is discussed.

  8. Production of neutron deficient rare isotope beams at IGISOL; on-line and off-line studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huikari, J; Dendooven, P; Jokinen, A; Nieminen, A; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Popov, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Aysto, J

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on recent on-line yield measurements employing the light-ion and heavy-ion reaction-based ion guide systems and new results on a-recoil ion transport properties in ion guides with and without electric fields. In addition, the presently used ion guide designs for fusion evaporati

  9. Pulmonary MRI contrast using Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) of hyperpolarized (83)Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Joseph S; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Lilburn, David M L; Dorkes, Alan C; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Morris, Peter G; Hall, Ian P; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (83)Kr has previously been demonstrated to enable MRI contrast that is sensitive to the chemical composition of the surface in a porous model system. Methodological advances have lead to a substantial increase in the (83)Kr hyperpolarization and the resulting signal intensity. Using the improved methodology for spin exchange optical pumping of isotopically enriched (83)Kr, internal anatomical details of ex vivo rodent lung were resolved with hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI after krypton inhalation. Different (83)Kr relaxation times were found between the main bronchi and the parenchymal regions in ex vivo rat lungs. The T1 weighted hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI provided a first demonstration of surface quadrupolar relaxation (SQUARE) pulmonary MRI contrast.

  10. Spectra and electromagnetic transitions of 72-84Kr in the interacting boson model-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hong-Bo; Li, Xiao-Wei; Lü, Li-Jun; Dong, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Jin-Fu

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the interacting boson model-1, the energy levels and electromagnetic transitions in 72-84Kr isotopes are calculated. The structures of the eigenstate and Hamiltonian matrix for some low-lying states are also calculated. The calculated results are compared with available experimental data, and the results are generally in good agreement. The present study shows that the 72,74,76,80,82,84Kr isotopes are in the transition from U(5) → SU(3), and 78Kr is in the transition from U(5) → O(6). Supported by NSFC(11465001,11165001) and Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia of China (2013MS0117)

  11. Geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48, at Olkiluoto 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi OY, Espoo (Finland)); Heikkinen, E. (Poeyry Environment Oy (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR43, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR46B, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B and OL-KR48 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2007, May 2008. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  12. Alignments in the nobelium isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Zie; XU Fu-Rong; YUAN Cen-Xi; QI Chong

    2009-01-01

    Total-Routhian-Surface calculations have been performed to investigate the deformation and align-ment properties of the No isotopes. It is found that normal deformed and superdeformed states in these nuclei can coexist at low excitation energies. In neutron-deficient No isotopes, the superdeformed shapes can even become the ground states. Moreover, we plotted the kinematic moments of inertia of the No isotopes, which follow very nicely available experimental data. It is noted that, as the rotational frequency increases, align-ments develop at hω=0.2-0.3 MeV. Our calculations show that the occupation of the vj orbital plays an important role in the alignments of the No isotopes.

  13. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  14. Precision Mass Measurement of Argon Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Lunney, D

    2002-01-01

    % IS388\\\\ \\\\ A precision mass measurement of the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{32,33,34}$Ar is proposed. Mass values of these isotopes are of importance for: a) a stringent test of the Isobaric-Multiplet- Mass-Equation, b) a verification of the correctness of calculated charge-dependent corrections as used in super-allowed $\\beta$- decay studies aiming at a test of the CVC hypothesis, and c) the determination of the kinematics in electron-neutrino correlation experiments searching for scalar currents in weak interaction. The measurements will be carried out with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  15. Intruder bands and configuration mixing in the lead isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Fossion, R.; Heyde, K.; Thiamova, G.; Van Isacker, P.(GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5, France)

    2003-01-01

    A three-configuration mixing calculation is performed in the context of the interacting boson model with the aim to describe recently observed collective bands built on low-lying $0^+$ states in neutron-deficient lead isotopes. The configurations that are included correspond to the regular, spherical states as well as two-particle two-hole and four-particle four-hole excitations across the Z=82 shell gap.

  16. Xe and Kr analyses of silicate inclusions from iron meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, D. D.; Huneke, J. C.; Burnett, D. S.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the amounts and isotopic composition of Xe and Kr in silicate inclusions of several iron meteorites. It is shown that the Xe and Kr contents are comparable to chondritic values. The isotopic compositions show trapped gas of both chondritic and atmospheric composition. Large spallation effects occur in some of the meteorites; the spallation spectra in some instances differ from those reported for stone meteorites. In several meteorites, very large neutron capture effects on Br and I occur. All samples have pronounced Xe129 excesses which apparently indicate differences in the formation times from chondrites of less than about 100 million years; however, the presence of trapped Xe132 in silicates which were enclosed in molten Fe-Ni and cooled slowly proves that they were not entirely outgassed, so that some of the Xe129 excess may also be trapped.

  17. New method of 85Kr reduction in a noble gas based low-background detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D Yu; Burenkov, A A; Hall, C; Kovalenko, A G; Kuzminov, V V; Simakov, G E

    2016-01-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic beta-decaying isotope which produces low energy backgrounds in dark matter and neutrino experiments, especially those based upon liquid xenon. Several technologies have been developed to reduce the Kr concentration in such experiments. We propose to augment those separation technologies by first adding to the xenon an 85Kr-free sample of krypton in an amount much larger than the natural krypton that is already present. After the purification system reduces the total Kr concentration to the same level, the final 85Kr concentration will have been reduced even further by the dilution factor. A test cell for measurement of the activity of various Kr samples has been assembled, and the activity of 25-year-old Krypton has been measured. The measured activity agrees well with the expected activity accounting for the 85Kr abundance of the earth atmosphere in 1990 and the half-life of the isotope. Additional tests with a Kr sample produced in the year 1944 (before the atomic era) have be...

  18. A New Method of Measuring 81Kr and 85Kr Abundances in Environmental Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Du, X; Bailey, K; Lehmann, B E; Lorenzo, R; Lu, Z T; Müller, P; O'Connor, T P; Sturchio, N C; Young, L

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for determining the 81Kr/Kr ratio in environmental samples based upon two measurements: the 85Kr/81Kr ratio measured by Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) and the 85Kr/Kr ratio measured by Low-Level Counting (LLC). This method can be used to determine the mean residence time of groundwater in the range of 10^5 - 10^6 a. It requires a sample of 100 micro-l STP of Kr extracted from approximately two tons of water. With modern atmospheric Kr samples, we demonstrate that the ratios measured by ATTA and LLC are directly proportional to each other within the measurement error of +/- 10%; we calibrate the 81Kr/Kr ratio of modern air measured using this method; and we show that the 81Kr/Kr ratios of samples extracted from air before and after the development of the nuclear industry are identical within the measurement error.

  19. Terrestrial Kr-81-Kr ages of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundel, M.; Schultz, L.; Reedy, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The production rate of Ar-38 in meteorites P(38), has been determined, as a function of the sample's chemical composition, from Kr-81-Kr exposure ages of four eucrite falls. The cosmogenic Kr-78/Kr-83 ratio is used to estimate the shielding dependence of P(38). From the 'true' Ar-38 exposure ages and the apparent Kr-81-Kr exposure ages of nine Antarctic eucrite finds, terrestrial ages are calculated. They range from about 300,000 ages (Pecora Escarpment 82502) to very recent falls (Thiel Mountains 82502). Polymict eucrites from the Allan Hills (A78132, A79017, and A81009) have within the limits of error the same exposure age (15.2 x 10 to the 6th ages) and the same terrestrial age (110,000 ages). This is taken as strong evidence that these meteorites are fragments of the same fall. A similar case is the Elephant Moraine polymict eucrites A79005, A79006, and 82600 with an exposure age of 26 x 10 to the 6th ages and a terrestrial age of 180,000 ages. EETA 79004 may be different from this group because its exposure age and terrestrial age are 21 x 10 to the 6th ages and 250,000 ages, respectively. The distribution of terrestrial ages of Allan Hills meteorites is discussed. Meteorites from this blue ice field have two sources: directly deposited falls and meteorites transported to the Allen Hills inside the moving Antarctic ice sheet. During the surface residence time meteorites decompose due to weathering processes. The weathering 'half-life' is about 160,000 ages. From the different age distributions of Allan Hills and Yamato meteorites, it is concluded that meteorite concentrations of different Antarctic ice fields need different explanations.

  20. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: July--December 1977. [Kr-Xe and Kr-Ar diffusion; Ne-Ar thermal diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Isotope separation of Ar, C, /sup 3/He, Kr, Ne, O, and Xe isotopes is reported. TiFeH/sub x/, TiCoH/sub x/, TiCuH/sub x/, and VH/sub x/ were studied using NMR (proton relaxation times). VD/sub x/ and VT/sub x/ were synthesized. The problem of calculating the valence state of Pu is discussed. A series solution to the plutonium (N,H) characteristic equation is suggested. Shipments of /sup 231/Pa, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 229/Th are reported. Separation and processing of /sup 234/U are also reported. Theoretical methods were developed to calculate temperature distributions as functions of water flow rate in liquid thermal diffusion columns. Diffusion coefficients were measured from 300 to 1200/sup 0/K for Kr-Xe and Kr-Ar. New thermal diffusion factors are submitted for Ne-Ar.

  1. Kr-KCl exciplex lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenovskii, M. S.; Riives, R. B.; Kel'Man, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Shpenik, Yu. O.

    2009-07-01

    A new source of UV radiation (excilamp) based on Kr-KCl vapor-gas mixture excited by a longitudinal high-voltage pulsed-periodic discharge is created. The emission spectrum and time characteristic of the discharge radiation are studied. The B → X transition in the KrCl* excimer molecule (λ = 222 nm) is found to dominate in the radiation spectrum of the source. The dependence of the pulse output power of the lamp on various factors is investigated, and the mechanism of B state formation in the excimer molecule is discussed.

  2. Mass measurement of cooled neutron-deficient bismuth projectile fragments with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, Yu.A.; Geissel, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany); Radon, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2005-06-01

    Masses of 582 neutron-deficient nuclides (30{<=}Z{<=}85) were measured with time-resolved Schottky mass spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI, 117 were used for calibration. The masses of 71 nuclides were obtained for the first time. A typical mass accuracy of 30 {mu}u was achieved. These data have entered the latest atomic mass evaluation. The mass determination of about 140 additional nuclides was possible via known energies (Q-values) of {alpha}-, {beta}-, or proton decays. The obtained results are compared with the results of other measurements. (orig.)

  3. The anomalous quadrupole collectivity in Te isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic calculations on the spectroscopy and transition properties of even-even Te isotopes by using the large-scale configuration interaction shell model approach with a realistic interaction. These nuclei are of particular interest since their yrast spectra show a vibrational-like equally-spaced pattern but the few known E2 transitions show anomalous rotational-like behavior, which cannot be reproduced by collective models. Our calculations reproduce well the equally-spaced spectra of those isotopes as well as the constant behavior of the $B(E2)$ values in $^{114}$Te. The calculated $B(E2)$ values for neutron-deficient and heavier Te isotopes show contrasting different behaviors along the yrast line. The $B(E2)$ of light isotopes can exhibit a nearly constant bevavior upto high spins. We show that this is related to the enhanced neutron-proton correlation when approaching $N=50$.

  4. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-05-13

    We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ∼350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 ± 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility.

  5. DETECTION OF GROUNDWATER AGES WITH 85 KR IN ARSENIC-BEARING, FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK OF THE GOOSE RIVER BASIN, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young groundwater from various depths in crystalline bedrock of the Goose River basin, mid-coastal Maine, is documented from 85Kr isotope age analyses (1963 ? 1987) but not from 3H isotope age analyses. Elevated geogenic arsenic in drinking water from groundwater wells and sprin...

  6. Development of laser-based resonance ionization techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr measurements in the geosciences, II. December 1, 1994 through December 31, 2000 reporting period. Final technical report for Grant No. DE-FG05-95ER14497

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thonnard, Norbert; McKay, Larry D.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    2001-02-05

    A facility for measurement of rare Kr-81 and Kr-85 isotope concentration in hydrogeologic samples, and isotopic composition of minute quantities of krypton and xenon from extraterrestrial samples, was established, requiring refinement of an emerging mass spectrometric-based analytical technique and securing of laboratory space and equipment. The analytical process consists of (1) collecting a groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4&5) two isotopic enrichments to reduce interfering isotopes by E9, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope in a unique time-of-flight mass spectrometer detecting as few as 100 Kr atoms. All equipment is installed and operating, with only some additional adjustment and testing of the last step (6, above) remaining to be completed. Collaborations have been established with a number of researchers and organizations world wide, and both groundwater and extraterrestrial samples have been collected. Completion of analyses awaits full operation of step 6.

  7. Comparison of Self-Consistent Skyrme and Gogny Calculations for Light Hg Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M; Próchniak, L

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state properties of neutron-deficient Hg isotopes have been investigated by the constrained self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the Skyrme and Gogny effective forces. In the case of the Skyrme interaction we h ave also applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS model with the state-dependent $\\delta$-pairing interaction. Potential energy surfaces and pairing properties have been compared for the both types of forces.

  8. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  9. Geophysical logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR45, OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at Olkiluoto in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging, acoustic imaging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR45 (re-measurements), OL-KR49, OL-KR50 and OL-KR50B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during January-November 2009. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. The missing density logging of drillhole OL-KR45 was carried out successfully. Dynamic rock mechanical parameters and natural gamma data were re-processed and this report includes updated WellCAD and Excel files. Acoustic imaging was also carried out in OL-KR45 after 700 meters depth. Acoustic imaging was used instead of optical imaging after 350 meters in OL-KR49 and 700 meters in OL-KR50. (orig.)

  10. Intermediate-energy inverse-kinematics one-proton pickup reactions on neutron-deficient $fp$-shell nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, S; Tostevin, J A; Baugher, T; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Cook, J M; Glasmacher, T; Grinyer, G F; Ratkiewicz, A; Weisshaar, D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Thick-target-induced nucleon-adding transfer reactions onto energetic rare-isotope beams are an emerging spectroscopic tool. Their sensitivity to single-particle structure complements one-nucleon removal reaction capabilities in the quest to reveal the evolution of nuclear shell structure in very exotic nuclei. Purpose: To add intermediate-energy, carbon-target-induced one-proton pickup reactions to the arsenal of $\\gamma$-ray tagged direct reactions applicable in the regime of low beam intensities and to apply these for the first time to $fp$-shell nuclei. Methods: Inclusive and partial cross sections were measured for the $\

  11. A system for field gas-extraction of 85Kr, 39Ar and 81Kr using SuperPhobic membrane contactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, L.; Suckow, A.; Cook, P.; Mathouchanh, E.

    2013-12-01

    Radioactive noble gas isotopes are established tools for assessing groundwater movement and transport processes on time scales of decades (85Kr), centuries (39Ar) and many millenia (81Kr). While the atomic trap trace analysis (ATTA) technology promises small sample sizes for these isotopes, field gas extraction will remain the method of choice for several years to come. Recently CSIRO obtained decommissioned radiocarbon gas proportional counters and targets to use them for 85Kr. We aim for a sample size of 50μL Kr corresponding to the gas extracted from 500-1000L water. Flinders University and CSIRO have developed a field-deployable extraction system for large volume gas-extraction in the field. It uses two membrane contactors (MEMBRANA SuperPhobic 4x13) allowing flow rates of up to 50L/min in serial mode. Switching to parallel flow through both contactors is possible, allowing even higher water flow rates. The system automatically logs water temperature, water pressure, water flow rate, gas pressure of the sample, vacuum pressure at the contactor and all valve states, using an Endress + Hauser RSG40 Memograph M. The use of SuperPhobic contactors results in ten times less water in the gas fraction than reported for earlier systems. With the two contactors in serial configuration, gas extraction efficiencies, determined for O2, N2 and Ar, are better than 95% at 5L/min water flow. They are still above 80% for flow rates up to 20L/min in parallel configuration for O2, N2 and Ar. No measurable isotopic fractionation of the target isotope ratios of argon and krypton is to be expected at these high extraction efficiencies.

  12. Gamow-Teller decay and nuclear deformation: implementing of a new total absorption spectrometer, study of isotopes N {approx_equal} Z krypton and strontium; Decroissance Gamow-Teller et deformation nucleaire: mise en oeuvre d'un nouveau spectrometre a absorption totale, etude d'isotopes N {approx_equal} Z de krypton et strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E

    2002-12-01

    Nuclei with A {approx} 70 along the N=Z line are known to be the scene of phenomena closely related to the nuclear deformation and are of particular interest since theoretical mean field calculations predict that a large part of the Gamow-Teller resonance might be located below the ground state of the mother nucleus and then be accessible through {beta}-decay studies. These results have shown the effect of the shape of the ground state on the intensity of the Gamow-Teller strength. Thus, the experimental determination, through {delta}-decay, of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the comparison to the theoretical predictions allow to pin down the quadrupolar deformation parameter of the ground state of the parent nucleus. In order to study the neutron deficient isotopes of krypton (A=72,73,74,75) and strontium (A=76,77,78) and to establish the {beta}-strength on the full energy range, a new total absorption spectrometer (TAgS) has been built in the frame of an international collaboration and installed at the (SOLDE/CERN mass separator. For the data analysis, the response function R of the spectrometer has been calculated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations, based on the GEANT4 code, and of a statistical description of the level scheme in the daughter nucleus. The {beta}-feeding distribution has been obtained from experimental spectra through a method based on Bayes theorem and then converted into Gamow-Teller strength. The results coming from the {sup 74}Kr decay analysis allow to describe the ground state of such a nucleus as the coexistence of an oblate shape and of a prolate shape. In the case of {sup 76}Sr, the experimental Gamow-Teller strength distribution strongly indicates a prolate deformation. (author)

  13. Geophysical logging and imaging of characterisation drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of drillholes ONK-KR13, ONK-KR14 and ONK-KR15 at ONKALO in June-July 2010 and in March 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  14. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Jacklyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070$+1100\\atop{-760}$ pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660$+450\\atop{-370}$ pb was measured at 22.0 ± 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480$+1730\\atop{-1370}$ pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 MeV. The half life of 88gNb was measured and determined to be 14.56 ± 0.11 min.

  15. Drillhole gamma-ray spectrum logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, 2007 and 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julkunen, A.; Kallio, L.; Kuusisto, M. (Astrock Oy, Sodankylae (Finland))

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the detailed drillhole surveys is to increase the knowledge of the bedrock on the study area and to supplement the investigations made earlier. As a part of the detailed investigations Astrock Oy carried out drillhole spectrometer logging in drillholes OL-KR11, OL-KR44, OL-KR44B, OL-KR45B, OL-KR46, OL-KR47, OL-KR47B, OL-KR48 and ground survey at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 2007 and 2008. This report describes the logging, data processing and the results. For the first time the results contains moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio, because the variability of Th/K ratio is a reasonably good indicator of alteration zones. This report includes also moving standard deviation calculations of Th/K ratio from earlier measured and reported drillholes OL-KR40-43 and OL-KR40B-43B. (orig.)

  16. Measurement of fusion excitation functions in the system {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Earlier measurements of fusion reactions involving {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo projectiles and Ni-targets showed surprisingly large fusion yields at low energies which could not be explained by coupled-channels calculations. The main difference to similar measurements involving the neighboring {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo isotopes was the different slope of the excitation functions at sub-barrier energies. An analysis of a variety of experiments showed a correlation between the nuclear structure and the slope of the excitation functions, with the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} transitional nuclei ({sup 78}Kr, {sup 100}Mo) exhibiting shallower slopes than the {open_quotes}stiff{close_quotes} nuclei ({sup 86}Kr, {sup 92}Mo) measured at the same energies with respect to the barrier. In this experiment we studied the fusion excitation function involving two transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo. The measurements were performed with {sup 78}Kr beams from the ECR source at energies between 285-370 MeV. Separation of the evaporation nucleus from the elastically scattered particles was achieved by measuring time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The data were completely analyzed. A comparison of the cross sections with measurements for the system {sup 86}Kr + {sup 92}Mo populating the same compound nucleus {sup 178}Pt. It shows good agreement at the highest energies, but quite different falloffs of the excitation functions toward lower energies. Coupled-channels calculations, including multi-phonon excitation for the two systems, are being performed.

  17. The production rate of cosmogenic 21-Ne in chondrites deduced from 81-Kr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L.; Freundel, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmogenic Ne-21 is used widely to calculate exposure ages of stone meteorites. In order to do so, the production rate P(21) must be known. This rate, however, is dependent on the chemical composition of the meteorite as well as the mass of, and position within, the meteoroid during its exposure to the cosmic radiation. Even for a mean shielding the production rates determined from measurments of different radionuclides vary by a factor of two. A method that can be used to determine exposure ages of meteorites that avoids shielding and chemical composition corrections is the -81-Kr-Kr-method. However, for chondrites, in many cases, the direct determination of production rates for the Kr isotopes is prevented by the trapped gases and the neutron effects on bromine. Therefore, this method was applied to four eucrite falls and then their 81-Kr-83-Kr-ages were compared to their cosmogenic Ne-21 and Ar-38 concentrations. The eucrites Bouvante-le-Haut, Juvinas, Sioux County, and Stannern were chosen for these measurements because of their similar chemical composition regarding the major elements.

  18. Krøyer – i internationalt lys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indhold: Jan Gorm Madsen: Ud i verden. Det moderne udstillingsliv i Tyskland, Østrig-Ungarn & Italien. Marianne Saabye: Det akademiske mesterstykke ; Krøyer & Bastien-Lepage ; Forår i Cernay-la-Ville ; "Banden fra Bretagne" ; På salon og verdensudstilling 1877-81 ; Krøyer & Liebermann ; Krøyer & ......: Krøyer & Sorolla...

  19. Alpha Decay as a Prob e of the Structure of Neutron-deficient Nuclei Around Z=82

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓冲

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I would like to review briefly our recent studies on nuclear α formation probabilities in heavy nuclei and their indication on the underlying structure of the nuclei involved. In particular, I will show that the empirical α-formation probabilities, which can be extracted from experimental half-lives, exhibit a rather smooth function with changing proton or neutron numbers. This allows us to distinguish the role played by pairing collectivity in the clustering process. The sudden hindrance of the clustering of the nucleons around the N=126 shell closure is due to the fact that the configuration space does not allow a proper manifestation of the pairing collectivity. The influence of the Z=82 shell closure on the α formation properties will also be discussed. Moreover, we have evaluated the α-decay fine structure to excited 0+ states in Hg and Rn isotopes as well as the α-decay from the excited 0+ states in the mother nucleus. It is thus found that the α decay is sensitive to the mixture of configurations corresponding to different nuclear shapes.

  20. Astromaterials Research Office (KR) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental goal of our research is to understand the origin and evolution of the solar system, particularly the terrestrial, "rocky" bodies. Our research involves analysis of, and experiments on, astromaterials in order to understand their nature, sources, and processes of formation. Our state-of-the-art analytical laboratories include four electron microbeam laboratories for mineral analysis, four spectroscopy laboratories for chemical and mineralogical analysis, and four mass spectrometry laboratories for isotopic analysis. Other facilities include the experimental impact laboratory and both 1-atm gas mixing and high-pressure experimental petrology laboratories. Recent research has emphasized a diverse range of topics, including: Study of the solar system's primitive materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust; Study of early solar system chronology using short-lived radioisotopes and early nebular processes through detailed geochemical and isotopic characterizations; Study of large-scale planetary differentiation and evolution via siderophile and incompatible trace element partitioning, magma ocean crystallization simulations, and isotopic systematics; Study of the petrogenesis of Martian meteorites through petrographic, isotopic, chemical, and experimental melting and crystallization studies; Interpretation of remote sensing data, especially from current robotic lunar and Mars missions, and study of terrestrial analog materials; Study of the role of organic geochemical processes in the evolution of astromaterials and the extent to which they constrain the potential for habitability and the origin of life.

  1. Towards saturation of the electron-capture delayed fission probability: The new isotopes 240Es and 236Bk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Konki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new neutron-deficient nuclei 240Es and 236Bk were synthesised at the gas-filled recoil separator RITU. They were identified by their radioactive decay chains starting from 240Es produced in the fusion–evaporation reaction 209Bi(34S,3n240Es. Half-lives of 6(2s and 22−6+13s were obtained for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. Two groups of α particles with energies Eα=8.19(3MeV and 8.09(3MeV were unambiguously assigned to 240Es. Electron-capture delayed fission branches with probabilities of 0.16(6 and 0.04(2 were measured for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. These new data show a continuation of the exponential increase of ECDF probabilities in more neutron-deficient isotopes.

  2. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Spencer, Barry B [ORNL

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  4. Toward a comprehensive description of decay properties for uranium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yibin; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-12-01

    Within the enhanced density dependent cluster model, with specific concern for density distributions in related nuclei, we investigate α decay and cluster radioactivity in uranium isotopes in the range 217 ≤A ≤243 . The available experimental data are found to be well reproduced, especially including the very recently measured values of new neutron-deficient isotopes. The half-lives of possible cluster emissions are consequently predicted as well, and will be somewhat valuable for future detection. Moreover, β decay half-lives of these nuclei are also evaluated with respect to all kinds of β processes, while their spontaneous fission lifetimes are provided via an effective relationship between the half-life and crucial quantities, namely the fissility parameter and fission barriers. In this sense, a full understanding of decay properties in uranium isotopes is expected to be achieved by combining their various radioactive features.

  5. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  6. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at Olkiluoto in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging and optical imaging of the drillholes OL-KR51, OL-KR52, OL-KR52B, OL-KR53 and OL-KR53B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between November 2009 and February 2010. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  7. Alternativ behandling og kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines Network, SIGN, er de inkluderede reviews kvalitetsvurderet og de fundne effekter bedømt efter 4 evidensniveauer.  Resultater: Ti reviews omhandler manipulativ og kropsbaseret praksis, og heraf er fem med høj kvalitet. Det mest konsistente resultat er, at massage signifikant reducerer angst hos...... kræftpatienter (evidens A). Ydermere findes effekt af massage mod depression, smerter og kvalme. Ingen reviews finder skadelige virkninger af massage, og forestillingen om, at massage kan sprede kræft, afkræftes af nyere forskning. Konklusion: Massage er en sikker terapi at kombinere med konventionel...... at differentiere effekten i forhold til typen af massage, kræftformen eller sygdomsstadie. Udgivelsesdato: 29 jan 2010...

  8. Potential energy surfaces of Polonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Pomorski, K.; Schmitt, C.; Bartel, J.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the potential energy landscape is analysed in detail for ten even-even polonium isotopes in the mass range 188\\lt A\\lt 220 as obtained within the macroscopic-microscopic approach, relying on the Lublin-Strasbourg drop model and the Yukawa-folded single-particle energies for calculating the microscopic shell and pairing corrections. A variant of the modified Funny-Hills nuclear shape parametrization is used to efficiently map possible fission paths. The approach explains the main features of the fragment partition as measured in low-energy fission along the polonium chain. The latter lies in a transitional region of the nuclear chart, and will be essential to consistently understand the evolution of fission properties from neutron-deficient mercury to heavy actinides. The ability of our method to predict fission observables over such an extended region looks promising.

  9. Nuclear Spectroscopy with Copper Isotopes of Extreme N/Z Ratios

    CERN Multimedia

    La commara, M; Roeckl, E; Van duppen, P L E; Schmidt, K A; Lettry, J

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration aims to obtain detailed nuclear spectroscopy information on isotopes close to the magic proton number Z=28 Very neutron-rich and neutron-deficient copper isotopes are ionized with the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) to provide beams with low cross contamination.\\\\ \\\\On the neutron-deficient side the high $Q_\\beta$-values of $^{56}$Cu (15~MeV) and $^{57}$Cu (8.8~MeV) allow to study levels at high excitation energies in the doubly magic nucleus $^{56}$Ni and the neighbouring $^{57}$Ni. On the neutron-rich side the spectroscopy with separated copper isotopes allows presently the closest approach to the doubly magic $^{78}$Ni at an ISOL facility. Up to now no suitable target material with a rapid release was found for nickel itself. A slow release behaviour has to be assumed also for the chemically similar elements iron and cobalt.\\\\ \\\\Using a narrow-bandwidth dye laser and tuning of the laser frequency allows to scan the hyperfine splittings of the copper isotopes and isome...

  10. Structure of high spin states of 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U R Jakhar; H L Yadav; A Ansari

    2005-12-01

    Following a fully self-consistent cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) approach with a pairing+quadrupole+hexadecapole model interaction Hamiltonian the structure of the yrast states of 76,78Kr nuclei is studied up to angular momentum = 24. Evolution of the shape with spin, and rotation alignment of proton as well as neutron 0g9/2 orbitals is investigated along with the inter- and intra-nucleus variations of the factors as a function of . We find that the shape of 78Kr remains prolate all through up to = 24, whereas 76Kr becomes triaxial beyond = 12.

  11. Hydration of Kr(aq) in Dilute and Concentrated Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Sabo, Dubravko; Pratt, Lawrence R; Rempe, Susan B

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr-Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr-Kr distributions, analyzed with the extrapolation procedure of Krüger et al., yield a modestly attractive osmotic second virial coefficient, B2 ≈ -60 cm(3)/mol. The thermodynamic analysis interconnecting these two approaches shows that they are closely consistent with each other, providing support for both approaches.

  12. Kr atoms and their clustering in zeolite A

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, W T; Jung, K J; Heo, N H

    2001-01-01

    The positions of Kr atoms encapsulated in the molecular-dimensioned cavities of fully dehydrated zeolite A of unit-cell composition Cs sub 3 Na sub 8 HSi sub 1 sub 2 Al sub 1 sub 2 O sub 4 sub 8 (Cs sub 3 -A) have been determined. Cs sub 3 -A was exposed to 1025 atm of krypton gas at 400 .deg. C for four days, followed by cooling at pressure to encapsulate Kr atoms. The resulting crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr) (a=12.247(2) A, R sub 1 =0.078, and R sub 2 =0.085) has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the cubic space group Pm3m at 21(1) .deg. C and 1 atm. In the crystal structure of Cs sub 3 -A(6Kr), six Kr atoms per unit cell are distributed over three crystallographically distinct positions: each unit cell contains one Kr atom at Kr(1) on a threefold axis in the sodalite unit, three at Kr(2) opposite four-rings in the large cavity , and two at Kr(3) on threefold axes in the large cavity . Relatively strong interactions of Kr atoms at Kr(1) and Kr(3) with Na sup + ions of ...

  13. Monitoring 85Kr at China Reprocessing and Radiochemistry Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Xue-sheng; LIU; Guo-rong; WANG; Chen; XU; Chang-kun; ZHOU; Hao

    2015-01-01

    85Kr is a long life fission product and a noble gas and one of the main target radionuclides in monitoring environment for the reprocessing plant.During the course of the spent fuel elements are dissolved,85Kr is released and part of these 85Kr will be let out through the stack after

  14. Den Unge med Kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    I Den Unge med Kræft beskrives igennem en række artikler et 3-årigt tværfagligt udviklings- og forskningsprojekt på Onkologisk Afdeling D på Århus Universitetshospital. Projektet har involveret mere end 30 fagpersoner fra afdelingens sengeafsnit, ambulatorium, palliative enhed samt afdelingens so...

  15. Overlevelse kræver indsigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1998-01-01

    koncentreret detailhandel prøver at sætte dagsorden for konkurrencen. Når konkurrencebetingelser er under forandring skal virksomhederne også forandre sig, hvis de stadigvæk vil være med fremover. I denne forbindelse taler man tit om kompetenceudvikling - de nye vilkår kræver, at virksomhederne tilpasser deres...

  16. Shell-model configuration-interaction description of quadrupole collectivity in Te isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chong

    2016-09-01

    Systematic calculations on the spectroscopy and transition properties of even-even Te isotopes are carried out by using the large-scale shell-model configuration-interaction approach with a realistic interaction. These nuclei are of particular interest since their yrast spectra show a vibrational-like equally spaced pattern whereas the few known E 2 transitions show rotational-like behavior. This cannot be explained by available collective models. My calculations reproduce well the equally spaced spectra of those isotopes as well as the constant behavior for the B (E 2 ) values of 114Te. The calculated B (E 2 ) values of neutron-deficient and heavier Te isotopes show contrasting different behaviors along the yrast line. The B (E 2 ) of light isotopes can exhibit a nearly constant behavior up to high spins. It is shown that this is related to the enhanced neutron-proton correlation when approaching N =50 .

  17. Search for unknown isotopes using the TIARA-ISOL and the JAERI-ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Masato [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 127}Pr and {sup 125}Pr, and the new neutron-rich isotopes {sup 166}Tb, {sup 165}Gd and {sup 161}Sm were identified using the TIARA-ISOL with {sup 36}Ar + {sup 92,94}Mo reactions, and the gas-jet coupled JAERI-ISOL with a proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U, respectively. The element-selective oxidation technique was used to reduce large contamination from isobars and molecular ions with production cross sections about one or two orders of magnitude as large as those of the new isotopes. The good signal-to-noise ratios achieved in the present measurements were essential to observe and identify weak X/{gamma} rays from the new isotopes. (author)

  18. Results of sampling and analysis of groundwater from multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaeae, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Nine groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1, OL-KR3, OL-KR5, OL-KR9, OL-KR11 and OL-KR12 between spring 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program (OMO) during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the deep multi-packered boreholes OL-KR1 (151.2-156.8 m, 311.2-336.8 m and 524.4-528.4 m), OL-KR3 (242.6-253.2 m), OL-KR5 (277.2-284.6 m and 457.2-476.2 m), OL-KR9 (468.2-482.2 m), OL-KR11 (597.5-628.1 m) and OLKR12 (363-368 m). The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's (1967) classification, the collected groundwater samples represent either the borehole water type Na-Cl (OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OLK-R1/ T/311.2-336.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.6 m, OL-KR11/ T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m) or Na-Ca-Cl (OL-KR1/T/524.4- 528.4 m, OL-KR5/T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m). The groundwater samples from OL-KR1/T/151.2-156.8 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6- 253.2 m, OL-KR3/T/242.6-253.2 m, OL-KR5/T/277.2-284.2 m, OL-KR11/T/597.5-628.1 m and OL-KR12/T/363-368 m were brackish (1000 mg/L < TDS < 10000 mg/L) according to Davis's (1964) TDS classification. Other samples (OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T/457.2-476.2 m and OL-KR9/T/468.2-482.2 m), were saline (TDS> 10000 mg/L). Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes were seen between samplings done at the different times. Only the groundwater sampled from OL-KR1/T/311.2-336.8 m had significant changes in its chemical composition during the reference period, but also in OL-KR1/T/524.4-528.4 m, OL-KR5/ T

  19. Production of heavy element and search for new isotopes at JAERI-RMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, Tomohiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    The new neutron deficient isotope {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa have been produced in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation reactions. The evaporation residues were separated in-flight by the JAERI recoil mass separator (JAERI-RMS). The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 209}Th and {sup 212}Pa are 8.080(50) MeV and 8.270(30) MeV, respectively. The corresponding half-lives are 3.8{sub -1.5}{sup +6.9} ms and 5.1{sub -1.9}{sup +6.1} ms. (author)

  20. Monitoring measurements with the Difference Flow Method in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13, and with the transverse flow method in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, KR-35 and -KR36 during the year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentti, E.; Poellaenen, J.; Komulainen, J.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference Flow Method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and fresh water head in actures/fractured zones in cored drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of the measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR32, -KR33, -KR42 and ONK-KR13 at the Olkiluoto investigation site during the year 2012. Posiva Flow Log, Transverse Flow Method (PFL TRANS) was also used. The measurements during the year 2012 in drillholes OL-KR31, -KR33, -KR35 and -KR36 are presented. All the reported measurements are a part of the Olkiluoto monitoring programme (OMO). The section length of the flow guide in the flow logging measurements was either 2 m or 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section lengths and carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. Calculations of the transmissivity (T) and the fresh water head (hfw) of the zones are shown in the results. Both devices used include a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures in all of the drillholes. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fracture to drillhole. In addition, some previously selected fractures were measured. The EC of the drillhole water was also measured. (orig.)

  1. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  2. Hydration of Kr(aq) in dilute and concentrated solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, M I; Pratt, L R; Rempe, S B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach also obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr-Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative (though small) changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr-Kr distributions, analyzed through a delicate $k\\rightarrow 0$ extrapolation, yield positive (though small) values for the osmotic second virial coefficient, $B_2$. A standard thermodynamic analysis interconnecting these two approaches shows that they can be consistent with each other.

  3. Comparative analysis of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr, enriched in Kr-78, and with Kr of natural content

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriljuk, Yu. M.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    The results of the experiment searching for 2K-capture with large low-background proportional counter are presented. The comparison of spectra of the background of the proportional counter filled with Kr enriched in $^{78}$Kr (8400 hr) and with natural Kr (3039 hr) is given. A new limit on the half-life of $^{78}$Kr with regard to 2K-capture, T$_{1/2}\\geq2.0\\cdot10^{21}$ yrs (95% C.L.) has been obtained.

  4. Innovativ produktudvikling kræver kursskifte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2007-01-01

    Innovativ produktudvikling kræver kursskifte Danske virksomheder har brug for nye metoder og værktøjer til produktudvikling Af Tim McAloone redaktion@ing.dk, fredag 04. maj 2007 kl. 00:00 Den industrielle arena i Europa er under stærk forandring. Virksomhederne står over for en række strategiske...

  5. Continuation of Atomic Spectroscopy on Alkali Isotopes at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Laser optical measurements on Rb, Cs and Fr have already been performed at ISOLDE in 1978-79. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of |7|6|-|9|8Rb, |1|1|8|-|1|4|5Cs, |2|0|8|-|2|1|3Fr and 14 of their isomers have been studied. Among the wealth of information which has been obtained, the most important are the first observation of an optical transition of the element Fr, the evidence of the onset of nuclear deformation at N~=~60 for Rb isotopes and the shape isomerism isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ From both the atomic and nuclear physics point of view, new studies seem very promising: \\item - the search for new optical transitions in Fr; the shell effect in the rms charge radius at N~=~126 for Fr isotopes \\item - the study of a possible onset of deformation for Cs isotopes beyond |1|4|5Cs \\item - the study of a region of static deformation in neutron-deficient Rb isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ \\end{enumerate} A new apparatus has been built. The principle remains the same as used in our earlier experiments. The improvements concern ess...

  6. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  7. Kr-85 signatures for various plutonium production schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanoszek, Paul [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Kr-85 is considered to be the best atmospheric indicator of unreported weapon-grade material production. This fact is based on the half-life of 10.76 years of Kr-85 and its chemical inactivity, which makes it even detectable after extended periods of cooling time. Kr-85 is produced as fission product during nuclear reactor operation and remains in the fuel until reprocessing starts. In order to determine the detectability of plutonium production the Kr-85 source term has to be assessed. The important issue of this presentation is the question on the minimum signal that an inspector can expect under the assumption that a proliferator minimizes his Kr-85 generation in order to circumvent a Kr-85 detection. A further assumption is that for nuclear weapon production a burn-up of typically around 2 MWd/kg is used. In addition, if clandestine plutonium production takes place, the source term might be used to estimate the amount of separated plutonium. The methodology of this study is based on a linkage between MCNPX and MATLAB. All results for actinide concentrations and Kr-85 are evaluated for different enrichments of U-235 and compared to known literature data. The Kr-85 source term per kilogram plutonium depends on the enrichments. As a result the lowest Kr-85 source term is found for depleted uranium.

  8. Simultaneous spectroscopy of $\\gamma$- rays and conversion electrons: Systematic study of EO transitions and intruder states in close vicinity of mid-shell point in odd-Au isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Venhart, M; Grant, A F; Petrik, K

    This proposal focuses on detailed systematic studies of the $\\beta$ /EC-decays of $^{179,181,183,185}$Hg leading to excited states in the neutron-deficient Au isotopes in the vicinity of the N=104 midshell. $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray and conversion electron de-excitations of odd-A Au isotopes will be studied simultaneously. These studies will address important structural questions such as the excitation energies of coexisting states, properties of multiple intruder states (i.e. intruder particles coupled to intruder cores) and mixing of coexisting structures. The unique combination of Hg beam purity and yields make ISOLDE a unique facility for these experiments.

  9. In vitro metabolism of a novel PPAR gamma agonist, KR-62980, and its stereoisomer, KR-63198, in human liver microsomes and by recombinant cytochrome P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-B; Seo, K-A; Yoon, Y-J; Bae, M-A; Cheon, H G; Shin, J-G; Liu, K-H

    2008-09-01

    1. KR-62980 and its stereoisomer KR-63198 are novel and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) modulators with activity profiles different from that of rosiglitazone. This study was performed to identify the major metabolic pathways for KR-62980 and KR-63198 in human liver microsomes. 2. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-62980 and KR-63198 in the presence of a beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating system resulted in hydroxy metabolite formation. In addition, the specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) responsible for KR-62980 and KR-63198 hydroxylation were identified by using a combination of chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes and metabolism by recombinant P450s. It is shown that CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 are the predominant enzymes in the hydroxylation of KR-62980 and KR-63198. 3. The intrinsic clearance through hydroxylation was consistently and significantly higher for KR-62980 than for KR-63198, indicating metabolic stereoselectivity (CL(int) of 0.012 +/- 0.001 versus 0.004 +/- 0.001 microl min(-1) pmol(-1) P450, respectively). 4. In a drug-drug interaction study, KR-62980 and KR-63198 had no effect on the activities of the P450s tested (IC(50) > 50 microM), suggesting that in clinical interactions between KR-62980 and KR-63198 the P450s tested would not be expected.

  10. Isospin transport in 84Kr + 112,124Sn collisions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Barlini, S; Casini, G; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Bini, M; Carboni, S; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A A; Bougault, R; Bonnet, E; Borderie, B; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Gruyer, D; Lopez, O; Neindre, N Le; Parlog, M; Rivet, M F; Vient, E; Rosato, E; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Bruno, M; Marchi, T; Morelli, L; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Gramegna, F; Kozik, T; Twarog, T; Alba, R; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D

    2013-01-01

    Isotopically resolved fragments with Z<=20 have been studied with high resolution telescopes in a test run for the FAZIA collaboration. The fragments were produced by the collision of a 84Kr beam at 35 MeV/nucleon with a n-rich (124Sn) and a n-poor (112Sn) target. The fragments, detected close to the grazing angle, are mainly emitted from the phase-space region of the projectile. The fragment isotopic content clearly depends on the n-richness of the target and it is a direct evidence of isospin diffusion between projectile and target. The observed enhanced neutron richness of light fragments emitted from the phase-space region close to the center of mass of the system can be interpreted as an effect of isospin drift in the diluted neck region.

  11. Isospin transport in 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at Fermi energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlini, S.; Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Pârlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twaróg, T.; Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.

    2013-05-01

    Isotopically resolved fragments with Z≲20 have been studied with a high-resolution telescope in a test run for the FAZIA Collaboration. The fragments were produced by the collision of a 84Kr beam at 35 MeV/nucleon with a neutron-rich (124Sn) and a neutron-poor (112Sn) target. The fragments, detected close to the grazing angle, are mainly emitted from the phase-space region of the projectile. The fragment isotopic content clearly depends on the neutron richness of the target and this is direct evidence of isospin diffusion between projectile and target. The observed enhanced neutron richness of light fragments emitted from the phase-space region close to the center of mass of the system can be interpreted as an effect of isospin drift in the diluted neck region.

  12. Alpha radioactivity for proton-rich even Pb isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arati Devi; S Prakash; I Mehrotra

    2009-04-01

    Half-lives for alpha radioactivity from proton-rich even Pb isotopes in the range = 182–202 have been calculated using the unified fission-like approach. The geometrical shape of the potential barrier is parametrized in terms of a highly versatile, asymmetric and analytically solvable form of potential based on Ginnochio’s potential. Good agreement with the experimental data has been obtained with the variation of just one parameter. Half-lives of three unknown alpha emitters in the neutron-deficient Pb chain (198Pb, 200Pb and 204Pb) have been predicted. The exact expression for the transmission coefficient has been compared with those obtained from WKB approximation method for symmetric Eckart potential.

  13. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of {sup 88}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschner, Kevin; Blazhev, Andrey; Jolie, Jan; Warr, Nigel; Wendt, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: PreSPEC-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Within the scope of the PreSPEC campaign we performed a Coulomb-excitation experiment to determine absolute E2 transition strengths to 2{sup +} states in the radioactive nucleus {sup 88}Kr. The aim of our studies was to identify the one quadruple-phonon mixed-symmetry 2{sub MS}{sup +} state in order to extend our knowledge on these states to lighter N = 52 isotones and to track their evolution over different proton shells. The investigated ions were provided through projectile fission of a 650 MeV {sup 238}U beam on a primary target consisting of 0.6 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be and subsequent separation and identification of the reaction products via the FRS at GSI. The secondary target consisted of 0.4 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 197}Au. De-exciting γ radiation was detected by the PreSPEC array, consisting of 15 EUROBALL Cluster detectors. The Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter LYCCA was used for particle identification after the secondary target. Absolute transition strengths of the transitions depopulating the 2{sup +}{sub 3} state in {sup 88}Kr which suggest the mixed symmetric character of this state are presented and discussed within the systematics of the N = 52 isotones.

  14. Formation of solid Kr nanoclusters in MgO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis, MA; van Veen, A; Schut, H; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of positron confinement enables us to investigate the electronic structure of nanoclusters embedded in host matrices. Solid Kr nanoclusters are a very interesting subject of investigation because of the very low predicted value of the positron affinity of bulk Kr. In this work,

  15. Modeling of Kr-Xe discharge of excimer lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belasri A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the numerical simulation of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD for Kr-Xe excilamp. The model of the discharge consists of three main modules: a plasma chemistry module, a circuit module and a Boltzmann equation module. The results predict the optimal operating conditions and describe the electrical and chemical properties of the KrXe* excimer lamp.

  16. 7 CFR 29.1081 - Variegated red or scorched (KR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variegated red or scorched (KR). 29.1081 Section 29.1081 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1081 Variegated red or scorched (KR). A red discoloration...

  17. Calibration of a Liquid Xenon Detector with Kr-83m

    CERN Document Server

    Kastens, L W; Manzur, A; McKinsey, D N

    2009-01-01

    We report the preparation of a Kr-83m source and its subsequent use in calibrating a liquid xenon detector. Kr-83m atoms were produced through the decay of Rb-83 atoms trapped in zeolite molecular sieve and were then introduced into liquid xenon. Decaying Kr-83m nuclei were detected through liquid xenon scintillation. Conversion electrons with energies of 9.4 keV and 32.1 keV from the decay of Kr-83m were both observed. This calibration source will allow the characterization of the scintillation and ionization response of noble liquid detectors at low energies, highly valuable for the search for WIMP dark matter. Kr-83m may also be useful for measuring fluid flow dynamics, both to understand purification in noble liquid-based particle detectors, as well as for studies of classical and quantum turbulence in superfluid helium.

  18. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  19. Kr/Xe Separation over a Chabazite Zeolite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuhui; Zong, Zhaowang; Elsaidi, Sameh K; Jasinski, Jacek B; Krishna, Rajamani; Thallapally, Praveen K; Carreon, Moises A

    2016-08-10

    Herein we demonstrate that chabazite zeolite SAPO-34 membranes effectively separated Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. Control over membrane thickness and average crystal size led to industrial range permeances and high separation selectivities. Specifically, SAPO-34 membranes can separate Kr/Xe mixtures with Kr permeances as high as 1.2 × 10 (-7) mol/m(2) s Pa and separation selectivities of 35 for molar compositions close to typical concentrations of these two gases in air. In addition, SAPO-34 membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with Kr permeances as high as 1.2 × 10 (-7) mol/m(2) s Pa and separation selectivities up to 45 for molar compositions as might be encountered in nuclear reprocessing technologies. Molecular sieving and differences in diffusivities were identified as the dominant separation mechanisms.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2014-07-22

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  1. Analysis results of PAVE sampling of groundwaters from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki, in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvonen, H. [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki (Finland); Hatanpaa, E. [lnsinoeoeritoimisto Paavo Ristola Oy, Hollola (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Four groundwater samples were collected at Olkiluoto from open boreholes OL-KR2, OL-KR7, OL-KR13 and OL-KR15 with pressurised water sampling equipment (PAVE) between summer 2004 and the beginning of 2005. The aim of the ground water sampling was to get information for the basis of the monitoring program during ONKALO construction. Sampling sections were mainly chosen so that the results of the chemical analyses from earlier studies could be used for comparison. This study is a part of Olkiluoto's monitoring programme (OMO). This study presents the sampling methods and the results of the laboratory analyses of groundwater samples from the open boreholes OL-KR2/328.5-330.5 m, OL-KR7/275.5- 289.5 m, OL-KR13/362-365 m and OL-KR15/241-245 m. The analytical results of the groundwater samplings are compared to earlier analytical results. According to Davis and De Wiest's ( 1967) classification, all ground water samples represent the borehole water type Na-Cl. All ground water samples were brackish ( 1000 mg/L < TDS < 1 0000 mg/L) according to Davis's ( 1964) TDS classification. Comparison of analytical results of the samples to earlier results shows that some changes have occurred between samplings. Other parameters, with couple of particular exceptions, have a downward trend, but bicarbonate concentration has increased in all boreholes. Concentrations of main parameters have changed most in OL-KR7 and OL-KR13 waters. Gas analyses results have not changed significantly, but increased carbon dioxide concentration is noticed in gas analysis results also. (orig.)

  2. The Electra KrF laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegeler, F; Friedman, M; Albert, T; Parish, J [Commonwealth Technology, Inc., Alexandria, VA 22315 (United States); Myers, M C; Wolford, M F; Sethian, J D; Giuliani, J L [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Burns, P [Research Support Instruments, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Jaynes, R [Science Applications International, Corp., McLean, VA 22102 (United States)], E-mail: frank.hegeler@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-05-15

    This paper presents a brief overview of the Electra laser system and reports on the most recent results. The laser system consists of an electron beam pumped main amplifier with an aperture of 30 cm x 30 cm, an e-beam pumped 10 cm x 10 cm pre-amplifier, and a KrF discharge laser serving as the seed oscillator. The electron beam amplifiers are pumped from both sides. Full laser system shots have been completed with a laser energy of 450 J. The main amplifier, operating as an oscillator, has demonstrated 25,000 continuous laser shots at 2.5 Hz single sided pumping as well as 16,600 shots at 2.5 Hz at {approx}300 J/shot within 2 hours.

  3. High-spin states in 75Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chishti, A. A.; Gelletly, W.; Lister, C. J.; Mcneill, J. H.; Varley, B. J.; Love, D. J. G.; Skeppstedt, O.

    1989-09-01

    Levels in the 75Kr nucleus were populated in the inverse 24Mg( 54Fe, 2pn) 75Kr reaction at beam energies of 177 and 190 MeV. In the reaction study at 177 MeV, the γ-rays were detected in coincidence with neutrons and mass-75 nuclei and in the reaction at 190 MeV only γγ-coincidence data were collected. Using the γγ-neutron gated γγ- and Recoil-γγ-coincidence techniques, we were able to develop the level scheme up to spins ( {37+}/{2}) and ( {31-}/{2}) in the positive- and negative-parity bands, respectively. These spins are high enough to allow us to study alignment effects in this mass region. The signature splitting at low spin can be reproduced in a cranked shell model calculation assuming a quadrupole deformation β2 = 0.37 and a slightly triaxial ( γ≈ -10°) shape for positive-parity states but an axial shape for the negative-parity sequence. The spin alignment as a function of rotational frequency has been studied; in the positive-parity band alignment is observed at a rotational frequency of h̵ω ≈ 0.63 MeV and in the negative-parity band the alignment occurs at h̵ω ≈ 0.57 MeV. The observed alignment in both bands is associated with a pair of g{9}/{2} protons, and the difference in the alignment frequencies is thought to be due to differing intrinsic shapes.

  4. Z=50 Shell Gap near Sn100 from Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitations in Even-Mass Sn106-112 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaman, C.; Andreoiu, C.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Brown, B. A.; Campbell, C. M.; Chester, A.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D. C.; Gade, A.; Galaviz, D.; Glasmacher, T.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Miller, D.; Moeller, V.; Mueller, W. F.; Schiller, A.; Starosta, K.; Stolz, A.; Terry, J. R.; Volya, A.; Zelevinsky, V.; Zwahlen, H.

    2007-10-01

    Rare isotope beams of neutron-deficient Sn106,108,110 from the fragmentation of Xe124 were employed in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment. The measured B(E2,01+→21+) values for Sn108 and Sn110 and the results obtained for the Sn106 show that the transition strengths for these nuclei are larger than predicted by current state-of-the-art shell-model calculations. This discrepancy might be explained by contributions of the protons from within the Z=50 shell to the structure of low-energy excited states in this region.

  5. Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell

    CERN Multimedia

    Schug, M; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.

  6. Consequences of neutron-proton pairing correlations for the rotational motion of the N=Z nucleus 72Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, N. S.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Clark, R. M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Svensson, C. E.; Vincent, S. M. (and others)

    2001-08-01

    High-spin states in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr were populated using the {sup 40}Ca({sup 36}Ar,2p2n) reaction at a beam energy of 145 MeV. The yrast band has been observed up to a tentative spin of 20{Dirac_h}. Nonyrast rotational structures have also been observed for the first time. The alignment of g{sub 9/2} protons and neutrons in the yrast band is observed to be significantly delayed relative to the heavier even-even Kr isotopes. Exact deformed cranked shell model calculations suggest that this could be due to the combined effect of isovector (T=1) and isoscalar (T=0) neutron-proton pairing correlations.

  7. Multifragmentation and the phase transition: A systematic study of the multifragmentation of 1 GeV Au, La and Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Srivastava

    2001-08-01

    A systematic analysis of the multifragmentation (MF) in fully reconstructed events from 1 GeV Au, La and Kr collisions with C has been performed. Detailed comparisons of the various fragment properties are presented as a function of excitation energy, $E^{*}_{\\text{th}}$. The charged particle multiplicity from MF stage shows a saturation beyond $E^{*}_{\\text{th}}∼ 8$ MeV/nucleon for Kr. The universal behavior of intermediate mass fragment yields and of the size of the largest fragment is observed only for Au and La when scaled with size of the system. The Kr data are found to lack this property. Moments of the fragment size distribution show that the Kr MF is different than the MF of Au and La. A power law behavior is observed for Au and La with exponent > 2, while for Kr < 2. The results are compared with the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM). A single value of all the parameters of the model fits the data for all the three systems. The breakup of Au and La is consistent with a continuous phase transition. The data indicate that both $E^{*}_{\\text{th}}$ and the isotope ratio temperature He- decrease with increase in system size at the critical point. The breakup temperature obtained from SMM also shows the same trend as seen in data. This trend is attributed primarily to the increasing Coulomb energy with finite size effects playing a smaller role. The percolation and Ising model studies for finite size neutral matter show behavior which is opposite to the one seen in the present work.

  8. In-source laser spectroscopy of mercury isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal follows on from the Letter of Intent, I-153. The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes are one of the prime examples of shape coexistence anywhere in the nuclear chart. Wide-ranging and complementary experimental and theoretical approaches have been used to investigate their structure over the last few years, however mean-square charge radii are unknown for isotopes with $\\textit{A}$ < 181. It is proposed to measure the isotope shift (IS) and hyperfine structure (HFS) of the 253-nm transition in $^{177-182}$Hg in an attempt to study the propagation of the famous odd-even staggering behaviour. At the other end of the chain, no information exists on the optical spectroscopy of Hg isotopes beyond the $\\textit{N}$ = 126 shell closure. There is a well-known "kink" in mean-square charge radii beyond this point in the even $\\textit{Z}$ $\\geq$ 82 elements. It is proposed to measure the IS of $^{207,208}$Hg in order to provide the first information on this effect below $\\textit{Z}$ = 82.

  9. Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) mediates juvenile hormone action during metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Riddiford, Lynn M

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) given at pupariation inhibits bristle formation and causes pupal cuticle formation in the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster due to its prolongation of expression of the transcription factor Broad (BR). In a microarray analysis of JH-induced gene expression in abdominal integument, we found that Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) was up-regulated during most of adult development. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that Kr-h1 up-regulation began at 10h after puparium formation (APF), and Kr-h1 up-regulation occurred in imaginal epidermal cells, persisting larval muscles, and larval oenocytes. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 in abdominal epidermis using T155-Gal4 to drive UAS-Kr-h1 resulted in missing or short bristles in the dorsal midline. This phenotype was similar to that seen after a low dose of JH or after misexpression of br between 21 and 30 h APF. Ectopic expression of Kr-h1 prolonged the expression of BR protein in the pleura and the dorsal tergite. No Kr-h1 was seen after misexpression of br. Thus, Kr-h1 mediates some of the JH signaling in the adult abdominal epidermis and is upstream of br in this pathway. We also show for the first time that the JH-mediated maintenance of br expression in this epidermis is patterned and that JH delays the fusion of the imaginal cells and the disappearance of Dpp in the dorsal midline.

  10. Structure of Krypton isotopes calculated with symmetry conserving configuration mixing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Tomás R

    2014-01-01

    Shape transitions and shape coexistence in the $^{70-98}$Kr region are studied in a unified view with state-of-the-art beyond self-consistent mean field methods based on the Gogny D1S interaction. Beyond mean field effects are taken into account through the exact angular momentum and particle number restoration and the possibility of axial and non-axial shape mixing. The results of the low-lying properties of these isotopes are in good agreement with the experimental data when the triaxial degree of freedom is included. Shape transitions from axial-oblate ($^{70-72}$Kr) to triaxial-prolate ($^{74-78}$Kr) and from spherical-triaxial ($^{86-92}$Kr) to axial-oblate ($^{94-98}$Kr) ground states are obtained. Additionally, low-lying $0^{+}$ excited states and quasi-gamma bands are found showing the richness of the collective structure in this region.

  11. Lifetime measurement of high spin states in {sup 75}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, T. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211001 (India); Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India); Negi, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Naik, Z. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India); Yang, Y.-C. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Sheikh, J.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006 (India); Dhal, A. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Raju, M.K. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003 (India); Appannababu, S. [Department of Physics, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Kumar, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Choudhury, D. [Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maurya, K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211001 (India); Mahanto, G.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Jain, A.K. [Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Jain, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India); Pancholi, S.C. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2010-03-01

    The lifetimes of high spin states of {sup 75}Kr have been determined via {sup 50}Cr ({sup 28}Si, 2pn) {sup 75}Kr reaction in positive parity band using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The transition quadrupole moments Q{sub t} deduced from lifetime measurements have been compared with {sup 75}Br. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the framework of projected shell model.

  12. Geophysical drillhole logging and imaging of drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at Olkiluoto in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, A.-M. (Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Heikkinen, E. (Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical drillhole logging as well as optical and acoustic imaging of the drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55 and OL-KR55B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki between August 2010 and January 2011. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and data processing. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. New focused resistivity, susceptibility, natural gamma and density probes were tested and compared with old probes. This report describes the major features of new probes and the comparison with old probes. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  13. The Smallest Degree Sum That Yields Potentially Kr+1 - K3-Graphic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-xiao Yin

    2006-01-01

    Let σ(Kr+1 - K3, n) be the smallest even integer such that each n-term graphic sequence π =Kr+1 - K3 as a subgraph, where Kr+1 - K3 is a graph obtained from a complete graph Kr+1 by deleting three edges which form a triangle. In this paper, we determine the value σ(Kr+1 -- K3,n) for r ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3r + 5.

  14. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 in 2009 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H. [Geopros Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with HTU-equipment in drillholes OL-KR19, OL-KR45 and OL-KR46 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2009 and 2010. The total length of the borehole OL-KR19 is 544,34 m, 241,80 m of which was covered by 121 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR45 is 1023,30 m long and 63 similar tests were made in it covering 126,00 m of the hole and OL-KR46 600,10 m long, 151 tests made covering 301,35 m. The measured sections are around the depths of the planned repository. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary- state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  15. Kr963660 -Low-Z Boundary of the Island of Deformation at N =60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudouet, J.; Lemasson, A.; Duchêne, G.; Rejmund, M.; Clément, E.; Michelagnoli, C.; Didierjean, F.; Korichi, A.; Maquart, G.; Stezowski, O.; Lizarazo, C.; Pérez-Vidal, R. M.; Andreoiu, C.; de Angelis, G.; Astier, A.; Delafosse, C.; Deloncle, I.; Dombradi, Z.; de France, G.; Gadea, A.; Gottardo, A.; Jacquot, B.; Jones, P.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kuti, I.; Le Blanc, F.; Lenzi, S. M.; Li, G.; Lozeva, R.; Million, B.; Napoli, D. R.; Navin, A.; Petrache, C. M.; Pietralla, N.; Ralet, D.; Ramdhane, M.; Redon, N.; Schmitt, C.; Sohler, D.; Verney, D.; Barrientos, D.; Birkenbach, B.; Burrows, I.; Charles, L.; Collado, J.; Cullen, D. M.; Désesquelles, P.; Domingo Pardo, C.; González, V.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Hess, H.; Judson, D. S.; Karolak, M.; Korten, W.; Labiche, M.; Ljungvall, J.; Menegazzo, R.; Mengoni, D.; Pullia, A.; Recchia, F.; Reiter, P.; Salsac, M. D.; Sanchis, E.; Theisen, Ch.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Zielińska, M.

    2017-04-01

    Prompt γ -ray spectroscopy of the neutron-rich 96Kr, produced in transfer- and fusion-induced fission reactions, has been performed using the combination of the Advanced Gamma Tracking Array and the VAMOS ++ spectrometer. A second excited state, assigned to Jπ=4+, is observed for the first time, and a previously reported level energy of the first 2+ excited state is confirmed. The measured energy ratio R4 /2=E (4+)/E (2+)=2.12 (1 ) indicates that this nucleus does not show a well-developed collectivity contrary to that seen in heavier N =60 isotones. This new measurement highlights an abrupt transition of the degree of collectivity as a function of the proton number at Z =36 , of similar amplitude to that observed at N =60 at higher Z values. A possible reason for this abrupt transition could be related to the insufficient proton excitations in the g9 /2, d5 /2, and s1 /2 orbitals to generate strong quadrupole correlations or to the coexistence of competing different shapes. An unexpected continuous decrease of R4 /2 as a function of the neutron number up to N =60 is also evidenced. This measurement establishes the Kr isotopic chain as the low-Z boundary of the island of deformation for N =60 isotones. A comparison with available theoretical predictions using different beyond mean-field approaches shows that these models fail to reproduce the abrupt transitions at N =60 and Z =36 .

  16. Heats of Formation of Krypton Fluorides and Stability Predictions for KrF₄ and KrF₆ from High Level Electronic Structure Calculations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, David A.; Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Grant, Daniel J.; Peterson, Kirk A.; Christe, Karl O.; Schrobilgen, Gary J.

    2007-11-12

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Atomization energies at 0 K and heats of formation at 0 and 298 K are predicted for KrF⁺, KrF-, KrF₂, KrF₃⁺, KrF₄, KrF₅⁺, and KrF₆ from coupled-cluster theory (CCSD(T)) calculations with effective core potential correlation-consistent basis sets for krypton. To achieve near chemical accuracy (±1 kcal/mol), three corrections were added to the complete basis set binding energies based on frozen core coupled-cluster theory energies: a correction for corevalence effects, a correction for scalar relativistic effects, and a correction for first-order atomic spin-orbit effects. Vibrational zero point energies were computed at the coupled-cluster level of theory. The calculated value for the heat of formation of KrF₂ is in excellent agreement with the experimental value. Contrary to the analogous xenon fluorides, KrF₂, KrF₄, and KrF₆ are predicted to be thermodynamically unstable with respect to loss of F₂. An analysis of the energetics of KrF₄ and KrF₆ with respect to fluorine atom loss together with calculations of the transition states for the intramolecular loss of F₂ show that fluorine atom loss is the limiting factor determining the kinetic stabilities of these molecules. Whereas KrF₄ possesses a marginal energy barrier of 10 kcal/mol toward fluorine atom loss and might be stable at moderately low temperatures, the corresponding barrier in KrF₆ is only 0.9 kcal/mol, suggesting that it could exist only at very low temperatures. Although the simultaneous reactions of either two or four fluorine atoms with KrF₂ to give KrF₄ or KrF₆, respectively, are exothermic, they do not represent feasible synthetic approaches because the attack of

  17. Laser spectroscopy of cadmium isotopes: probing the nuclear structure between the neutron 50 and 82 shell closures

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Stroke, H H; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the isotopic chain of cadmium with high-resolution laser spectroscopy for the first time. Our goal is to determine nuclear spins, moments and root-mean-square charge radii of ground and isomeric states between the neutron 50 and 82 shell closures, contributing decisively to a better understanding of the nuclear structure in the vicinity of the doubly-magic $^{100}$Sn and $^{132}$Sn. On the neutron-rich side this is expected to shed light on a shell-quenching hypothesis and consequently on the duration of the r-process along the waiting-point nuclei below $^{130}$Cd. On the neutron-deficient side it may elucidate the role of the cadmium isotopes in the rp-process for rapidly accreting neutron stars.

  18. Beta-decay energies and masses of short-lived isotopes of rubidium, caesium, francium, and radium

    CERN Document Server

    Westgaard, L; Nyman, G H; Roeckl, E

    1975-01-01

    Total decay energies have been measured for a number of neutron- deficient Rb and Cs isotopes, as well as for some neutron-rich isotopes of Fr and Ra. Mass separated sources were produced at the ISOLDE on-line separator at CERN. By applying two different beta - gamma coincidence methods, Q values or their lower limits were determined for /sup 76-78/Rb, /sup 80/Rb, /sup 121-124/Cs, /sup 222 /Fr, /sup 224-226/Fr, /sup 229/Ra and /sup 229/Ac. For many of these nuclei, the atomic mass excesses could be derived, allowing the comparison of masses of far unstable nuclei with predictions from mass formulae. The odd-odd nuclei /sup 76/Rb and /sup 78/Rb appear to be 1-1/sup 1///sub 2/ MeV more strongly bound than expected from the systematics. (70 refs).

  19. Knowing the good from the bad: does being aware of KR content matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Azizieh, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that providing KR based on only successful (i.e., good trials) trials enhances learning compared to providing KR on unsuccessful trials (i.e., poor trials). However, the learners were unaware the content of their KR display was based entirely on their successful or unsuccessful trials. Thus, the purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether learning after providing KR after relatively good trials would persist if participants were aware of their KR content. All participants propelled a slider with their non-dominant hand to a pre-determined distance on a linear slide. Participant's vision was occluded before, during and after their motor action. Similar to previous research, all participants were provided KR on three trials in a series of 6 trial blocks regarding their three best (KR good) or three worst (KR poor) trials in the block, and were either aware (good-aware; poor-aware) or unaware (good-unaware, poor-unaware) of content in their KR display. The retention results showed the groups aware of their KR content demonstrated superior learning to the groups unaware of their KR content. These findings suggest that in addition to the motivational components of KR, awareness of the KR content directly impacted motor skill acquisition not whether KR was presented on good trials or poor trials.

  20. A long-term change of the AR/KR/XE fractionation in the solar corpuscular radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1993-01-01

    Solar noble gases in an ilmenite separate from breccia 79035 (antiquity greater than 1 Ga) were analyzed by closed system stepped etching (CSSE). All five gases show the familiar two-component structure: first solar-wind (SW) gases are released, followed by gases from solar energetic particles (SEP). Element patterns in 79035 are similar to those of 71501 ilmenite. SW-He-Ne were partly lost, but SEP-He-Ne-Ar are retained (nearly) unfractionated. Constant Ar/Kr/Xe ratios indicate that ilmenites contain an unfractionated sample of the heavy SW-SEP noble gases. Ar/Kr/Xe ratios in the solar corpuscular radiation are, however, different from 'solar system' values, whereby the Kr/Xe difference in 79035 is about twice as large as in 71501. We propose that Xe is less fractionated than Kr and Ar, though its first ionization potential (FIP) is higher than the 'cutoff' at approximately 11.5 eV, above which all elements in SEP are usually assumed to be depleted by a roughly constant factor. SW-Ne may be isotopically slightly heavier in the ancient SW trapped by 79035, as proposed earlier. In this work we extend our previous CSSE studies of solar noble gases including Kr and Xe to a lunar sample irradiated at least 1 Ga ago (breccia 79035, ilmenite separate, 42-64 microns). This sample was particularly gently etched in the first steps. Surprisingly, the first three steps, each releasing less than or equal to 0.5% of the total 36-Ar, showed an SEP-like trapped component plus relatively large concentrations of cosmogenic gases. Steps 4ff contain much less cosmogenic and more solar gas with a SW-like isotope pattern. Thus, a very minor easily etchable phase that has completely lost its SW-gases must be responsible for steps 1-3. We will not discuss these steps here and refer to the actual step 4 as the 'initial' etching step.

  1. Cross-Section Measurements of the 86Kr(g,n) Reaction to Probe the s-Process Branching at 85Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R; Rusev, G; Tornow, W; Iliadis, C; Lugaro, M; Buntain, J; Goriely, S; Kelley, J H; Schwengner, R; Banu, A; Tsoneva, N

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on 86Kr using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, S_n = 9.86 MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental 86Kr(g,n)85Kr cross section with results from our recent 86Kr(g,g') measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of 86Kr. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of 85Kr, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise 85Kr(n,g)86Kr cross section allows to produce more precise predictions of the 86Kr abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass < 1.5 Msun, where the 13C neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest 86Kr/82Kr ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

  2. Mistika u životu kršćana

    OpenAIRE

    Špehar, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Sve veći interes za mistiku na raznim područjima ljudskoga istraživanja traži i od nas kršćana i naših teologija određene prosudbe i istraživanja. Događa se da govorimo o istim stvarima, samo jezikom današnjega vremena. U biti ostaje za sve isto iskustvo, a to je da je mistika doista iskustvo Neiskustvenoga. Ona živi unutar kršćanstva i izvan njega, bila prihvaćana ili odbacivana. Kršćanska mistika ima svoje temeljne izvore u Sv. pismu, liturgiji i Crkvi. U tom ambijentu ona stvara svoje pojm...

  3. A novel anti-neuroinflammatory pyridylimidazole compound KR-31360.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ock, Jiyeon; Kim, Sangseop; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Kim, Nak-Jung; Han, Hyung Soo; Cho, Je-Yoel; Suk, Kyoungho

    2010-02-15

    Excessive microglial activation with overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress products is linked to the progression of several neurodegenerative diseases; therefore, suppression of microglial activation is a potential therapeutic approach against these diseases. Since nitric oxide (NO) is one of the major inflammatory mediators that are produced by activated microglia, inhibitory effects of novel synthetic compounds on microglial NO production were investigated. From the mouse microglia cell-based assays, an imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine compound KR-31360 was identified as an inhibitor of microglial NO production with an IC(50) value of 2 microM. Structure-activity relationship study indicated that 5-position of imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine ring is critical for the activity. KR-31360 also inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and transcription of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. KR-31360 was neuroprotective by suppressing microglial neurotoxicity in a microglia-neuron coculture. The neuroprotective activity of the compound was most effective when microglia were pretreated with the compound prior to LPS challenge. The inhibitory effect of KR-31360 on microglial activation was further demonstrated in a mouse neuroinflammation model in vivo: compared to vehicle-injected animals, KR-31360 injection attenuated LPS-induced microglial activation as evidenced by isolectin B4 staining and proinflammatory gene expression of brain sections. DNA microarray analysis supported that KR-31360 targeted Toll-like receptor 4 pathways. In addition to being a new drug candidate against neuroinflammatory diseases, the compound may be a powerful tool for the better understanding of microglia biology and neuroinflammation.

  4. Examining the Preferred Self-Controlled KR Schedules of Learners and Peers During Motor Skill Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Matthew; Patterson, Jae Todd; Hansen, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In many practical situations, learners are provided with feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR) by a peer. However, when peers provide KR is currently unknown. When given the opportunity to request KR in a self-controlled manner, some participants have reported a preference for requesting KR after good performances. Alternatively, peers may provide KR in a different fashion. Subsequently, a discrepancy between the learner's desire to receive KR and when a peer provides KR may arise. In our study, peer- and self-controlled KR schedules were compared. Participants were peers who controlled KR (PC; 8), learners with peers (P-L; 8), or learners with self-control (SC; 8). Participants in the two learning groups (P-L and SC groups) completed a serial-timing task with a goal time of 2500 ms. Absolute error data on KR and no-KR trials along with self-reports indicate that participants with self-control preferred KR after good trials and peers preferred to provide KR after both good and bad trials equally. Results from the delayed retention test indicated that peer-controlled learners were more consistent (i.e., in terms of variable error) than the self-control group.

  5. New Superheavy Element Isotopes: 242Pu(48Ca,5n)285114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Paul A; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Berryman, Jill S.; Bleuel, Darren L.; Clark, Roderick M.; Dragojevic, Irena; Dvorak, Jan; Fallon, Paul; Fineman-Sotomayor, Carolina; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Gothe, Oliver R.; Lee, I-Yang; Loveland, Walter D.; McLaughlin, Joseph P.; Paschalis, Stefanos; Petri, Marina-Kalliopi; Qian, Jing; Stavsetra, Liv; Wiedeking, Mathis; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-10-22

    The new, neutron-deficient, superheavy element isotope {sup 285}114 was produced in {sup 48}Ca irradiations of {sup 242}Pu targets at a center-of-target beam energy of 256 MeV (E* = 50 MeV). The {alpha} decay of {sup 285}114 was followed by the sequential {alpha} decay of four daughter nuclides, {sup 281}Cn, {sup 277}Ds, {sup 273}Hs, and {sup 269}Sg. {sup 265}Rf was observed to decay by spontaneous fission. The measured {alpha}-decay Q values were compared with those from a macroscopic-microscopic nuclear mass model to give insight into superheavy element shell effects. The {sup 242}Pu({sup 48}Ca,5n){sup 285}114 cross section was 0.6{sub -0.5}{sup +0.9} pb.

  6. Electromagnetically induced absorption in metastable 83Kr atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Mishra, S R; Singh, S; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) resonances of sub-natural linewidth (FWHM) in metastable noble gas 83Kr* atoms using degenerate two level schemes (DTLSs). This is the first observation of EIA effect in a metastable noble gas atoms. Using these spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition from 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 hyperfine manifolds of 83Kr* atoms, we have measured the Lande's g-factor (gF) for the lower level (F = 13/2) of the closed transition accurately with small applied magnetic fields of few Gauss.

  7. Effects of knowledge of results (KR) frequency in the learning of a timing skill: absolute versus relative KR frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Márcio M; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Gallo, Lívia G; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between the amount of practice and frequency of Knowledge of Results (KR) was investigated in a timing skill. In the acquisition phase the task involved 90 trials of releasing a knob and transporting three tennis balls from three near recipients to three far ones in a specific sequence and target time. The retention test performed 24 hr. later had the same sequence of transport but a new target time was required. In both phases, absolute error and standard deviation plus constant error was measured. The five groups differed in relation to frequency of KR and amount of practice. The results showed that intermediate frequencies as well as higher frequencies of KR elicited better performance during the retention test.

  8. Dmitri Krõmovist on saanud vaatemängumeister / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovist ja tema lavastusest "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" (Anatoli Vassiljevi Teater Draamakunstikool. Dmitri Krõmovi loomelaboratoorium), mida etendatakse festivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006"

  9. Dmitri Krõmovist on saanud vaatemängumeister / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Vene lavastaja Dmitri Krõmovist ja tema lavastusest "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot" (Anatoli Vassiljevi Teater Draamakunstikool. Dmitri Krõmovi loomelaboratoorium), mida etendatakse festivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006"

  10. On No-KR tests in motor learning, retention and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M; Newell, Karl M

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we examine the role of no-knowledge of results (KR) tests in motor learning, retention and transfer. A distinction is drawn between studies of KR and studies of other issues in motor learning that use a No-KR test. Arguments are presented against the currently received position that a No-KR test is an essential protocol to examine motor learning, although a No-KR test is most relevant in the few contexts where the outcome information is not naturally available. Perspectives are provided on the limited though proper role of No-KR tests in motor learning, retention and transfer and these are illustrated through experimental examples. It is proposed that the current restrictive interpretation of KR as only augmented outcome information is narrowing not only the context of KR research but also the study of motor learning in general.

  11. On kr-spaces and k-spaces%关于kr-空间与k-空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恽自求

    2000-01-01

    本文给出具有局部可数闭k- 网的kr- 空间成为k- 空间的一个充要条件.此结果给林寿提出的问题作出一个回答.%In this paper, we givea necessary and sufficient condition for a regular kr-space X witha locally countable closed k-network to be a k-space and give ananswer to a question raised by Lin Shou.

  12. Shell Model Description of $^{102-108}$Sn Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Trivedi, T; Negi, D; Mehrotra, I

    2012-01-01

    We have performed shell model calculations for neutron deficient even $^{102-108}$Sn and odd $^{103-107}$Sn isotopes in $sdg_{7/2}h_{11/2}$ model space using two different interactions. The first set of interaction is due to Brown {\\it et al.} and second is due to Hoska {\\it et al}. The calculations have been performed using doubly magic $^{100}$Sn as core and valence neutrons are distributed over the single particle orbits 1$g_{7/2}$, 2$d_{5/2}$, 2$d_{3/2}$, 3$s_{1/2}$ and 1$h_{11/2}$. In more recent experimental work for $^{101}$Sn [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 105} (2010) 162502], the g.s. is predicted as 5/2$^+$ with excited 7/2$^+$ at 172 keV. We have also performed another two set of calculations by taking difference in single particle energies of 2$d_{5/2}$ and 1$g_{7/2}$ orbitals by 172 keV. The present state-of-the-art shell model calculations predicts fair agreements with the experimental data. These calculations serve as a test of nuclear shell model in the region far from stability for unstable Sn isotop...

  13. Shell Model Description of 102-108Sn Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, T.; Srivastava, P. C.; Negi, D.; Mehrotra, I.

    2012-05-01

    We have performed shell model calculations for neutron deficient even 102-108Sn and odd 103-107Sn isotopes in sdg7/2h11/2 model space using two different interactions. The first set of interaction is due to Brown et al. and second is due to Hoska et al. The calculations have been performed using doubly magic 100Sn as core and valence neutrons are distributed over the single particle orbits 1g7/2, 2d5/2, 2d3/2, 3s1/2 and 1h11/2. In more recent experimental work for 101Sn [I. G. Darby et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 162502], the g.s. is predicted as 5/2+ with excited 7/2+ at 172 keV. We have also performed another two set of calculations by taking difference in single particle energies of 2d5/2 and 1g7/2 orbitals by 172 keV. The present state-of-the-art shell model calculations predict fair agreement with the experimental data. These calculations serve as a test of nuclear shell model in the region far from stability for unstable Sn isotopes near the doubly magic 100Sn core.

  14. Real bundle gerbes, orientifolds and twisted KR-homology

    CERN Document Server

    Hekmati, Pedram; Szabo, Richard J; Vozzo, Raymond F

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a notion of Real bundle gerbes on manifolds equipped with an involution. We elucidate their relation to Jandl gerbes and prove that they are classified by their Real Dixmier-Douady class in Grothendieck's equivariant sheaf cohomology. We show that the Grothendieck group of Real bundle gerbe modules is isomorphic to twisted KR-theory for a torsion Real Dixmier-Douady class. Building on the Baum-Douglas model for K-homology and the orientifold construction in string theory, we introduce geometric cycles for twisted KR-homology groups using Real bundle gerbe modules. We prove that this defines a real-oriented generalised homology theory dual to twisted KR-theory for Real closed manifolds, and more generally for Real finite CW-complexes, for any Real Dixmier-Douady class. This is achieved by defining an explicit natural transformation to analytic twisted KR-homology and proving that it is an isomorphism. Our constructions give a new framework for the classification of orientifolds in string theory, p...

  15. KR Aur - extremely high variations in optical bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeva, S.; Latev, G.; Nikolov, Y.; Nikolov, P.; Nikolov, G.; Spassov, B.; Petrov, B.; Damljanovic, G.; Sekulic, M.; Zamanov, R.

    2017-03-01

    Since 2008, the cataclysmic variable star KR Aur is in deep minimum state with a short brightening in 2010. We performed photometric monitoring in 12 nights during the period August 2016 - February 2017 with the telescopes of Rozhen (Bulgaria), Belogradchik (Bulgaria) and Vidojevica (Serbia).

  16. Difference flow and electrical conductivity measurements at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki, drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komulainen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Hurmerinta, E.; Ripatti, K. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The Posiva Flow Log, Difference flow method (PFL DIFF) uses a flowmeter that incorporates a flow guide and can be used for relatively quick determinations of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head of fractures/fractured zones in drillholes. This report presents the principles of the method and the results of measurements carried out in drillholes OL-KR54, OL-KR55, OL-KR55B and OL-KR47B at the Olkiluoto investigation site between January 2011 and September 2011. The measuring programme employed was the same in all drillholes. The applied section lengths of the flow guide were either 2 m and 0.5 m. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole to the bedrock was measured within the section length. The measurements were carried out in both pumped and natural (i.e. un-pumped) conditions. The transmissivity and hydraulic head of zones were calculated from the flow and pressure results. The device used includes a sensor for single point resistance (SPR). SPR was measured in connection with the flow measurements. The electrical conductivity (EC) of fracture-specific water was measured in chosen fractures. Fractures were selected on the basis of the measured flow from fractures into the drillhole. The drillhole flow (flow along the drillhole) was measured in conjunction with drillhole EC measurements. (orig.)

  17. Exploring hyperpolarized 83Kr by remotely detected NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Stupic, Karl F.; LeNoir, Catherine F.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, a hyperpolarized (hp) noble gas with a nuclear electric quadrupole moment is available for high-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic-resonance imaging. Hp Kr83 (I=9/2) is generated by spin-exchange optical pumping and separated from the rubidium vapor used in the pumping process. Optical pumping occurs under the previously unstudied condition of high krypton gas densities. Signal enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude compared to the thermal equilibrium Kr83 signal at 9.4T magnetic-field strength are obtained. The spin-lattice relaxation of Kr83 is caused primarly by quadrupolar couplings during the brief adsorption periods of the krypton atoms on the surrounding container walls and significantly limits the currently obtained spin polarization. Measurements in macroscopic glass containers and in desiccated canine lung tissue at field strengths between 0.05 and 3T using remotely detected hp Kr83 NMR spectroscopy reveal that the longitudinal relaxation dramatically accelerates as the magnetic-field strength decreases.

  18. Special features of single-particle proton spectra of nickel, zinc, and germanium isotopes in the vicinity of the proton drip line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalova, O. V., E-mail: besp@sinp.msu.ru; Ermakova, T. A.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The single-particle proton spectra of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 50,52}Ni, {sup 56,58,60,62}Zn, and {sup 60,62,64}Ge were calculated on the basis of the dispersive optical model whose parameters were extrapolated from the region of stable isotopes. The resulting parameter values lead to agreement between the total number of protons in bound states and the charge number Z of the respective nucleus. The results of the calculations are indicative of a weakly magic character of the {sup 58}Zn nucleus, which has a traditional magic number of N = 28 and a nearly magic number of Z = 30, and the {sup 64}Ge nucleus, for which N = Z = 32.

  19. Direct observation of an isomeric state in {sup 98}Rb and nuclear properties of exotic rubidium isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T.J.; Garnsworthy, A.B.; Levy, C.D.P.; Pearson, M.R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Behr, J.A.; Dilling, J. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Billowes, J. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Leary, A.; Shelbaya, O.; Al Tamimi, W. [McGill University, Physics Department, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cheal, B. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mane, E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ministry of External Relations, Rio Bianco Institute, Brasilia (Brazil); Stolz, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Voss, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2015-02-01

    Fast-beam collinear laser spectroscopy experiments on rubidium have been performed at the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. Most recently, the neutron-rich {sup 98}Rb isotope has been studied for the investigation of shape coexistence. Two long-lived nuclear states in {sup 98}Rb have been clearly observed for the first time: a low-spin state, assigned a spin of I = 0, and a high-spin state. The high-spin state is tentatively assigned a spin of I = 3 based on this analysis in combination with gamma decay results. The measured nuclear properties of the two states are presented, alongside unpublished values of the neutron-deficient isotopes investigated previously. The mean-square charge radii of both states in {sup 98}Rb are observed to continue along the isodeformation line present after the N = 60 onset of deformation. (orig.)

  20. Z=50 shell gap near $^{100}$Sn from intermediate-energy Coulomb excitations in even-mass $^{106--112}$Sn isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vaman, C; Bazin, D; Becerril, A; Brown, A; Campbell, C M; Chester, A; Cook, J M; Dinca, D C; Gade, A; Galaviz, D; Glasmacher, T; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Horoi, M; Miller, D; Moeller, V; Müller, W F; Schiller, A; Starosta, K; Stolz, A; Terry, J R; Volya, A; Zelevinsky, V; Zwahlen, H

    2006-01-01

    Rare isotope beams of neutron-deficient $^{106,108,110}$Sn nuclei from the fragmentation of $^{124}$Xe were employed in an intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiment yielding $B(E2, 0^+_1 \\to 2^+_1)$ transition strengths. The results indicate that these $B(E2,0^+_1 \\to 2^+_1)$ values are much larger than predicted by current state-of-the-art shell model calculations. This discrepancy can be explained if protons from within the Z = 50 shell are contributing to the structure of low-energy excited states in this region. Such contributions imply a breaking of the doubly-magic $^{100}$Sn core in the light Sn isotopes.

  1. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  2. Teatriuuendaja Dmitri Krõmov toob Eestisse teatrivormis ülevaatenäituse / Dmitri Krõmov ; intervjueerinud Kristiina Garancis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõmov, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline teatrifestival "Talveöö unenägu" toimub Tallinna Linnateatris 2010 a. detsembris 6. korda. Festival toob vaatajateni läbilõike Dmitri Krõmovi lavastustest: "Kaelkirjak", "Katariina uned", "Oopus 7", "Oksjon", "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot"

  3. Spin-isospin transitions in chromium isotopes within the quasiparticle random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Cakmak, Sadiye; Babacan, Tahsin; Maras, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Beta decay and electron capture on isotopes of chromium are advocated to play a key role in the stellar evolution process. In this paper we endeavor to study charge-changing transitions for 24 isotopes of chromium ($^{42-65}$Cr). These include neutron-rich and neutron-deficient isotopes of chromium. Three different models from the QRPA genre, namely the pn-QRPA, the Pyatov method (PM) and the Schematic model (SM), were selected to calculate and study the Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions in chromium isotopes. The SM was employed separately in the particle-particle ($pp$) and $pp$ + particle-hole ($ph$) channels. To study the effect of deformation, the SM was first used assuming the nuclei to be spherical and later to be deformed. The PM was used both in $pp$ and $pp$ + $ph$ channels but only for the case of spherical nuclei. The pn-QRPA calculation was done by considering both $pp$ and $ph$ forces and taking deformation of nucleus into consideration. A recent study proved this version of pn-QRPA to be the best fo...

  4. Shape coexistence in the lightest Tl isotopes studied by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Antalic, S; Darby, I G; Venhart, M; Flanagan, K; Veselsky, M; Blaum, K; Radulov, D P; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Chapman, R; Diriken, J V J; Lane, J; Rosenbusch, M

    This proposal aims at atomic spectroscopy studies of the very neutron-deficient isotopes $^{178-187}$Tl, at and far beyond the region of the neutron mid-shell at N=104, in which shape coexistence phenomena were investigated so far by particle and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy methods only. Our motivation for this proposal is as follows : \\\\\\\\ -These studies will provide direct data on magnetic dipole moment, spin, charge radii and deformations of these isotopes. The results will form a stringent test for our current understanding of the shape coexistence phenomena in the vicinity of the neutron mid-shell at N=104, where the relevant effects are expected to be the strongest (cf.shape staggering in the isotopes $^{181,183,185}$Hg). \\\\-The knowledge of the structure (configuration, spin, deformation) and whether one or two $\\beta$-decaying isomers are present in the parent isotopes $^{178,180,182}$Tl are crucial for understanding of the results of our recent studies of $\\beta$-delayed fission in the lightest thalli...

  5. Summary and frequency of KR presentation effects on retention of a motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidaway, B; Moore, B; Schoenfelder-Zohdi, B

    1991-03-01

    This experiment investigates the recent proposal of Schmidt, Young, Swinnen, and Shapiro (1989) that summary knowledge of results (KR) improves skill retention. In Schmidt et al.'s experiment, however, summary length varied concomitantly with the frequency of KR presentation. The current investigation held KR presentation frequency constant while manipulating the number of trials seen in the summary KR display. Subjects were required to perform a timing task on a linear slide. Five groups (n = 12) of subjects participated in acquisition trials then in 10-min and 2-day delayed no-KR retention tests. In 4 conditions, subjects completed each acquisition block without any KR, but following each block they received KR on either 15, 7, 3, or 1 of the 15 trials performed in that block. In the final condition subjects received immediate KR. Analysis of the absolute constant error (magnitude of CE) data for acquisition revealed all groups improved with practice and the immediate KR group performed better than all the summary groups which in turn did not differ significantly. Analysis of the magnitude of CE retention data found performance to be worse on the 2-day retention test for all groups. The effect of condition was significant. The 1/1 group had lower error scores than all other groups, which in turn were not significantly different. Analyses of variable error (VE) revealed only that VE decreased with practice. These findings suggest frequency of KR presentation may be the basis for the summary KR effect found by Schmidt et al. (1989).

  6. T-Duality for Orientifolds and Twisted KR-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Charles; Méndez-Diez, Stefan; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    D-brane charges in orientifold string theories are classified by the KR-theory of Atiyah. However, this is assuming that all O-planes have the same sign. When there are O-planes of different signs, physics demands a "KR-theory with a sign choice" which up until now has not been studied by mathematicians (with the unique exception of Moutuou, who did not have a specific application in mind). We give a definition of this theory and compute it for orientifold theories compactified on S 1 and T 2. We also explain how and why additional "twisting" is implemented. We show that our results satisfy all possible T-duality relationships for orientifold string theories on elliptic curves, which will be studied further in subsequent work.

  7. Nuclear moments and charge radii of magnesium isotopes from N=8 up to (and beyond) N=20

    CERN Multimedia

    Mattolat, C F; Mallion, S N; Himpe, P

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments of magnesium isotopes from the neutron deficient nuclei near the N=8 shell closure ($^{21}$Mg), up to the neutron rich Mg nuclei beyond N=20 ($^{33}$Mg). The physics issues that will be addressed in this project are related to: \\begin{itemize} \\item The properties of mirror nuclei (e.g. $^{21}$Mg - $^{21}$F being members of a T=3/2 multiplet) \\item The evolution of shell structure and deformation with isospin. \\item Changes in the shell structure in the "island of inversion" around $^{32}$Mg and along the N=9 isotones. \\end{itemize} Radioactive beams of Mg isotopes will be produced by the RILlS ion source. The Mg isotopes will be resonantly polarized at the COLLAPS set-up. With $\\beta$-NMR techniques, precision measurements of g-factors and quadrupole moments of the radioactive $^{21,23}$Mg and $^{29,31,33}$Mg isotopes will be performed. Isotope shifts, thus changes in mean square charge radii, will be deduced from hyperfine spectra mea...

  8. Applications developed for byproduct /sup 85/Kr and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the /sup 85/Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of /sup 85/Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of /sup 85/Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of /sup 85/Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied.

  9. The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Strock, Pierre; Sauli, Fabio; Charpak, Georges

    1987-03-01

    The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + 6% TEA gas mixtures are measured by using a single wire proportional counter as the emission source. Asymmetric emission bands are observed in the range of 270 to 350 nm, which can be attributed to the radiative deexcitation of excited TEA molecules. For the practical application of optical readout of avalanche chambers, the Ar + 2.0% TEA + 20% isobutane gas mixture is also examined, and nearly the same emission band is observed.

  10. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  11. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si) 3, (U, Mo)(Al, Si) 3, UMo 2Al 20, U 6Mo 4Al 43 and UAl 4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 °C to ion doses up to 2.5 × 10 19 ions/m 2 (˜10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10 16 ions/m 2/s (˜4.0 × 10 -3 dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  12. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of $^{72}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P

    Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest $^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$ state in $^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on $^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$ state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o...

  13. Shape coexistence in krypton and selenium light isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions beams; Etude de la coexistence de formes dans les isotopes legers du krypton et du selenium par excitation Coulombienne de faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, E

    2006-06-15

    The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr{sup 78} to oblate in Kr{sup 72} with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se{sup 68} nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)

  14. Accelerator test of an improved Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) prototype with beams of 78Kr and fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McLaughlin, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles in space is basic to our understanding of the Galaxy, the Sun, phenomena in the heliosphere and the emerging field of space weather. For these reasons, cosmic ray instruments are common on both scientific spacecraft and operational spacecraft such as weather satellites. Cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles include ions over the full range of elements found in the Solar System. High-resolution measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition require the angle of incidence of these energetic ions be determined to correct for pathlength variation in detectors within an instrument. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) system is a simple detector configuration used to determine the angle of incidence of heavy ions in space instruments. ADIS replaces complex position sensing detectors (PSDs) with a system of simple, reliable and robust detectors inclined at an angle to the instrument axis. An ADIS instrument thus offers significant advantages in mass, power, telemetry and cost. In February 2008 an improved ADIS prototype was tested with a 150 MeV/u 78Kr beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF). This demonstrated a charge resolution of σ 0.3 e at Kr (Z=36), an exceptional charge resolution for such a simple instrument system.

  15. Short KR-12 analogs designed from human cathelicidin LL-37 possessing both antimicrobial and antiendotoxic activities without mammalian cell toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Binu; Park, Il-Seon; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Shin, Song Yub

    2013-11-01

    KR-12 (residues 18-29 of LL-37) was known to be the smallest peptide of human cathelicidin LL-37 possessing antimicrobial activity. In order to optimize α-helical short antimicrobial peptides having both antimicrobial and antiendotoxic activities without mammalian cell toxicity, we designed and synthesized a series of KR-12 analogs. Highest hydrophobic analogs KR-12-a5 and KR-12-a6 displayed greater inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-α production and higher LPS-binding activity. We have observed that antimicrobial activity is independent of charge, but LPS neutralization requires a balance of hydrophobicity and net positive charge. Among KR-12 analogs, KR-12-a2, KR-12-a3 and KR-12-a4 showed much higher cell specificity for bacteria over erythrocytes and retained antiendotoxic activity, relative to parental LL-37. KR-12-a5 displayed the strongest antiendotoxic activity but almost similar cell specificity as compared with LL-37. Also, these KR-12 analogs (KR-12-a2, KR-12-a3, KR-12-a4 and KR-12-a5) exhibited potent antimicrobial activity (minimal inhibitory concentration: 4 μM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Taken together, these KR-12 analogs have the potential for future development as a novel class of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.

  16. An approach to noble-gas isotopic compositions in natural gases and gas-source tracing in the Ordos Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of noble gases, i.e. He Ar Kr and Xe, are measured in natural gases from the Zhongbu gasfield in the Ordos Basin. And heavy noble-gas isotopes (Kr, Xe) are here first used in geochemically studying natural gases and gas-source correlation. Isotopic compositions of heavy noble gases in natural gases, especially Xe, show two-source mixing in the Zhongbu gasfield. Gas sources are somewhat different in the northeast and the southwest of the gasfield. Generally, the gas source of the Lower Paleozoic makes a greater contribution in the southwest than in the northeast in the field. Two kinds of gases can be differentiated from isotopic compositions of heavy noble gases and from their relation with the Ar isotopic composition, Therefore, the comprehensive study on isotopic compositions of light and heavy noble gases can supply more useful information on gas-source correlation and tracing.

  17. Isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35 AMeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piantelli S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results concerning isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in Z and N distributions are presented. Data refer to 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35AMeV and they were collected with a high resolution FAZIA telescope, able to isotopically resolve ions up to Z ∼ 20. Evidences of isospin diffusion and drift obtained from the /Z behaviour of the detected fragments are discussed. The odd-even staggering both in Z and N is compared with experimental data available in literature, finding that it shows a common trend in different reaction types.

  18. Low energy γ- γ and e{sup −}- γ PAC measurements using APDs and the probe nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M., E-mail: arenz@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Vianden, R., E-mail: vianden@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universität Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In the field of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) are rarely used, despite their favourable properties for fast counting purposes at low energies. This work demonstrates their application in combination with a simple and cheap custom build voltage sensitive preamplifier module. Using the PAC nuclei {sup 83}Rb({sup 83}Kr) and {sup 83m}Kr({sup 83}Kr), the time resolution of the set-up is analysed and the feasibility of precise timing measurements is shown.

  19. Large-scale shell-model calculations on the spectroscopy of $N<126$ Pb isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chong; Fu, G J

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations are carried out in the model space including neutron-hole orbitals $2p_{1/2}$, $1f_{5/2}$, $2p_{3/2}$, $0i_{13/2}$, $1f_{7/2}$ and $0h_{9/2}$ to study the structure and electromagnetic properties of neutron deficient Pb isotopes. An optimized effective interaction is used. Good agreement between full shell-model calculations and experimental data is obtained for the spherical states in isotopes $^{194-206}$Pb. The lighter isotopes are calculated with an importance-truncation approach constructed based on the monopole Hamiltonian. The full shell-model results also agree well with our generalized seniority and nucleon-pair-approximation truncation calculations. The deviations between theory and experiment concerning the excitation energies and electromagnetic properties of low-lying $0^+$ and $2^+$ excited states and isomeric states may provide a constraint on our understanding of nuclear deformation and intruder configuration in this region.

  20. The smallest degree sum that yields potentially Kr,r-graphic sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建华; 李炯生

    2002-01-01

    We consider a variation of a classical Turán-type extremal problem as follows: Determine the smallest even integer σ(Kr,r, n) such that every n-term graphic sequence π = (d1, d2,..., dn) with term sum σ(π) = d1 + d2 +…+ dn ≥σ(Kr,r, n) is potentially Kr,r-graphic, where Kr,r is an r × r complete bipartite graph, i.e. πr has a realization G containing Kr,r as its subgraph. In this paper, the values σ(Kr,r,n) for even r and n ≥ 4r2 - r - 6 and for odd r and n ≥ 4r2 + 3r - 8 are determined.

  1. KR-31831, benzopyran derivative, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis of HUVECs through suppressing KDR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shi-Young; Seo, Eun-Hee; Song, Hyun Seok; Jung, Seung-Youn; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis is important in the development and progression of cancer, therefore the therapeutic approach based on anti-angiogenesis may represent a promising therapeutic option. KR-31831 is a novel anti-ischemic agent. Previously, we reported the anti-angiogenic activity of KR-31831. In the present study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-angiogenic activity of KR-31831. We show that KR-31831 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation and tube formation via release of intracellular Ca2+ and phosphorylation of extra-cellular regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, the expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, known as Flk-1 or KDR) was reduced by the treatment of KR-31831. These results suggest that KR-31831 may have inhibitory effects on tumor angiogenesis through down-regulation of KDR expression.

  2. Spectroscopy and lifetime measurements of states in $^{76}$Kr populated in $^{76}$Rb decay

    CERN Document Server

    Giannatiempo, A; Perego, A; Sona, P; Mach, H; Fogelberg, B; García-Borge, M J; Tengblad, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Aas, A J; Gulda, K; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the excited states of $^{76}$Kr, populated in the decay of $^{76}$Rb produced at ISOLDE isotopic separator, have been investigated by using K-conversion electron, $\\gamma$-ray, and $\\gamma\\gamma$ coincidence measurements. The lifetimes of several levels have been measured by means of the Advanced Time-Delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma (t)$ method. The identification of 19 new levels and 55 transitions and the information deduced on spin and/or parity of the observed states from K-conversion coefficients, log ft values and decay properties have led to an improved knowledge of the level scheme. In particular, six 1$^-$ states have been definitely identified and $J^{\\pi} =2^{-}$ has been assigned to the 2227 keV level, on which a band proposed to have negative-parity and even-spin had been previously observed. The strengths of the $E$0 and $E$2 transitions de-exciting the 0$^{+}_{2}$ and 0$^{+}_{3}$ states (the latter is here identified with the state at 1598 keV) have been measured. The experimental ...

  3. Isospin transport in 84Kr+112,124Sn reactions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Piantelli, S; Olmi, A; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Carboni, S; Maurenzig, P R; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A A; Bougault, R; LeNeindre, N; Lopez, O; Parlog, M; Vient, E; Bonnet, E; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Gruyer, D; Rosato, E; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Borderie, B; Rivet, M F; Bruno, M; Morelli, L; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Alba, R; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D; Kozik, T; Twarog, T

    2013-01-01

    Isospin transport phenomena in dissipative heavy ion collisions have been investigated at Fermi energies with a beam of 84Kr at 35AMeV. A comparison of the /Z of light and medium products forward-emitted in the centre of mass frame when the beam impinges on a n-poor 112Sn and a n-rich 124Sn targets is presented. Data were collected by means of a three-layer telescope with very good performances in terms of mass identification (full isotopic resolution up to Z about 20 for ions punching through the first detector layer) built by the FAZIA Collaboration and located just beyond the grazing angle for both reactions. The /Z of the decay products emitted when the n-rich target is used is always higher than that associated to the n-poor one. Since the detector was able to measure only fragments coming from the QuasiProjectile decay and/or neck emission, the observed behaviour can be ascribed to the isospin diffusion, driven by the isospin gradient between QuasiProjectile and QuasiTarget. Moreover, for light fragment...

  4. Isospin transport in 84Kr+112,124Sn reactions at Fermi energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Bougault, R.; Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F.; Bruno, M.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Kozik, T.; Twarog, T.

    2014-03-01

    Isospin transport phenomena in dissipative heavy ion collisions have been investigated at Fermi energies with a beam of 84Kr at 35AMeV. A comparison of the /Z of light and medium products forward-emitted in the centre of mass frame when the beam impinges on two different targets, the n-poor 112Sn and the n-rich 124Sn, is presented. Data were collected by means of a three-layer telescope with very good performances in terms of mass identification (full isotopic resolution up to Z ~ 20 for ions punching through the first detector layer) built by the FAZIA Collaboration and located just beyond the grazing angle for both reactions. The /Z of the products detected when the n-rich target is used is always higher than that associated to the n-poor one; since the detector was able to measure only fragments coming from the QuasiProjectile decay and/or neck emission, the observed behaviour can be ascribed to the isospin diffusion process, driven by the isospin gradient between QuasiProjectile and QuasiTarget. Moreover, for light fragments the /Z as a function of the lab velocity of the fragment is observed to increase when we move from the QuasiProjectile velocity to the centre of mass (neck zone). This effect can be interpreted as an evidence of isospin drift driven by the density gradient between the QuasiProjectile zone (at normal density) and the more diluted neck zone.

  5. Effect of Calcium Oxide Microstructure on the Diffusion of Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes Ramos, João Pedro; Stora, T

    2012-01-01

    Calcium oxide (CaO) powder targets have been successfully used at CERN-ISOLDE to produce neutron deficient exotic argon and carbon isotopes under proton irradiation at high temperatures (>1000°C). These targets outperform the other related targets for the production of the same beams. However, they presented either slow release rates (yields) from the beginning or a rapid decrease over time. This problem was believed to come from the target microstructure degradation, justifying the material investigation. In order to do so, the synthesis, reactivity in ambient air and sintering kinetics of CaO were studied, through surface area determination by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction for crystalline phase identification and crystallite size determination, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure. The synthesis studies revealed that a nanometric material is obtained from the decarbonation of CaCO3 in vacuum at temperatures higher than 550°C, which is very reactive in air....

  6. Study of the atmospheric 85Kr concentration growth in Gent between 1979 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauwels, P.; Buysse, J.; Poffijn, A.; Eggermont, G.

    2001-06-01

    Since 1979, the atmospheric 85Kr concentration has been monitored at our laboratory. The extensive data set, obtained in this way, has been statistically analysed to examine the degree of atmospheric 85Kr concentration growth over the past decades. The results were compared with those values found in the literature and with calculations of the 85Kr emission from the reprocessing plant of Cap La Hague.

  7. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  8. Kartulisortide pikaaegne säilitamine krüomeetodil / Jaanika Edesi, Viive Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Edesi, Jaanika

    2014-01-01

    Taimmaterjali krüosäilitus on hetkel uusim ja perspektiivikaim säilitusmeetod. Krüosäilituse all mõistetakse bioloogilise materjali säilitamist väga madalal temperatuuril elu- ja taastumisvõimelisena. Krüosäilitus toimub tavaliselt vedelas lämmastikus (-196 °C) või selle gaasilises faasis alla -150 °C kraadi.

  9. High-spin structure of yrast-band in 78Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Joshi; R Palit; H C Jain; S Nagaraj; J A Sheikh

    2001-07-01

    Lifetime of levels up to 22+, have been measured in 78Kr and an oblate shape is assigned to the ground state using the CSM and the configuration dependent shell correction calculations. Calculations further show that 78Kr is highly -soft nucleus. The experimental t values coupled with theoretical calculations indicate an oblate shape for 78Kr at low spins and triaxial shape at higher spins

  10. Theoretical and experimental determination of the lowest excited states of the Kr*2 excimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, F. X.; Spiegelmann, F.; Castex, M. C.; Morlais, M.

    1983-06-01

    The potential energy curves of the Kr*2 excimer dissociating into Kr (4s24p6 1S0)+Kr*(4s24p55s) are determined (i) theoretically from ab initio CI calculation and semiempirical SO coupling and (ii) experimentally from the temperature dependence of absorption profiles. The results are carefully examined with the help of theoretical simulation of line profiles using semiclassical or quantal models.

  11. Fra viden til handling i rehabiliteringsindsatsen i forbindelse med kræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Vibe; Brusgaard, Solvejg;

    Kræftens Bekæmpelse har vedtaget nye strategiske mål frem mod 2020. Det er et af måle-ne, at viden i højere grad skal omsættes til handling og mærkbare forbedringer for kræftpati-enter. Et af delmålene er at fremme effektiv overførsel af forskningsresultater til rehabilitering for kræftpatienter....

  12. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Müller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James,; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr ...

  13. Stratigraphy of the Krš Gradac section (SW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoičić Rajka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Krš Gradac section (near to Sjenica, SW Serbia, a transition of a carbonate platform to basin facies are outcropped: Norian-lower Liassic shallow-water carbonates, middle Liassic-lower Dogger Ammonitico Rosso facies, and upper Bathonian into lowermost Cretaceous deep-water radiolarites in which the carbonate graded bed and mass flow layer are intercalated. The presence of a lower Dogger condensed sequence with the Bajocian protoglobigerinid event was hitherto not evidenced. It is documented that components of a graded bed are of extrabasinal (upper Triassic-lower Tithonian carbonate platform sediments and intrabasinal (radiolarite, meta-andesite origin, indicating a tectonic event not older than the early Tithonian. This tectonic event caused the fracturing of the carbonate platform, also partly basinal area. Consequently, the age of the graded bed is not older than the lower Tithonian. In the uppermost radiolaritic sediments in the Krš Gradac section (?middle-upper Tithonian-lowermost Cretaceous, a mass flow layer appears, which contains clasts of intrabasinal origin - different radiolarites, siliceous radiolarian argillites (some of which are unconsolidated with washed radiolarians and sponge spicules in a ferruginous sediment, sandstone grains, etc. The mass flow event is estimated as Berriasian. In the Krš Gradac radiolarite succession, the authors recognized two deep-water formations, an older one, upper Bathonian-lower Tithonian, between hardground (Dogger and a graded bed, and a younger formation, which started with a graded bed. This formation, according to its stratigraphic position, corresponds to ?middle-upper Tithonian-lowermost Cretaceous.

  14. Isotope pattern deconvolution as rising tool for isotope tracer studies in environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgeher, Johanna; Zitek, Andreas; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    studies is critically discussed, where special emphasis is set on evaluating different data processing strategies on the example of enriched stable Sr isotopes.1 The analytical key parameters such as blank (Kr, Sr and Rb), variation of the natural Sr isotopic composition in the sample, mass bias, interferences (Rb) and total combined uncertainty are considered. A full metrological protocol for data processing using IPD is presented based on data gained during two transgenerational marking studies of fish, where the transfer of a Sr isotope double spike (84Sr and 86Sr) from female spawners of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f.f.)2 to the centre of the otoliths of their offspring was studied by (LA)-MC-ICP-MS. 1J. Irrgeher, A. Zitek, M. Cervicek and T. Prohaska, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2014, 29, 193-200. 2A. Zitek, J. Irrgeher, M. Kletzl, T. Weismann and T. Prohaska, Fish. Manage. Ecol., 2013, 20, 654-361.

  15. Microscopic study of low-lying collectivebands in 77Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K C Tripathy; R Sahu; S Mishra

    2006-02-01

    The structure of the collective bands in 77Kr is investigated within our deformed shell model (DSM) based on Hartree-Fock states. The different levels are classified into collective bands on the basis of their (2) values. The calculated = 5/2+ ground band agrees reasonably well with the experiment. An attempt has been made to study the structure of the 3-quasiparticle band based on large state in this nucleus. The calculated collective bands, the (2), and (1) values are compared with available experimental data. The nature of alignments in the low-lying bands is also analyzed.

  16. Core drilling of boreholes ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3, ONK-KR4 and ONK-PVA1 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted am application for the Decision in Principle (the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki) to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. The investigation programme on the influence of grouting in ground-water chemistry will be started by Posiva. The programme consists of long-term and short-term effects of grouting and the influence of grouting at different distances from the tunnel on groundwater conditions. As a part of this Suomen Malmi oy (Smoy) core drilled four boreholes in ONKALO. The identification numbers of thee boreholes are ONK-KR1, ONK-KR2, ONK-KR3 and ONK-KR4. An additional borehole ONK-PVA1 was core drilled for long-term monitoring purposes in a place where no grouting is planned to be done.The diameter of the borehole sis 75.7 mm A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. The volume of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded as well as the pressure of the drilling water. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 16 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 11 dm{sup 3} in boreholes. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instrument EMS. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fractures are most common type of fractures. The average fracture frequency of the boreholes varies from 0.6 to 3.1 pcs/m. The average RQD

  17. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, Paul [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Naduvalath, Balakrishnan [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Czerwinski, Ken [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  18. Indications of 2ν2K capture in 78Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.

    2013-03-01

    Results from searches of double K capture in 78Kr in an experiment with the large-volume copper proportional counter, using data samples corresponding of two independent series of measurements with different intrinsic radioactivity background are presented. The total exposure of the low-background measurements is 0.343 kg×y. A combination of methods of selection of useful events with a unique set of characteristics and wavelet analysis of events allowed a reduction of the background by ˜2000 times in the energy region of interest. The statistical significance of combined data from two stages of operation equals 2.5σ. Corresponding to such effect, the half-life of 78Kr relative to 2ν2K capture equals T1/2=[9.2-2.6+5.5(stat)±1.3(syst)]×1021 y. Half-life limits for other 2K transitions to the excited states in 78Se are obtained at the level of 1021 y in the first time. In particular, limits on 2ν2K capture to the excited level 01+ (1499 keV) and resonant neutrinoless double K capture to the level 2+ (2838 keV) have been defined on the level of T1/2≥5.4×1021 y at 90% C.L.

  19. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  20. Internal conversion in highly-stripped {sup 83}Kr ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), {lambda}IC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of {lambda}IC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine {lambda}IC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in {sup 57}Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in {sup 83}Kr. A beam of {sup 83}Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane.

  1. Characterization of lead nanoparticles formed by Shewanella sp. KR-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial strain KR-12 was isolated from river sediment in northeast Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that it belongs to the genus Shewanella. The strain can accumulate lead (Pb) and form Pb nanoparticles (PbNPs) on exposure to Pb(NO3)2 and sodium formate in HEPES buffer. On transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KR-12-formed PbNPs were spherical in shape and ranged from 3 to 8 nm. The PbNPs formed a line or curved pattern on bacteria. In addition, one or more pilus-like structures elongated from the bacteria. In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and other bacteria could not form PbNPs pattern or pilus-like structure under the same conditions. High-resolution TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that these PbNPs primarily contained Pb and had an amorphous structure. This is the first report of the biosynthesis of PbNPs by a Shewanella species.

  2. Characterization of lead nanoparticles formed by Shewanella sp. KR-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Yen, Jui-Hung, E-mail: sonny@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry (China)

    2016-01-15

    The bacterial strain KR-12 was isolated from river sediment in northeast Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that it belongs to the genus Shewanella. The strain can accumulate lead (Pb) and form Pb nanoparticles (PbNPs) on exposure to Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and sodium formate in HEPES buffer. On transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the KR-12-formed PbNPs were spherical in shape and ranged from 3 to 8 nm. The PbNPs formed a line or curved pattern on bacteria. In addition, one or more pilus-like structures elongated from the bacteria. In contrast, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and other bacteria could not form PbNPs pattern or pilus-like structure under the same conditions. High-resolution TEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that these PbNPs primarily contained Pb and had an amorphous structure. This is the first report of the biosynthesis of PbNPs by a Shewanella species.

  3. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  4. Ar and Kr concentrations in nitrogen as a measure of the 39Ar and 85Kr activities in connection with the solar neutrino experiment BOREXINO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzel, G; Simgen, H; Heusser, G

    2004-01-01

    Among other radionuclides, 39Ar and 85Kr are potential background sources in the solar neutrino detector BOREXINO. The expected low event rate requires that the nitrogen used in the experiment needs to have lower concentrations than 0.5 microBq/m3 for 39Ar and 0.2 microBq/m3 for 85Kr, corresponding to volume concentrations in N2 of 0.4 x 10(-6)m3/m3 for Ar and 0.2 x 10(-12)m3/m3 for Kr. Applying gas mass spectrometry and special care in the sampling technique we succeeded in finding the required purity. In addition, we studied the possibility to purify nitrogen from Kr by the adsorption method.

  5. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  6. Isotopic Paleoclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, R.

    Paleotemperature scales were calculated by H. C. Urey and others in the 1950s to assess past temperatures, and later work using the stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon employed standards such as Peedee belemnite (PDB) and Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). Subsequently, subjects as diverse as ice volume and paleotemperatures, oceanic ice and sediment cores, Pleistocene/Holocene climatic changes, and isotope chronostratigraphy extending back to the Precambrian were investigated.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis ofKrüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) in the Brown Planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Min-na; XUE Jian; YAO Yun; LIN Xin-da

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is the most serious insect pest of rice. It has developed high resistance to traditional insecticides because of their intensive use. Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs have been used successfully to control this species and other pest insects. However, the molecular mechanism of JH signaling is not well understood.Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a transcription factor involved in the JH pathway. In this study, theKr-h1cDNA was cloned and characterized from N. lugens by rapid ampliifcation of cDNA ends (RACE) and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Its spatial and temporal expression proifles were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, and its function was also studied by RNA interference (RNAi). The open reading frame ofNlKr-h1 is 1833 bp encoding for 611 amino acids. The protein contains eight conserved zinc-ifnger motifs.NlKr-h1 was expressed at all life stages, with the highest mRNA level in the 4-day embryo.NlKr-h1 mRNA levels rose during each nymphal molt after the 2nd instar. In the adults, the mRNA level in males was signiifcantly higher than that in females of either the macropterous or brachypterous type. The highest expression was observed in the female midgut.NlKr-h1 was activated by juvenile hormone III (JH III) in the 3rd-5th instar nymphs. Disruption ofNlkr-h1expression by RNAi caused stunted wing development and malformations of both male and female external genitalia. Our ifndings suggest thatKr-h1may be a useful target for pest insect management.

  8. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüpple-homologue 1 (Kr-h1) are required for ovariole development and egg maturation in the brown plant hopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinda; Yao, Yun; Wang, Bo

    2015-12-14

    The brown plant hopper is one of the most destructive known pests of rice. We studied the roles of the JH receptor Met and the downstream transcription factor Kr-h1 in ovariole development and egg maturation. The predicted Met protein in N. lugens (NlMet) contained 517 amino acids. qRT-PCR showed that NlMet was expressed in all tissues and that the highest expression occurred in the embryonic stage. In NlMet- or NlKr-h1-silenced female adults, ovarian development varied significantly, whereas the numbers of ovarioles were less variable in those injected with dsRNA targeting NlMet, NlKrh-1 or both NlMet and NlKr-h1. In females injected with dsNlKr-h1 or with dsNlMet in combination with dsNlKr-h1 dsRNA, the preoviposition period was prolonged, whereas the females injected with NlMet dsRNA showed no significant changes. Moreover, we found no differences in the length of the preoviposition period between macropterous and brachypterous females. The disruption of Nlmet or NlKr-h1 or the dual knockdown of NlMet and NlKr-h1 significantly reduced the number of eggs laid. Moreover, significant differences were also found between the macropterous and the brachypterous brown plant hoppers. These results indicated that Met and Kr-h1 are required for ovariole development and egg maturation in the brown plant hopper.

  9. KR-62980 suppresses lipid metabolism through inhibition of cytosolic NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hang-Suk; Shin, Sun Hye; Ahn, Sunjoo; Shin, Dae-Seop; Choi, Sun-Sil; Ahn, Jin Hee; Bae, Myung Ae

    2014-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a target of antidiabetic drugs. However, many PPARγ activators, including rosiglitazone, show unwanted side effects, such as weight gain. The KR-62980 [1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-3-phenyl-6-(3-phenylpropoxy)-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester], a novel partial agonist of PPARγ, is a new compound for diabetes with antihyperglycemic activity and weak antiadipogenic activity. This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of the weak adipogenesis induced by KR-62980 despite its being a PPARγ agonist in zebrafish. We elucidated the mechanism of KR-62980 in lipid metabolism using adipocytes and zebrafish. Since NADPH is a critical cofactor in fat metabolism, we investigated effect of KR-62980 on NADPH-producing enzymes such as cytosolic NADP(+) isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH). We found that the mRNA expression of cICDH was significantly decreased by KR-62980 in 3T3-L1 cells. KR-62980 inhibited lipase activity and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Further, KR-62980 substantially suppressed cICDH in adipocytes and zebrafish. These results suggest that cICDH may be one of the targets of KR-62980 responsible for weight gain and adipogenesis.

  10. Anisotropic collision-induced Raman scattering by the Kr:Xe gas mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixneuf, S; Chrysos, M; Rachet, F

    2009-08-21

    We report anisotropic collision-induced Raman scattering intensities by the Kr-Xe atomic pair recorded in a gas mixture of Kr and Xe at room temperature. We compare them to quantum-mechanical calculations on the basis of modern incremental polarizability models of either ab initio post-Hartree-Fock or density functional theory methods.

  11. Evaluering af "Organisering og Samspilsrelationer" Aalborg Kommunes projekt om Kræftrehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh; Byg, Vibeke; Seemann, Janne

    2009-01-01

    Rapporten evaluerer et forsøg på tidlig indsats i kræftrehabilitering og vurderer de organisatoriske og ledelsesmæssige forhold i forsøget som involverer et samarbejde mellem kommune, Aalborg Sygehus og Kræftens Bekæmpelse...

  12. KR-62980: a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist with weak adipogenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Rok; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Seung Jun; Rhee, Sang Dal; Jung, Won Hoon; Yang, Sung-Don; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2006-08-14

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the target for the anti-diabetic drugs including thiazolidinediones. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel PPARgamma agonist KR-62980. KR-62980 acted as a selective PPARgamma agonist in transactivation assay with an EC50 of 15 nM. In fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, KR-62980 induced [3H]-deoxyglucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of insulin. KR-62980 was weakly adipogenic with little induction of aP2 mRNA, and was able to antagonize the adipogenic effects of rosiglitazone in C3H10T1/2 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of KR-62980 revealed that the compound exhibited good oral bioavailability of 65% with a terminal elimination half-life of 2.5 h in the rat. Treatment of high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice with KR-62980 for 14 days reduced plasma glucose levels with little side effects with regard to weight gain, cardiac hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity. These results suggest that KR-62980 acts as a selective PPARgamma modulator with anti-hyperglycemic activity, and that the mechanism of actions of KR-62980 appears to be different from that of rosiglitazone with improved side effect profiles.

  13. Neutron-Capture Kr-80 and Ar-36 in the Martian Atmosphere and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L.; McKay, D. S.; Masarik, J.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate that approximately 10% of martian atmospheric Kr-80 formed by neutron capture on Mars in approx. 0.5 Ga. The regolith contains even larger amounts of n-capture Kr-80 and Ar-36, which may provide clues to the evolution of the martian regolith and atmosphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Paulos Silentiarios' heksametre til genindvielsen af Hagia Sophia i 562 e.Kr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian; Christensen, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Indledning, tekst og metrisk oversættelse af Paulos Silentiarios digt skrevet til Hagia Sophia-katedralens geninvielse i år 562 e.Kr. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009......Indledning, tekst og metrisk oversættelse af Paulos Silentiarios digt skrevet til Hagia Sophia-katedralens geninvielse i år 562 e.Kr. Udgivelsesdato: Maj 2009...

  15. Analytical method of Kr-85 determination, using cryogenic concentration and separation and liquid scintillation counting; Desarrollo del metodo de concentracion y se paracion criogenica cromatografica y medida radiactiva por centelleo liquido de Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.; Grau, A.

    1983-07-01

    The method used in the Laboratory of the JEN for the determination of Kr-85 levels in gaseous effluents of nuclear power and in the atmosphere is described. Samples of air, collected in metallic cylinders, are introduced into a gas-solid chromatographic separation system which resolves Kr from the other air components. The separated Kr ia dissolved in a toluene based scintillation cocktail, and the Kr-85 content is determined by liquid scintillation counting. (Author)

  16. Development and selection of a matrix alloy for /sup 85/Kr encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, R.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Tingey, G.L.; McDonald, E.L.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and demonstrated a pilot-scale process for stable, long-term storage of radioactive /sup 85/Kr gas from spent nuclear fuel. The process entraps the Kr into a solid metal matrix that can be safely stored at ambient pressure. For this matrix numerous alloys were first screened; those that best satisfied the selection criteria were Cu-Y, Ni-Y, and Ni-La. Of these, Cu-Y alloys containing approximately 20 at.% Y were recommended for use in the pilot-scale system. Reasons for this decision, based on the development work described in Section 5, are summarized here. Thick Cu-Y-Kr deposits (greater than or equal to1 mm) exhibit much better thermal and mechanical stability than do those of Ni-La-Kr and are at least as stable as Ni-Y-Kr deposits. Cu-Y-Kr coatings are very compatible with the sputtering process. They adhere well to the substrate, do not spall significantly during deposition, and can be deposited at higher rates than the Ni-base alloys. This faster deposition helps compensate, in terms of process efficiency, for the lower Kr capacity of Cu-Y-Kr alloys. Another advantage of Cu-Y over Ni-base alloys is the higher vapor pressure of Cu compared to Ni. This reduces the unwanted buildup of Cu on the hot anode surface, whereas deposition of Ni is a problem with Ni-Y, for example. Cu-Y-Kr deposits containing 17 to 20 at. % Y and 6 to 8 at. % Kr compared favorably to Ni/sub 80/La/sub 10/Kr/sub 10/ in terms of long-term Kr retention characteristics. The measurements of Cu-Y-Kr by differential scanning calorimetry also indicated stable retention of Kr because rapid release did not occur below approx.650/sup 0/C. Finally, Cu-Y alloys are satisfactory in terms of materials costs and producibility of the sputtering target. 13 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Mass measurement on the rp-process waiting point {sup 72}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S.; Aeystoe, J.; Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay-Campus (France); Blaum, K. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States); Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E. [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Oinonen, M. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Schatz, H. [Michigan State University, NSCL, East Lansing, MI (United States); Michigan State University, Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-09-01

    With the aim of improving nucleosynthesis calculations, we performed for the first time, a direct high-precision mass measurement on the waiting point in the astrophysical rp-process {sup 72}Kr. We used the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m=1.2 x 10{sup -7}. In addition, the masses of {sup 73}Kr and {sup 74}Kr were measured directly with relative mass uncertainties of 1.0 x 10{sup -7} and 3 x 10{sup -8}, respectively. We analyzed the role of {sup 72}Kr in the rp-process during X-ray bursts using the ISOLTRAP and previous mass values of {sup 72-74}Kr. (orig.)

  18. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) Membranes for Kr/Xe Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-01-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that a prototypical type of metal organic framework, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8), in membrane form, can effectively separate Kr/Xe gas mixtures at industrially relevant compositions. The best membranes separated Kr/Xe mixtures with average Kr permeances as high as 1.5 × 10-8 ± 0.2 mol/m2 s Pa and average separation selectivities of 14.2 ± 1.9 for molar feed compositions corresponding to Kr/Xe ratio encountered typically in air. Molecular sieving, competitive adsorption, and differences in diffusivities were identified as the prevailing separation mechanisms. These membranes potentially represent a less-energy-intensive alternative to cryogenic distillation, which is the benchmark technology used to separate this challenging gas mixture. To our best knowledge, this is the first example of any metal organic membrane composition displaying separation ability for Kr/Xe gas mixtures.

  19. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  20. Evaluating the ototoxicity of a anti-MRSA peptide KR-12-a2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Hong Chan; Cho, Yong Beom; Shin, Song Yub; Jang, Chul Ho

    2017-05-31

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging problem for the treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media, and also for pediatric tympanostomy tube otorrhea. To date, there are no effective topical antibiotic drugs to treat MRSA otorrhea. In this study, we evaluated the ototoxicity of topical KR-12-a2 solution on the cochlea when it applied topically in the middle ear of guinea pigs. The antimicrobial activity of KR-12-a2 against MRSA strains was examined by using the inhibition zone test. Topical application of KR-12-a2 solution, Gentamicin (GM) and Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) were applied in the middle ear of the guinea pigs after inserting ventilation tubes. Ototoxicity was assessed by Auditory Brainstem Evoked Response (ABR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) examination. KR-12-a2 produced an inhibition zone against MRSA from 6.25 μg. Hearing threshold in the KR-12-a2 and PBS groups were similar to that before ventilation tube insertion. However, the GM group showed elevation of the hearing threshold and there were statistically significant differences compared to the PBS or the KR-12-a2 group. In the SEM findings, the KR-12-a2 group showed intact outer hair cells. However, the GM group showed total loss of outer hair cells. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. In our experiment, topically applied KR-12-a2 solution did not cause hearing loss or cochlear damage in guinea pigs. The KR-12-a2 solution can be used as ototopical drops for treating MRSA otorrhea; however, further evaluations, such as the definition of optimal concentration and combination, are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of experiments devoted to searches for 2 K capture on 78Kr and for the double-beta decay of 136Xe with the aid of proportional counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Zhantudueva, Dj. A.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuz'minov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Efendiev, K. V.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2013-09-01

    A brief description of two low-background setups deployed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences) and intended for searches for two types of double-beta decay of inert-gas isotopes—2 K capture on 78Kr and the double-beta decay of 136Xe—is given. The two setups in question have similar structures and employ identical large high-pressure copper proportional counters as detectors. Upon a treatment of data from measurements with krypton samples differing in the content of the isotope 78Kr, the spectrum for an enriched sample revealed an excess of events at a statistical-significance level of about two standard deviations (2 σ). If one attributes this excess to 2 K(2 ν) capture on 78Kr, the respective half-life is T 1/2 = 1.4{-0.7/+2.3} × 1022 yr at a 90% C.L. A treatment of data from measurements with xenon samples differing in content of the isotope 136Xe led to the appearance of an excess of events in the spectrum for an enriched sample at a statistical-significance level of about 2.2 σ. If one assumes that this excess is due to the two-neutrino double-beta decay of 136Xe, then the respective half-life is T 1/2 = 5.8{-1.8/+4.7} × 1021 yr.

  2. Characterisation of matrix pore water and fluid inclusions in Olkiluoto bedrock from drilling OL-KR47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, F.; Haemmerli, J.; Waber, H.N.; Diamond, L.W. (Bern Univ., Inst. of Geological Sciences (Switzerland)); Smellie, J.A.T. (Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    Matrix pore water from core samples from drilling OL-KR47 was chemically and isotopically successfully characterised. Matrix pore water that resides in the intragranular and intergranular connected pore space of low permeable crystalline rocks was extracted by indirect laboratory methods applied to naturally saturated core samples. The derivation of the composition of matrix pore water by indirect methods depends on an accurate determination of the connected porosity. Connected porosity values were determined by two independent methods based on the water content of the naturally saturated core samples, i.e. by gravimetric determination of the water content and by diffusive isotope exchange. For the two major lithologies, intercepted by borehole OLKR47, connected porosities vary between 0.26 and 1.37 Vol.% for veined gneiss and between 0.62 and 0.88 Vol.% for pegmatitic granite. Based on a detailed evaluation, it can be inferred that porosity values are representative for in situ conditions within the uncertainty ranges. Variations in connected porosity within the same lithologies along the depth profile are partly attributed to variations in the degree of alteration of the main rock forming minerals. Within this work, solute transport properties of the crystalline rock samples used for pore water investigations were characterised

  3. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S., E-mail: s.raeder@gsi.de [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bastin, B. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Block, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Creemers, P. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); Ferrer, R. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fléchard, X. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Franchoo, S. [Institute de Physique Nucléaire (IPN) d’Orsay, 91406 Orsay, Cedex (France); Ghys, L. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Gaffney, L.P.; Granados, C. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heinke, R. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hijazi, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, 14076 Caen (France); and others

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  4. Characteristics of collectivity along the yrast line in even-even tungsten isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liu, Min-Liang; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    The collective nature of high-spin yrast states in even-even W-190160 isotopes was systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the total Routhian surface approach in (β2,γ ,β4) deformation space. The calculated ground-state deformations are consistent with previous calculations and available experimental data. The deformation energy curves are presented to show the shape and softness evolutions, in particular in the triaxial direction. The backbending or upbending behavior in moment of inertia is attributed to band crossing. It is found that the neutron rotation alignment is preferred for most of the W isotopes (e.g., in W-180164), while in other nuclei the competition between the neutron and proton alignments may occur, even the proton alignment is favored in the very neutron-deficient nucleus 160W. In addition, the evolution and transition between vibrational and rotational collective modes along the yrast line are investigated on the basis of the new centipedelike E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves introduced by us, which to some extent explains the existing differences (e.g., in the moment of inertia) between theory and experiment.

  5. Changes in nuclear structure along the Mn isotopic chain studied via charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, H.; Babcock, C.; Beerwerth, R.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Bonnard, J.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D.; Fritzsche, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Geithner, W.; Geppert, Ch.; Gins, W.; Grob, L. K.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Lenzi, S. M.; Moore, I. D.; Maass, B.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Marsh, B.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Otsuka, T.; Papuga, J.; Rossel, R.; Rothe, S.; Sánchez, R.; Tsunoda, Y.; Wraith, C.; Xie, L.; Yang, X. F.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-11-01

    The hyperfine spectra of 51,53 -64Mn were measured in two experimental runs using collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. Laser spectroscopy was performed on the atomic 3 d54 s25/2 6S →3 d54 s 4 p 3/2 6P and ionic 3 d54 s 5S2→3 d54 p 5P3 transitions, yielding two sets of isotope shifts. The mass and field shift factors for both transitions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework and were combined with a King plot analysis in order to obtain a consistent set of mean-square charge radii which, together with earlier work on neutron-deficient Mn, allow the study of nuclear structure changes from N =25 across N =28 up to N =39 . A clear development of deformation is observed towards N =40 , confirming the conclusions of the nuclear moments studies. From a Monte Carlo shell-model study of the shape in the Mn isotopic chain, it is suggested that the observed development of deformation is not only due to an increase in static prolate deformation but also due to shape fluctuations and triaxiality. The changes in mean-square charge radii are well reproduced using the Duflo-Zuker formula except in the case of large deformation.

  6. Changes in nuclear structure along the Mn isotopic chain studied via charge radii

    CERN Document Server

    Heylen, H; Beerwerth, R; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Bonnard, J; Campbell, P; Cheal, B; Goodacre, T Day; Fedorov, D; Fritzsche, S; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Geithner, W; Geppert, Ch; Gins, W; Grob, L K; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Lenzi, S M; Moore, I D; Maass, B; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S; Marsh, B; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Otsuka, T; Papuga, J; Rossel, R; Rothe, S; Sanchez, R; Tsunoda, Y; Wraith, C; Xie, L; Yang, X F; Yordanov, D T

    2016-01-01

    The hyperfine spectra of $^{51,53-64}$Mn were measured in two experimental runs using collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. Laser spectroscopy was performed on the atomic $3d^5\\ 4s^2\\ ^{6}\\text{S}_{5/2}\\rightarrow 3d^5\\ 4s4p\\ ^{6}\\text{P}_{3/2}$ and ionic $3d^5\\ 4s\\ ^{5}\\text{S}_2 \\rightarrow 3d^5\\ 4p\\ ^{5}\\text{P}_3$ transitions, yielding two sets of isotope shifts. The mass and field shift factors for both transitions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework and were combined with a King plot analysis in order to obtain a consistent set of mean-square charge radii which, together with earlier work on neutron-deficient Mn, allow the study of nuclear structure changes from $N=25$ across $N=28$ up to $N=39$. A clear development of deformation is observed towards $N=40$, confirming the conclusions of the nuclear moments studies. From a Monte Carlo Shell Model study of the shape in the Mn isotopic chain, it is suggested that the observed development of deformation is not only d...

  7. Nuclear moments and deformation changes in the lightest Pt isotopes measured by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Ibrahim, F; Krieg, M; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Putaux, J C; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Lettry, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements are performed with the lightest neutron-deficient platinum isotopes using the experimental setup COMPLIS installed at the ISOLDE-Booster facility. The hyperfine spectra of /sup 182-178/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt are recorded for the first time from the optical transition 5d/sup 9/6s/sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p/sup 3/P/sub 2/. The variation in the mean-square charge radius of these nuclei and the magnetic and quadrupole (for I>or=1) moments of the odd isotope nuclei are found. A large deformation change between the /sup 183g/Pt and /sup 183m/Pt nuclei, quite large inverted odd-even staggering of the charge radius around the neutron midshell N=104, and a nuclear deformation drop in the region A=179 are revealed. All the results are discussed in terms of nuclear shape variation and are compared with the results of Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov calculations involving the Gogny force. Comparison of the deformation measured from /sup 183g, m/Pt to the odd-odd isotone /sup 184g, m/Au shows that...

  8. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  9. Enzyme kinetic study of a new cardioprotective agent, KR-32570 using human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyunmi; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2007-04-01

    KR-32570 (5-(2-Methoxy-5-chlorophenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl)guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-32570 in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of two metabolites, hydroxy-KR-32570 and O-desmethyl-KR-32570. In this study, a kinetic analysis of the metabolism of two metabolites from KR-32570 was performed in human liver microsomes, and recombinant CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. The metabolism for hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation from KR-32570 by human liver microsomes was best described by a Michaelis-Menten equation and a Hill equation, respectively. The Cl(int) values of hydroxy- and O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation were similar to each other (0.03 vs 0.04 microL/min/pmol CYP, respectively). CYP3A4 mediated the formation of hydroxy-KR-32570 from KR-32570 with Cl(int) = 0.24 microL/min/pmol CYP3A4. The intrinsic clearance for O-desmethyl-KR-32570 formation by CYP1A2 was 0.83 AL/min/pmol CYP1A2. These findings suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 enzymes are major enzymes contributing to the metabolism of KR-32570.

  10. New atomic data for Kr XXXV useful in fusion plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Aggarwal; Jagjit Singh; Man Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Energy levels and emission line wavelengths of high-Z materials are useful for impurity diagnostics due to their potential application in the next generation fusion devices.For this purpose,we have calculated the fine structural energies of the 67 levels belonging to the ls2,ls21,ls31,ls41,ls51,and ls61 configurations of Kr XXXV using GRASP (general purpose relativistic atomic structure package) code.Additionally,we have reported the transition probabilities,oscillator strengths,line strengths,and transition wavelengths for some electric dipole (El) transitions among these levels.We predict new energy levels and radiative rates,which have not been reported experimentally or theoretically,forming the basis for future experimental work.

  11. Multiphoton processes in KrF-laser induced gas breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poprawe, R.; Herziger, G.

    1986-05-01

    Ionization by multiphoton processes is the dominant generation mechanism of first electrons in the UV-laser-induced gas breakdown. A strongly simplified analytical model for the ion generation rate is used to give an estimate of the threshold intensity I/sub TH/. The result is compared to descriptions by Keldish and Bebb to check its limits of applicability. Solving the kinetic conservation equations for the focus volume gives an estimation of the breakdown intensity where the Debye criterion has been used in the sense of a plasma definition. As an example, breakdown experiments with a KrF-escimer laser have been carried out at different pressures in an argon atmosphere. The pressure dependency of the breakdown threshold intensity and its order of magnitude are predicted by the model.

  12. String Theory on Elliptic Curve Orientifolds and KR-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Charles; Méndez-Diez, Stefan; Rosenberg, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the brane content and charges in all of the orientifold string theories on space-times of the form , where E is an elliptic curve with holomorphic or anti-holomorphic involution. Many of these theories involve "twistings" coming from the B-field and/or sign choices on the orientifold planes. A description of these theories from the point of view of algebraic geometry, using the Legendre normal form, naturally divides them into three groupings. The physical theories within each grouping are related to one another via sequences of T-dualities. Our approach agrees with both previous topological calculations of twisted KR-theory and known physics arguments, and explains how the twistings originate from both a mathematical and a physical perspective.

  13. Hydraulic conductivity measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, drillholes OL-KR52 and OL-KR47 in 2013 and 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurmerinta, E. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2014-09-15

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out with the HTU-equipment in drillholes OL KR52 and OL KR47 on the Olkiluoto investigation site. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. In OL-KR52 measurements were carried out between February 2013 and April 2013 and in OL-KR47 between October 2013 and February 2014. The total length of the drillhole OL-KR52 is 427.35 m, 376.00 m of which was covered by 188 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the measurement plan. Respectively, OL-KR47 is 1008.76 m long and 312 similar tests were conducted in it covering 624.00 m of the drillhole. These numbers include one equipment test measurement near the surface in OL-KR47. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the test stage times were extended if longer times were needed to obtain correct results or when suited to the working schedule. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Poeyry Finland Oy in co-operation with Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  14. Isospin transport in 84Kr+112,124Sn reactions at Fermi energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piantelli S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Isospin transport phenomena in dissipative heavy ion collisions have been investigated at Fermi energies with a beam of 84Kr at 35AMeV. A comparison of the 〈N〉/Z of light and medium products forward-emitted in the centre of mass frame when the beam impinges on two different targets, the n-poor 112Sn and the n-rich 124Sn, is presented. Data were collected by means of a three-layer telescope with very good performances in terms of mass identification (full isotopic resolution up to Z ~ 20 for ions punching through the first detector layer built by the FAZIA Collaboration and located just beyond the grazing angle for both reactions. The 〈N〉/Z of the products detected when the n-rich target is used is always higher than that associated to the n-poor one; since the detector was able to measure only fragments coming from the QuasiProjectile decay and/or neck emission, the observed behaviour can be ascribed to the isospin diffusion process, driven by the isospin gradient between QuasiProjectile and QuasiTarget. Moreover, for light fragments the 〈N〉/Z as a function of the lab velocity of the fragment is observed to increase when we move from the QuasiProjectile velocity to the centre of mass (neck zone. This effect can be interpreted as an evidence of isospin drift driven by the density gradient between the QuasiProjectile zone (at normal density and the more diluted neck zone.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of KR-31378 via KATP channel opening against ischemic insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ran; Lim, Jong-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Yeon; Park, Ji-Ho; Sohn, Nak-Won

    2004-08-01

    The opening of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for ischemia. Here we examined the opening effect of KR-31378 on the KATP channel using patch clamp recording in neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells and investigated the neuroprotective effect of KR-31378 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation. The treatment with KR-31378 (10 microM) to N2a cells seemed to induce KATP channel opening in a dose dependent manner. The opening effect of KR-31378 was more significant than that of other known KATP channel openers. Pretreatment with KR-31378 (10 microM) showed a neuroprotective effect in both CA1 and CA3 regions and its effect was attenuated by glibenclamide in a dose dependent manner in both areas. This remarkable neuroprotective effect of KR-31378 seemed to be mediated by the opening of the KATP channel. These results suggest that KR-31378 could be a possible neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia.

  16. Behavior of fission gases in nuclear fuel: XAS characterization of Kr in UO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. M.; Vathonne, E.; Carlot, G.; Delorme, R.; Sabathier, C.; Freyss, M.; Garcia, P.; Bertolus, M.; Glatzel, P.; Proux, O.

    2015-11-01

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) was used to study the behavior of krypton as a function of its concentration in UO2 samples implanted with Kr ions. For a 0.5 at.% krypton local concentration, by combining XAS results and DFT + U calculations, we show that without any thermal treatment Kr atoms are mainly incorporated in the UO2 lattice as single atoms inside a neutral bound Schottky defect with O vacancies aligned along the (100) direction (BSD1). A thermal treatment at 1273 K induces the precipitation of dense Kr nano-aggregates, most probably solid at room temperature. In addition, 26 ± 2% of the Kr atoms remain inside BSD1 showing that Kr-BSD1 complex is stable up to this temperature. Consequently, the (in-)solubility of krypton in UO2 has to be re-evaluated. For high Kr concentration (8 at.%), XAS signals show that Kr atoms have precipitated in nanometer-sized aggregates with internal densities ranging between 4.15(7) g cm-3 and 3.98(5) g cm-3 even after annealing at 873 K. By neglecting the effect due to the UO2 matrix, the corresponding krypton pressures at 300 K were equal to 2.6(3) GPa and 2.0(2) GPa, respectively. After annealing at 1673 K, regardless of the initial Kr concentration, a bi-modal distribution is observed with solid nano-aggregates even at room temperature and larger cavities only partially filled with Kr. These results are very close to those observed in UO2 fuel irradiated in reactor. In this study we show that a rare gas can be used as a probe to investigate the defect creation and their stability in UO2.

  17. Enhanced KR-Fundamental Measure Functional for Inhomogeneous Binary and Ternary Hard Sphere Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced KR-fundarnentai measure functional (FMF) is elaborated and employed to investigate binary and ternary hard sphere fluids near a planar hard wall or confined within two planar hard wails separated by certain interval.The present enhanced KR-FMF incorporates respectively, for aim of comparison, a recent 3rd-order expansion equation of state (EOS) and a Boublik's extension of Kolafa's EOS for HS mixtures.It is indicated that the two versions of the EOS lead to, in the framework of the enhanced KR-FMF, similar density profiles, but the 3rd-order EOS is more consistent with an exact scaled particle theory (SPT) relation than the BK EOS.Extensive comparison between the enhanced KR-FMF-3rd-order EOS predictions and corresponding density profiles produced in different periods indicates the excellent performance of the present enhanced KR-FMF-3rd-order EOS in comparison with other available density functional approximations (DFAs).There are two anomalous situations from whose density profiles all DFAs studied deviate significantly; however, subsequent new computer simulation results for state conditions similar to the two anomalous situations are in very excellent agreement with the present enhanced KR-FMF-3rd-order EOS.The present paper indicates that (i) the validity of the “naive” substitution elaborated in the present paper and peculiar to the original KR-FMF is still in operation even if inhomogeneous mixtures are being dealt with; (ii) the high accuracy and seff-consistency of the third order EOS seem to allow for application of the KR-FMF-third order EOS to more severe state conditions; and (iii) the “naive” substitution enables very easy the combination of the original KR-FMF with future's more accurate but potentially more complicated EOS of hard sphere mixtures.

  18. Novel synthetic protective compound, KR-22335, against cisplatin-induced auditory cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Song, Suk Jin; Kang, Sungun; Hwang, Hye Sook; Jung, Young-Sik; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-02-01

    Cisplatin [cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (II)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, and one of its most severe side effects is ototoxicity. In the course of developing a new protective agent against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, we have been interested in a novel synthetic compound, 3-Amino-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-quinoline-2,4-dione (KR-22335). We evaluated the effectiveness of KR-22335 as an otoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced toxicity. The otoprotective effect of KR-22335 against cisplatin was tested in vitro in cochlear organs of Corti-derived cell lines, HEI-OC1, and in vivo in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were demonstrated in HEI-OC1 cells. KR-22335 inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial injury in HEI-OC1 cells. KR-22335 inhibited cisplatin-induced activation of JNK, p-38, caspase-3 and PARP in HEI-OC1 cells. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs showed that KR-22335 prevented cisplatin-induced destruction of kinocilium and stereocilia in zebrafish neuromasts. Tissue TUNEL of neuromasts in zebrafish demonstrated that KR-22335 blocked cisplatin-induced TUNEL positive hair cells in neuromasts. The results of this study suggest that KR-22335 may prevent ototoxicity caused by the administration of cisplatin through the inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction and suppression of ROS generation. KR-22335 may be considered as a potential candidate for protective agents against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  19. Alpha-decay studies of the new isotopes sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 At and sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 At

    CERN Document Server

    Kettunen, H; Grahn, T; Greenlees, P T; Jones, P; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Keenan, A; Kuusiniemi, P; Leino, M; Leppaenen, A P; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Uusitalo, J

    2003-01-01

    Detailed alpha-decay studies have been performed for the neutron-deficient isotopes sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 At and sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 At. The nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions of sup 5 sup 4 Fe and sup 5 sup 6 Fe ions with a sup 1 sup 4 sup 1 Pr target. The fusion products were separated in-flight using a gas-filled recoil separator and implanted into a position-sensitive silicon detector. The isotopes were identified using position, time and energy correlations between the implants and subsequent alpha-decays. Three alpha-decaying states were identified for sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 At and two for sup 1 sup 9 sup 1 At. The spin and parity of the initial states in the astatine isotopes were deduced based on unhindered alpha-decays to states in the bismuth daughter nuclei. In both astatine isotopes the 1/2 sup + intruder state was determined to be the ground state and a 7/2 sup - state to be the first-excited state. In sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 At the alpha-decay of the 13/2 sup + state was observed in coincidence...

  20. Ab initio ground and excited state potential energy surfaces for NO-Kr complex and dynamics of Kr solids with NO impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Palacios, Juan Carlos; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesús; Ishii, Keisaku; Yamashita, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    The intermolecular potentials for the NO(X 2Pi)-Kr and NO(A 2Sigma+)-Kr systems have been calculated using highly accurate ab initio calculations. The spin-restricted coupled cluster method for the ground 1 2A' state [NO(X 2Pi)-Kr] and the multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction method for the excited 2 2A' state [NO(A 2Sigma+)-Kr], respectively, were used. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) show two linear wells and one that is almost in the perpendicular position. An analytical representation of the PESs has been constructed for the triatomic systems and used to carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the NO-doped krypton matrix response after excitation of NO. MD results are shown comparatively for three sets of potentials: (1) anisotropic ab initio potentials [NO molecule direction fixed during the dynamics and considered as a point (its center of mass)], (2) isotropic ab initio potentials (isotropic part in a Legendre polynomial expansion of the PESs), and (3) fitted Kr-NO potentials to the spectroscopic data. An important finding of this work is that the anisotropic and isotropic ab initio potentials calculated for the Kr-NO triatomic system are not suitable for describing the dynamics of structural relaxation upon Rydberg excitation of a NO impurity in the crystal. However, the isotropic ab initio potential in the ground state almost overlaps the published experimental potential, being almost independent of the angle asymmetry. This fact is also manifested in the radial distribution function around NO. However, in the case of the excited state the isotropic ab initio potential differs from the fitted potentials, which indicates that the Kr-NO interaction in the matrix is quite different because of the presence of the surrounding Kr atoms acting on the NO molecule. MD simulations for isotropic potentials reasonably reproduce the experimental observables for the femtosecond response and the bubble size but do not match

  1. Excited state dynamics of Kr N clusters probed with time- and energy-resolved photoluminescence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnbach, R.; Castex, M. C.; Keto, J. W.; Joppien, M.; Wörmer, J.; Zimmerer, G.; Möller, T.

    1993-02-01

    Excitation and decay processes in Kr N clusters ( N=2-10 4) were investigated via time- and energy-resolved fluorescence methods with synchrotron radiation excitation. In small clusters ( N<50) in addition to the well-known emission bands of condensed Kr another broad continuous emission is observed. It is assigned to a radiative decay of Kr excimers desorbing from the cluster surface. There are indications that the cluster size where the desorption rate becomes slow is related to a change in sign of the electron affinity of the cluster. Changes of spectral distribution of the fluorescence light with cluster size are interpreted as variations of the vibrational energy flow.

  2. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  3. Low temperature anomaly of heat capacity of CD4 rotors in solid CD4-Kr solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bagatskii, M.I.; Dudkin, V. V.; Manzhelii, V. G.; Mashchenko, D. A.; Feodosiev, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    The heat capacity of the solid Kr-CD4 (13% CD4) solution has been investigated. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the heat capacity Crot of the rotational subsystem in this solution is radically different from the corresponding dependences in the previously studied Kr-CD4 (1%, 5% CD4) and Kr-CH4 (5-60%) solutions. A model is proposed to explain the observed dependence Crot(T). The experimental results can be described taking into account the contribution to the heat capacity from...

  4. 有一个实现包含Kr+1的可图序列%Graphic Sequences that Have a Realization Containing an Kr+1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建华

    2009-01-01

    Kr+1是一个r+1个顶点的完全图.一个可图序列π=(d1,d2,…,dn)称为是蕴含Kr+1-可图的,如果π有一个实现包含Kr+1作为子图.该文进一步研究了蕴含Kr+1-可图序列的一些新的条件,证明了这些条件包含文献[14,10,11]中的一些主要结果和当n≥5r/2+1时,σ(Kr+1,n)之值(此值在文献[2]中被猜测,在文献[6,7,8,3]中被证实).此外,确定了所有满足n≥5,d5≥4且不蕴含K5-可图序列π=(d1,d2,…,dn)的集合.

  5. CORRELATION EFFECTS AND STRUCTURES FOR WEAKLY BOUND MOLECULE Kr-HF%弱结合分子Kr-HF结构与相关效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋刚; 谢洪平; 谭明亮; 朱正和

    2000-01-01

    采用二阶、三阶Moller-Plesset微扰理论方法(MP2,MP3),组态相互作用方法(QCISD)在不同的基组下对弱结合分子体系Kr-HF进行了ab initio计算,得到了Kr-HF体系的两个不同的线型平衡几何结构:Kr-HF和Kr-FH.对于Kr-HF分子,在MP2/6-311++G**水平上得到Kr与HF分子中心的间距为0.37787nm,离解能为6.1480eV,谐振频率分别为ν1(σ)=4187.9638cm-1,ν2(π)=162.2953cm-1,ν3(σ)=41.8689cm-1.并计算得到了这两个分子构型的热力学常量和谐性力常量.进一步考察了不同基组和方法对弱结合分子的影响.

  6. Surface Tension of Mixtures of Molecular Fluids: Comparison between the Experimental and Theoretical Study of CH4 + Kr, Kr + NO, and CH4 + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado; Mendonca; Saramago; Soares

    1997-01-01

    We report a study of the surface tension of three binary liquid mixtures of molecular fluids. A microscopic mean field theory (MFT) has been used to calculate the theoretical results enabling the comparison with the experimental data. The mean field theory has been successfully used in the prediction of the surface properties of simple systems composed by quasi-spherical molecules. In the present study the MFT was able to reproduce the essential features of the interfacial properties of the systems CH4 + Kr, Kr + NO and CH4 + NO. The pure components were modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials with a set of intermolecular parameters taken from the literature for Kr and calculated from the fitting of the energy parameters (epsilon) to the surface tension, for CH4 and NO. In the case of the mixtures, it was found that reasonable agreement with experiment can only be obtained by allowing deviations from the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. For the CH4 + Kr system we used the binary energy parameter xi obtained through a fitting to the bulk properties; for the Kr + NO and CH4 + NO systems the binary parameter was adjusted to the interfacial properties.

  7. Surface tension of mixtures of molecular fluids: Comparison between the experimental and theoretical study of CH{sub 4} + Kr, Kr + NO, and CH{sub 4} + NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calado, J.C.G.; Saramago, B.J.V. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Quimica Estrutural; Santos Mendonca, A.F.S. dos; Soares, V.A.M. [Univ. de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a study of the surface tension of three binary liquid mixtures of molecular fluids. A microscopic mean field theory (MFT) has been used to calculate the theoretical results enabling the comparison with the experimental data. The mean field theory has been successfully used in the prediction of the surface properties of simple systems composed by quasi-spherical molecules. In the present study the MFT was able to reproduce the essential features of the interfacial properties of the systems CH{sub 4} + Kr, Kr + NO and CH{sub 4} + NO. The pure components were modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials with a set of intermolecular parameters taken from the literature for Kr and calculated from the fitting of the energy parameters to the surface tension, for CH{sub 4} and NO. In the case of the mixtures, it was found that reasonable agreement with experiment can only be obtained by allowing deviations from the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules. For the CH{sub 4} + Kr system the authors used the binary energy parameter {xi} obtained through a fitting to the bulk properties; for the Kr + NO and CH{sub 4} + NO systems the binary parameter was adjusted to the interfacial properties.

  8. Dissecting the role of Kr-h1 brain gene expression in foraging behavior in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussnecker, B; Grozinger, C

    2008-09-01

    Expression of Krüppel homolog-1 (Kr-h1) in the honey bee brain is strongly associated with foraging behavior. We performed a series of studies to determine if Kr-h1 expression correlates with specific aspects of foraging. We found that Kr-h1 expression is unaffected by flight experience in male bees. Expression was unaffected by behavioral reversion of workers from foraging to brood care, suggesting that expression is not associated with the active performance of foraging, but rather with stable physiological changes. Kr-h1 expression is increased by cGMP treatment in workers, and the Kr-h1 promoter contains a conserved potential cGMP response element. Since cGMP treatment causes precocious foraging, our results suggest that Kr-h1 expression is associated with cGMP-mediated changes in the brain that occur early in the transition to foraging behavior.

  9. Analysis of Selected Legacy 85Kr Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Legacy samples composed of 85Kr encapsulated in solid zeolite 5A material and five small metal tubes containing a mixture of the zeolite combined with a glass matrix resulting from hot isostatic pressing have been preserved. The samples were a result of krypton R&D encapsulation efforts in the late 1970s performed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These samples were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in mid-FY 2014. Upon receipt the outer shipping package was opened, and the inner package, removed and placed in a radiological hood. The individual capsules were double bagged as they were removed from the inner shipping pig and placed into individual glass sample bottles for further analysis. The five capsules were then x-ray imaged. Capsules 1 and 4 appear intact and to contain an amorphous mass within the capsules. Capsule 2 clearly shows the saw marks on the capsule and a quantity of loose pellet or bead-like material remaining in the capsule. Capsule 3 shows similar bead-like material within the intact capsule. Capsule 5 had been opened at an undetermined time in the past. The end of this capsule appears to have been cut off, and there are additional saw marks on the side of the capsule. X-ray tomography allowed the capsules to be viewed along the three axes. Of most interest was determining whether there was any residual material in the closed end of Capsule 5. The images confirmed the presence of residual material within this capsule. The material appears to be compacted but still retains some of the bead-like morphology. Based on the nondestructive analysis (NDA) results, a proposed path forward was formulated to advance this effort toward the original goals of understanding the effects of extended storage on the waste form and package. Based on the initial NDA and the fact that there are at least two breached samples, it was proposed that exploratory tests be conducted with the breached specimens before opening the three intact

  10. August Krüger ja linnakapell Tallinna muusikaelus 19. sajandi teisel poolel / Triin Vallaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallaste, Triin, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Tallinna 19. sajandi teise poole muusikaelu jaoks olulise inimese A. Fr. Krügeri elust ja muusikalisest tegevusest, samuti institutsioonidest, mille heaks ta töötas, ja teda ümbritsenud keskkonnast

  11. Test program on the release characteristics of Kr-85 from remote fuel fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Kim, S. S. [and others

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the release kinetics of Kr-85 fission gas during DUPIC fuel fabrication process using spent fuel materials, the test equipment and its procedure was developed. The purpose of this test involves the measurement of Kr-85 released during OREOX process in DUPIC fuel fabrication as well as the analysis of fission- gas release kinetics with the variation of fuel fabrication conditions. Gas monitoring system installed inside glove box was located at out-cell of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Fabrication Facility) at which OREOX and tube furnaces have already installed inside hot cell. The use of glove box is aimed for preventing a gas release from sampling gas line under negative pressure. Based on the allowable discharge concentration of Kr-85 to environment and the preliminary analysis assuming total released amount a year, environmental impact according to Kr-85 measuring test would be minimal.

  12. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J

    2005-01-01

    was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed...... visual defect score (r=0.80, ptest and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...... was one-third less than that on 81mKr SPECT), but the difference was reduced after normalisation for different breathing depths (HP 3He MRI at total lung capacity; 81mKr SPECT at tidal breathing at functional residual capacity). CONCLUSION: HP 3He MRI provides detailed ventilation distribution images...

  13. Calculation of scanning tunnelling microscopy images for Kr/graphite system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓林; 陈向荣; 杨向东; 芶清泉

    2003-01-01

    The scanning-tunnelling-microscopy(STM)images of Kr atoms adsorbed on a monolayer graphite sheet(Kr/graphite system)are calculated using the first-principle total-energy electronic structure calculations within the density functional theory in the local density approximation.The results obtained agree well with the observations.It is found that the optimal site of the adsorbed Kr atom is at the top of the centre of the carbon hexagon,and its equilibrium distance from monolayer graphite surface is about 0.335nm.It is shown that the hybridization of C 2p electronic states(π-electronic states)and Kr 4p and 5s electronic states is the main origin of the Fermi-level local density of state.

  14. Enhanced KR-Fundamental Measure Functional for Inhomogeneous Binary and Ternary Hard Sphere Mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Shi-Qi (世琦 周)

    2011-01-01

    An enhanced KR-fundamental measure functional (FMF) is elaborated and employed to investigate binary and ternary hard sphere fluids near a planar hard wall or confined within two planar hard walls separated by certain interval...

  15. Noor koreograaf Krõõt Juurak sai imel sabast kinni / Tiiu Laks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laks, Tiiu, 1984-

    2006-01-01

    Tantsulavastusest "Once upon" Kanuti Gildi saalis. Esietendus 12. okt. Idee ja esitus Krõõt Juurak. Valminud prooviperioodide tulemusel Viinis, PAFis Prantsusmaal ja Tallinnas. Etendub 6. dets. ka Austrias Dietheater Küntslerhausis Viinis

  16. Abundances of s-process elements in planetary nebulae: Br, Kr & Xe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Pellegrini, E; Cavagnolo, K; Baldwin, J A; Sharpee, B; Phillips, M; Liu, X W

    2006-01-01

    We identify emission lines of post-iron peak elements in very high signal-to-noise spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae. Analysis of lines from ions of Kr and Xe reveals enhancements in most of the PNe, in agreement with the theories of s-process in AGB star. Surprisingly, we did not detect lines from Br even though s-process calculations indicate that it should be produced with Kr at detectable levels.

  17. Alignment of Kr/sup 35+/ np states in high velocity charge transfer collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohrer, K.; Ben Salah, F.; Rozet, J.P.; Chetioui, A.; Touati, A.; Bouisset, P.; Vernhet, D.; Stephan, C.; Gayet, R.

    1987-07-01

    Experimental alignments of some Kr/sup 35+/ np states (n less than or equal to 4) populated by electron capture in 3 GeV Kr/sup 36+/ ion-atom collisions are presented. A full comparison with theoretical CDW calculations is performed, which provides a further test of the applicability of this theory at the low side of the high energy range (upsilon/sub p//upsilon/sub i/, upsilon/sub f/ approx. = 2 to 4).

  18. Photo-dissociation of dimethylamine by KrBr* excilamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiuyi; Ye, Zhaolian; Zhao, Jie; Lister, Graeme; Zhang, Shanduan

    2013-10-01

    A study of dimethylamine photo-dissociation in the gas phase has been conducted using UV radiation delivered from a KrBr(*) excilamp, driven by a sinusoidal electronic control gear with maximum emission at wavelength of 207 nm. The electrical input power and radiant power of the lamp were measured to determine their effects on the degradation. The influence of flow velocity and initial concentration of dimethylamine were also examined. In order to evaluate the photo-dissociation process comprehensively, several parameters were investigated, including removal efficiency, energy yield, carbon balance and CO₂ selectivity. It is shown that the removal efficiency increases with enhanced input power and decreased gas flow rate. A high removal efficiency of 68% is achieved for lamp power 102W and flow velocity 15 m(3) h(-1). The optimum dimethylamine initial concentration is around 3520 mg m(-3), for which the energy yield reaches up to 442 gk Wh(-1) when the input power is 65W. In addition, two chain compounds (1,3-bis-dimethylamino-2-propanol; 3-penten-2-one, 4-amino) and three ring organic matters (1-azetidinecarboxaldehyde, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl; N-m-tolyl-succinamic acid; p-acetoacetanisidide), were identified by GC-MS as secondary products, in order to demonstrate the pathways of the dimethylamine degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deformation driving intruder orbitals in {sup 77}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvan, G.N.; Doering, J.; Johns, G.D.; Tabor, S.L. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Gross, C.J. [ORISE, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)]|[Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Baktash, C.; Jin, H.; Stracener, D.W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hua, P.F.; Korolija, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Sarantites, D.G. [Chemistry Department, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Cristancho, F.; Landulfo, E.; Saladin, J.X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Cederwall, B.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rathbun, W. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vander Molen, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-spin states in {sup 77}Kr were identified via analysis of prompt {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences in the {sup 58}Ni({sup 29}Si,2{alpha}2p) reaction at 128 MeV at the Gammasphere facility. Evaporation channel selection was achieved using the 95 element Microball charged-particle detector. 27 new states and 42 new transitions were found. The positive-parity bands were confirmed and the {alpha}={minus}(1)/(2) band extended to (39)/(2){sup +}. The negative-parity signature pair was extended to (31)/(2){sup {minus}} and (37)/(2){sup {minus}}. Two new high-lying negative-parity bands were found extending from a state of spin I=(15)/(2) and energy 2.6 MeV to 17.4 MeV at I=((55)/(2)). The new bands appear highly deformed and become yrast at high spin. A three-quasiparticle structure based on deformation driving, low-K unique-parity and intruder orbitals is suggested for them. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Discharge-current characteristics in UV-preionized Kr/He, F2/He gas-mixtures and KrF excimer laser gas. Shigaisen yobi denri Kr/He, F2/He kongo kitai hoden oyobi KrF laser reiki hoden no denryu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Kawakami, H.; Yukimura, K. (Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan))

    1992-08-15

    In order to study effects of Kr and F2 on discharge characteristics of KrF excimer laser gas, gap phenomena in Kr/He and F2/He gas-mixtures were observed and discharge current (I[sub d]) was measured. In the range where Kr concentration was over 10% in Kr/He gas, in which production of filamentation as well as glow discharge started, discontinuous change in I[sub d] in the second or third half cycle was observed. According to the results of experiments and model analyses, it was considered that the discontinuity of the current showed the transition point to filamentation. When F2 concentration was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3% in F2/He mixture gas, filamentation and arc with glow were observed. Sine-waveform I[sub d] ended in the first half cycle, and began to flow again after cessation or had almost constant current due to arc and others. When F2 was over 0.4%, only are discharge was observed. It was thus found that F2 has a large effect on discharge characteristics of KrF laser gas. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Calibration of liquid argon and neon detectors with $^{83}Kr^m$

    CERN Document Server

    Lippincott, W H; Gastler, D; Kastens, L W; Kearns, E; McKinsey, D N; Nikkel, J A

    2009-01-01

    We report results from tests of $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$, as a calibration source in liquid argon and liquid neon. $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ atoms are produced in the decay of $^{83}$Rb, and a clear $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ scintillation peak at 41.5 keV appears in both liquids when filling our detector through a piece of zeolite coated with $^{83}$Rb. Based on this scintillation peak, we observe 6.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid argon with a resolution of 6% ($\\sigma$/E) and 3.0 photoelectrons/keV in liquid neon with a resolution of 19% ($\\sigma$/E). The observed peak intensity subsequently decays with the $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ half-life after stopping the fill, and we find evidence that the spatial location of $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ atoms in the chamber can be resolved. $^{83}$Kr$^{\\mathrm{m}}$ will be a useful calibration source for liquid argon and neon dark matter and solar neutrino detectors.

  2. Absorption spectra of e-beam-excited Ne, Ar, and Kr, pure and in binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, A O; Ustinovskii, N N; Zvorykin, V D

    2010-10-21

    A technique using the broadband emission of a laser plume as probe radiation is applied to record UV-visible (190-510 nm) absorption spectra of Ne, Ar, and Kr, pure and in binary mixtures under moderate e-beam excitation up to 1 MW/cm(3). In all the rare gases and mixtures, the absorption spectra show continuum related to Rg(2) (+) homonuclear ions [peaking at λ∼285, 295, and 320 nm in Ne, Ar, and Kr(Ar/Kr), respectively] and a number of atomic lines related mainly to Rg(∗)(ms) levels, where m is the lowest principal quantum number of the valence electron. In argon, a continuum related to Ar(2) (∗) (λ∼325 nm) is also recorded. There are also trains of narrow bands corresponding to Rg(2) (∗)(npπ (3)Π(g))←Rg(2) (∗)(msσ (3)Σ(u) (+)) transitions. All the spectral features mentioned above were reported in literature but have never been observed simultaneously. Although charge transfer to a homonuclear ion of the heavier additive is commonly believed to dominate in binary rare-gas mixtures, it is found in this study that in Ne/Kr mixture, the charge is finally transferred from the buffer gas Ne(2) (+) ion not to Kr(2) (+) but to heteronuclear NeKr(+) ion.

  3. (83)Kr nuclear magnetic moment in terms of that of (3)He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makulski, Włodzimierz

    2014-08-01

    High resolution NMR spectroscopy was applied to precisely determine the (83)Kr nuclear magnetic dipole moment on the basis of new results available for nuclear magnetic shielding in krypton and helium-3 atoms. Small amounts of (3)He as the solutes and (83)Kr as the buffer gas were observed in (3)He and (83)Kr NMR spectra at the constant external field, B0 = 11.7578 T. In each case, the resonance frequencies (ν(He) and ν(Kr)) were linearly dependent on the density of gaseous solvent. The extrapolation of experimental points to the zero density of gaseous krypton allowed for the evaluation of both resonance frequencies free from intermolecular interactions. By combining these measurements with the recommended (83)Kr chemical shielding value, the nuclear magnetic moment could be determined with much better precision than ever before, μ((83)Kr) = -0.9707297(32)μN, with the improvement due to the greater accuracy of the spectral data.

  4. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new cardioprotective agent KR-33028.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Yoon, Yune-Jung; Kim, Hyunmi; Kang, Suil; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Shin, Jae-Gook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2006-10-10

    KR-33028 (N-[4-cyano-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbonyl]guanidine) is a new cardioprotective agent for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study was performed to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of KR-33028. Hydroxylation (5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028) is major pathways for the metabolism of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Among the nine c-DNA expressed CYP isoforms tested, KR-33028 was 5-hydroxylated by CYP3A4 and 7-hydroxylated by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19. These findings were supported by the combination of chemical inhibition studies in human liver microsomes and correlation analysis. Furafylline and ketoconazole potently inhibited hydroxylation of KR-33028 in human liver microsomes. Correlation analysis between the known CYP enzyme activities and the rates of the formation of 5-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 in the 16 human liver microsomes has showed significant correlations with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation, respectively. A 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation is also weakly correlated with CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. The kinetics of the major biotransformation of KR-33028 were studied: CYP3A4 mediated the formation of 5-hydroxy-KR-33028 from KR-33028 with Cl(int)=0.22microl/min/pmol CYP. The intrinsic clearance for 7-hydroxy-KR-33028 formation by CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were 0.26, 0.19, and 0.03microl/min/pmol CYP, respectively. Taken together, these results provide evidence that CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are the major isoforms responsible for the hydroxy metabolites formation from KR-33028.

  5. Isotopic and noble gas geochemistry in geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B.M.; DePaolo, D.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this program is to provide, through isotopic analyses of fluids, fluid inclusions, and rocks and minerals coupled with improved methods for geochemical data analysis, needed information regarding sources of geothermal heat and fluids, the spatial distribution of fluid types, subsurface flow, water-rock reaction paths and rates, and the temporal evolution of geothermal systems. Isotopic studies of geothermal fluids have previously been limited to the light stable isotopes of H, C, and O. However, other isotopic systems such as the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) and reactive elements (e.g. B, N, S, Sr and Pb) are complementary and may even be more important in some geothermal systems. The chemistry and isotopic composition of a fluid moving through the crust will change in space and time in response to varying chemical and physical parameters or by mixing with additional fluids. The chemically inert noble gases often see through these variations, making them excellent tracers for heat and fluid sources. Whereas, the isotopic compositions of reactive elements are useful tools in characterizing water-rock interaction and modeling the movement of fluids through a geothermal reservoir.

  6. A method for estimating (41)Ar, (85)(,88)Kr and (131m,133)Xe doses to non-human biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives I Batlle, J; Jones, S R; Copplestone, D

    2015-06-01

    A method is presented for estimating (41)Ar, (85,88)Kr and (131m,133)Xe dose rates to terrestrial wildlife without having to resort to comparisons with analogue radionuclides. The approach can be used to calculate the dose rates arising from external exposures to given ambient air concentrations of these isotopes. Dose conversion coefficient (DCC) values for a range of representative organisms are calculated, using a Monte Carlo approach to generate absorbed fractions based on representing animals as reference ellipsoid geometries. Plume immersion is the main component of the total DCC. DCC values calculated for a human-sized organism are compared with human dose conversion factors from ICRP Publication 119, demonstrating the consistency of the biota approach with that for humans. An example of application is provided for hypothetical nuclear power plant atmospheric discharges with associated exposures to birds and insects. In this example, the dose rates appear to be dominated by (133)Xe and (88)Kr, respectively. The biota considered would be protected from the effects of noble gas radiation from a population protection perspective.

  7. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR43 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1000.26 m and 45.01 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - October 2006. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1103 m{sup 3} and 16 m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 916m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43 and 13m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 131 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 37 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.19. The main rock types are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss

  8. Dmitri Krõmov : jesli tõ ne metshtajesh otkrõt Ameriku, tõ ne morjak! / Dmitri Krõmov ; interv. Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõmov, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Vene teatrikunstnik, lavastaja endast, oma isast Anatoli Efrosest, lavastamise juurde jõudmisest, teaterstuudio juhi Anatoli Vassiljevi Venemaalt lahkumise põhjustest. Teatrifestivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006" oli D. Krõmov oma lavastusega "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot"

  9. Dmitri Krõmov : jesli tõ ne metshtajesh otkrõt Ameriku, tõ ne morjak! / Dmitri Krõmov ; interv. Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krõmov, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Vene teatrikunstnik, lavastaja endast, oma isast Anatoli Efrosest, lavastamise juurde jõudmisest, teaterstuudio juhi Anatoli Vassiljevi Venemaalt lahkumise põhjustest. Teatrifestivalil "Talveöö unenägu 2006" oli D. Krõmov oma lavastusega "Söör Vantes. Donki Hot"

  10. KrF-excimer laser pretreatment and metallization of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenhain, R.; Wesner, D. A.; Pfleging, W.; Horn, H.; Kreutz, E. W.

    1997-02-01

    Metal film adhesion to polymers can be improved by pretreatment with UV-laser radiation before metal deposition. Chemical changes associated with irradiation are investigated for polyimide (PI) and polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) surfaces. Irradiated surfaces are coated with aluminum films ≤10 nm in thickness, enabling the effects of irradiation on the metal/polymer interface to be studied. Irradiation is done in air with KrF-excimer laser radiation (λ=248 nm) at fluences per pulse ≤600 mJ/cm2. The threshold fluence εt for material removal is determined by profilometry measurements of etched features, and the chemical properties of the polymer and the metal/polymer interface are studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Aluminum films are thermally evaporated in situ in the XPS spectrometer. Irradiation of PI at fluences near εt (41 mJ/cm2) results in loss of oxygen and opening of the imide ring, resulting in doubly bonded nitrogen species. After evaporation of aluminum the carbonyl (CO) C1s XPS signal is reduced in intensity, and both Al0 and Al3+ are found, the latter being located at the interface. In comparison to unirradiated areas, irradiated areas have more aluminum in total and a higher proportion of interfacial Al3+ species, indicating an increase in the concentration of metal binding sites. Although for PBT the O to C ratio also decreases with irradiation at fluences near εt (38 mJ/cm2), changes in the amounts of Al0 or Al3+ for irradiated areas in comparison to unirradiated areas are much smaller than for PI and consist mainly of a slight enhancement of Al0 for films deposited on irradiated surfaces.

  11. X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Emission from Small-Sized Kr Clusters Irradiated by 150-fs Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 程元丽; 赵永蓬; 夏元钦; 陈建新; 肖亦凡

    2003-01-01

    x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from Kr clusters irradiated by 150-fs laser pulses at the peak laser intensity of 5×1015W/cm2 was experimentally investigated. Strong transitions (10nm-13nm) from Kr X and Kr 1X were observed and some spectral lines from Kr ⅩⅢ and Kr ⅩⅣ, which have been predicted to be not produced by optical-field-ionization at the laser intensity used, also appeared. The laser energy absorption and the intensity of x-ray emission started to grow remarkably above the backing pressure of 0.5 MPa and to decrease at the backing pressure of 3 MPa. It is suggested that an optimum backing pressure may exist for Kr clusters heated by 150 fs laser pulses at a certain laser intensity to produce x-ray emission.

  12. Antiviral activity of KR-23502 targeting nuclear export of influenza B virus ribonucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yejin; Lee, Hye Won; Shin, Jin Soo; Go, Yun Young; Kim, Chonsaeng; Shin, Daeho; Malpani, Yashwardhan; Han, Soo Bong; Jung, Young-Sik; Kim, Meehyein

    2016-10-01

    The spiro compound 5,6-dimethyl-3H,3'H-spiro(benzofuran-2,1'-isobenzofuran)-3,3'-dione (KR-23502) has antiviral activity against influenza A and more potently B viruses. The aim of this study is to elucidate its mechanism of action. Subcellular localization and time-course expression of influenza B viral proteins, nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1), showed that KR-23502 reduced their amounts within 5 h post-infection. Early steps of virus life cycle, including virus entry, nuclear localization of NP and viral RNA-dependent RNA replication, were not affected by KR-23502. Instead it interrupted a later event corresponding to nuclear export of NP and M1 proteins. Delivery of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-M1 complex has been known to be mediated by the viral nuclear export protein (NEP) through interaction with cellular chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated that the compound targets the nuclear export of vRNP. Moreover, a single mutation (aspartate to glycine) at amino acid position 54 in M1 [M1(D54G)] was detected after 18 passages in the presence of KR-23502 with a 2-fold increase in 50% effective concentration indicating that this compound has a relatively high genetic barrier to resistance. Interestingly, it was observed that proteasome-mediated degradation of M1(D54G) was attenuated by KR-23502. In conclusion, we suggest that KR-23502 shows its anti-influenza activity by downregulating NEP/CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza vRNP and M1. KR-23502 provides a core chemical skeleton for further structure-based design of novel antivirals against influenza viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of groundwater dating with 81Kr, 36Cl and 4He in four wells of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, B. E.; Love, A.; Purtschert, R.; Collon, P.; Loosli, H. H.; Kutschera, W.; Beyerle, U.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.; Kipfer, R.; Frape, S. K.; Herczeg, A.; Moran, J.; Tolstikhin, I. N.; Gröning, M.

    2003-06-01

    The isotopic ratios 81Kr/Kr and 36Cl/Cl and the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater from four artesian wells in the western part of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia are discussed. Based on radioactive decay along a water flow path the 81Kr/Kr ratios are directly converted to groundwater residence times. Results are in a range of 225-400 kyr with error bars in the order of 15% primarily due to counting statistics in the cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer measurement. Additional uncertainties from subsurface production and/or exchange with stagnant porewaters in the confining shales appear to be of the same order of magnitude. These 81Kr ages are then used to calibrate the 36Cl and the 4He dating methods. Based on elemental analyses of rock samples from the sandstone aquifer as well as from the confining Bulldog shale the in situ flux of thermal neutrons and the corresponding 3He/ 4He and 36Cl/Cl ratios are calculated. From a comparison of: (i) the 3He/ 4He ratios measured in the groundwater samples with the calculated in situ ratios in rocks and (ii) the measured δ 37Cl ratios with the 4He concentrations measured in groundwater it is concluded that both helium and chloride are most likely added to the aquifer from sources in the stagnant porewaters of the confining shale by diffusion and/or mixing. Based on this 'working hypothesis' the 36Cl transport equation in groundwater is solved taking into account: (i) radioactive decay, (ii) subsurface production in the sandstone aquifer (with an in situ 36Cl/Cl ratio of 6×10 -15) and (iii) addition of chloride from a source in the confining shale (with a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 13×10 -15). Lacking better information it is assumed that the chloride concentration increased linearly with time from an (unknown) initial value Ci to its measured present value C= Ci+ Ca, where Ca represents the (unknown) amount of chloride added from subsurface sources. Using the 81Kr ages of the four groundwater samples and a

  14. Metal-organic frameworks for removal of Xe and Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K; Strachan, Denis

    2012-08-01

    Removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from process off-gases containing 400 ppm Xe, 40 ppm Kr, 78% N(2), 21% O(2), 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO(2), and so forth using adsorption was demonstrated for the first time. Two well-known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC, which both have unsaturated metal centers but different pore morphologies, were selected as novel adsorbents. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. The Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon and the HKUST-1. In addition, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can adsorb substantial amounts of Xe and Kr even when they are mixed in air. Moreover, the Ni/DOBDC can successfully separate 400 ppm Xe from 40 ppm Kr and air containing O(2), N(2), and CO(2) with a Xe/Ke selectivity of 7.3 as indicated by our breakthrough results. This shows a promising future for MOFs in radioactive nuclide separations from spent fuels.

  15. Ab initio potential energy surface and bound states for the Kr-OCS complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Eryin; Sun, Chunyan; Yu, Chunhua; Shao, Xi; Huang, Wuying

    2011-09-28

    The first ab initio potential energy surface of the Kr-OCS complex is developed using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with noniterative inclusion of connected triples [CCSD(T)]. The mixed basis sets, aug-cc-pVTZ for the O, C, and S atom, and aug-cc-pVQZ-PP for the Kr atom, with an additional (3s3p2d1f) set of midbond functions are used. A potential model is represented by an analytical function whose parameters are fitted numerically to the single point energies computed at 228 configurations. The potential has a T-shaped global minimum and a local linear minimum. The global minimum occurs at R = 7.146 a(0), θ = 105.0° with energy of -270.73 cm(-1). Bound state energies up to J = 9 are calculated for three isotopomers (82)Kr-OCS, (84)Kr-OCS, and (86)Kr-OCS. Analysis of the vibrational wavefunctions and energies suggests the complex can exist in two isomeric forms: T-shaped and quasi-linear. The calculated transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants of the three isotopomers are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  16. Nuclear-pumped lasing of /He-3/-Xe and /He-3/-Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Jalufka, N. W.; Hohl, F.

    1977-01-01

    The letter reports direct nuclear pumping of (He-3)-Xe and (He-3)-Kr using the volumetric He-3(n,p)H-3 nuclear reaction. Lasing in (He-3)-Xe was achieved at the 2.027-micron transition of Xe I; lasing in (He-3)-Kr is assumed to have occurred at the 2.52-micron transition of Kr I. Experimental results show that laser output in (He-3)-Xe increases and tends to saturate with increasing pressure, the lasing neutron-flux threshold decreases with decreasing neutron pulse, and maximum output occurs between 0.1% and 0.5% Xe with the total pressure held constant at 400 torr and with an average neutron flux of 6 by 10 to the 15th power per sq cm/sec. It is noted that the (He-3)-Xe laser has the lowest lasing-threshold neutron flux of any He-3 nuclear-pumped laser to date, but the (He-3)-Kr laser has a very high threshold flux. The primary lasing mechanism is believed to be Penning ionization of Xe and Kr followed by collisional radiative recombination and cascading into the upper laser level.

  17. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Buizert, Christo; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination, and 2) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (MIS 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samp...

  18. Nuclear Structure of N $\\simeq$ 56 Krypton Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In view of the strong overlap in subject matter, the proposals IP-39 and 40 were considered together by the ISOLDE-Committee, and a combined investigation was suggested to be presented to the PSCC.\\\\ \\\\ First results on $\\beta$-decay properties of very neutron-rich Br isotopes (Z=35) indicate a rather smooth onset of deformation already below N=60 and the existence of a deformed N=56 subshell gap. This behaviour is in contrast to earlier observations of a sudden onset of strong deformations at N=60 for $ \\% Z ge $ 37 nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study at CERN-ISOLDE nuclear structure properties of N=55 - 57 Kr isotopes from $\\beta$-decay of $^9

  19. KR-31543 reduces the production of proinflammatory molecules in human endothelial cells and monocytes and attenuates atherosclerosis in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hoon; Yoo, Ji-Young; Kim, Sun-Ok; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Oh, Goo Taeg

    2012-12-31

    KR-31543, (2S, 3R, 4S)-6-amino-4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl)- N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl) amino]-3,4-dihydro- 2-dimethyoxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benz opyran is a new neuroprotective agent for ischemiareperfusion damage. It has also been reported that KR-31543 has protective effects on lipid peroxidation and H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species production. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties of KR-31543. We observed that KR-31543 treatment reduced the production of MCP-1, IL-8, and VCAM-1 in HUVECs, and of MCP-1 and IL-6 in THP-1 human monocytes. We also examined the effect of KR-31543 on monocytes migration in vitro. KR-31543 treatment effectively reduced the migration of THP-1 human monocytes to the HUVEC monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. We next examined the effects of this compound on atherogenesis in LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr ⁻/⁻) mice. After 10 weeks of western diet, the formation of atherosclerotic lesion in aorta was reduced in the KR-31543-treated group compared to the control group. The accumulation of macrophages in lesion was also reduced in KR-31543 treated group. However, the plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride were not affected by KR-31543 treatment. Taken together, these results show that KR-31543 has anti-inflammatory properties on human monocytes and endothelial cells, and inhibits fatty streak lesion formation in mouse model of atherosclerosis, suggesting the potential of KR-31543 for the treatment for atherosclerosis.

  20. Resonance-enhanced photon excitation spectroscopy of the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states of Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChunYan; WANG TingTing; ZHEN JunFeng; ZHANG Qun; CHEN Yang

    2009-01-01

    Kr atoms were produced in their metastable states 4p55s [3/2]2 and 4p55s' [1/2]0 in a pulsed DC discharge in a beam, and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 4p5np' [3/2]1,2, [1/2]1 and 4p5nf' [5/2]3 using single photon excitation. The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable Kr were obtained by recording the autoionized Kr+ ions with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 29000-40000 cm-1. A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed, from which more precise and more systematic spec-troscopic data of the level energy and quantum defects were derived.

  1. New stage of search for 2K(2ν) capture of 78Kr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriljuk, Ju. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gavrin, V. N.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Osetrova, N. Ya.; Panasenko, S. I.; Pul'Nikov, I. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Ryabukhin, A. V.; Shubin, A. N.; Skorynin, G. V.

    2006-12-01

    A technique to search for 2K capture of 78Kr with a large low-background proportional counter filled with a sample of krypton enriched in 78Kr up to 99.8% at a pressure of 4.51 atm is described in this paper. The results of first measurements are presented. An analysis of data collected for 159 h yielded a new limit to the half-life of 78Kr with regard to 2K capture (T 1/2 ≥ 1.5 × 1021 yr (90% C.L.)). The sensitivity of the facility to the process for one year of measurement was evaluated to be S = 1.0 × 1022 yr (90% C.L.).

  2. The T-shaped KrI2(ion-pair states) van der Waals complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturo, V. V.; Kevorkyants, R.; Lukashov, S. S.; Poretsky, S. A.; Pravilov, A. M.; Zhironkin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The T-shaped KrI2(E0g+) van der Waals complexes have been observed and studied for the first time. Analysis of the luminescence excitation spectra as well as luminescence spectra themselves in the spectral ranges, where the I2(E0g+ → B0u+, D0u+ → X0g+, β1g → A1u and D‧2g → A‧2u) transitions can occur, has been carried out. Branching ratios of the iodine molecule state formation and vibronic level population, as well as the potential parameters of the KrI2(E,vE = 0-8, nE) complexes have been determined. Binding energies of the KrI2(X0g+,vX = 0, nX = 0 and B0u+, vB = 19, nB = 0) complexes have been also estimated.

  3. Resonance-enhanced photon excitation spectroscopy of the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states of Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Kr atoms were produced in their metastable states 4p55s [3/2]2 and 4p55s’ [1/2]0 in a pulsed DC dis-charge in a beam,and subsequently excited to the even-parity autoionizing Rydberg states 4p5np’ [3/2]1,2,[1/2]1 and 4p5nf’ [5/2]3 using single photon excitation.The excitation spectra of the even-parity autoionizing resonance series from the metastable Kr were obtained by recording the autoionized Kr+ ions with time-of-flight ion detection in the photon energy range of 29000-40000 cm1.A wealth of autoionizing resonances were newly observed,from which more precise and more systematic spec-troscopic data of the level energy and quantum defects were derived.

  4. LASERS: A 223-nm KrCl excimer laser on a He—Kr—HCl mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, A. M.; Zhupikov, A. A.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.

    2004-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the parameters of a 223-nm electric-discharge KrCl excimer laser on a He—Kr—HCl mixture depending on the excitation conditions and the composition of the active gaseous medium are presented. To achieve the maximum values of the output energy and the efficiency of the KrCl laser on mixtures with buffer gaseous helium, an excitation system was used that included a circuit with an LC inverter with a high-voltage switch based on an RU-65 spark gap. An output energy of 320 mJ with an efficiency of 0.5% relative to the energy stored in the capacitors is obtained in a KrCl laser with an active medium based on the buffer He gas at a charging voltage of 30 kV. Radiation pulses with a duration of 22±1 ns and a pulse power of 15 MW are obtained.

  5. Stable isotope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs.

  6. Phase behavior of mixed Ar-Kr, Ar-Xe and Kr-Xe monolayer films on graphite: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrykiejew, A

    2013-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulation methods in the grand canonical ensemble we have studied the behavior of mixed Ar-Kr, Ar-Xe and Kr-Xe monolayer films on the graphite basal plane. We have considered the adsorption of the lighter component, either argon or krypton, under the condition of a fixed chemical potential of the heavier component (krypton or xenon), as well as on the graphite surface with preadsorbed small amounts of a heavier noble gas. In both types of simulation the composition of the adsorbed layer is not conserved. We discuss the phase behavior of mixed films emerging from both types of 'computer experiment'. We also demonstrate that Monte Carlo simulation allows us to estimate the effects of preadsorbed xenon on the commensurate-incommensurate transition in the krypton monolayer film and gives the results that are in good quantitative agreement with experimental data.

  7. Core drilling of deep drillhole OL-KR57 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    As a part of the confirming site investigations at Olkiluoto, Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 401.71 m and 45.01 m deep drillholes, OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, at Olkiluoto in September 2011 - January 2012. The diameter of the drillholes is 75.7 mm. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning and drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and the computer recorded drilling parameters during drilling. The objective of the measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling, flushing and washing water were 350 m3 and 30 m3 in the drillholes OL-KR57 and OL-KR57B, respectively. The measured volumes of the returning water in the drillholes were 328 m{sup 3} and 16.8 m{sup 3}, respectively. The deviations of the drillholes were measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Gyro. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength was 123.9 MPa, the average Young's Modulus was 42.6 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio was 0.23. The main rock types are veined and diatexitic gneisses, mica gneiss and tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss. The average fracture frequency is 2.5 pcs/m in drillhole OL-KR57 and 3.3 pcs/m in the drillhole OL-KR57B. The average RQD values are 95.0 % and 93.0 %. Seven separate fractured zones were interpreted from OL-KR57 and three fractured zones from OL-KR57B. (orig.)

  8. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  9. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  10. Charge distribution of Kr ions produced upon photoionization around the 2s edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.C.F., E-mail: toni@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21991-972 (Brazil); Pilling, S. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton, Campinas 13084-971 (Brazil); Almeida, D.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-979 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Charge spectra of Kr after photoionization of the L shell have been measured. • Multiple photoionization of krypton around the 2s edge is a collective process. • Electron correlation plays an important role in multiple ionization of heavy atoms. - Abstract: Charge state spectra of krypton ions generated after ionization (by a single photon) of the L shell have been measured by using the PEPICO technique. Relative abundances of Kr{sup q+} ions in charge state up to 8+ were obtained using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. A comparison with other experimental and theoretical data is presented.

  11. RgBF2(+) complexes (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe): the cations with large stabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi; Chen, Guang-Hui; Li, Dan; Wu, Di; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Zhi-Ru; Liu, Wen-Guang

    2011-04-21

    Rare gas containing cations with general formula [Rg, B, 2F](+) have been investigated theoretically by second-order Mo̸ller-Plesset perturbation, coupled cluster, and complete active space self-consistent field levels of theory with correlation-consistent basis sets. Totally two types of minima, i.e., boron centered C(2) (v) symmetried RgBF(2) (+) (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe) which can be viewed as loss of F(-) from FRgBF(2) and linear FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) are obtained at the CCSD(T)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD and CASSCF(10,8)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD levels, respectively. It is shown that the RgBF(2) (+) are global minima followed by FRgBF(+) at 170.9 and 142.2 kcal∕mol on the singlet potential-energy surfaces of [Rg, B, 2F](+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) at the CASPT2(10,8) ∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD∕∕CASSCF(10,8)∕aug-cc-pVTZ∕SDD, respectively. The interconversion barrier heights between RgBF(2) (+) and FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) are at least 39 kcal∕mol. In addition, no dissociation transition state associated with RgBF(2) (+) and FRgBF(+) can be found. This suggests that RgBF(2) (+) (Rg = Ar, Kr, and Xe) can exist as both thermodynamically and kinetically stable species, while linear FRgBF(+) (Rg = Kr and Xe) can exist as metastable species compared with the lowest dissociation limit energies just like isoelectronic linear FRgBO and FRgBN(-). From natural bond orbital and atoms-in-molecules calculations, it is found that the positive charge is mainly located on Rg and boron atoms for both types of minima, the Rg-B bonds of ArBF(2) (+), KrBF(2) (+), and XeBF(2) (+) are mostly electrostatic, thus can be viewed as ion-induced dipole interaction; while that of linear FKrBF(+) and FXeBF(+) are covalent in nature. The previous experimental observation of ArBF(2) (+) by Pepi et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B. 110, 4492 (2006)] should correspond to C(2) (v) minimum. The presently predicted spectroscopies of KrBF(2) (+), XeBF(2) (+), FKrBF(+), and FXeBF(+) should be helpful for their experimental

  12. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of the ArKr* exciplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelmann, F.; Gadea, F. X.; Castex, M. C.

    1990-08-01

    The lowest energy potential curves of the ArKr* exciplex are computed using non-empirical pseudopotentials and multireference configuration interaction. The {σL SSσ} states of ArKr* are obtained from relativistic averaged pseudopotentials, while the fine structure {σW} states are derived using ab initio spin-orbit pseudopotentials and achieving a diagonalisation of the total Hamiltonian(electrostatic+spin-orbit) in the basis of {σL SσS} states. The electronic structure of the exciplex is discussed and the ionic core nature of the Rydberg states is analysed.

  13. 78 FR 76405 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALISH SEA-KR; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SALISH SEA-KR... of the vessel SALISH SEA-KR is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Passenger Vessel,...

  14. The Effectiveness of Local Culture-Based Mathematical Heuristic-KR Learning towards Enhancing Student's Creative Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandiseru, Selvi Rajuaty

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this research is the lack of creative thinking skills of students. One of the learning models that is expected to enhance student's creative thinking skill is the local culture-based mathematical heuristic-KR learning model (LC-BMHLM). Heuristic-KR is a learning model which was introduced by Krulik and Rudnick (1995) that is the…

  15. Activation of BmGSTd1 promoter and regulation by transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong; Wang, Binbin; Liu, Yunlei; Du, Jie; Li, Bing; Chen, Yuhua; Xu, Yaxiang; Shen, Weide; Xia, Qingyou; Wei, Zhengguo

    2014-11-10

    The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a large family of multifunctional enzymes, many of which play an important role in the detoxification of endogenous and exogenous toxic substances. In this research, firstly, we measured the rutin-induced transcriptional level of BmGSTd1 gene by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR method and dual spike-in strategy. The activities of the BmGSTd1 promoter in various tissues of silkworm were measured by firefly luciferase activity and normalized by the Renilla luciferase activity. Results showed that the activity of the BmGSTd1 promoter were highest in Malpighian tubule, followed by fat body, silk gland, hemocyte, epidermis, and midgut. The essential region for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity was -1573 to -931bp in Malpighian tubule and fat body of silkworm. Promoter truncation analysis using a dual-luciferase reporter assay in BmN cells showed that the region -1288 to -1202bp for BmGSTd1 gene was essential for basal and rutin-induced transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis of this region revealed several potential transcriptional regulatory elements such as Bcd and Kr. The mutation of core base of Kr site demonstrated that Kr functioned positively in rutin-mediated BmGSTd1 transcription.

  16. Formation of KrCl * and ArCl * molecules and radiative lifetimes of their B states investigated with selective synchrotron radiation excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, M. C.; Le Calvé, J.; Haaks, D.; Jordan, B.; Zimmerer, G.

    1980-02-01

    Monochromatic pulsed VUV excitation of Cl 2 or inert gas atoms in Cl 2 doped Kr and Ar leads to formation of KrCl * and ArCl *. The radiative lifetimes of the B states (KrCl * 19 ns, ArCl * 9 ns) and rate constants for excimer formation, quenching and collisional mixing of B and C states are given. The radiative lifetime and the quenching rate increase with vibrational excitation of the B state (KrCl *).

  17. A condensed {sup 83m}Kr calibration source for the KATRIN experiment; Eine kondensierte {sup 83m}Kr-Kalibrationsquelle fuer das KATRIN-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrick, Beatrix

    2009-02-09

    A calibration source of condensed {sup 83m}Kr was built and tested within the frame of this thesis. The energy of the K-32-conversion electrons is fixed due to the energy of the nuclear transition and the binding energy of the K-shell electrons and for that reason it is provided with a natural stability. Alternatively to tritium measurements in the main beamline of the KATRIN experiment and permanently and synchronously at a another MAC-E-Filter (Monitor Spectrometer) this stable electron line can be used as an indicator of the stability of the HV-measurement and spectrometer conditions. {sup 83m}Kr is a short living gas with a halflife of T{sub 1/2}=1.83 h. To allow a long term monitoring the gas was condensed onto a graphite plate (HOPG). Due to the presence of the substrate the measured line position of the conversion electrons is changed. On the one hand side the work function of the substrate enters, on the other hand side the charge distribution in the substrate recorders itself under the influence of the final state of the conversion process (mirror charge). This leads to an additional binding energy of the {sup 83m}Kr{sup +}, which is transfered to the kinetic energy of the emitted electron. Both the work function and the binding energy of the final state is modified by the presence of residual gas, which is thereby the main cause of instabilities. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to define a film preparation method which leads to a reproducible energy of the conversion electrons. Therefore three methods were tested: cleaning of the substrate with a) a resister by heating, b) by laser ablation and c) preparing a fresh preplating made of stable krypton. Without ablation an ongoing pollution of the substrate appeared which shifted the line position. With ablation 19 films were prepared over the period of one month which showed a stability of 1 ppm. Thereby together with the selection of the cleanest films whose substrate was cleaned by heating, a longterm

  18. 高效率放电抽运KrF准分子激光器%A Discharge-Pumped KrF Excimer Laser with High Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效顺; 余吟山; 王庆胜; 梁勖; 游利兵; 方晓东

    2011-01-01

    248 nm discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser is importantly used in microelectronics and medicine. For most applications, maximal output efficiency and energy are very important parameters of a laser. A KrF excimer laser with high efficiency is developed. For obtaining the maximal output efficiency and energy and achieving the stationary discharge of the KrF excimer laser, a new switching power supply, compact electrodes the optimization of storage/discharge capacity, and gas mixture are used to develop a small-type high-efficency discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser. The effect of switching power supply on the charge/discharge characteristic and the effect of gas mixture on the output efficiency and energy of the laser are studied. Compared with the previous product, the property of the laser is improved considerably. The repetition rate of the laser is 1~80 Hz, the maximal efficiency is about 2.5% and the maximal output energy is up to 380 mJ. The pulse to pulse stability is about 1.8% with discharge voltage above 25 kV.%248 nm放电抽运KrF准分子激光器在微电子学和医学等领域有重要的应用价值.在大多数应用中,激光器的最大输出效率和能量都是十分重要的参数.为了提高激光器输出效率和能量,实现KrF准分子激光器的稳定放电,采用新型开关电源和结构紧凑的张氏电极,并通过优化储能/放电电容比例和工作气体配比等方法,研制出了一台小型高效率放电抽运KrF准分子激光器.研究了开关电源对充放电特性的影响,以及气体配比对激光输出效率和能量的影响.该激光器的各项参数相比以往的产品有了较大改善,可重复频率为1~80 Hz,输出效率最高达2.5%,最大单脉冲输出能量380 mJ;当工作电压高于25 kV时,激光输出能量不稳定度约为1.8%.

  19. Differential expression of hERG1 channel isoforms reproduces properties of native I(Kr) and modulates cardiac action potential characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2010-01-01

    The repolarizing cardiac rapid delayed rectifier current, I(Kr), is composed of ERG1 channels. It has been suggested that two isoforms of the ERG1 protein, ERG1a and ERG1b, both contribute to I(Kr). Marked heterogeneity in the kinetic properties of native I(Kr) has been described. We hypothesized...

  20. Mød din nye kræftlæge: Dr. Microsoft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Blogs og chats med beskrivelser af symptomer og bekymringer på nettet er blevet anvendt af forskere til at spore patienter, som efterfølgende får stillet en kræftdiagnose. I teorien kan søgemaskiner som Google og Bing stille diagnosen tidligere og måske redde menneskeliv....

  1. Beta-decay half-lives of {sup 70}Kr and {sup 74}Rb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M. E-mail: markku.oinonen@cern.ch; Aeystoe, J.; Koester, U.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Nieminen, A.; Peraejaervi, K.; Baumann, P.; Didierjean, F.; Huck, A.; Knipper, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Walter, G.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.; Marguier, G.; Novikov, Yu.; Popov, A.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Schatz, H

    2002-04-22

    Beta-decay half-lives of two nuclei close to N=Z line, {sup 70}Kr and {sup 74}Rb, have been measured at the ISOLDE mass-separator facility at CERN. Importance of these half-lives on two ingredients explaining existence and development of the Universe, the astrophysical nucleosynthesis and the Standard Model, are discussed.

  2. Characterization of a cryogenic distillation column with a Kr-83m tracer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Stephan; Fieguth, Alexander; Huhmann, Chrisian; Murra, Michael; Weinheimer, Christian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Wilhelm-Klemm Strasse 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Cristescu, Ion [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Tritium Laboratory, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The XENON1T experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter with unreached precision of 2 x 10{sup -47} cm{sup 2} for the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The cryogenic distillation is an important tool to reduce the intrinsic contamination with radioactive {sup 85}Kr which undergoes a beta-decay with an endpoint energy of 687 keV, being one major source of background. Hence, a novel cryogenic distillation column has been designed and constructed in order to reduce the krypton concentration to {sup nat}Kr/Xe<0.2 ppt. For the investigation of the performance and the dynamics of the distillation process on the sub-ppt level, a new {sup 83m}Kr tracer method has been applied. For the {sup 83m}Kr detection custom made PMT based detectors are used. In this talk the method as well as the results of the studies of the krypton separation are presented.

  3. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, M C

    1982-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  4. De eeuwigheid verzameld : Helene Kröller-Müller (1869-1939)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Een kist met 3400 brieven ligt aan de basis van de binnenkort te verschijnen biografie ‘De eeuwigheid verzameld’ van Helene Kröller-Müller (1869-1939), de grondlegster van het gelijknamige museum in Otterlo. Dankzij dit unieke bronnenmateriaal kon auteur Eva Rovers een nieuw licht werpen op de beken

  5. Study on Radiochemical Separation and Measurement of Half-life of ~(88)Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    88Kr is one of the important gaseous fission products for determining the burn up of nuclear fuel with a short half-life, high fission yield and high branch ratio of γ-ray. Due to the more uncertainty of evaluated data and rare experimented data,

  6. Yield-Energy Evaluation of 85Kr of 239Pu+n Fission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The yields of 85Kr, the important production of the 239Pu fission, were re-evaluated over the incident neutron energy 1-15 MeV, based upon all the experimental data. The yields as function of energ

  7. Multifragmentation Studies in 84Kr Interactions with Nuclear Emulsion at around 1 A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, V; Bhattacharjee, B; Sen-Gupta, S; Mukhopadhyay, A

    2004-01-01

    Projectile fragmentation of 84Kr in three different energy intervals has been studied. Many aspects of multifragmentation process have been examined in depth. It is observed that multifragmentation is a general low energy phenomenon associated with heavy beam. The number of Intermediate-Mass-Fragments (IMF's) shows strong projetile mass dependence.

  8. "Infootsingu 2010" võitja on Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck / Krista Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Krista, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Raamatukoguhoidjate infootsingu võistluse eelvoorust, finaalist ja võitjatest. Lisa: Üks küsimus võitjatele. Mis on motiveerinud sind infootsingu võistlusel osalema? Vastavad Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck, Kristi Ütt ja Carolina Schultz

  9. Near-field nonuniformities in angularly multiplexed KrF fusion lasers with induced spatial incoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, Robert H.; Chan, Yung

    2005-05-01

    Induced spatial incoherence (ISI) has been proposed for KrF laser drivers to achieve the high degree of spatial beam uniformity required for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Although ISI provides ultrasmooth illumination at the far field of the laser, where the target is located, it can still allow the beams in the quasi-near field to develop a time-averaged spatial structure. This speckle, which arises primarily from random-phase aberration, builds up as the laser beams propagate away from the pupil plane located at the final amplifier stage; it is distinct from any structure imposed by gain nonuniformities in the amplifiers. Because of the spatial incoherence, the speckle is significantly smaller than that experienced by coherent beams. Nevertheless, it remains a damage issue, especially for the long beam delay paths required in angularly multiplexed KrF lasers. We develop a novel algorithm for calculating the time-integrated intensities; compare simulations and measurements of the near-field speckle in the Nike KrF laser; and explore options, such as aberration reduction and optical relaying, for controlling the problem in future angularly multiplexed KrF drivers. © Optical Society of America

  10. CH{sub 3} spin probe in solid Kr: Matrix structure and guest–host interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, Yu.A., E-mail: dmitrievyurij@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melnikov, V.D. [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Styrov, K.G. [Institute of Computing and Control, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Benetis, N.P. [Department of Pollution Control, Technological Education Institution, TEI, West Macedonia, Kozani 501 00 (Greece)

    2015-02-01

    Experimental EPR data obtained for the methyl, CH{sub 3}, radical trapped in quench condensed solid Kr are analyzed rendering the radical a probe for determination of regional disorder in Kr and similar solid matrices. Formation of regions of a highly disordered local matrix structure is proved. An attempt is presented of assessing a disorder parameter, based on the line broadening. The new structure is shown to be very effective in accumulating the radicals which are transiently mobile at the Kr 4.2 K surface. We discuss a model of the trapped radical rotation, which includes somewhat different mechanism than the hindrance of the rotation about the C{sub 3} axis and the rotation about the in-plane C{sub 2} axes. The level of the thermal contact of the radical spin-rotation motion with the lattice degrees of freedom in regions of varying order in the Kr solid matrix was assessed by progressive saturation curve-fitting parameters related to the spin-lattice relaxation time T{sub 1} of the radical.

  11. Energy transfer kinetics of the np5(n + 1)p excited states of Ne and Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Heaven, Michael C

    2011-09-01

    Energy transfer rate constants for Ne(2p(5)3p) and Kr(4p(5)5p) atoms colliding with ground state rare gas atoms (Rg) have been measured. In part, this study is motivated by the possibility of using excited rare gas atoms as the active species in optically pumped laser systems. Rg(np(5)(n + 1)s) metastable states may be produced using low-power electrical discharges. The potential then exits for optical pumping and laser action on the np(5)(n + 1)p ↔ np(5)(n + 1)s transitions. Knowledge of the rate constants for collisional energy transfer and deactivation of the np(5)(n + 1)p states is required to evaluate the laser potential for various Rg + buffer gas combinations. In the present study we have characterized energy transfer processes for Ne (2p(5)3p) + He for the six lowest energy states of the multiplet. Rate constants for state-to-state transfer have been determined. Deactivation of the lowest energy level of Kr (4p(5)5p) by He, Ne, and Kr has also been characterized. Initial results suggest that Kr (4p(5)5p) + Ne mixtures may be the best suited for optically pumped laser applications.

  12. Electronic quenching of OH A 2Σ+ induced by collisions with Kr atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia H; Lester, Marsha I; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H; Dagdigian, Paul J; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier; Brouard, Mark; Chadwick, Helen; Perkins, Tom; Seamons, Scott A

    2013-12-19

    Electronic quenching of OH A (2)Σ(+) by Kr was investigated through experimental studies of the collision cross sections and the OH X (2)Π product state distribution. The quenching cross sections decrease with increasing rotational excitation in the excited OH A (2)Σ(+) electronic state. The OH X (2)Π products of quenching exhibit a significant degree of rotational excitation but minimal vibrational excitation. Complementary theoretical studies of the OH (A (2)Σ(+), X (2)Π) + Kr potential energy surfaces (PESs), nonadiabatic coupling, and quasiclassical trajectory calculations were carried out to elucidate the quenching dynamics. Accurate PESs for the two lowest diabatic states of A' symmetry were computed along with the angularly dependent coupling between them. Coupling in nearly linear HO-Kr configurations provides the mechanism for the observed electronic quenching. A deep attractive well on the OH A (2)Σ(+) + Kr PES facilitates access to this region of strong coupling. Surface-hopping quasiclassical trajectory calculations yielded quenching cross sections and a OH X (2)Π product rotational distribution in good accord with experimental observations.

  13. ENHANCED RECOVERY METHODS FOR 85KR AGE-DATING GROUNDWATER: ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potential widespread use of 85Kr, having a constant input function in the northern hemisphere, for groundwater age-dating would advance watershed investigations. The current input function of tritium is not sufficient to estimate young modern recharge waters. While tri...

  14. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of KR-66223, a novel DPP-4 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin Sook; Lee, Kyeong-Ryoon; Kwon, Hyun Jin; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Sung Hum; Lee, Sung-Hack; Song, Im Sook; Ahn, Jin Hee; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Bae, Myung Ae

    2012-01-01

    KR-66223 is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We studied the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of KR-66223 in rats, monkeys, and dogs to predict PK/PD profiles in humans. KR-66223 exhibited a moderate volume of distribution (0.3-1.8 L/kg), moderate systemic clearance (1-1.76 L/h/kg), long half-life (>3 h), and low oral bioavailability (below 2.5% in all tested species). The EC(50)s for DPP-4 inhibition as calculated by the E(max) model was below 4.25 ng/mL across all species, confirming KR-66223 as a potent DPP-4 inhibitor. In vitro plasma protein binding suggested that it was available (69-89%), correlating with its volume of distribution in animals. Using allometric scaling and the E(max) model, human systemic clearance, volume of the central compartment, volume of the peripheral compartment, and EC₅₀ for DPP-4 inhibition were predicted to be 0.31 L/h/kg, 0.1 L/kg, 2.4 L/kg, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. These results can serve as a valuable foundation for future clinical trials.

  15. "Infootsingu 2010" võitja on Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck / Krista Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Krista, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Raamatukoguhoidjate infootsingu võistluse eelvoorust, finaalist ja võitjatest. Lisa: Üks küsimus võitjatele. Mis on motiveerinud sind infootsingu võistlusel osalema? Vastavad Krõõt Kaljusto-Munck, Kristi Ütt ja Carolina Schultz

  16. Experimental Research on KrF Laser Driven Flyer With Transparent Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhao; TIAN; Bao-xian; LIANG; Jing; LI; YE-jun; HAN; Mao-lan

    2012-01-01

    <正>By using HEAVEN-I KrF excimer laser system, we studied the LDF (laser driven flyer) with transparent substrate. Flyer was produced by irradiation of a mental foil with a high energy laser pulse, at the interface with the transparent substrate. In the experiments side shadowgraph technique was used to record the flyers track and measurement the flight velocity.

  17. Penning-trap mass measurements of exotic rubidium and gold isotopes for a mean-field study of pairing and quadrupole correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Manea, Vladimir

    2015-09-14

    The most complex nuclei are situated between the magic and the mid-shell ones, in regions known for sudden changes of the trends of nuclear observables. These are the so-called shape-transition regions, where the nuclear paradigm changes from the vibrational liquid drop to the static rotor. With few exceptions, nuclei in these regions are radioactive, with half-lives dropping into the millisecond range. Complementing the information obtained from the low-lying excitation spectrum, nuclear binding energies and mean-square charge radii are among the observables most sensitive to these changes of nuclear structure. In the present work, a study of the shape- transition phenomenon is performed by measurements of radioactive nuclides produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The masses of the neutron-rich rubidium isotopes $^{98-100}$Rb and of the neutron-deficient gold isotopes $^{180, 185, 188, 190, 191}$Au are determined using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The mass of $^{100}$Rb is determined for t...

  18. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR39 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 502.97 m and 45.11 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in August- October 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 415m{sup 3} and 25 m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 175 m{sup 3} and 7 m{sup 3} in boreholes OLKR39 and OL-KR39B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 110 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 49 GP a and the average Poisson' s ratio is 0.25. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss and granite. Filled fracture is the most common

  19. HXeI and HXeH in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Niimi, Keisuke; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Tsuge, Masashi; Nakayama, Akira; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2015-02-07

    Experimental and theoretical studies of HXeI and HXeH molecules in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices are presented. HXeI exhibits the H-Xe stretching bands at 1238.0 and 1239.0 cm(-1) in Ar and Kr matrices, respectively, that are blue-shifted from the HXeI band observed in a Xe matrix (1193 cm(-1)) by 45 and 46 cm(-1). These shifts are larger than those observed previously for HXeCl (27 and 16 cm(-1)) and HXeBr (37 and 23 cm(-1)); thus, the matrix effect is stronger for less stable molecules. The results for HXeI are qualitatively different from all previous results on noble-gas hydrides with respect to the frequency order between Ar and Kr matrices. For previously studied HXeCl, HXeBr, and HXeCCH, the H-Xe stretching frequency is reliably (by >10 cm(-1)) higher in an Ar matrix than in a Kr matrix. In contrast, the H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeI in an Ar matrix is slightly lower than that in a Kr matrix. HXeH absorbs in Ar and Kr matrices at 1203.2 and 1192.1 cm(-1) (the stronger band for a Kr matrix), respectively. These bands are blue-shifted from the stronger band of HXeH in a Xe matrix (1166 cm(-1)) by 37 and 26 cm(-1), and this frequency order is the same as observed for HXeCl, HXeBr, and HXeCCH but different from HXeI. The present hybrid quantum-classical simulations successfully describe the main experimental findings. For HXeI in the 〈110〉 (double substitution) site, the order of the H-Xe stretching frequencies (ν(Xe) matrices from a Xe matrix are well predicted (30 and 34 cm(-1)). Both in the theory and experiment, the order of the H-Xe stretching frequencies differs from the case of HXeCl, which suggests the adequate theoretical description of the matrix effect. For HXeH in the 〈100〉 (single substitution) site, the order of the frequencies is ν(Xe) matrices with respect to a Xe matrix (36 and 23 cm(-1)) are in a good agreement with the experiments. The present calculations predict an increase of the H-Xe stretching frequencies in the noble-gas matrices

  20. Ropniak nadtwardówkowy kanału kręgowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz J. Jaskólski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ropniakiem nadtwardówkowym kanału kręgowego nazywamy zbiornik ropy położony nad oponą twardą krę- gosłupa. Bywa powikłaniem zapalenia krążka międzykręgowego oraz zapalenia kości trzonu kręgu, lecz znacznie częściej powstaje w efekcie rozsiewu zakażenia (układu moczowego, wsierdzia, płuc drogą krwiopochodną. Jest dwukrotnie częstszy u mężczyzn; występuje zwykle u chorych powyżej 30. roku życia. Czynniki ryzyka to: narkomania, immunosupresja, cukrzyca, alkoholizm, obecność ognisk zakażenia i przebycie operacji lub otwartego urazu kręgosłupa. Źródło infekcji pozostaje niewykryte u <40% osób. Znamienna triada objawów obejmuje gorączkę, silny miejscowy ból kręgosłupa i postępujący zespół neurologiczny. Wczesne rozpoznanie stanowi niezwykle ważny aspekt – leczenie może wprawdzie zapobiec rozwojowi deficytu neurologicznego, lecz żadną miarą nie daje pewności jego ustąpienia. Do postawienia właściwej diagnozy niezbędne jest wykonanie badań obrazowych, najlepiej MRI. Leczenie polega na chirurgicznym usunięciu ropniaka i długotrwałej antybiotykoterapii. Zabieg operacyjny ma na celu odbarczenie elementów nerwowych, staranną ewakuację ropy i ziarniny zapalnej oraz uzyskanie materiału do badań mikrobiologicznych. Śmiertelność sięga 16%. Rokowanie co do funkcji zależy przede wszystkim od początkowego stanu neurologicznego i czasu trwania deficytów – jeśli przekracza on 72 godziny, nie ma szans na poprawę. Czynniki negatywnie wpływające na rokowanie to: obecność współ- istniejących chorób, przebycie wielokrotnej operacji kręgosłupa, ropniak w odcinku piersiowym oraz zakażenie szczepem MRSA.

  1. Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Hua

    Full Text Available To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, and assess the agreement with measurements obtained by Allegro Topolyzer and IOLMaster.The right eyes of 100 normal subjects were prospectively scanned 3 times using all the 4 devices. Another observer performed additional 3 consecutive scans using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace in the same session. About one week later, the first observer repeated the measurements using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace. The steep keratometry (Ks, flat keratometry (Kf, mean keratometry (Km, J0 and J45 were analyzed. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were evaluated by the within-subject standard deviation (Sw, coefficient of variation (CoV, test-retest repeatability (2.77Sw, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Agreements between devices were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and 95% limits of agreement (LoA.Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of the Ks, Kf and Km showed a CoV of no more than 0.5%, a 2.77Sw of 0.70 D or less, and an ICC of no less than 0.99. However, J0 and J45 showed poor intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility (all ICCs not greater than 0.446. Statistically significant differences existed between Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster for Ks, Kf and Km measurements (all P < 0.05. The mean differences between Topcon KR-1W, iTrace, and the other 2 devices were small. The 95% LoA were approximately 1.0 D to 1.5 D for all measurements.The Ks, Kf and Km obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility in normal eyes. The agreement between Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace were not

  2. Krīzes komunikācijas uzdevumi un metodes ārējā komunikācijā: Latvijas Krājbankas gadījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Krīzes komunikācijas uzdevumi un metodes ārējā komunikācijā: Latvijas Krājbankas gadījuma analīze”. Darba ietvaros tiek risināta pētījuma problēma – „Latvijas Krājbankā” realizētā ārējā komunikācija bankas krīzes gadījumā. Bakalaura darba ir strukturēts četrās nodaļās. Darba teorētiskajā bāzē tiek skaidroti krīzes, krīzes komunikācijas un ārējās komunikācijas jēdzieni. Darba empīriskajā daļā autore raksturojusi uzņēmumu „Latvijas Krājbanka” un pētījusi ārējās komun...

  3. KR-31378, a potassium-channel opener, induces the protection of retinal ganglion cells in rat retinal ischemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anho; Choi, Jun-Sub; Yoon, Yone-Jung; Kim, Kyung-A; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2009-04-01

    KR-31378 is a newly developed K(ATP)-channel opener. To investigate the ability of KR-31378 to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGC), experiments were conducted using two retinal ischemia models. Retinal ischemia was induced by transient high intraocular pressure (IOP) for acute ischemia and by three episcleral vein occlusion for chronic retinal ischemia. KR-31378 was injected intraperitoneally and administered orally in the acute and chronic ischemia models, respectively. Under the condition of chronic ischemia, RGC density in the KR-31378-treated group was statistically higher than that in the non-treated group, and IOP was reduced. In the acute retinal ischemia model, 90% of RGC were degenerated after one week in non-treated retina, but, RGC in KR-31378-treated retina were protected from ischemic damage in a dose-dependent manner and showed inhibited glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Furthermore, the KR-31378 protective effect was inhibited by glibenclamide treatment in acute ischemia. These findings indicate that systemic KR-31378 treatment may protect against ischemic injury-induced ganglion cell loss in glaucoma.

  4. METHOD OF ISOTOPE CONCENTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1957-04-01

    An isotope concentration process is described which consists of exchanging, at two or more different temperature stages, two isotopes of an element between substances that are physically separate from each other and each of which is capable of containing either of the isotopes, and withdrawing from a point between at least two of the temperatare stages one of the substances containing an increased concentration of the desired isotope.

  5. Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency in degenerate two level systems of metastable Kr atoms and measurement of Landé g-factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Y. B.; Tiwari, V. B.; Mishra, S. R.; Singh, S.; Rawat, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) and transparency (EIT) resonances of sub-natural linewidth in degenerate two level systems (DTLSs) of metastable 84Kr (84Kr*) and 83Kr (83Kr*) atoms. Using the spectrally narrow EIA signals obtained corresponding to the closed hyperfine transition 4p55s[3/2]2(F=13/2) to 4p55p[5/2]3(F‧ = 15 / 2) in 83Kr* atom, we have measured the Landé g-factor (gF) for the lower hyperfine level involved in this transition by application of small values of magnetic field of few Gauss.

  6. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a m

  7. Shape evolution in 76,78Kr nuclei at high spins in tilted axis cranking Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ansari; P Sharma; U R Jakhar; H L Yadav

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional tilted axis cranking Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (CHFB) calculation is performed for 76Kr and 78Kr nuclei up to high spins = 30 employing a pairing-plus-quadrupole (PPQ) model interaction Hamiltonian. Intricate details of the evolution of single particle structures and shapes as a function of spin have been investigated. The results show the existence of energy levels with high quantum numbers lying close to the yrast line in both the nuclei. Such high states should exhibit isomeric characteristics due to the -selection rules for the -decays. Moreover, in 78Kr a new band with = 20–30 lying below the observed ground band is predicted.

  8. Neutron and Alpha Structure in Neutron Deficient Nuclei in Astrophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Kubono; T. Hashimoto; Y. Wakabayashi; N. Iwasa; S. Kato; T. Komatsubara; D. N. Binh; L. H. Khiem; N. N. Duy; T. Kawabata; C. Spitaleri; 何建军; G. G. Rapisarda; M. La Cognata; L. Lamia; R. G. Pizzone; S. Romano; A. Coc; N. de Sereville; F. Hammache; G. Kiss; S. Bishop; H. Yamaguchi; D. M. Kahl; S. Hayakawa; T. Teranishi; S. Cheribini; M. Gulino; Y. K. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    The paper includes discussions on the important role of neutron and alpha configurations in proton-rich nuclei in nuclear astrophysics in terms of nucleosynthesis under extremely high-temperature hydrogenburning conditions. The νp-process, which is supposed to take place at the very early epoch of type II supernovae, has considerable neutrons and alphas together with protons. The alpha-induced reactions on proton-rich unstable nuclei in the light mass regions is expected to play a crucial role, but very few of them were investigated well yet because of the experimental difficulties. Specifically, I report our recent experimental effort for the breakout process from the pp-chain region, 7Be(α,γ)11C(α,p)14N under the νp-process. The neutron-induced reactions on proton-rich nuclei, which is even more a challenging subject, were investigated previously for very few nuclei. One possible experimental method is the Trojan Horse Method (THM). We successfully have applied THM to the 18F(n,α)14N reaction study with an unstable beam of 18F.

  9. Projected shell model study of neutron-deficient 122Ce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rani Devi; B D Sehgal; S K Khosa

    2006-09-01

    The observed excited states of 122Ce nucleus have been studied in the frame-work of projected shell model (PSM). The yrast band has been studied up to spin 26 ħ. The first band crossing has been predicted above a rotational frequency of 0.4 MeV/ħ that corresponds to first backbending. The calculation reproduces the experimentally observed ground state band up to spin 14ħ. The electromagnetic quantities, transition quadrupole moments and -factors are predicted and there is a need to measure these quantities experimentally.

  10. Tabletop Ultrabright Kiloelectronvolt X-Ray Sources from Xe and Kr Hollow Atom States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Poopalasingam

    Albert Einstein, the father of relativity, once said, "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better". Today available higher resolution tabletop tool to look deep into matters and living thing is an x-ray source. Although the available tabletop x-rays sources of the 20th century, such as the ones used for medical or dental x-rays are tremendously useful for medical diagnostics and industry, a major disadvantage is that they have low quality skillful brightness, which limits its resolution and accuracy. In the other hand, x-ray free-electrons laser (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation sources provided extreme bright x-rays. However, number of applications of XFEL and synchrotron such as medical and industrials, has been hampered by their size, complexity, and cost. This has set a goal of demonstrating x-ray source with enough brightness for potential applications in an often-called tabletop compact x-ray source that could be operated in university laboratory or hospitals. We have developed two tabletop ultrabright keV x-ray sources, one from a Xe hollow-atom states and the other one from Kr hollow-atom stares with a unique characteristic that makes them complementary to currently-available extreme-light sources; XFEL, and synchrotron x-ray source. Upgraded tabletop ultra-fast KrF* pump-laser interacts with target rare-gas clusters and produces hollow-atom states, which later coherently collapse to the empty inner-shell and thereby generate keV x-ray radiation. The KrF* pump-laser beam is self-focused and forms a self-channel to guide the generated x-ray radiation in the direction of the pump-laser beam to produce directed x-ray beam. Xe (M) x-ray source operates at 1.2-1.6 nm wavelength while the Kr(L) x-ray source operates in 600-800 pm wavelength. System is mounted upon 3 optical-tables (5´x12´) with two KrF amplifiers at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. A lower bound for brightness value for both Xe and Kr x-ray sources is 1026 photons s-1mm-2

  11. Generation of Radixenon Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Reeder, Paul L.; Thomas, Charles W.

    2003-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air and can detect the following radioxenon isotopes, 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. This report details the techniques used to generate the various radioxenon isotopes that are used for the calibration of the detector as well as other isotopes that have the potential to interfere with the fission produced radioxenon isotopes. Fission production is covered first using highly enriched uranium followed by a description and results from an experiment to produce radioxenon isotopes from neutron activation of ambient xenon.

  12. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  13. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%. (lasers)

  14. High-power gas-discharge excimer ArF, KrCl, KrF and XeCl lasers utilising two-component gas mixtures without a buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, A. M.; Kargapol'tsev, E. S.; Churkin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of an experimental study of the influence of a gas mixture (laser active medium) composition on an output energy and total efficiency of gas-discharge excimer lasers on ArF* (193 nm), KrCl* (222 nm), KrF* (248 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) molecules operating without a buffer gas are presented. The optimal ratios of gas components (from the viewpoint of a maximum output energy) of an active medium are found, which provide an efficient operation of laser sources. It is experimentally confirmed that for gas-discharge excimer lasers on halogenides of inert gases the presence of a buffer gas in an active medium is not a necessary condition for efficient operation. For the first time, in two-component gas mixtures of repetitively pulsed gas-discharge excimer lasers on electron transitions of excimer molecules ArF*, KrCl*, KrF* and XeCl*, the pulsed energy of laser radiation obtained under pumping by a transverse volume electric discharge in a low-pressure gas mixture without a buffer gas reached up to 170 mJ and a high pulsed output power (of up to 24 MW) was obtained at a FWHM duration of the KrF-laser pulse of 7 ns. The maximal total efficiency obtained in the experiment with two-component gas mixtures of KrF and XeCl lasers was 0.8%.

  15. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements with HTU at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto, Borehole OL-KR15 and OL-KR15B, Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, H.

    2005-07-01

    As a part of the site investigations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, hydraulic conductivity measurements were carried out in borehole OL-KR15 at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto. The objective was to investigate the distribution of the hydraulic conductivity in the surrounding bedrock volume. Measurements were carried out during 2003-2004 in two phases. The total length of the borehole OL-KR15 is 518,85 m and 158 45,14 m. Of the 471 ,5 m + 44,5 m total measurable length 414 m was covered with 237 standard tests with 2 m packer separation as specified in the research plan, partly with 1 m overlaps. 259 tests were initiated, but some of them ended to hardware or software errors or unsuitable parameter values. Double-packer constant-head method was used throughout with nominal 200 kPa overpressure. Injection stage lasted normally 20 minutes and fall-off stage 10 minutes. The tests were often shortened if there were clear indications that the hydraulic conductivity is below the measuring range of the system. The pressure in the test section was let to stabilise at least 5 min before injection. In some test sections the stabilisation or injection stage lasted several hours. Two transient (Horner and 1/Q) interpretations and one stationary-state (Moye) interpretation were made in-situ immediately after the test. The Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU-system) is owned by Posiva Oy and it was operated by Geopros Oy. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of the KrWG at communal level. Consequences for a German district; Kommunale Umsetzung des KrWG. Konsequenzen fuer einen Landkreis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selbert, Susanne [Landkreis Kassel, Kassel (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    With nearly full-scale energetic utilization of biological waste materials and 100 percent utilization of residues, the district of Kassel exceeds the specifications of the KrWG even today, without introducing an additional recycling bin. Experiments have shown that the current 'grey recycling bin' followed by waste sorting is feasible in the Kassel district because of the favourable boundary conditions. The goals set by the German government are exceeded by far. It should be noted that it is the utilization goals that are important and not the collecting system. (orig.) [German] Mit der weitgehenden energetischen Nutzung der Bioabfaelle und der 100%igen Verwertung der Restabfaelle werden im Landkreis Kassel die Ansprueche des KrWG auch ohne zusaetzliche Wertstofftonne bereits heute weit uebertroffen. Eigene Versuche zeigen, dass die gemeinsame Sammlung von Restabfaellen und Leichtverpackungen ueber eine ''Graue Wertstofftonne'' mit nachfolgender Sortierung aufgrund der positiven Rahmenbedingungen im Landkreis Kassel sehr gut moeglich ist. Die Ziele der Bundesregierung zur Erhoehung der Wertstoffsammlung koennen so deutlich uebertroffen werden. Daher muessen Verwertungsziele massgebend sein und nicht ein vorgegebenes Sammelsystem. (orig.)

  17. High contrast Kr gas jet K alpha x-ray source for high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugland, N L; Neumayer, P; Döppner, T; Chung, H-K; Constantin, C G; Girard, F; Glenzer, S H; Kemp, A; Niemann, C

    2008-10-01

    A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr K alpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility using strongly clustering Kr gas jet targets. The contrast ratio (K alpha to continuum) is 65, with a competitive ultrashort pulse laser to x-ray conversion efficiency of 10(-5). Filtered shadowgraphy indicates that the Kr K alpha and K beta x rays are emitted from a roughly 1x2 mm(2) emission volume, making this source suitable for area backlighting and scattering. Spectral calculations indicate a typical bulk electron temperature of 50-70 eV (i.e., mean ionization state 13-16), based on the observed ratio of K alpha to K beta. Kr gas jets provide a debris-free high energy K alpha source for time-resolved diagnosis of dense matter.

  18. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  19. Results of wavelet processing of the 2K-capture Kr-78 experiment statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Yu M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S

    2010-01-01

    Results of a search for Kr-78 double K-capture with the large low-background proportional counter (2005-2008 years) at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory are presented. An experimental method and characteristics of detectors are described. Basic features of the digitized pulses processing using wavelet transform are considered. With due account taken of the analysis of individual noise characteristic it has been shown that the appropriate choice of both wavelet characteristics and sequence of processing algorithms allows one to decrease the background in the energy region of useful events with a unique set of characteristics by ~2000 times. New limit on the half-life of Kr-78 with regard to 2K-capture has been found: T_{1/2} >= 2.4E21 yrs (90% C.L.).

  20. Large aperture discharge-pumped KrF laser for picosecond amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan Xiao; LiuJingRu; Goldhar, J

    2002-01-01

    A large aperture discharge-pumped KrF laser module with simple spark gaps was developed. The laser beam cross section of 4 cm x 3 cm and the maximum laser output energy of 1.3J in 20ns were obtained at the charging voltage of 30 kV and gas mixtures of [F sub 2] : [Kr] : [Ne] = 0.1 : 2 : 97.9. The gain and absorption coefficients at different gas mixtures were measured with a frequency doubled dye laser pumped by a XeCl laser. Using this laser module as a ps amplifier, the output energy of 140 mJ in 10 ps was obtained

  1. N and Z odd-even staggering in Kr+Sn collisions at Fermi energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdrè, S.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Pârlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twaróg, T.; Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.

    2013-12-01

    The odd-even staggering of the yield of final reaction products has been studied as a function of proton (Z) and neutron (N) numbers for the collisions 84Kr+112Sn and 84Kr+124Sn at 35 MeV/nucleon in a wide range of elements (up to Z≈20). The experimental data show that staggering effects rapidly decrease with increasing size of the fragments. Moreover the staggering in N is definitely larger than the one in Z. Similar general features are qualitatively reproduced by the gemini code. Concerning the comparison of the two systems, the staggering in N is in general rather similar, being slightly larger only for the lightest fragments produced in the n-rich system. In contrast the staggering in Z, although smaller than that in N, is sizably larger for the n-poor system with respect to the n-rich one.

  2. N and Z odd-even staggering in Kr + Sn collisions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Piantelli, S; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Carboni, S; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A A; Valdrè, S; Bougault, R; Bonnet, E; Borderie, B; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Gruyer, D; Lopez, O; Neindre, N Le; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Vient, E; Rosato, E; Spadaccini, G; Vigilante, M; Bruno, M; Marchi, T; Morelli, L; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Gramegna, F; Kozik, T; Twaróg, T; Alba, R; Maiolino, C; Santonocito, D

    2013-01-01

    The odd-even staggering of the yield of final reaction products has been studied as a function of proton (Z) and neutron (N) numbers for the collisions 84 Kr+112 Sn and 84 Kr+124 Sn at 35 MeV/nucleon, in a wide range of elements (up to Z ~ 20). The experimental data show that staggering effects rapidly decrease with increasing size of the fragments. Moreover the staggering in N is definitely larger than the one in Z. Similar general features are qualitatively reproduced by the GEMINI code. Concerning the comparison of the two systems, the staggering in N is in general rather similar, being slightly larger only for the lightest fragments produced in the n-rich system. In contrast the staggering in Z, although smaller than that in N, is sizably larger for the n-poor system with respect to the n-rich one.

  3. Nutritional quality of Krškopolje and commercial fattener pig meats in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kovač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of M. Longissimus dorsi in the autochthonous Krškopolje pig breed and commercial fatteners from intensive Slovenian farms was compared. Commercial fatteners were divided into two groups according to lean meat percentage: MEATY and FATTY groups. The Krškopolje pigs (KK group and the FATTY group had higher intramuscular fat content than the MEATY group. The lowest saturated fatty acids (SFA proportion was found in the KK group and the highest in the FATTY group. The KK and FATTY groups contained higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as well as lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to the MEATY group. The highest n-6 PUFA proportion was found in the MEATY group. The n-3 PUFA proportion differed between the MEATY and FATTY groups. The FATTY group had the lowest ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids as well as the highest atherogenic index.

  4. Resolution of hyperfine transitions in metastable 83Kr using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, Y B; Tiwari, V B; Singh, S; Rawat, H S

    2015-01-01

    Narrow linewidth signals of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in the metastable 83Kr have been observed for the first time. Various hyperfine transitions in 4p55s[3/2]2 to 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds of 83Kr have been identified through the experimentally observed EIT signals. Some unresolved or poorly resolved hyperfine transitions in saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) are clearly resolved in the present work. Using the spectral separation of these EIT identified hyperfine transitions, the magnetic hyperfine constant (A) and the electric quadrupole hyperfine constant (B) are determined with improved accuracy for 4p55s[3/2]2 and 4p55p[5/2]3 manifolds.

  5. Calibration Of A KrF Laser-Plasma Source For X-Ray Microscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcu, I. C. E.; O'Neill, F.; Zammit, U.; Al-Hadithi, Y.; Eason, R. W.; Rogayski, A. M.; Hills, C. P. B.; Michette, A. G.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma X-ray sources for biological microscopy in the water-window have been produced by focusing tige 200 3, 50 ns Sprit q KrF laser onto carbon targets at irradiance between 2.2 x 10" W/cm4 and 3.7 x 10i3W/cm. Absolute measurements of X-ray production have been made using a calibrated, vacuum X-ray diode detector. A peak conversion efficiency . 10% is measured from KrF laseri)Tight tcto wate-window X-rays at 280 eV < hv < 530 eV for a target irradiance . 1 x x 10 W/cm'. Some measurements with gold and tungsten targets give conversion efficiencies 2$25% at a similar laser irradiance.

  6. Laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer in Xe-Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhen-Zhong; Chen De-Ying; Fan Rong-Wei; Xia Yuan-Qin

    2011-01-01

    By considering the relative velocity distribution function and multipole expansion interaction Hamiltonian, a three-state model for calculating the cross section of laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer is presented. Calculated results in Xe-Kr system show that in the present system, the laser-induced collision process occurs for ~4 ps, which is much shorter than the dipole-dipole laser-induced collisional energy transfer (LICET) process.The spectrum of laser-induced quadrupole-quadrupole collisional energy transfer in Xe-Kr system has wider tunable range in an order of magnitude than the dipole-dipole LICET spectra. The peak cross section decreases and moves to the quasi-static wing with increasing temperature and the full width at half peak of the profile becomes larger as the system temperature increases.

  7. Production and separation of neutron-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy

    CERN Document Server

    Souliotis, G A; Chubarian, G; Yennello, S J

    2003-01-01

    The production of n-rich rare isotopes around and below the Fermi energy is investigated using beams from the K500 Superconducting Cyclotron and the MARS recoil separator at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A and M University. The experimental results from the reactions of 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni and 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn are presented and compared with simulations. The calculations involve a deep inelastic transfer (DIT) code for the primary interaction stage followed by the code GEMINI for the de-excitation stage. The results are also compared with the EPAX parametrization. The data on the 25 MeV/nucleon sup 8 sup 6 Kr + sup 6 sup 4 Ni reaction show that both proton-removal and several-neutron pick-up isotopes are produced. An enhancement is observed in the production of n-rich isotopes close to the projectile relative to the predictions of DIT/GEMINI and the expectations of EPAX. The data of 21 MeV/nucleon sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 Sn + sup 1 sup 2 sup 4 ...

  8. Krüppel-like transcription factors and control of pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourillot Pierre-Yves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent papers have demonstrated a role for Krüppel-like transcription factors 2, 4 and 5 in the control of mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency. However, it is not clear whether each factor has a unique role or whether they are functionally redundant. A paper by Parisi and colleagues in BMC Biology now sheds light on the mechanism by which Klf5 regulates pluripotency. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/128

  9. Archaeological finds from the vaulted building at Krševica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Petar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The completely preserved building with barrel vault was discovered in 2008 in the course of investigation of the remains of an urban settlement dating from the 4th /3rd centuries BC at the site Kale in the village Krševica (southeast Serbia. We are presenting in this work the archaeological finds discovered in this structure. They included pottery, worked stone and many skeletons of horses and dogs that are assumed to be the ritual sacrifice.

  10. Research on Driving Characteristics of High Speed Flyer Using KrF Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ye-jun; WANG; Zhao; TIAN; Bao-xian; LIANG; Jin; HAN; Mao-lan; LU; Ze; TANG; Xiu-zhang

    2013-01-01

    KrF excimer laser(248 nm)has high spatial uniformity by using induced spatial incoherence technology.After image relay and amplification by optical angular multiplexing technology,non-uniformity of image surface of focal spot is 1.6%.The spot spatial uniformity decreases with increasing distance of deviating image surface,the spatial non-uniformity is up to 5%at 3 mm place

  11. Krüppel Expression Levels Are Maintained through Compensatory Evolution of Shadow Enhancers

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba Wunderlich; Meghan D.J. Bragdon; Ben J. Vincent; Jonathan A. White; Javier Estrada; Angela H. DePace

    2015-01-01

    Many developmental genes are controlled by shadow enhancers—pairs of enhancers that drive overlapping expression patterns. We hypothesized that compensatory evolution can maintain the total expression of a gene, while individual shadow enhancers diverge between species. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression driven by orthologous pairs of shadow enhancers from Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila yakuba, and Drosophila pseudoobscura that control expression of Krüppel, a transcription ...

  12. A miniature high-power KrF laser excited with a capacitively coupled discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, T.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A KrF excimer laser excited in a capacitively coupled discharge device made out of commercial BaTiO3doorknob capacitors is described. The discharge volume of 1.4 cm3is formed by a 3 mm bore into four capacitors glued together in a line. A maximal laser output energy of 1.7 mJ (1.2 J/l) in a 5.0 ns

  13. Quantitative dynamics and increased variability of segmentation gene expression in the Drosophila Krüppel and knirps mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Svetlana; Golubkova, Elena; Manu; Panok, Lena; Mamon, Lyudmila; Reinitz, John; Samsonova, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Here we characterize the response of the Drosophila segmentation system to mutations in two gap genes, Kr and kni, in the form of single or double homozygotes and single heterozygotes. Segmentation gene expression in these genotypes was quantitatively monitored with cellular resolution in space and 6.5 to 13min resolution in time. As is the case with wild type, we found that gene expression domains in the posterior portion of the embryo shift to the anterior over time. In certain cases, such as the gt posterior domain in Kr mutants, the shifts are significantly larger than is seen in wild type embryos. We also investigated the effects of Kr and kni on the variability of gene expression. Mutations often produce variable phenotypes, and it is well known that the cuticular phenotype of Kr mutants is variable. We sought to understand the molecular basis of this effect. We find that throughout cycle 14A the relative levels of eve and ftz expression in stripes 2 and 3 are variable among individual embryos. Moreover, in Kr and kni mutants, unlike wild type, the variability in positioning of the posterior Hb domain and eve stripe 7 is not decreased or filtered with time. The posterior Gt domain in Kr mutants is highly variable at early times, but this variability decreases when this domain shifts in the anterior direction to the position of the neighboring Kni domain. In contrast to these findings, positional variability throughout the embryo does not decrease over time in double Kr;kni mutants. In heterozygotes the early expression patterns of segmentation genes resemble patterns seen in homozygous mutants but by the onset of gastrulation they become similar to the wild type patterns. Finally, we note that gene expression levels are reduced in Kr and kni mutant embryos and have a tendency to decrease over time. This is a surprising result in view of the role that mutual repression is thought to play in the gap gene system.

  14. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J.; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F.; Six, Joseph S.; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P.; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of 83Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp 83Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp 83Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp 129Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations were P = 29% for 83Kr and P = 63% for 129Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2 was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either 83Kr or 129Xe. Highly spin-polarized 83Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp 83Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp 129Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp 129Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized 129Xe.

  15. Characterization of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current, I (Kr), in HL-1 mouse atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Futoshi; Ding, Wei-Guang; Zankov, Dimitar P; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Isono, Takahiro; Horie, Minoru; Matsuura, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    HL-1 is the adult murine cardiac cell line that can be passaged repeatedly in vitro without losing differentiated phenotype. The present study was designed to characterize the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current, I (Kr), endogenously expressed in HL-1 cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In the presence of nisoldipine, depolarizing voltage steps applied from a holding potential of -50 mV evoked the time-dependent outward current, followed by slowly decaying outward tail current upon return to the holding potential. The amplitude of the current increased with depolarizations up to 0 mV but then progressively decreased with further depolarizations. The time-dependent outward current as well as the tail current were highly sensitive to block by E-4031 and dofetilide (IC(50) of 21.1 and 15.1 nM, respectively) and almost totally abolished by micromolar concentrations of each drug, suggesting that most of the outward current in HL-1 cells was attributable to I (Kr). The magnitude of I (Kr) available from HL-1 cells (18.1 +/- 1.5 pA pF(-1)) was sufficient for reliable measurements of various gating parameters. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed the expression of alternatively spliced forms of mouse ether-a-go-go-related genes (mERG1), the full-length mERG1a and the N-terminally truncated mERG1b isoforms. Knockdown of mERG1 transcripts with small interfering RNA (siRNA) dramatically reduced I (Kr) amplitude, confirming the molecular link of mERG1 and I (Kr) in HL-1 cells. These findings demonstrate that HL-1 cells possess I (Kr) with properties comparable to those in native cardiac I (Kr) and provide an experimental model suitable for studies of I (Kr) channels.

  16. $\\beta$- decay of the proton-rich T$_{z} = -1/2$ nucleus, $^{71}$Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Oinonen, M; Äystö, J; Baumann, P; Didierjean, François; Honkanen, J A; Huck, A; Huyse, M; Knipper, A; Marguier, G; Novikov, Yu N; Popov, A; Ramdhane, M; Seliverstov, D M; Van Duppen, P; Walter, G

    1997-01-01

    $\\beta$- decay of the T$_{z}$ = - 1/2 nuclide $^{71}$Kr has been studied at the ISOLDE PSB Facility at CERN. $^{71}$Kr ions were produced in spallation reactions in a Nb foil using the 1 GeV proton beam and studied by means of $\\beta$-delayed proton, $\\beta$- and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. The half-life and the $\\beta$-decay energy of $^{71}$Kr were determined using the decay of protons and positrons. These results: T$_{1/2}$ = 100 ± 3 ms and $Q_\\textrm{EC}$ = 10$^{14}$ ± 0.32 MeV and the first observation of the b-branch to the 207 keV level in $^{71}$Br makes the extension of the systematics of Gamow-Teller matrix elements of mirror nuclei up to A = 71 possible. Gamow-Teller strength of the same magnitude as that of the $fp$-shell mirror nuclei is observed for the ground state transition.

  17. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  18. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  19. Tunable KrF laser-induced fluorescence of C2 in a sooting flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhinke, A.; Hartlieb, A. T.; Kohse-Höinghaus, K.; Crosley, D. R.

    1998-11-01

    We have observed laser-induced fluorescence of two different band systems of C2 in a flame, excited by a tunable KrF laser near 248 nm. The first comprises several P and R lines of the (1,0) band of the e 3@g-a 3@u Fox-Herzberg system, with fluorescence bands extending past 350 nm. The second is the band head region of the (7,1) band of the D 1Du+LB' 1Dg+ system, with fluorescence at 232 nm from D to the X 1Dg+ ground state. Neither band has been previously observed in any environment. The flame in these experiments is highly sooting, and the C2 seen here is likely produced by laser vaporization of the soot with subsequent laser photolysis of a C2 precursor. In a rich flame, this fluorescence could cause interferences in other studies such as KrF laser Raman scattering. Moreover, signal level calculations suggest native C2 near 10 ppm could be readily observed using the Fox-Herzberg excitation. Raman measurements of major species (X̾.01) in the same flame, using the KrF laser, are in good agreement with a model prediction.

  20. Krāsas un atmosfēra Edgara Alana Po dzejā

    OpenAIRE

    Kļimova, Kristīna

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir krāsas un noskaņa Edgar Allana Po dzejā. Pētījuma uzdevums ir noteikt biežāk lietojamos tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļus un krāsas Edgara Po dzejā, turklāt identificēt gaisotni un noskaņu šajos darbos. Darba autore ir veikusi pētījumu balstoties uz praktiskām un teorētiskām zināšanām. Teorētiskā daļa iztirzā tāda veida problēmas kā: tēlainās izteiksmes līdzekļu būtību, simbolu un simbolsisko krāsu izmantošana literatūrā, ka arī to nozīmi Edgara Allana Po dzejā, un cit...

  1. Magnesium aminoclay enhances lipid production of mixotrophic Chlorella sp. KR-1 while reducing bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohwa; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Lee, Jiye; Nam, Bora; Kim, Dong-Myung; Lee, Kyubock; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2016-11-01

    Improving lipid productivity and preventing overgrowth of contaminating bacteria are critical issues relevant to the commercialization of the mixotrophic microalgae cultivation process. In this paper, we report the use of magnesium aminoclay (MgAC) nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production from oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 with simultaneous control of KR-1-associated bacterial growth in mixotrophic cultures with glucose as the model substrate. Addition of 0.01-0.1g/L MgAC promoted microalgal biomass production better than the MgAC-less control, via differential biocidal effects on microalgal and bacterial cells (the latter being more sensitive to MgAC's bio-toxicity than the former). The inhibition effect of MgAC on co-existing bacteria was, as based on density-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, largely dosage-dependent and species-specific. MgAC also, by inducing an oxidative stress environment, increased both the cell size and lipid content of KR-1, resulting in a considerable, ∼25% improvement of mixotrophic algal lipid productivity (to ∼410mgFAME/L/d) compared with the untreated control.

  2. S.Meijeres romāna "Krēsla" popularitātes fenomens

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgevica, Ineta

    2010-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba mērķis is atklāt romāna “Krēsla” popularitātes iemeslus, salīdzināt to ar citiem populāriem un klasiskiem darbiem, kā arī analizēt romānu “Krēsla” no struktūras elementu parauga viedokļa. Pētījuma pamatā izmantoti teorētiskie materiāli par intertekstualitāti un strukturālo analīzi. Bakalaura darbā tika izmantota romānam “Krēsla” veltīto kritikas materiālu analīze, pētīšana un salīdzināšana ar Dž. Ostinas “Lepnums un aiszpriedumi “, E. Brontē “Kalnu aukas”, V. Šekspīra “Rom...

  3. Interleukin-13/Interleukin-4-induced oxidative stress contributes to death of prothrombinkringle-2 (pKr-2)-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, So-Yoon; Kim, Sang Ryong; Maeng, Sungho; Jin, Byung K

    2013-12-15

    The present study examined whether Interleukin-13 (IL-13) or IL-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, could induce cell death of activated microglia by prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) which is a domain of prothrombin distinct from thrombin. Microglia cell death was detected at eight days after co-treatment of pKr-2 with IL-13/IL-4 in vitro. This cell death was assessed by live assay, dead assay, TUNEL and MTT assay. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evident as assessed by superoxide assay, WST-1 and analyzing DCF in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia. The IL-13/IL-4-enhanced ROS production and cell death in pKr-2 activated microglia was partially inhibited by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin and/or by several antioxidants. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed a significant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in combination of pKr-2 and IL-13 or IL-4 treated microglia, which was partially inhibited by apocynin and an antioxidant, trolox. Additional studies demonstrated that microglia cell death was reversed by treatment with COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Our data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and COX-2 activation through NADPH oxidase may contribute to IL-13/IL-4 induced cell death of pKr-2 activated microglia.

  4. In situ observation of microstructure evolution in tungsten under 400 keV Kr{sup +} irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ran, Guang, E-mail: gran@xmu.edu.cn [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Huang, Shilin; Huang, Zijing [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yan, Qingzhi [Institute of Nuclear Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Jiangkun [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture Co., Ltd., Taishan City, Guangdong 529228 (China); Li, Ning [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Wang, Lumin, E-mail: lmwang@umich.edu [College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten was irradiated with 400 keV Kr{sup +} ions using the IVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The evolution of microstructure and gas bubbles during the irradiation was observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Under irradiation, dislocation loops were created and grew into an increased density of network dislocations with increasing Kr{sup +} ion fluence. The irradiation induced final microstructure consists of dislocation cells ∼50 nm in diameter separated by dislocation walls. The irradiation also induced formation of Kr gas bubbles with an average diameter of 1.4 nm after 3.0 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at 525 K. The gas bubbles were observed to grow to 2.6 nm diameter after additional Kr-irradiation of 5.0 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at 815 K. The relationship between bubble size and irradiation time was obtained from experimental data obtained at 815 K and an empirical formula for calculating Kr bubble size was developed by fitting bubble growth equations with experiment data. The growth mechanisms of Kr gas bubbles in tungsten are discussed.

  5. Estimation of 85Kr dispersion from the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan, using an atmospheric dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Iyogi, T; Kawabata, H; Chiang, J H; Suwa, H; Hisamatsu, S

    2015-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) located in Rokkasho, Japan, discharged small amounts of (85)Kr into the atmosphere during final tests of the plant with actual spent fuel from 31 March 2006 to October 2008. During this period, the gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr were higher than the background rates measured at the Institute for Environmental Sciences and at seven monitoring stations of the Aomori prefectural government and JNFL. The dispersion of (85)Kr was simulated by means of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model and the CG-MATHEW/ADPIC models (ver. 5.0) with a vertical terrain-following height coordinate. Although the simulated gamma-ray dose rates due to discharged (85)Kr agreed fairly well with measured rates, the agreement between the estimated monthly mean (85)Kr concentrations and the observed concentrations was poor. Improvement of the vertical flow of air may lead to better estimation of (85)Kr dispersion.

  6. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-Selective Microporous Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianyin; Plonka, Anna M; Banerjee, Debasis; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T; Ghose, Sanjit; Thallapally, Praveen K; Parise, John B

    2015-06-10

    The cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe-network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributed to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.

  7. Matrix effect on vibrational frequencies: experiments and simulations for HCl and HNgCl (Ng = Kr and Xe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Gerber, R Benny; Räsänen, Markku; Lignell, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2014-03-01

    We study the environmental effect on molecules embedded in noble-gas (Ng) matrices. The experimental data on HXeCl and HKrCl in Ng matrices is enriched. As a result, the H-Xe stretching bands of HXeCl are now known in four Ng matrices (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe), and HKrCl is now known in Ar and Kr matrices. The order of the H-Xe stretching frequencies of HXeCl in different matrices is ν(Ne) Kr) Kr) Kr stretching frequencies of HKrCl is consistently ν(Kr) < ν(Ar). These matrix effects are analyzed theoretically by using a number of quantum chemical methods. The calculations on these molecules (HCl, HXeCl, and HKrCl) embedded in single Ng(') layer cages lead to very satisfactory results with respect to the relative matrix shifts in the case of the MP4(SDQ) method whereas the B3LYP-D and MP2 methods fail to fully reproduce these experimental results. The obtained order of frequencies is discussed in terms of the size available for the Ng hydrides in the cages, probably leading to different stresses on the embedded molecule. Taking into account vibrational anharmonicity produces a good agreement of the MP4(SDQ) frequencies of HCl and HXeCl with the experimental values in different matrices. This work also highlights a number of open questions in the field.

  8. Carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C and (14)C activity) of plant samples in the vicinity of the Slovene nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martina; Vreča, Polona; Krajcar Bronić, Ines

    2012-08-01

    δ(13)C values of various plants (apples, wheat, and maize) collected in the vicinity of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant (Slovenia) during 2008 and 2009 were determined. By measuring dried samples and their carbonized counterparts we showed that no significant isotopic fractionation occurs during the carbonization phase of the sample preparation process in the laboratory. The measured δ(13)C values of the plants were used for δ(13)C correction of their measured (14)C activities.

  9. Kr-pok increases FASN expression by modulating the DNA binding of SREBP-1c and Sp1 at the proximal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Bu-Nam; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Won-Il; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Min-Kyeong; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Hur, Benjamin; Paik, Philip Dong-Hyun; Hur, Man-Wook

    2012-04-01

    Kr-pok (kidney cancer-related POZ domain and Krüppel-like protein) is a new proto-oncogenic POZ-domain transcription factor. Fatty acid synthase gene (FASN) encodes one of the key enzymes in fatty acids synthesis and is the only enzyme that synthesizes fatty acids in cancer cells. Sp1 and SREBP-1c are the two major transcription activators of FASN. We investigated whether Kr-pok modulates transcription of the FASN. FASN expression is significantly decreased in Kr-pok knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts. Coimmunoprecipitation, GST fusion protein pull-down, and immunocytochemistry assays show that the zinc-finger domain of Kr-pok interacts directly with the bZIP DNA binding domain of SREBP-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, oligonucleotide pull-down, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Kr-pok changes the transcription factor binding dynamics of Sp1 and SREBP-1c to the SRE/E-box elements of the proximal promoter. We found that Kr-pok expression increased during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that FASN expression is decreased by the knockdown of Kr-pok. Kr-pok facilitates the SREBP-1c-mediated preadipocyte differentiation and/or fatty acid synthesis. Kr-pok may act as an important regulator of fatty acid synthesis and may induce rapid cancer cell proliferation by increasing palmitate synthesis.

  10. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR37 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-11-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 350.00 m and 45.10 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in June- August 2005. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 273 m{sup 3} and 21m{sup 3} and the measured volumes of the returning water were 221m{sup 3} and 16m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR37 and OL-KR37B, respectively. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106 MPa, the average Young's modulus is 40 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.20. The main rock types are migmatitic mica gneiss, granite and tonalite. Filled

  11. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Szymanski, T.; Thoennessen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of the Arsenic Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, A; Heim, M; Schuh, A; Thoennessen, M

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine arsenic isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. The KrWG and the Biological Waste Ordinance. Consequences for collecting and treatment of biological waste; KrWG und Bioabfallverordnung. Konsequenzen fuer die Bioabfallerfassung und -behandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergs, Claus Gerhard [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The next few years will bring about some changes in legal specifications for biomass waste utilisation. After the amendment of the Biomass Waste Ordinance, it must be checked whether the specifications of the new Act on Recycling and Waste Management (KrWG) concerning utilization of biomass waste, in combination with the obligation to collect biomass waste materials separately (Sect.11 No.1) must be incorporated in an amended Biomass Waste Ordinance. Further, from 1 January 2015, the priority regulations of the new KrWG will also apply to specifications for hazardous materials in fertilizer legislation. In the case of food waste, it must also be checked if waste prevention measures can be implemented realistically. National regulations will probably be influenced by impending EU legislation defining the 'waste character' of biomass waste. (orig.) [German] In den kommenden Jahren werden sich erneut wesentliche Aenderungen der rechtlichen Anforderungen an die Verwertung von Bioabfaellen ergeben. Nach Abschluss der derzeit laufenden Novelle der Bioabfallverordnung ist zu ueberpruefen, inwiefern die Vorgaben des neuen Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes zur verstaerkten stofflichen Verwertung in Verbindung mit der durch paragraph 11 Abs. 1 normierten Pflicht zur Getrennterfassung von Bioabfaellen rechtlich in einer neuerlich ueberarbeiteten Bioabfallverordnung umzusetzen sind. Zudem greift zum 01.01.2015 auch die Vorrangregelung des neuen Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes bei den Schadstoffanforderungen zugunsten des Duengerechtes. Bei Bioabfaellen - sprich Lebensmittelabfaellen - ist zudem zu pruefen, ob wirksame Massnahmen der Abfallvermeidung realistischerweise umsetzbar sind. Einfluss auf die nationalen Regelungen haben dabei vermutlich auch die auf europaeischer Ebene in Vorbereitung befindlichen Arbeiten fuer rechtliche Bestimmungen zum ''Ende der Abfalleigenschaft'' von Bioabfaellen. (orig.)

  14. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  15. Probing the photochemistry of chemisorbed oxygen on TiO2(110) with Kr and other co-adsorbates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Nikolay G; Kimmel, Greg A

    2014-02-14

    Weakly-bound atoms and molecules (Ar, Kr, Xe, CO, CH4, CO2, CH3OH, N2O, and N2) are used to probe the photochemical interactions of chemisorbed oxygen on rutile TiO2(110). Ultraviolet irradiation of chemisorbed oxygen co-adsorbed with the probe species leads to photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of some of the probe species (e.g. Kr and CH4), but not others (e.g. CO2 and N2O). Without chemisorbed oxygen, the PSD yields of all the probe species are very low or not observed. Surprisingly, both chemisorbed O2 and oxygen adatoms, Oa, are photo-active for desorption of Kr and other weakly-bound species. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for photo-activity of Oa on TiO2(110). The Kr PSD yield increases with increasing coverage of Kr and of chemisorbed oxygen. For Kr, the angular distribution of the photodesorbed atoms is approximately cosine. The Kr distribution is quite different from the angular distribution for the O2 PSD, which is sharply peaked along the surface normal. We propose that various forms of chemisorbed oxygen are excited by reactions with electrons and/or holes created in the TiO2 substrate by UV photon irradiation. The photo-excited oxygen collides with, and transfers energy to, neighboring co-adsorbed atoms or molecules. For co-adsorbates with a small enough binding energy to the substrate, desorption may result. The observed phenomenon provides a new tool for studying photochemical processes.

  16. Sulpyrine inhalation challenge test monitored continuously by respiratory impedance and [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Naoto; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shiratsuki, Natsuo; Nishioka, Yasuhiro; Kitada, Osamu; Sugita, Minoru (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    Continuous changes of respiratory impedance by the oscillation method using Asthograph and [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image during saline and sulpyrine solution (100 mg/ml, 250 mg/ml) provocation were simultaneously measured in 15 adult asthmatics and 7 normal individuals. Estimation of airway obstruction by respiratory impedance using Asthograph was difficult during sulpyrine inhalation, since respiratory impedance increased gradually. In addition to the measurement of respiratory impedance, images of [sup 81m]Kr ventilation were also obtained to estimate the regional ventilatory distribution. Estimation of the airway obstruction was easily obtained. Another advantage of [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image is that it can estimate the regional ventilatory distribution. The site of airway obstruction provoked by sulpyrine was observed predominantly in the lower lung field. The results of our present study were as follows. In 3 patients, increase of respiratory impedance and defect of [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image were observed. Two cases in this group were clinically diagnosed as having aspirin-induced asthma. In 7 patients, a defect of [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image was observed, but no increase of respiratory impedance was observed. Five cases in this group could not be clinically diagnosed as having aspirin-induced asthma. In 5 patients, neither defect of [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image nor increase of respiratory impedance could be detected. These results suggest that [sup 81m]Kr ventilation image on sulpyrine inhalation challenge test is a useful method for evaluating regional ventilatory distribution, but should be further investigated for application to aspirin-induced asthma. (author).

  17. Radium isotopes in groundwater around Fuji Volcano, Japan -application for groundwater dating on volcanic area-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Young groundwater dating less than 100 years is possible to be obtained from environmental radioactivity with short half life, 3H+3He, 85Kr, or chemical material, CFC-12. The 3H+3He dating method is excellent method to estimate the residence time of shallow groundwater. The one of advantage of the method is small sample volume. The 3He in groundwater is originated by 3 sources, tritiogenic He, mantle He, radiogenic He produced in rock. Especially, as the contribution of the mantle He is greater than the radiogenic and triogenic, when 3H+3He dating apply for groundwater dating on volcanic area, we have to determine ratio of 3 sources. On the other hand, as 85Kr is only originated from atmosphere, it is excellent groundwater dating tracer on volcanic area. However, as 85Kr is ultra low concentration in groundwater, 85Kr is needed to separate from large amount of ground water about 10^5 L. Young groundwater dating by these methods has both advantages and disadvantages, but the disadvantages of the individual methods can be offset by using multiple tracers. Development of a lot of groundwater dating techniques is desired. Therefore, an application of radium isotopes which is simple origin to groundwater dating on volcanic area was tried. Ra-228 and Ra-226 are progenies of Th and U, respectively. The 228Ra/226Ra in ground waters depends on the Th/U in the relevant rocks. As the 228Ra and 226Ra in shallow groundwater on volcanic area are originated from only rock, and the collection of radium isotopes from groundwater is easier than that of 85Kr, implying that it is possible to be good tracer for volcanic area. We aim that groundwater age obtain from 228Ra/226Ra in groundwater and relevant rock on volcanic area. We determined that 228Ra/226Ra observed with river waters and the relevant rocks. The method applied for Kakitagawa around Fuji Volcano, Japan. The relevant rock of Kakitagawa is Mishima lava flow. Our method compared with 3H+3He dating. The residence time of

  18. Evolution of E2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on $^{172}$Hf, $^{174}$Hf, and $^{176}$Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Rudigier, M; Dannhoff, M; Gerst, R-B; Jolie, J; Saed-Samii, N; Stegemann, S; Régis, J-M; Robledo, L M; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R; Blazhev, A; Fransen, Ch; Warr, N; Zell, K O

    2015-01-01

    The available data for E2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient Hf and Pt isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf. We remeasure the 2^+_1 half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. The half-lives were measured using \\gamma-\\gamma and conversion-electron-\\gamma delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives i...

  19. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  20. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    is incorporated into carbonates. Hence, ancient carbonates can potentially record the Cr isotopic composition (δ53Cr ‰) of seawater in the geological past. Reliable application and interpretation of this proxy requires a detailed knowledge about processes that fractionate Cr on the Earth’s surface...... deposited during the Early Ordovician — a time of known redox instability in ancient oceans – exhibit a significant positive Cr isotope excursion of +0.5‰. This excursion is interpreted as the reductive drawn down of dissolved Cr in seawater in response to the development of a proximal anoxic sink......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify...

  1. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  2. PET Imaging of the AT{sub 1} receptor with [{sup 11}C]KR31173

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zober, Tamas G. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Mathews, William B. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Seckin, Esen [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Yoo, Sung-eun [Center for Biological Modulators, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Hilton, John [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Xia Jinsong [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Sandberg, Kathryn [Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Ravert, Hayden T. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Dannals, Robert F. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States); Szabo, Zsolt [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-0817 (United States)]. E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu

    2006-01-15

    Aim: The goal of this study was to investigate the binding characteristics of [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and its applicability for PET studies of the AT{sub 1} receptor (AT{sub 1}R). Methods: Ex vivo biodistribution and pharmacology were tested in mice. PET imaging was performed in mice, beagle dogs and a baboon. To assess nonspecific binding, PET imaging was performed both before and after pretreatment with a potent AT{sub 1}R antagonist. In the baboon, PET imaging was also performed with the previously developed radioligand [{sup 11}C]L-159,884 for comparison. Results: Ex vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed specific binding rates of 80-90% in the adrenals, kidneys, lungs and heart. Specific binding was confirmed in mice using small animal PET. In dogs, renal cortex tissue concentration at 75-95 min postinjection (pi) was 63 nCi/ml per millicurie at a specific binding rate of 95%. In the baboon renal cortex, tissue activity at 55-75 min pi was 345 nCi/ml per millicurie. In the baboon the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]KR31173 was higher (81%) than the specific binding of [{sup 11}C]L-159,884 (34%). Conclusion: [{sup 11}C]KR31173 shows accumulation and significant specific binding to the AT{sub 1}R in the kidneys of mice, dogs and baboon. These findings suggest that this radioligand is suited for imaging the renal cortical AT{sub 1}R in multiple species.

  3. Clinical utility and reliability of sup(81m)Kr SPECT images applied to posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Takashi; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Karasawa, Jun (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    The instrument used in this study has a sensitivity of 28,000 counts/mCi/cm/sup 3/ for sup(99m)Tc and a spatial resolution of approximately 20mm full width at a half-maximum. The tomographic images were obtained by the continuous infusion of sup(81m)Kr at the base of the ascending aorta. Material was subsequently studied in 49 cases that met the conditions of: 1) obstructive vertebrobasilar system lesions (8 cases), 2) no ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (10), or 3) ischemic cerebrovascular disorders in anterior circulation (31). The reproducibility, as studied in 20 cases, was satisfactory. 6 cases were compared with a stable Xe CT CBF map that had regional depressions similar to those of the sup(81m)Kr SPECT images. In the 2nd group, 8 of the 10 cases showed a mild laterality on cerebellar perfusion images obtained by SPECT, as did 29 of the 31 in the 3rd group; among them, 2 cases with a recently completed stroke revealed a marked depression in the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere to the side of the hemiplegia. Cases of the lst group showed generally depressed perfusion images of the brain stem or cerebellum, and the low-density areas of X-ray CT were comparable to the lower perfusional regions on SPECT. The authors concluded that posterior perfusion images obtained by sup(81m)Kr SPECT were affected by occlusive vertebrobasilar-system lesions as well as by carotid-system lesions and cerebellar functions, and that this method for evaluating hemodynamics will be of much more clinical use in repeated studies to demonstrate the changes in posterior ciculation in course or by some loadings with subclinical characteristics, for this paper includes the first report on cerebellar functional images, though it is restricted by the low-spatial resolution from defining the architecture of the posterior fossa in detail.

  4. Understanding Bright 13 keV Kr K-shell X-ray Sources at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Kemp, G. E.; Fournier, K. B.; Scott, H.; Patel, M.; Barrios, Widmann; Widmann, K.

    2015-11-01

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (CE) K-shell Kr sources are being investigated for High Energy Density experiments. These sources are 4.1 mm in diameter 4.4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 40 μm thick wall holding either 1.2 or 1.5 atm of Kr gas. The CE of K-shell Kr is dependent upon the peak electron temperature in the radiating plasma. In the NIF experiments, the available energy heats the source to Te = 6-7 keV, well below the temperature of Te ~25 keV needed to optimize the Kr CE. The CE is a steep function of the peak electron temperature. A spatially averaged electron temperature can be estimated from measured He(α) and Ly(α) line ratios. Some disagreement has been observed in the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. Disagreements have been observed between the simulated and measured line ratios for some of these K-shell sources. To help understand this issue, Kr gas pipes have been shot with 3 ω light at ?750 kJ at ~210, ~140 TW and ~120 TW power levels with 3.7, 5.2 and 6.7 ns pulses, respectively. The power and pulse length scaling of the measured CE and K-shell line ratios and their comparison to simulations will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspic

  5. A novel $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendahl, S; Brown, E; Cristescu, I; Fieguth, A; Huhmann, C; Lebeda, O; Levy, C; Murra, M; Schneider, S; Vénos, D; Weinheimer, C

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive isomer $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and $\\gamma$-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state $^{83}$Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long- lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present two new applications of $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr. It can be used as a radioactive tracer in noble gases to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems. A method of doping $^{83\\mathrm{m}}$Kr into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. This technique has been used to determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Furthermore, 83m Kr can be used to...

  6. The collisional depolarization of OH(A (2)Σ(+)) and NO(A (2)Σ(+)) with Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, H; Brouard, M; Chang, Y-P; Eyles, C J; McCrudden, G; Perkins, T; Seamons, S A; Kłos, J; Alexander, M H; Dagdigian, P J; Herráez-Aguilar, D; Aoiz, F J

    2014-02-01

    Quantum beat spectroscopy has been used to measure rate coefficients at 300 K for collisional depolarization for NO(A (2)Σ(+)) and OH(A (2)Σ(+)) with krypton. Elastic depolarization rate coefficients have also been determined for OH(A) + Kr, and shown to make a much more significant contribution to the total depolarization rate than for NO(A) + Kr. While the experimental data for NO(A) + Kr are in excellent agreement with single surface quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out on the upper 2A(') potential energy surface, the equivalent QCT and quantum mechanical calculations cannot account for the experimental results for OH(A) + Kr collisions, particularly at low N. This disagreement is due to the presence of competing electronic quenching at low N, which requires a multi-surface, non-adiabatic treatment. Somewhat improved agreement with experiment is obtained by means of trajectory surface hopping calculations that include non-adiabatic coupling between the ground 1A(') and excited 2A(') states of OH(X/A) + Kr, although the theoretical depolarization cross sections still significantly overestimate those obtained experimentally.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of KR-62980, a new PPARγ agonist, against chemical ischemia-reperfusion in SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Young; Cho, Hyun Sill; Lee, Su Hee; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2011-02-01

    PPARγ agonists exert neuroprotective effects against various types of brain injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effects of KR-62980, a new PPARγ agonist, and rosiglitazone on the neuronal cell death induced by chemical ischemia-reperfusion in SK-N-SH cells and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Both agonists inhibited chemical ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell death, and the effects were associated with anti-apoptotic action. KR-62980 and rosiglitazone suppressed NO and ROS formation, and N-acetyl-N-acetoxy-4-chlorobenzenesulfonamide, an NO generator, reversed the protective effects of the agonists on cell viability. In the agonist-induced anti-apoptotic process, PTEN expression was suppressed in parallel with increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation, whereas PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor) or wortmannin (a PI-3K inhibitor) abolished the cell survival by KR-62980 and rosiglitazone. All of the effects of KR-62980 and rosiglitazone appeared to be PPARγ-dependent because the effects were reversed by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARγ antagonist, or by PPARγ knockdown. Our results demonstrate that two PPARγ agonists, KR-62980 and rosiglitazone, inhibited chemical ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal cell death by PPARγ-mediated anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant mechanisms related to PTEN suppression and ERK phosphorylation.

  8. A novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, KR-36996, improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lim, Chae Jo; Park, Byung Kil; Seo, Ho Won; Lee, Byung Ho

    2017-03-15

    Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure. KR-36996 displayed a high binding affinity (Ki=4.44±0.67nM) and selectivity for urotensin II receptor. In cell-based study, KR-36996 significantly inhibited urotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy in H9c2UT cells. In transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice, the daily oral administration of KR-36996 (30mg/kg) for 14 days significantly decreased left ventricular weight by 40% (Preceptor antagonist could efficiently attenuate both cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in experimental heart failure. KR-36996 may be useful as an effective urotensin II receptor antagonist for pharmaceutical or clinical applications.

  9. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR3B at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 530.60 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in summer 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock in the area, where a new shaft with a diameter of 3 m is planned to be located. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR38. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 473m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 38m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR38. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Devitool Peewee. The results of the EMS measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR38 deviates 1.02 m south and 0.58 m west from the target point at the borehole depth of 525 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 106

  10. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR36 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R.; Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 205.17 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR36. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling measurements. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 117 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 51m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR36. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR36 deviates 10.34 m left and 7.11 m up at the borehole depth of 204 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 126

  11. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR35 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautio, T. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-07-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 100.87 m deep borehole with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May 2005. This borehole was aimed to get additional information of the quality of bedrock and the anomalous part of the bedrock and quality and the location of the fractured zones R19A and R19B. The identification number of the borehole is OL-KR35. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded information about drilling parameters. The objective of all measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The volume of the used drilling water was about 53 m{sup 3} and the measured volume of the returning water was about 25 m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR35. The deviation of the borehole was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. The results of the Maxibor measurements indicate that borehole OL-KR35 deviates 0.49 m right and 0.30 m up at the borehole depth of 99 m. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson' s ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 90 MPa, the

  12. Search for Detour Transitions in the Radiative EC Decay of $^{81}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    Rykaczewski, K

    2002-01-01

    % IS355 \\\\ \\\\ It is proposed to produce at ISOLDE the $^{81}$Kr activity and to study its 1-st forbidden unique (1u) radiative electron-capture decay in low background conditions available in Warsaw. The intensity of the photon spectrum will be compared to predictions of the internal-bremsstrahlung theory. A question is whether an excess of the intensity will be observed, indicating the role of detour $\\gamma$/$\\beta$ transitions via intermediate virtual nuclear states, as detected already for the 1u radiative decay of $^{41}$Ca.

  13. Preliminary comparisons between measurements and model calculations for the TMI venting of /sup 85/Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1980-08-01

    ARAC was on-line calculating hourly concentration values during the TMI-2 venting of /sup 85/Kr gas from June 28 to July 11, 1980. During this time hourly isopleths of normalized instantaneous concentration were calculated and transmitted to EPA in Middletown, PA. These isopleths were used to help locate the EPA and Penn State mobile air samplers and they were used for comparison to the EPA fixed 24 hr sampler measurements and the DOE helicopter measurements. This report summarizes preliminary comparisons for the EPA fixed samplers and the DOE helicopters.

  14. Krüppel样因子4与巨噬细胞极性转化的关系%Relationship between Krüppel-like factor 4 and macrophage polarity transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 孙亮; 姬文婕; 魏路清

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel样因子4(Krü ppel-like factor4,KLF4)作为Sp/Krüppel样锌指转录因子家族的成员之一,在细胞增殖、生长、分化、正常组织稳态的维持及胚胎发育等生理活动中发挥着重要作用.巨噬细胞表型的偏移与一系列疾病的发生发展密切相关.近年来有研究表明KLF4在机体炎症反应中起着重要的调控作用,尤其是参与了对巨噬细胞极性转化的调控,进而影响了疾病的进展.

  15. Recent studies to improve release properties from thick isotope separator on-line fission targets

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, C; Verney, D; Bajeat, O; Ibrahim, F; Clapier, F; Cottereau, E; Donzaud, C; Ducourtieux, M; Essabaa, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Hosni, F; Lefort, H; Le Blanc, F; Müller, A C

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the PARRNe program (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) of IPN Orsay, various techniques are currently used to characterize the release properties of elements of interest from a UC//X target. On-line studies have been carried out with two plasma ion sources: a Nier-Bernas and a hot plasma ISOLDE- type (the ISOLDE collaboration kindly supplied us a MK5 ion source for these studies). In parallel, the analysis of the chemical and structure properties of some UC//X samples as function of heating conditions has been carried out. Such data are essential to determine optimal conditions for the production of isotopes by the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique. First results are presented here for Kr and Ag. Investigations for other kinds of fission targets are planned.

  16. Diverging effects of isotopic fractionation upon molecular diffusion of noble gases in water: mechanistic insights through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Magalhães, Halua; Brennwald, Matthias S; Kipfer, Rolf

    2017-03-22

    Atmospheric noble gases are routinely used as natural tracers to analyze gas transfer processes in aquatic systems. Their isotopic ratios can be employed to discriminate between different physical transport mechanisms by comparison to the unfractionated atmospheric isotope composition. In many applications of aquatic systems molecular diffusion was thought to cause a mass dependent fractionation of noble gases and their isotopes according to the square root ratio of their masses. However, recent experiments focusing on isotopic fractionation within a single element challenged this broadly accepted assumption. The determined fractionation factors of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes revealed that only Ar follows the prediction of the so-called square root relation, whereas within the Ne, Kr and Xe elements no mass-dependence was found. The reason for this unexpected divergence of Ar is not yet understood. The aim of our computational exercise is to establish the molecular-resolved mechanisms behind molecular diffusion of noble gases in water. We make the hypothesis that weak intermolecular interactions are relevant for the dynamical properties of noble gases dissolved in water. Therefore, we used ab initio molecular dynamics to explicitly account for the electronic degrees of freedom. Depending on the size and polarizability of the hydrophobic particles such as noble gases, their motion in dense and polar liquids like water is subject to different diffusive regimes: the inter-cavity hopping mechanism of small particles (He, Ne) breaks down if a critical particle size achieved. For the case of large particles (Kr, Xe), the motion through the water solvent is governed by mass-independent viscous friction leading to hydrodynamical diffusion. Finally, Ar falls in between the two diffusive regimes, where particle dispersion is propagated at the molecular collision time scale of the surrounding water molecules.

  17. Improvements in the equipment for determination of Kr-85 with the reference method; Variaciones y mejoras del equipo utilizado como referencia para la concentracion y separacin criogenica cromatografica del Kr-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. M.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    A new equipment for Kr-85 separation and their cryogenic chromatographic concentration is described, which presents some advantages respect the equipment used as reference. The new apparatus, made with metallic elements, is based on the method of concentration and separation previously described but presents easier control, faster chromatographic separations and without loosed of efficiency and reproducibility that the previous one. The concentration and separation procedure for Kr-85 and a comparative study between both apparatus is described. Also the efficiency of the method is obtained experimentally. (Author)

  18. Krüppel样转录因子8(KLF8)的结构及功能%Structure and Function of Krüppel-like factor 8 (KLF8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万伟峰; 朱继; 方升; 籍新潮; 吕国伟

    2011-01-01

    Kr(u)ppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) is a member of the family of Kr(u)ppel-like transcription factors (KLFs). It shares three well-conserved C2H2 zinc finger domains on its C-terminus, which is implicated in DNA binding. The transcription of KLF8 is modulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK), KLF1 (erythroid Kr(u)ippel-like factor) and KLF3(basie Kr(u)ppel-like factor). Sumolyation is the primary posttranslational modification. Through the interaction of its N-terminal PVALS/T motif with eo-repressor Cterminal binding protein (C-terminal binding protein, CtBP), KLF8 inhibits the expression of genes containing CACCC element. KLT8 can also activate target gene expression by recruiting co-activators p300 and p300/CBP associated factor (P/CAF). KLF8 plays important roles in cell cycle progression,invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), oneogenie transformation and cancer development.%Krüppel样转录因子8(Krüppel-like factor 8,KLF8)是KLFs家族中的一员.KLF8在羧基端含有3个保守的C2H2锌指结构域,用于与DNA结合.KLF8的转录受粘着斑激酶(focal adhesion kinase,FAK)、KLF1(erythroid krüppel-like factor1)、KLF3(basic Krüppel-like factor)的调控.类泛素化是KLF8翻译后主要的修饰方式.KLF8在氨基端含有特定的PVALS/T基序,与辅助抑制因子C末端结合蛋白(C-terminal binding protein,CtBP)相互作用,抑制调节区含CACCC元件的基因表达.此外,还可以通过招募辅助激活因子p300和p300/CBP相关因子(P/CAF)辅助激活靶基因的表达.同时,KLF8在细胞周期循环、细胞侵袭和上皮-间质转化(epithelial to mesenchymal transition,EMT)、细胞致癌性转化及肿瘤发生发展中发挥作用.

  19. A comparison between the measurements of Kr-85 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation and proportional counters; Comparacion de resultados de la medida radiactiva del Kr-85 ambiental por centelleo liquido y contadores proporcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, M. C.; Perez, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    The most used methods for the measurement of Kr-81 beta-activity after their concentration and aisolation are the liquid scintillation counting and the proportional counter. In this work the beta activity of concentrated and aisolated Kr-85 samples measured in collaboration with the Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphyslk, Aussenstelle Freiburg. Samples taken both In Madrid and Frelburg are measured by proportional counters in the Max-Planck lnstitut, Freibury and by liquid scintillation counting in JEN, Madrid. The comparison of both measurements do not show appreciable discrepancy between the results obtained to both techniques. (Author)

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  1. VUV emission spectra from binary rare gas mixtures near the resonance lines of Xe I and Kr I

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A; Gerasimov, G; Arnesen, A; Hallin, R

    2003-01-01

    Emission spectra of Xe-X (X = He, Ne, Ar and Kr) and of Kr-Y (Y = He, Ne and Ar) mixtures with low concentrations of the heavier gases (0.1-1%) and moderate total pressures (50-200 hPa) have been recorded near each of the two resonance lines of Xe and Kr in DC glow capillary discharges. The recorded intense emissions have narrow spectral profiles with FWHM of about 0.1 nm. The profiles are very similar in shape to profiles of known high resolution absorption spectra recorded at comparable gas pressures. A tentative identification of the emission structures is given, which involves transitions in heteronuclear molecules and quasimolecules between weakly-bound states.

  2. Demonstration of a 13-keV Kr K-shell x-ray source at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Barrios, M A; Patterson, J R; Regan, S P

    2013-09-01

    We report 3% conversion efficiency of laser energy into Kr K-shell (≈13 keV) radiation, consistent with theoretical predictions. This is ≈10× greater than previous work. The emission was produced from a 4.1-mm-diameter, 4-mm-tall gas pipe target filled with 1.2 or 1.5 atm of Kr gas. 160 of the National Ignition Facility laser beams deposited ≈700 kJ of 3ω light into the target in an ≈140 TW, 5.0-ns-duration square pulse. The Dante diagnostics measured ≈5 TW into 4π solid angle of ≥12 keV x rays for ≈4 ns, which includes both continuum emission and flux in the Kr He_{α} line at 13 keV.

  3. Conceptual design of a KrF scaling module. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    A conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF laser module for Inertial Confinement Fusion is presented. Optical designs for encoding, beam packing and beam transfer between amplifier stages are developed; emphasis is placed on reducing prepulse problems and achieving acceptable optical quality. An axisymmetric optical design is identified as optimum in terms of simplicity, optical quality, cost and alignment. A kinetic code model was developed for the KrF amplifier and was used to derive scaling maps for the 50 kJ module. Attention was given to reducing parasitics, achieving acceptable extraction efficiency and accounting for amplified spontaneous emission effects. The size of the module is constrained by parasitic suppression and damage thresholds; the power gain is constrained by demanding 40% extraction efficiency in a double pass extraction geometry; and, the run time is constrained by the pulsed power technology (PFN or PFL) and acceptable values of g/sub 0/L. The bounds imposed on the design by the pulsed power technology were examined. Both PFLs and PFNs were considered along with their associated diode, hibachi and guide field requirements. A base line design for a 50 kJ module including amplifier staging, layout and overall size is discussed. Cost analysis and scaling for optical components, pulsed power technology and the guide field are also presented.

  4. Transport properties in dilute UN (X ) solid solutions (X =Xe ,Kr )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Antoine; Schuler, Thomas; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Olsson, Pär

    2016-11-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a candidate fuel for current GEN III fission reactors, for which it is investigated as an accident-tolerant fuel, as well as for future GEN IV reactors. In this study, we investigate the kinetic properties of gas fission products (Xe and Kr) in UN. Binding and migration energies are obtained using density functional theory, with an added Hubbard correlation to model f electrons, and the occupation matrix control scheme to avoid metastable states. These energies are then used as input for the self-consistent mean field method which enables to determine transport coefficients for vacancy-mediated diffusion of Xe and Kr on the U sublattice. The magnetic ordering of the UN structure is explicitly taken into account, for both energetic and transport properties. Solute diffusivities are compared with experimental measurements and the effect of various parameters on the theoretical model is carefully investigated. We find that kinetic correlations are very strong in this system, and that despite atomic migration anisotropy, macroscopic solute diffusivities show limited anisotropy. Our model indicates that the discrepancy between experimental measurements probably results from different irradiation conditions, and hence different defect concentrations.

  5. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  6. Pulse shaping and energy storage capabilities of angularly multiplexed KrF laser fusion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.; Schmitt, A. J.

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a rep-rated multibeam KrF laser driver design for the 500kJ Inertial Fusion test Facility (FTF) recently proposed by NRL, then models its optical pulse shaping capabilities using the ORESTES laser kinetics code. It describes a stable and reliable iteration technique for calculating the required precompensated input pulse shape that will achieve the desired output shape, even when the amplifiers are heavily saturated. It also describes how this precompensation technique could be experimentally implemented in real time on a reprated laser system. The simulations show that this multibeam system can achieve a high fidelity pulse shaping capability, even for a high gain shock ignition pulse whose final spike requires output intensities much higher than the ˜4MW/cm2 saturation levels associated with quasi-cw operation; i.e., they show that KrF can act as a storage medium even for pulsewidths of ˜1ns. For the chosen pulse, which gives a predicted fusion energy gain of ˜120, the simulations predict the FTF can deliver a total on-target energy of 428kJ, a peak spike power of 385TW, and amplified spontaneous emission prepulse contrast ratios IASE/Ilaser.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of the lattice thermal conductivity of Kr/Ar superlattice nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yunfei; Li Deyu; Yang Juekuan; Wu Yonghua; Lukes, J.R.; Majumdar, Arun

    2004-06-15

    The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) method has been used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivities of Ar and Kr/Ar nanostructures in order to study the effects of interface scattering, boundary scattering, and elastic strain on lattice thermal conductivity. Results show that interface scattering poses significant resistance to phonon transport in superlattices and superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of the Kr/Ar superlattice nanowire is only about ((1)/(3)) of that for pure Ar nanowires with the same cross-sectional area and total length due to the additional interfacial thermal resistance. It is found that nanowire boundary scattering provides significant resistance to phonon transport. As the cross-sectional area increases, the nanowire boundary scattering decreases, which leads to increased nanowire thermal conductivity. The ratio of the interfacial thermal resistance to the total effective thermal resistance increases from 30% for the superlattice nanowire to 42% for the superlattice film. Period length is another important factor affecting the effective thermal conductivity of the nanostructures. Increasing the period length will lead to increased acoustic mismatch between the adjacent layers, and hence increased interfacial thermal resistance. However, if the total length of the superlattice nanowire is fixed, reducing the period length will lead to decreased effective thermal conductivity due to the increased number of interfaces. Finally, it is found that the interfacial thermal resistance decreases as the reference temperature increases, which might be due to the inelastic interface scattering.

  8. Bandwidth Dependence of Laser Plasma Instabilities Driven by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Phillips, L.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.; Feldman, U.

    2011-10-01

    The Nike krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory operates in the deep UV (248 nm) and employs beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In the first ISI studies at longer wavelengths (1054 nm and 527 nm) [Obenschain, PRL 62, 768(1989);Mostovych, PRL, 59, 1193(1987); Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1479(1991)], stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν / ν ~ 0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (1014-1015W/cm2) . Recent Nike work showed that the threshold for quarter critical instabilities increased with the expected wavelength scaling, without accounting for the large bandwidth (δν ~ 1-3 THz). New experiments will compare laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by narrower bandwidth pulses to those observed with the standard operation. The bandwidth of KrF lasers can be reduced by adding narrow filters (etalons or gratings) in the initial stages of the laser. This talk will discuss the method used to narrow the output spectrum of Nike, the laser performance for this new operating mode, and target observations of LPI in planar CH targets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  9. 85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

  10. Design Concepts of Emergency Response Robot Platform K-R2D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sun Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    From the analysis for various mobile robots competed in DARPA Robotics Challenge, there are some drawbacks in using two or four legs because bipedal locomotion is not yet suitable for maintaining stability and quadrupedal locomotion is difficult to go through narrow aisles. Motivated by the above observations, we propose a K-R2D2 robot platform with three legs arranged in the form of a triangle like as R2-D2 robot which is a fictional robot character in the Star Wars movies. This robot has 3 legs with tracks in each sole of the leg. It is statically stable since there are three contact points to ground. In addition, three legs are also possible to design a structure walking stairs that can expand and contract in the vertical direction. This paper has presented the conceptual design, it is developed on the purpose of quick response instead of emergent workers to the extreme conditions disasters. This robot is emergency response robot platform KR2D2 with three legs, which is statically stable to walk or wheel depending on the terrains and move quickly as possible as on uneven terrain or stairs.

  11. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Su, Ping; Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min

    2016-12-01

    The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at EC-0.31 eV and EC-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  12. Shock formation in Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe on DD gas puff implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkis, J.; Rahman, H. U.; Wessel, F. J.; Ney, P.; Beg, F.

    2016-10-01

    1- and 2-D simulations of a 1-cm radius, gas-puff implosion of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe liners onto a DD target are conducted using the discharge parameters for the Univ. Nevada, Reno, Zebra (1 MA, 125 ns) voltage driver and the resistive MHD code MACH2. During the run-in phase, initial†shock heating preheats the DD plasma, with subsequent stable, adiabatic compression heating the target to high energy density. The dynamics of the former in both the liner and target are investigated. It is shown that magnetic field transport to the liner/target interface does not occur prior to the run-in phase in Ne and Ar liners, yet does occur in Kr and Xe liners, and that magnetic field transport to the interface is a requirement for shock initiation, thus demonstrating the necessity for using a high-Z material in the Staged Z-pinch. Shock reflection off the axis and subsequent collision with the interface results in partial transmission into the liner, which manifests as current reversal, and consequently an enhanced Bθ gradient. 2-D simulations show that magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth decreases with increasing Z, with shock formation providing sufficient isolation to reproduce the current reversal and enhanced Bθ gradient observed in 1-D simulations. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy, DE-AR0000569.

  13. The Structure of manganese oxide formed by the fungus Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratovsky, Ian; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hayward, Michael A.

    2009-06-01

    Manganese oxides are observed to form by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of Mn(II) catalyzed by the action of microorganisms. In contrast to the widely studied material produced by bacteria, manganese oxide phases produced by the action of fungi have received only limited attention. A detailed study of the MnO x material produced by the action of the fungus Acremonium KR21-2, utilizing X-ray diffraction, XANES, EXAFS and transmission electron microscopy is reported. The MnO x material is produced as small crystalline particles which adopt a todorokite-like tunnel structure, in striking contrast to previously reported microbial MnO x materials which adopt layered birnessite-type structures. ICPMS measurements reveal there are no templating metal ions present in the fungally mediated MnO x material, in contrast to analogous bacterially mediated material, suggesting these cations play a critical role in determining the structure of the material precipitated. A phylogenetic analysis places KR21-2 with other Acremonium species in the Hypocreales.

  14. Short wavelength laser calculations for electron pumping in neon-like krypton (Kr XXVII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.; Bhatia, A. K.; Suckewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of electron impact collision strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are made for neon-like krypton (Kr XXVII) for the 2s2 2p6, 2s2 2p5 3s, 2s2 2p5 3p, and 2s2 2p5 3d configurations. From these atomic data, the level populations as a function of the electron density are calculated at two temperatures, 1 x 10 to the 7th K and 3 x 10 to the 7th K. An analysis of level populations reveals that a volume of krypton in which a significant number of the ions are in the Kr XXVII degree of ionization can produce a significant gain in transition between the 2s2 2p5 3s and 2s2 2p5 3p configurations. At an electron density of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm the plasma length has to be of the order of 1 m; at a density of 1 x 10 to the 21st/cu cm the length is reduced to approximately 0.5 cm; and at an electron density of 1 x 10 to the 22nd/cu cm the length of the plasma is further reduced to approximately 1 mm.

  15. STO and GTO field-induced polarization functions for H to Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Delano P; Grüning, Myrta; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2003-10-01

    Field-induced polarization (FIP) functions were proposed over two decades ago to improve the accuracy of calculated response properties, and the FIP functions in GTO form for H and C to F were tested on small molecules, with encouraging results. The concept of FIP is now extended to all atoms up to Kr. New simplifying approximations for the description of asymptotic highest occupied atomic orbitals (HOAOs) are introduced in this study. They provide the basis for STO and GTO exponents of a complete set of FIP functions from H to Kr, which are both listed for the convenience of the users. Tests on the polarizabilities of a series of atoms and molecules demonstrate that addition of the FIP basis functions to a series of standard basis sets drastically improves the performance of all these basis sets compared to converged results. Moreover, the byproduct of this study (approximate asymptotic HOAOs) provides information for the construction of accurate basis sets for long-range ground state properties. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Excimer formation mechanism in gaseous krypton and Kr/N2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A. V.; Zafiropulos, V.; Ait-Kaci, M.; Museur, L.; Nkwawo, H.; Castex, M. C.

    1993-03-01

    A new approach for the understanding of the energy relaxation dynamics of excited atoms involving a long-lived molecular precursor is presented here for krypton. Excitation of the gas close to the 5 s[3/2]2 metastable atomic level ( E at. - E exc.< kT) is achieved with an intense VUV laser source (I ≈ 1012 photon/pulse) realized by resonantly enhanced 4-wave mixing (2ω1 + ω2) in room temperature mercury vapor ( N Hg ≈ 1013 at./cm3). The decay of the II. continuum luminescence (145 nm) is studied. In the pressure range 200 500 mbar, decay rates depend linearly on pressure but have a negative zero-pressure intersect. We show here that this result can be understood as an effect of the exchange of energy between two different “reservoirs” of atomic (5 s[3/2]2) and molecular (1g) nature, and can be an inherent peculiarity of the recombination kinetics of excited atoms with several product channels. The efficiency of the model is checked for the Kr/N2 system. Rate constants for relaxation processes are determined in pure krypton and in Kr/N2 mixtures.

  17. Silicon surface modifications produced by non-equilibrium He, Ne and Kr plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Max; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this publication the interaction of non-equilibrium plasma jets (N-APPJs) with silicon surfaces is studied. The N-APPJs are operated with He, Ne and Kr gas flows under atmospheric pressure conditions. Plasma bullets are produced by the He and Ne N-APPJs, while a filamentary discharge is ignited in the Kr flow. All these N-APPJs produce remarkable traces on silicon wafer surfaces treated in their effluents. Different types of etching tracks, blisters and crystals are observed on the treated surfaces. The observed traces and surface modifications of silicon wafers are analyzed with optical, atomic-force, scanning electron and Raman microscopes. Based on the material composition within the etching tracks and the position and dimension of blisters and crystals, the traces observed on the silicon wafer surfaces are interpreted as traces of micro-plasmoids. Amorphous silicon is found in the etching tracks. Blisters are produced through the formation of cracks inside the silicon crystal by the interaction with micro-plasmoids. The reason for these modifications is not clear now. The density of micro-plasmoids traces on the treated silicon surface and the depth and length of the etching tracks depends strongly on the type of the used carrier gas of the N-APPJ.

  18. LONG-TERM PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEAR-CONTACT BINARY KR CYGNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sipahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos curvas de luz en varios colores y velocidades radiales obtenidas a lo largo de cinco años para la binaria en cuasi-contacto KR Cyg. Obtenemos para las masas de las componentes 2.88 ± 0.20 M⊙ y 1.26 ± 0.07 M⊙, y para los radios 2.59±0.06 R⊙ y 1.80±0.04 R⊙. También investigamos las determinaciones empíricas del albedo y la temperatura efectiva de la estrella más fría y menos masiva de KR Cyg, y de otras dos binarias en cuasi-contacto similares, AK CMi y DO Cas. Los residuos entre los flujos observados y los calculados se atribuyen al efecto de la iluminación mutua, la cual calienta las capas superficiales de la estrella iluminada y hace que varíe no sólo el albedo bolométrico, sino también el coeficiente del ennegrecimiento al limbo y el exponente del abrillantamiento por gravedad. Los albedos efectivos son generalmente menores que los esperados para la envolvente de una estrella convectiva. Nuestros resultados son preliminares y especulativos.

  19. Complex fragment production in Kr-induced reactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionale del Sud); Bonasera, A. (INFN, Catania (Italy)); Cavinato, M.; Gulminelli, F. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Milan (Italy)); Cunsolo, A. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica INFN, Catania (Italy)); Di Leo, G.C. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1991-07-15

    Several features of complex fragment production at intermediate energies can be understood from the coupling of a dynamical description, which takes into account entrance-channel properties, and a statistical decay of equilibrated primary sources. We discuss this point using two different models for the dynamics, both based on the idea of the competition between mean field and two-body effects in this intermediate-energy range. The importance of a slow emission of large clusters in the de-excitation stage is stressed, with the possibility of using a suitably extended evaporation code. Fragment yields and spectra are analysed for Kr-induced reactions on C, Al, Ti at 34.4 MeV/A and on Au at 43 MeV/A. The effects of a different equation of state (e.o.s.) used in microscopic calculations is analysed. A stiffer e.o.s. implies more stopping of the fragments. Finally, projectile-like fragments produced in the Kr+Au reaction at 200 MeV/A are analysed. The predictions of the participant-spectator model are confirmed in this energy range. (orig.).

  20. Effects of KR-32570, a new sodium hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, on myocardial infarction and arrhythmias induced by ischemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ho; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lee, Sunkyung; Lee, Sunghou; Yoo, Sung-eun

    2005-10-31

    The present study was performed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of [5-(2-methoxy-5-chloro-5-phenyl)furan-2-ylcarbonyl]guanidine (KR-32570) in rat and dog models of coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. In addition, we sought to clarify the efficacy of KR-32570 on reperfusion-induced fatal ventricular arrhythmia. In anesthetized rats subjected to 45-min coronary occlusion and 90-min reperfusion, KR-32570 (i.v. bolus) dose-dependently reduced myocardial infarct size from 58.0% to 50.7%, 35.3%, 33.5% and 27.0% for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively (PKR-32570 (3 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) markedly decreased infarct size from 28.9% in vehicle-treated group to 8.0% (PKR-32570 dose-dependently decreased the incidence of premature ventricular contraction, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Similar results were obtained in dogs with reperfusion-induced arrhythmia. In separate experiments to assess the effects of timing of treatment, KR-32570 given 10 min before or at reperfusion in rat models also significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size (40.9% and 46.1%, respectively) compared with vehicle-treated group. In all studies, KR-32570 caused no significant changes in any hemodynamic profiles. Taken together, these results indicate that KR-32570 significantly reduced the myocardial infarction and incidence of arrhythmias induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats and dogs, without affecting hemodynamic profiles. Thus, it could be potentially useful in the prevention and treatment of myocardial injuries and lethal ventricular arrhythmias.