WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutron poison solutions

  1. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  2. Improved Neutronics Treatment of Burnable Poisons for the Prismatic HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; A. A. Bingham; J. Ortensi; C. J. Permann

    2012-10-01

    In prismatic block High Temperature Reactors (HTR), highly absorbing material such a burnable poison (BP) cause local flux depressions and large gradients in the flux across the blocks which can be a challenge to capture accurately with traditional homogenization methods. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the error associated with spatial homogenization, spectral condensation and discretization and to highlight what is needed for improved neutronics treatments of burnable poisons for the prismatic HTR. A new triangular based mesh is designed to separate the BP regions from the fuel assembly. A set of packages including Serpent (Monte Carlo), Xuthos (1storder Sn), Pronghorn (diffusion), INSTANT (Pn) and RattleSnake (2ndorder Sn) is used for this study. The results from the deterministic calculations show that the cross sections generated directly in Serpent are not sufficient to accurately reproduce the reference Monte Carlo solution in all cases. The BP treatment produces good results, but this is mainly due to error cancellation. However, the Super Cell (SC) approach yields cross sections that are consistent with cross sections prepared on an “exact” full core calculation. In addition, very good agreement exists between the various deterministic transport and diffusion codes in both eigenvalue and power distributions. Future research will focus on improving the cross sections and quantifying the error cancellation.

  3. Neutronic performance of decoupled poisoned and unpoisoned composite moderators for high resolution experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Teshigawara, Makoto; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    We studied decoupled poisoned and un-poisoned composite moderators consisting of 20 mm thick hydrogen and 30 mm thick light water. The neutron pulses from un-poisoned one were much broader with longer decay times than a simple decoupled hydrogen moderator in 50 mm thickness. It was also found that the poisoned composite moderator provides higher pulse peak intensities relative to the hydrogen moderator (poisoned at 20 mm) below several tens meV with no penalty of pulse width. (author)

  4. Neutronics of a poisoned para-hydrogen moderator for a pulsed spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masahide [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: harada.masahide@jaea.go.jp; Watanabe, Noboru [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan); Teshigawara, Makoto [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan); Kai, Tetsuya [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan); Kato, Takashi [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro [Neutron Facility Group, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319 1195 (Japan)

    2007-05-11

    Neutronic performance of a poisoned hydrogen moderator was studied in details. Using a simple rectangular-shape moderator-model, its basic characteristics were studied as a function of the poison position. We, for the first time, turned up that the pulse width was rather decreasing with increasing the moderator thickness of the back part from the poison. This is due to the fact that source neutron pulses entering into a front part of the poison through the back part exhibit a fast rise shape while those from the target and the reflector through the decoupler and liner exhibit a broad shape. Next, we studied the pulse deterioration in regard to a finite beam-extraction-angle by using a more realistic moderator shape, canteen shape and a concave-shape. It turns out that the pulse deterioration is considerably large in both cases even at a small extraction angle. The concave-shape moderator indicates a finite improvement compared to the canteen-shape one. Finally, merits and demerits of two poison materials, Cadmium and Gadolinium, were discussed taking into account the burn-up issue of poison with the operation time.

  5. Investigation of Plutonium and Uranium Precipitation Behavior with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, A E

    2003-01-01

    The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu)-containing solutions has been investigated to determine whether the presence of 3:1 uranium (U):Pu in solutions stored in the H-Canyon Facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) would adversely impact the use of gadolinium nitrate (Gd(NO3)3) as a neutron poison. In the past, this disposition strategy has been successfully used to discard solutions containing approximately 100 kg of Pu to the SRS high level waste (HLW) system. In the current experiments, gadolinium (as Gd(NO3)3) was added to samples of a 3:1 U:Pu solution, a surrogate 3 g/L U solution, and a surrogate 3 g/L U with 1 g/L Pu solution. A series of experiments was then performed to observe and characterize the precipitate at selected pH values. Solids formed at pH 4.5 and were found to contain at least 50 percent of the U and 94 percent of the Pu, but only 6 percent of the Gd. As the pH of the solution increased (e.g., pH greater than 14 with 1.2 or 3.6 M sodium hydroxide...

  6. Xenon poisoning calculation code for miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In line with the actual requirements and based upon the specific char acteristics of MNSR, a revised point-reactor model was adopted to model MNSR's xenon poisoning. The corresponding calculation code, MNSRXPCC (Xenon Poison ing Calculation Code for MNSR), was developed and tested by the Shanghai MNSR data.

  7. Exact solution of the neutron transport equation in spherical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anli, Fikret; Akkurt, Abdullah; Yildirim, Hueseyin; Ates, Kemal [Kahramanmaras Suetcue Imam Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Sciences and Letters

    2017-03-15

    Solution of the neutron transport equation in one dimensional slab geometry construct a basis for the solution of neutron transport equation in a curvilinear geometry. Therefore, in this work, we attempt to derive an exact analytical benchmark solution for both neutron transport equations in slab and spherical medium by using P{sub N} approximation which is widely used in neutron transport theory.

  8. Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team will provide additional treatment. They can use methods to get rid of the poison before it causes more harm. Some types of poison have antidotes. These work by reversing the poison’s effects and curing it. Treatment also includes measures to relieve symptoms. ...

  9. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  10. Irradiation of Polyimide and Neutron Poison Materials by Using a HANARO Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Cho, M. S.; Shin, Y. T.; Kim, B. G.; Seo, C. G.; Kim, Y. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A material capsule system has been developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr).This capsule system has been actively utilized for the various material irradiation tests requested by users from research institutes, universities, and the industries. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) and reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys of parts of nuclear fuel assembly. Recently, irradiation tests of neutron poison materials and Polyimide were requested by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) and Hanyang University, respectively. As a candidate material of control rod of AP1000 reactor, Ag and Ag-In-Cd alloys were requested to be irradiated in HANARO by WEC. Polyimide has been studied as a shielding material against thermal and fast neutrons. The irradiation of these new materials which might affect the safety of a reactor was carried out for the first time in HANARO. As a preliminary test, small amount of these materials were determined to be inserted in a KNF (Korea Nuclear Fuel) irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. Due to the new materials, the irradiation test of the 07M-13N capsule was examined and approved by the 'HANARO Safety Review Committee'. The 07M-13N capsule was safely irradiated for 95.19 days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 230{approx}420 .deg. C. The specimens of these new materials were irradiated up to a maximum fast neutron fluence of 1.13x1021(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV) and the dpa of the irradiated specimens were evaluated as 1.87.

  11. Removal of gadolinium, a neutron poison from the moderator system of nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufus, A L; Kumar, Padma S; Jeena, K; Velmurugan, S

    2017-08-03

    Gadolinium as gadolinium nitrate is used as neutron poison in the moderator system for regulating and controlling the power generation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and proposed to be used in Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR) owing to its high neutron absorption cross section. Removal of the added gadolinium nitrate (Gd(3+) and NO3(-)) from the system after its intended use is done using ion exchange resins. In the present investigation, attempts have been made to optimize the ion exchange process for generation of low radioactive waste and maximize utilization of the ion exchange resins by employing different types of resins and different modes of operation. The investigations revealed that use of mixed bed (MB) resin column consisting of Strong Acid Cation (SAC) resin and Strong Base Anion (SBA) resin followed by SAC resin column is efficient in removing the Gd(3+) and NO3(-) from the system besides maintaining the pH of the moderator system in the desirable regime, where gadolinium does not get precipitated as its hydroxide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  13. The Role of Primary 16O as a Neutron Poison in AGB stars and Fluorine primary production at Halo Metallicities

    CERN Document Server

    Gallino, R; Cristallo, S; Straniero, O

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of a historical bug in the s-post-process AGB code obtained so far by the Torino group forced us to reconsider the role of primary 16O in the 13C-pocket, produced by the 13C(a, n)16O reaction, as important neutron poison for the build up of the s-elements at Halo metallicities. The effect is noticeable only for the highest 13C-pocket efficiencies (cases ST*2 and ST). For Galactic disc metallicities, the bug effect is negligible. A comparative analysis of the neutron poison effect of other primary isotopes (12C, 22Ne and its progenies) is presented. The effect of proton captures, by 14N(n, p)14C, boosts a primary production of Fluorine in Halo AGB stars, with [F/Fe] comparable to [C/Fe], without affecting the s-elements production.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering from micellar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; P S Goyal

    2004-07-01

    Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the surfactant molecules in aqueous solutions. The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results.

  15. Neutrons for global energy solutions. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The book of abstracts of the conference on neutrons for global energy solutions include contributions to the following topics: Views from politics: What do we need in European energy research: cooperation, large facilities, more science? Fundamental research for energy supply. View from the United States. View from industry: Neutrons for nuclear reactor development in transition stage between generation III and generation IV. Toyotas's expectations for neutron analysis. Instrumentation and cross cutting issues. Energy sources. Waste management and environment. Li ion batteries. Photovoltaics. Savings and catalysis. Fuel cells. Hydrogen storage.

  16. Neutronics characterization of an erbia fully poisoned PWR assembly by means of the APOLLO2 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergreffi Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing demands on the reduction of fuel cycle costs have led to higher burnup fuel designs. According to the erbia-credit super high burnup fuel concept, developed by mixing low content of erbia to UO2 powder directly after reconversion process so that all fuel pins in a given fuel assembly are homogeneously doped, the present study aims to characterize, from a neutronic point of view, a 17 × 17 pressurized water reactor assembly enriched to 10.27 wt.% in 235U with an erbia content of 1 at.% (i.e. 0.7 wt.% by means of the deterministic neutronic code APOLLO2. For this purpose, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effects on fuel thermal conductivity of adding erbia to uranium oxide. The results obtained allow to conclude that an Er-doped assembly enriched to >5 wt.% in 235U represents an advantageous solution for very long fuel cycles, and it is so suited for very high burnups.

  17. Solution-grown crystals for neutron radiation detectors, and methods of solution growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia; Carman, M Leslie; Payne, Steve

    2014-10-28

    An organic crystal according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal comprising diphenylacetylene and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source. A system according to one embodiment includes an organic crystal comprising diphenylacetylene and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the crystal having physical characteristics of formation from solution, the organic crystal exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source; and a photodetector for detecting the signal response of the organic crystal. Methods of making such crystals are also provided.

  18. The gypsum-brushite system: crystallization from solutions poisoned by phosphate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, C.; Lanfranco, A. M.; Boistelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    Gypsum and a non-stoichiometric calcium phosphate sulphate hydrate (CPSH) were grown from solutions poisoned by phosphate ions. The pH ranged from 4.7 to 5.6 and the sulphate over phosphate ratios from 1.5 to 9. In some cases, when the phosphate concentration was high (30%-40%) CPSH was stable. When the phosphate concentration was lower (10%-20%), CPSH formed as first phase in association with gypsum, but dissolved as soon as gypsum crystallized and grew at its expense. In that case, gypsum contained up to 10% phosphate. On the other hand, when gypsum crystallized alone, as first phase, it did not contain detectable amounts of phosphate.

  19. Generalization of the analytical solution of neutron point kinetics equations with time-dependent external source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, M.; Behnia, S.; Khodabakhsh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations with one group of delayed neutrons in the presence of the time-dependent external neutron source are solved analytically during the start-up of a nuclear reactor. Our model incorporates the random nature of the source and linear reactivity variation. We establish a general relationship between the expectation values of source intensity and the expectation values of neutron density of the sub-critical reactor by ignoring the term of the second derivative for neutron density in neutron point kinetics equations. The results of the analytical solution are in good agreement with the results obtained with numerical solution.

  20. Development of certified reference materials for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, part 1: calibration solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beach, Daniel; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nona Aisha; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ramiro; Giddings, Sabrina; Martinez-Farina, Camilo; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-01-01

    .... These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade...

  1. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties.

  2. Relationship between solution structure and phase behavior: a neutron scattering study of concentrated aqueous hexamethylenetetramine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R C; Ferrari, E S; Davey, R J; Finney, J L; Bowron, D T

    2009-04-30

    The water-hexamethylenetetramine system displays features of significant interest in the context of phase equilibria in molecular materials. First, it is possible to crystallize two solid phases depending on temperature, both hexahydrate and anhydrous forms. Second, saturated aqueous solutions in equilibrium with these forms exhibit a negative dependence of solubility (retrograde) on temperature. In this contribution, neutron scattering experiments (with isotopic substitution) of concentrated aqueous hexamethylenetetramine solutions combined with empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) were used to investigate the time-averaged atomistic details of this system. Through the derivation of radial distribution functions, quantitative details emerge of the solution coordination, its relationship to the nature of the solid phases, and of the underlying cause of the solubility behavior of this molecule.

  3. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  4. Hall Equilibria: Solutions with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields in Neutron Star Crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Gourgouliatos, K N; Lyutikov, M; Reisenegger, A

    2013-01-01

    We present Hall equilibrium solutions for neutron stars crusts containing toroidal and poloidal magnetic field. Some simple cases are solved analytically while more complicated configurations are found numerically through a Gauss-Seidel elliptic partial differential equation solver.

  5. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  6. Characterization of trehalose aqueous solutions by neutron spin echo

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Magazù, S; Maisano, G; Mangione, A; Pappas, C; Triolo, A

    2002-01-01

    The present work reports neutron spin-echo (NSE) results on aqueous mixtures of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, which shows an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. The aim of the work is to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano- and picosecond scales. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of trehalose aqueous solutions by neutron spin echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazu' , S.; Maisano, G.; Mangione, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Messina, PO Box 55, 98166 Messina (Italy); Pappas, C.; Triolo, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, BENSC (NI), Glienicker Strasse, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The present work reports neutron spin-echo (NSE) results on aqueous mixtures of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, which shows an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. The aim of the work is to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano- and picosecond scales. (orig.)

  8. Solution of the multilayer multigroup neutron diffusion equation in cartesian geometry by fictitious borders power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo; Petersen, Caudio Zen [Univ. Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcello [Univ. Federal de Pelotas (Brazil). Centro de Engenharias; Zabadal, Jorge Rodolfo [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Tramandai (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this paper a solution for the one-dimensional steady state Multilayer Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation in cartesian geometry by Fictitious Borders Power Method and a perturbative analysis of this solution is presented. For each new iteration of the power method, the neutron flux is reconstructed by polynomial interpolation, so that it always remains in a standard form. However when the domain is long, an almost singular matrix arises in the interpolation process. To eliminate this singularity the domain segmented in R regions, called fictitious regions. The last step is to solve the neutron diffusion equation for each fictitious region in analytical form locally. The results are compared with results present in the literature. In order to analyze the sensitivity of the solution, a perturbation in the nuclear parameters is inserted to determine how a perturbation interferes in numerical results of the solution.

  9. The Fourier transform solution for the Green's function of monoenergetic neutron transport theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapol, Barry D.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 45 years ago, Ken Case published his seminal paper on the singular eigenfunction solution for the Green's function of the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with isotropic scattering. Previously, the solution had been obtained by Fourier transform. While it is apparent the two had to be equivalent, a convincing equivalence proof for general anisotropic scattering remained a challenge until now.

  10. Re-evaluation of the $^{16}$O($n$,$\\gamma$)$^{17}$O cross section at astrophysical energies and its role as neutron poison in the $s$ process

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter; Pignatari, Marco; Dillmann, Iris; Mengoni, Alberto; Kaeppeler, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The doubly-magic nucleus $^{16}$O has a small neutron capture cross section of just a few tens of microbarn in the astrophysical energy region. Despite of this, $^{16}$O plays an important role as neutron poison in the astrophysical slow neutron capture ($s$) process due to its high abundance. We present in this paper a re-evaluation of the available experimental data for $^{16}$O($n,\\gamma$)$^{17}$O and derive a new recommendation for the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections (MACS) between $kT$= 5$-$100 keV. Our new recommendations are lower up to $kT$= 60 keV compared to the previously recommended values but up to 14\\% higher at $kT$= 100 keV. We explore the impact of this different energy dependence on the weak $s$-process during core helium- ($kT$= 26 keV) and shell carbon burning ($kT$= 90 keV) in massive stars where $^{16}$O is the most abundant isotope.

  11. The solution of the neutron point kinetics equation with stochastic extension: an analysis of two moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Milena Wollmann da; Vilhena, Marco Tullio M.B.; Bodmann, Bardo Ernst J.; Vasques, Richard, E-mail: milena.wollmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br, E-mail: bardobodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: richard.vasques@fulbrightmail.org [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    The neutron point kinetics equation, which models the time-dependent behavior of nuclear reactors, is often used to understand the dynamics of nuclear reactor operations. It consists of a system of coupled differential equations that models the interaction between (i) the neutron population; and (II) the concentration of the delayed neutron precursors, which are radioactive isotopes formed in the fission process that decay through neutron emission. These equations are deterministic in nature, and therefore can provide only average values of the modeled populations. However, the actual dynamical process is stochastic: the neutron density and the delayed neutron precursor concentrations vary randomly with time. To address this stochastic behavior, Hayes and Allen have generalized the standard deterministic point kinetics equation. They derived a system of stochastic differential equations that can accurately model the random behavior of the neutron density and the precursor concentrations in a point reactor. Due to the stiffness of these equations, this system was numerically implemented using a stochastic piecewise constant approximation method (Stochastic PCA). Here, we present a study of the influence of stochastic fluctuations on the results of the neutron point kinetics equation. We reproduce the stochastic formulation introduced by Hayes and Allen and compute Monte Carlo numerical results for examples with constant and time-dependent reactivity, comparing these results with stochastic and deterministic methods found in the literature. Moreover, we introduce a modified version of the stochastic method to obtain a non-stiff solution, analogue to a previously derived deterministic approach. (author)

  12. Exact solution of equations for proton localization in neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The rigorous treatment of proton localization phenomenon in asymmetric nuclear matter is presented. The solution of proton wave function and neutron background distribution is found by the use of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach. The minimum of energy is obtained in the Wigner- Seitz approximation of spherically symmetric cell. The analysis of three different nuclear models suggests that the proton localization is likely to take place in the interior of neutron star.

  13. Reactivity and neutron flux measurements in IPEN/MB-01 reactor with B{sub 4}C burnable poison; Medidas de reatividade e de fluxo de neutrons no reator IPEN/MB-01 com veneno queimavel de B{sub 4}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fer, Nelson Custodio; Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Burnable poison rods, made of B{sub 4}C- Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} pellets with 5.01 mg/cm{sup 3} {sup 10} B concentration, have been manufactured for a set of experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 zero-power reactor. Several core parameters which are affected by the burnable poisons rods have been measured. The principal results, for the situation in which the burnable poison rods are located near the absorber rods of a control rod, are they cause a 29% rod worth shadowing, a reduction of 39% in the local void coefficient of reactivity, a reduction of 4.8% in the isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity, and a reduction of 9% in the thermal neutron flux in the region where the burnable poison rods are located. These experimental results will be used for the validation of burnable poison calculation methods in the CTMSP. (author)

  14. Solution of the neutron point kinetics equations with temperature feedback effects applying the polynomial approach method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)

  15. Solution of Point Reactor Neutron Kinetics Equations with Temperature Feedback by Singularly Perturbed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The singularly perturbed method (SPM is proposed to obtain the analytical solution for the delayed supercritical process of nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and small step reactivity inserted. The relation between the reactivity and time is derived. Also, the neutron density (or power and the average density of delayed neutron precursors as the function of reactivity are presented. The variations of neutron density (or power and temperature with time are calculated and plotted and compared with those by accurate solution and other analytical methods. It is shown that the results by the SPM are valid and accurate in the large range and the SPM is simpler than those in the previous literature.

  16. Sharp reduction in maximum fuel temperatures during loss of coolant accidents in a PBMR DPP-400 core, by means of optimised placement of neutron poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za

    2014-05-01

    In a preceding study, coupled neutronics and thermo-hydraulic simulations were performed with the VSOP-A diffusion code for the standard 9.6 wt% enriched 9 g uranium fuel spheres in the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Demonstration Power Plant. The axial power profile peaked at about a third from the top of the fuel core and the radial profile peaked directly adjacent to the central graphite reflector. The maximum temperature during a Depressurised Loss of Coolant (DLOFC) incident was 1581.0 °C, which is close to the limit of 1600 °C above which the leakage of radioactive fission products through the TRISO coatings around the fuel kernels may become unacceptable. This may present licensing challenges and also limits the total power output of the reactor. In this article the results of an optimisation study of the axial and radial power profiles for this reactor are reported. The main aim was to minimise the maximum DLOFC temperature. Reducing the maximum equilibrium temperature during normal operation was a lesser aim. Minimising the maximum DLOFC temperature was achieved by placing an optimised distribution of {sup 10}B neutron poison in the central reflector. The standard power profiles are sub-optimal with respect to the passive leakage of decay heat during a DLOFC. Since the radial power profile peaks directly adjacent to the central reflector, the distance that the decay heat needs to be conducted toward the outside of the reactor and the ultimate heat sink is at a maximum. The sharp axial power profile peak means that most of the decay power is concentrated in a small part of the core volume, thereby sharply increasing the required outward heat flux in this hotspot region. Both these features sharply increase the maximum DLOFC temperatures in this hotspot. Therefore the axial distribution of the neutron poisons in the central reflector was optimised so as to push the equilibrium power density profile radially outward and to suppress the axial power peak

  17. Exact Solution for the Exterior Field of a Rotating Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I; Sanabria-Gómez, J D; Manko, Vladimir S.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Sanabria-Gómez, José D.

    2000-01-01

    A four-parameter class of exact asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations involving only rational functions is presented. It is able to describe the exterior field of a slowly or rapidly rotating neutron star with poloidal magnetic field.

  18. Solution structure of a short dna fragment studied by neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    The solution structure of a DNA fragment of 130 base pairs and known sequence has been investigated by neutron small-angle scattering. In 0.1 M NaCl, the overall structure of the DNA fragment which contains the strong promoter A1 of the Escherichia coli phage T7 agrees with that expected for B...

  19. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Jimsonweed poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Detergent poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  2. Foxglove poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  3. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Mistletoe poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002847.htm Bee poison To use the sharing features on this page, ... of insect, if possible Time of the sting Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  6. Philodendron poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if known Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  7. Analytical solutions for the slow neutron capture process of heavy element nucleosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kai-Su

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the network equation for the slow neutron capture process (s-process) of heavy element nucleosynthesis is investigated. Dividing the s-process network reaction chains into two standard forms and using the technique of matrix decomposition,a group of analytical solutions for the network equation are obtained. With the analytical solutions,a calculation for heavy element abundance of the solar system is carried out and the results are in good agreement with the astrophysical measurements.

  8. The adjoint neutron transport equation and the statistical approach for its solution

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, Paolo; Ravetto, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The adjoint equation was introduced in the early days of neutron transport and its solution, the neutron importance, has ben used for several applications in neutronics. The work presents at first a critical review of the adjoint neutron transport equation. Afterwards, the adjont model is constructed for a reference physical situation, for which an analytical approach is viable, i.e. an infinite homogeneous scattering medium. This problem leads to an equation that is the adjoint of the slowing-down equation that is well-known in nuclear reactor physics. A general closed-form analytical solution to such adjoint equation is obtained by a procedure that can be used also to derive the classical Placzek functions. This solution constitutes a benchmark for any statistical or numerical approach to the adjoint equation. A sampling technique to evaluate the adjoint flux for the transport equation is then proposed and physically interpreted as a transport model for pseudo-particles. This can be done by introducing appr...

  9. Structure of Fullerene Aggregates in Pyridine/Water Solutions by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Aksenov, V L; Belushkin, A V; Mihailovic, D; Mrzel, A; Rosta, L; Serdyuk, I N; Timchenko, A A

    2001-01-01

    Results of small-angle neutron scattering experiments on fullerenes (Co_{60}) in pyridine/water solutions are reported. They confirm conclusions of the previous studies, in particular, dynamic light scattering experiments. Aggregates with characteristic radius of about 20 nm are formed in the solutions. The contrast variation using different combinations of protonated/deuterated components (water and pyridine) of the solutions points to the small pyridine content inside the aggregates. This fact testifies that the aggregates consist of a massive fullerene core covered by a thin pyridine shell.

  10. Quasielastic small-angle neutron scattering from heavy water solutions of cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, André; Lechner, Ruep E; Saenger, Wolfram

    2011-01-14

    We present a model for quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) by an aqueous solution of compact and inflexible molecules. This model accounts for time-dependent spatial pair correlations between the atoms of the same as well as of distinct molecules and includes all coherent and incoherent neutron scattering contributions. The extension of the static theory of the excluded volume effect [A. K. Soper, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9, 2399 (1997)] to the time-dependent (dynamic) case allows us to obtain simplified model expressions for QENS spectra in the low Q region in the uniform fluid approximation. The resulting expressions describe the quasielastic small-angle neutron scattering (QESANS) spectra of D(2)O solutions of native and methylated cyclodextrins well, yielding in particular translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of these compounds in aqueous solution. Finally, we discuss the full potential of the QESANS analysis (that is, beyond the uniform fluid approximation), in particular, the information on solute-solvent interactions (e.g., hydration shell properties) that such an analysis can provide, in principle.

  11. Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./ Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997, Volume 4, Part 8 - Neutron Poison Plates in Assemblies Containing Homogeneous Mixtures of Polystyrene-Moderated Plutonium and Uranium Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, M.

    1999-05-01

    In the 1970s at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a series of critical experiments using a remotely operated Split-Table Machine was performed with homogeneous mixtures of (Pu-U)O{sub 2}-polystyrene fuels in the form of square compacts having different heights. The experiments determined the critical geometric configurations of MOX fuel assemblies with and without neutron poison plates. With respect to PuO{sub 2} content and moderation [H/(Pu+U)atomic] ratio (MR), two different homogeneous (Pu-U) O{sub 2}-polystyrene mixtures were considered: Mixture (1) 14.62 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 30.6 MR, and Mixture (2) 30.3 wt% PuO{sub 2} with 2.8 MR. In all mixtures, the uranium was depleted to about O.151 wt% U{sup 235}. Assemblies contained copper, copper-cadmium or aluminum neutron poison plates having thicknesses up to {approximately}2.5 cm. This evaluation contains 22 experiments for Mixture 1, and 10 for Mixture 2 compacts. For Mixture 1, there are 10 configurations with copper plates, 6 with aluminum, and 5 with copper-cadmium. One experiment contained no poison plate. For Mixture 2 compacts, there are 3 configurations with copper, 3 with aluminum, and 3 with copper-cadmium poison plates. One experiment contained no poison plate.

  12. Small angle X-ray and neutron scattering from solutions of biological macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Svergun, Dmitri I; May, Roland P; Timmins, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    In this book, following the presentation of the basics of scattering from isotropic macromolecular solutions, modern instrumentation, experimental practice and advanced analysis techniques are explained. Advantages of X-rays (rapid data collection, small sample volumes) and of neutrons (contrast variation by hydrogen/deuterium exchange) are specifically highlighted. Examples of applications of the technique to different macromolecular systems are considered with specific emphasis on the synergistic use of SAXS/SANS with other structural, biophysical and computational techniques.

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O R Pal; V G Gaikar; J V Joshi; P S Goyal; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium -butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

  14. Inverse freezing in {alpha}-cyclodextrin solutions probed by quasi elastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plazanet, M. [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto-Fiorentino (Italy); INFM-CRS-Soft Matter (CNR), c/o Univ. la Sapienza, Piaz. A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156X, 38042 Grenoble Cx (France); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156X, 38042 Grenoble Cx (France); Schweins, R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156X, 38042 Grenoble Cx (France); Trommsdorff, H.P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156X, 38042 Grenoble Cx (France); Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, Universite J. Fourier Grenoble - CNRS (UMR 5588), BP 87, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cx (France)], E-mail: trommsdorff@ill.fr

    2006-12-11

    Solutions of {alpha}-cyclodextrin, 4-methylpyridine and water undergo a reversible liquid-solid phase transition on heating ('inverse freezing'). In this paper quasi elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements are reported, from which the diffusive dynamics of different components in the liquid and solid phases is determined. Results imply that, in solution, {alpha}-cyclodextrin is contained in a solvation shell of 4-methylpyridine molecules, while in the crystal phase, the majority of the cell contents are immobilized on the nanosecond timescale. This information will be important in evaluating the entropy of the system in its different phases and in understanding the unusual phase transition.

  15. Neutron detection in a high-gamma field using solution-grown stilbene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, M.M., E-mail: mmbourne@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adamowicz, N., E-mail: nicka@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zaitseva, N., E-mail: zaitseva1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carman, L., E-mail: carman1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    A solution-based technique for growing large-volume stilbene scintillators was developed in 2013; crystals up to diameters of 10 cm, or larger, have been grown while preserving excellent pulse shape discrimination (PSD) properties. The goal of this study is to evaluate the PSD capabilities of 5.08 by 5.08-cm stilbene crystals grown by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Inrad Optics when exposed to a 1000 to 1 gamma ray-neutron ratio and operating at a 100-kHz count rate. Results were compared to an equivalent EJ-309 liquid scintillation detector. {sup 252}Cf neutron pulses were recorded in two experiments where {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources created the high-gamma field. The high count rate created numerous double pulses that were cleaned using fractional and template approaches designed to remove double pulses while preserving neutron counts. PSD was performed at a threshold of 42 keVee (440-keV proton) for stilbene and 60 keVee (610-keV proton) for EJ-309 liquid. The lower threshold in stilbene resulted in a neutron intrinsic efficiency of approximately 14.5%, 10% higher than EJ-309 liquid, for bare {sup 252}Cf and 13% for {sup 252}Cf in the high-gamma field. Despite the lower threshold, the gamma misclassification rate in stilbene was approximately 3×10{sup −6}, nearly a factor-of-five lower than what we found with the EJ-309 liquid.

  16. Matching of analytical and numerical solutions for neutron stars of arbitrary rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, George, E-mail: gpappas@phys.uoa.g [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy, and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece)

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the results of an attempt to match the two-soliton analytical solution with the numerically produced solutions of the Einstein field equations, that describe the spacetime exterior of rotating neutron stars, for arbitrary rotation. The matching procedure is performed by equating the first four multipole moments of the analytical solution to the multipole moments of the numerical one. We then argue that in order to check the effectiveness of the matching of the analytical with the numerical solution we should compare the metric components, the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit (R{sub ISCO}), the rotation frequency and the epicyclic frequencies {Omega}{sub {rho}}, {Omega}{sub z}. Finally we present some results of the comparison.

  17. On an analytical representation for the solution of the neutron point kinetics equation free of stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Milena W. Da; Vilhena, Marco T. de; Bodmann, Bardo E., E-mail: milena.wollmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bardobodmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Leite, Sergio B., E-mail: bogado@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we report on an analytical representation for the solution of the neutron point kinetics equation, free of stiffness and assuming that the reactivity is a continuous or sectionally continuous function of time. To this end, we cast the point kinetics equation in a first order linear differential equation. Next, we split the corresponding matrix into a diagonal matrix plus a matrix that contains the remaining terms. Expanding the neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors concentrations in a truncated series, allows one to construct a recursive system, in form of a first order matrix differential equation with source. The initialization of the recursion procedure is of diagonal form and has no source, but satisfies the initial conditions. The remaining equations are subject to null initial conditions and include the time dependent diagonal elements together with the off diagonal elements as a source term. The solution is obtained in analytical representation which may be evaluated for any time value, because it is free of stiffness. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature, for a constant, a step, a ramp, a quadratic and sine shaped reactivity function. (author)

  18. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal [INVAP S.E., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  19. Insecticide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002832.htm Insecticide poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Insecticide is a chemical that kills bugs. Insecticide poisoning ...

  20. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grain that was treated with this from of mercury. Poisoning from eating fish from water that is contaminated ... into the body. Many of the symptoms of mercury poisoning are similar to symptoms of cerebral palsy . In ...

  1. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  2. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  3. Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  4. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  5. Ethanol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  6. Solution of the neutronics code dynamic benchmark by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvakumov, A. V.; Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasilev, A. O.; Strizhov, V. F.

    2016-10-01

    The objective is to analyze the dynamic benchmark developed by Atomic Energy Research for the verification of best-estimate neutronics codes. The benchmark scenario includes asymmetrical ejection of a control rod in a water-type hexagonal reactor at hot zero power. A simple Doppler feedback mechanism assuming adiabatic fuel temperature heating is proposed. The finite element method on triangular calculation grids is used to solve the three-dimensional neutron kinetics problem. The software has been developed using the engineering and scientific calculation library FEniCS. The matrix spectral problem is solved using the scalable and flexible toolkit SLEPc. The solution accuracy of the dynamic benchmark is analyzed by condensing calculation grid and varying degree of finite elements.

  7. Overview of Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... Insecticide Poisoning Iron Poisoning Lead Poisoning Overview of Food Poisoning Mushroom (Toadstool) Poisoning Plant and Shrub Poisoning ...

  8. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  9. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; S Chodankar; J Kohlbrecher; R Vavrin; A G Wagh

    2008-10-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein{surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar.

  10. Photographic fixative poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form ...

  11. Collocation method for the solution of the neutron transport equation with both symmetric and asymmetric scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A collocation method is developed for the solution of the one-dimensional neutron transport equation in slab geometry with both symmetric and polarly asymmetric scattering. For the symmetric scattering case, it is found that the collocation method offers a combination of some of the best characteristics of the finite-element and discrete-ordinates methods. For the asymmetric scattering case, it is found that the computational cost of cross-section data processing under the collocation approach can be significantly less than that associated with the discrete-ordinates approach. A general diffusion equation treating both symmetric and asymmetric scattering is developed and used in a synthetic acceleration algorithm to accelerate the iterative convergence of collocation solutions. It is shown that a certain type of asymmetric scattering can radically alter the asymptotic behavior of the transport solution and is mathematically equivalent within the diffusion approximation to particle transport under the influence of an electric field. The method is easily extended to other geometries and higher dimensions. Applications exist in the areas of neutron transport with highly anisotropic scattering (such as that associated with hydrogenous media), charged-particle transport, and particle transport in controlled-fusion plasmas. 23 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Neutron diffraction studies on Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 solid solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Achary; O D Jayakumar; S J Patwe; A B Shinde; P S R Krishna; S K Kulshreshtha; A K Tyagi

    2008-11-01

    Herein we report the results of detailed crystallographic studies of Ca1-BaZr4P6O24 compositions from combined Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. All the studied compositions crystallize in rhombohedral lattice (space group R-3 No. 148). A continuous solid solution is concluded from the systematic variation of unit cell parameters. The variation of unit cell parameters with the composition indicates decreasing trend in parameter with increasing Ba2+ concentration contrast to an increasing trend in parameter.

  13. Numerical Solution of Fractional Neutron Point Kinetics Model in Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Tomasz Karol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results concerning solutions of the fractional neutron point kinetics model for a nuclear reactor. Proposed model consists of a bilinear system of fractional and ordinary differential equations. Three methods to solve the model are presented and compared. The first one entails application of discrete Grünwald-Letnikov definition of the fractional derivative in the model. Second involves building an analog scheme in the FOMCON Toolbox in MATLAB environment. Third is the method proposed by Edwards. The impact of selected parameters on the model’s response was examined. The results for typical input were discussed and compared.

  14. The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in the multigroup neutron diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznicki, Z.I. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iteration within global iterations. Particular interactive strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 32 figs, 15 tabs.

  15. The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in multigroup neutron diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznicki, Z.I. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iterations within global iterations. Particular iterative strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs.

  16. Relaxation dynamics of lysozyme in solution under pressure: Combining molecular dynamics simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calandrini, V. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, V. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Hinsen, K. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Calligari, P. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bellissent-Funel, M.-C. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kneller, G.R. [Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orleans (France); Synchrotron Soleil, L' Orme de Merisiers, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)], E-mail: kneller@cnrs-orleans.fr

    2008-04-18

    This paper presents a study of the influence of non-denaturing hydrostatic pressure on the relaxation dynamics of lysozyme in solution, which combines molecular dynamics simulations and quasielastic neutron scattering experiments. We compare results obtained at ambient pressure and at 3 kbar. Experiments have been performed at pD 4.6 and at a protein concentration of 60 mg/ml. For both pressures we checked the monodispersity of the protein solution by small angle neutron scattering. To interpret the simulation results and the experimental data, we adopt the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model for the internal relaxation dynamics of the protein. On the experimental side, global protein motions are accounted for by the model of free translational diffusion, neglecting the much slower rotational diffusion. We find that the protein dynamics in the observed time window from about 1 to 100 ps is slowed down under pressure, while its fractal characteristics is preserved, and that the amplitudes of the motions are reduced by about 20%. The slowing down of the relaxation is reduced with increasing q-values, where more localized motions are seen.

  17. Approximate Solution of the Point Reactor Kinetic Equations of Average One-Group of Delayed Neutrons for Step Reactivity Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yamoah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the time-dependent behaviour of the neutron population in a nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions is of great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study two analytical methods have been presented to solve the point kinetic equations of average one-group of delayed neutrons. These methods which are both approximate solution of the point reactor kinetic equations are compared with a numerical solution using the Euler’s first order method. To obtain accurate solution for the Euler method, a relatively small time step was chosen for the numerical solution. These methods are applied to different types of reactivity to check the validity of the analytical method by comparing the analytical results with the numerical results. From the results, it is observed that the analytical solution agrees well with the numerical solution.

  18. Poison Ivy Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Poison ivy rash By Mayo Clinic Staff Poison ivy rash is caused by an allergic reaction to an oily resin ... is in the leaves, stems and roots of poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Wash your ...

  19. Malathion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) ... to kill and control insects on crops and in gardens. The government also uses it to kill mosquitoes in large ...

  20. Preliminary Formulation of Finite Element Solution for the 1-D, 1-G Time Dependent Neutron Diffusion Equation without Consideration about Delay Neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Eun Hyun; Song, Yong Mann; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    If time-dependent equation is solved with the FEM, the limitation of the input geometry will disappear. It has often been pointed out that the numerical methods implemented in the RFSP code are not state-of-the-art. Although an acceleration method such as the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) for Finite Difference Method (FDM) does not exist for the FEM, one should keep in mind that the number of time steps for the transient simulation is not large. The rigorous formulation in this study will richen the theoretical basis of the FEM and lead to an extension of the dynamics code to deal with a more complicated problem. In this study, the formulation for the 1-D, 1-G Time Dependent Neutron Diffusion Equation (TDNDE) without consideration of the delay neutron will first be done. A problem including one multiplying medium will be solved. Also several conclusions from a comparison between the numerical and analytic solutions, a comparison between solutions with various element orders, and a comparison between solutions with different time differencing will be made to be certain about the formulation and FEM solution. By investigating various cases with different values of albedo, theta, and the order of elements, it can be concluded that the finite element solution is agree well with the analytic solution. The higher the element order used, the higher the accuracy improvements are obtained.

  1. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...... supratherapeutic drug concentrations to clinical toxicity such as confusion, ataxia, or seizures. Lithium poisoning has a low mortality rate; however, chronic lithium poisoning can require a prolonged hospital length of stay from impaired mobility and cognition and associated nosocomial complications. Persistent...

  2. Intermediate scattering function for macromolecules in solutions probed by neutron spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The neutron-spin-echo method (NSE) is a powerful technique for studying internal dynamics of macromolecules in solutions because it can simultaneously probe length and time scales comparable to intramolecular density fluctuations of macromolecules. Recently, there has been increased, strong interest in studying protein internal motions using NSE. The coherent intermediate scattering function (ISF) measured by NSE depends on internal, rotational, and translational motions of macromolecules in solutions. It is thus critical, but highly nontrivial, to separate the internal motion from other motions in order to properly understand protein internal dynamics. Even though many experiments are performed at relatively high concentrations, current theories of calculating the ISF of concentrated protein solutions are either inaccurate or flawed by incorrect assumptions for realistic protein systems with anisotropic shapes. Here, a theoretical framework is developed to establish the quantitative relationship of different motions included in the ISF. This theory based on the dynamic decoupling approximation is applicable to a wide range of protein concentrations, including dilute cases. It is also, in general, useful for studying many other types of macromolecule systems studied by NSE.

  3. Intermediate scattering function for macromolecules in solutions probed by neutron spin echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The neutron-spin-echo method (NSE) is a powerful technique for studying internal dynamics of macromolecules in solutions because it can simultaneously probe length and time scales comparable to intramolecular density fluctuations of macromolecules. Recently, there has been increased, strong interest in studying protein internal motions using NSE. The coherent intermediate scattering function (ISF) measured by NSE depends on internal, rotational, and translational motions of macromolecules in solutions. It is thus critical, but highly nontrivial, to separate the internal motion from other motions in order to properly understand protein internal dynamics. Even though many experiments are performed at relatively high concentrations, current theories of calculating the ISF of concentrated protein solutions are either inaccurate or flawed by incorrect assumptions for realistic protein systems with anisotropic shapes. Here, a theoretical framework is developed to establish the quantitative relationship of different motions included in the ISF. This theory based on the dynamic decoupling approximation is applicable to a wide range of protein concentrations, including dilute cases. It is also, in general, useful for studying many other types of macromolecule systems studied by NSE.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering study of two nonionic surfactants in water micellar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajewska Aldona

    2008-11-01

    Two classic nonionic surfactants – C14E7 (heptaethylene glycol monotetra-decyl ether) and C10E7 (heptaethylene glycol monodecyl ether) were investigated in heavy water solution for concentration = 0.17% (dilute regime) at different temperatures in the range = 10–35°C by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) method. In the case of C14E7 surfactant – for all temperatures at = 0.17% there are two axial ellipsoidal micelles with longer axis 15 nm at 10°C and 49.5 nm at 35°C in investigated solutions. For C10E7 surfactant at the same concentration of solution and temperature – two axial ellipsoidal micelles were observed, too. The longer axis is equal to 7.5 nm at 10°C, 9 nm at 20°C and at 35°C this axis is equal to 12 nm. Micelles of C10E7 nonionic surfactant are smaller than those of C14E7 surfactant in the same experimental conditions.

  5. On progress of the solution of the stationary 2-dimensional neutron diffusion equation: a polynomial approximation method with error analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, C., E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Frederico Westphalen, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte; Schramm, M.; Bodmann, B.E.J.; Vilhena, M.T., E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2015-07-01

    Recently the stationary neutron diffusion equation in heterogeneous rectangular geometry was solved by the expansion of the scalar fluxes in polynomials in terms of the spatial variables (x; y), considering the two-group energy model. The focus of the present discussion consists in the study of an error analysis of the aforementioned solution. More specifically we show how the spatial subdomain segmentation is related to the degree of the polynomial and the Lipschitz constant. This relation allows to solve the 2-D neutron diffusion problem for second degree polynomials in each subdomain. This solution is exact at the knots where the Lipschitz cone is centered. Moreover, the solution has an analytical representation in each subdomain with supremum and infimum functions that shows the convergence of the solution. We illustrate the analysis with a selection of numerical case studies. (author)

  6. Neutron-scattering study of the vibrational behavior of trehalose aqueous solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Migliardo, F; Romeo, G; Villari, V; Wanderlingh, U; Colognesi, D

    2002-01-01

    Neutron spectra for hydrated trehalose samples have been obtained by using the time-of-flight spectrometer TOSCA at the ISIS Pulse Neutron Facility (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK). Neutron spectra have been compared to the absorbance spectra obtained by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Finally, a comparison with findings obtained by density functional theory has been performed. 3 Refs.

  7. Re-evaluation of the 16O(N, γ)17O Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies and Its Role as a Neutron Poison in the s-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter; Heinz, Christian; Pignatari, Marco; Dillmann, Iris; Mengoni, Alberto; Käppeler, Franz

    2016-08-01

    The doubly magic nucleus 16O has a small neutron-capture cross section of just a few tens of microbarns in the astrophysical energy region. Despite this, 16O plays an important role as a neutron poison in the astrophysical slow neutron capture (s) process due to its high abundance. We present in this paper a re-evaluation of the available experimental data for 16O(n,γ )17O and derive a new recommendation for the Maxwellian-averaged cross sections between kT = 5 and 100 keV. Our new recommendations are lower up to kT = 60 keV compared to the previously recommended values but up to 14% higher at kT = 100 keV. We explore the impact of this different energy dependence on the weak s-process during core helium burning (kT = 26 keV) and shell carbon burning (kT = 90 keV) in massive stars where 16O is the most abundant isotope.

  8. Propane poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seek medical help right away. If the person breathed in the poison, immediately move him or her to fresh air. If the person does not improve rapidly after moving to fresh air, call your local emergency number (such as ...

  9. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  10. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead is of microscopic size, invisible to the naked eye. More often than not, children with elevated ... majority of the childhood lead poisoning cases we see today. Children and adults too can get seriously ...

  11. Shellac poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in shellac that can be harmful are: Ethanol Isopropanol Methanol Methyl isobutyl ketone ... Isopropanol and methanol are extremely poisonous. As little as 2 tablespoons (14.8 mL) of methanol can ...

  12. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  13. Gasoline poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002806.htm Gasoline poisoning To use the sharing features on this ... This article discusses the harmful effects from swallowing gasoline or breathing in its fumes. This article is ...

  14. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of iodine poisoning include: Abdominal pain Coughing Delirium Diarrhea , sometimes bloody Fever Gum and tooth soreness Loss of appetite Metallic taste in mouth Mouth and throat pain and burning No urine output Rash Salivation (producing saliva) Seizures ...

  15. Zinc poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill; 2006. Hall AH, Shannon MW. Other heavy metals. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ,eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier ...

  16. Paraffin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... Paraffin ... Eating a lot of paraffin can lead to intestinal obstruction, which can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and possible constipation. If the paraffin contains a ...

  17. Naphthalene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  18. Ammonia poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... 147. Levine MD, Zane R. Chemical injuries. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  19. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  20. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  1. $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ Pairing in Dense Neutron Matter The Spectrum of Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zverev, M V; Khodel, V A

    2003-01-01

    The $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model is generally considered to provide an adequate description of the superfluid states of neutron matter at densities some 2-3 times that of saturated symmetrical nuclear matter. The problem of solving the system of BCS gap equations expressing the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ model is attacked with the aid of the separation approach. This method, developed originally for quantitative study of S-wave pairing in the presence of strong short-range repulsions, serves effectively to reduce the coupled, singular, nonlinear BCS integral equations to a set of coupled algebraic equations. For the first time, sufficient precision becomes accessible to resolve small energy splittings between the different pairing states. Adopting a perturbative strategy, we are able to identify and characterize the full repertoire of real solutions of the $^3P_2$-$^3F_2$ pairing model, in the limiting regime of small tensor-coupling strength. The P-F channel coupling is seen to lift the striking parametric degeneracie...

  2. Multilayers at the surface of solutions of exogenous lung surfactant: direct observation by neutron reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, D; Tiberg, F; Thomas, R K; Larsson, M

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacy-grade exogenous lung surfactant preparations of bovine and porcine origin, dispersed in physiological electrolyte solution have been studied. The organization and dynamics at the air/water interface at physiological temperature was analysed by neutron reflection. The results show that a well-defined surface phase is formed, consisting of a multilayer structure of lipid/protein bilayers alternating with aqueous layers, with a repetition period of about 70 A and correlation depths of 3 to >25 bilayers, depending on electrolyte composition and time. The experimental surfactant concentration of 0.15% (w/w) is far below that used in therapeutic application of exogenous surfactants and it is therefore likely that similar multilayer structures are also formed at the alveolar surface in the clinical situation during surfactant substitution therapy. Lung surfactant preparations in dry form swell in aqueous solution towards a limit of about 60% (w/w) of water, forming a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase above about 34 degrees C, which disperses into lamellar bodies at higher water concentrations. The lamellar spacings in the surface multilayers at the air/water interface are smaller than those in the saturated limit even though they are in contact with much greater water concentrations. The surface multilayers are laterally disordered in a way that is consistent with fragments of Lalpha-phase lamellae. The near surface layers of the multilayer structure have a significant protein content (only SP-B and SP-C are present in the preparations). The results demonstrate that a multilayer structure can be formed in exogenous surfactant even at very low concentrations and indicate that multilayers need to be incorporated into present interpretations of in vitro studies of similar lung surfactant preparations, which are largely based on monolayer models.

  3. Neutron Diffraction of Aqueous Tetramethylammonium Chloride (TMA) Solutions and TMA Intercalated Swelling Clays Under Burial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R.; Howard, C. A.; Greenwell, C.; Youngs, T.; Soper, A. K.; Skipper, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for the improvement and optimisation of clay swelling inhibitors for the enhancement of oil and gas exploration. The hydration region of both ions and the possibility of ion pairing in 1 molar aqueous solution of clay swelling inhibitor, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl), in D2O, under elevated hydrostatic-pressures and temperatures has been determined with unprecedented detail using a combination of neutron diffraction and small-angle scattering in conjunction with hydrogen/deuterium isotopic labeling. The O-H correlation function (H-bonds) for the water in the 1.0M solution is measured and compared with that for pure D2O. Also investigated is the effect of burial conditions on the d-spacing of TMA-intercalated vermiculite. Contrary to expectations, no aggregation of TMA ions due to hydrophobic interactions is observed, nor are any ionic pairs of TMA+ and Cl- at these burial conditions. The data revealed a more ordered water-water structure with the addition of TMACl from bulk D2O. There is no change in the hydration structure measured at the applied elevated conditions. This is in remarkable contrast to pure water at the same conditions which is well known to be compressible. The dry d-spacing of the TMA-exchanged Eucatex vermiculite is measured at 13.66 Å which increases to 14.03 Å with the addition of D2O. Beyond this, there is no change in d-spacing with increasing pressure and temperature indicating the strength of the TMA ions binding to the clay interlayers and therefore its performance as a clay-swelling inhibitor.

  4. Fissile materials in solution concentration measured by active neutron interrogation; Mesure de concentration en matiere fissile dans les liquides par interrogation neutronique active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeyer Dherbey, J.; Passard, Ch.; Cloue, J.; Bignan, G.

    1993-12-31

    The use of the active neutron interrogation to measure the concentration of plutonium contained in flow solutions is particularly interesting for fuel reprocessing plants. Indeed, this method gives a signal which is in a direct relation with the fissile materials concentration. Moreover, it is less sensitive to the gamma dose rate than the other nondestructive methods. Two measure methods have been evolved in CEA. Their principles are given into details in this work. The first one consists to detect fission delayed neutrons induced by a {sup 252} Cf source. In the second one fission prompt neutrons induced by a neutron generator of 14 MeV are detected. (O.M.). 6 refs.

  5. Study the effect of beryllium reflector poisoning on the Syrian MNSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, H; Ghazi, N; Haddad, Kh; Ezzuddin, H

    2012-06-01

    Neutron interactions with beryllium lead to formation of (3)H and strong neutron absorbers (3)He and (6)Li in the reflector (so called beryllium poisoning). After the reactor shutdown, the concentration of (3)He increases in time due to tritium decay. This paper illustrates the impact of poisoning accumulation in the beryllium reflectors on reactivity for the Syrian MNSR research reactor. The prediction of (6)Li and (3)He poison concentrations, initiated by the 9Be(n,α) reaction, in the beryllium reflectors of the MNSR was also presented. The results were based on MCNP Monte Carlo calculations and solutions to the differential equations which describe the time dependent poison concentrations as a function of reactor operation time and shutdown periods. The whole reactor history was taken into account to predict reliable values of parasitic isotope concentrations. It was found that the (3)He and (6)Li accumulations in the beryllium reflectors during the actual working history decreased the excess reactivity by about 28%. While, the effect became more significant at the reactor life's end and the reactor became subcritical after 25,000 h operation. The results contained in this paper could be used in assess the safety analysis of the MNSR reactor.

  6. Numerical solutions of general-relativistic field equations for rapidly rotating neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪君; 须重明

    1997-01-01

    Stationary axial symmetric equilibrium configurations rapidly rotating with uniform angular velocity in the framework of genera! relativity are considered. Sequences of models are numerically computed by means of a computer code that solves the full Einstein equations exactly. This code employs Neugebauer’s minimal surface formalism, where the field equations are equivalent to two-dimensional minimal surface equations for 4 metric potentials. The calculations are based upon 10 different equations of state. Results of various structures of neutron stars and the rotational effects on stellar structures and properties are reported. Finally some limits to equations of state of neutron stars and the stability for rapidly rotating relativistic neutron stars are discussed.

  7. Sourceless formation evaluation. An LWD solution providing density and neutron measurements without the use of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, R.; Reichel, N. [Schlumberger, Sungai Buloh (Malaysia)

    2013-08-01

    For many years the industry has been searching for a way to eliminate the logistical difficulties and risk associated with deployment of radioisotopes for formation evaluation. The traditional gamma-gamma density (GGD) measurement uses the scattering of 662-keV gamma rays from a 137Cs radioisotopic source, with a 30.17-year half-life, to determine formation density. The traditional neutron measurement uses an Am-Be source emitting neutrons with an energy around 4 MeV, with a half-life of 432 years. Both these radioisotopic sources pose health, security, and environmental risks. Pulsed-neutron generators have been used in the industry for several decades in wireline tools and more recently in logging-while-drilling tools. These generators produce 14-MeV neutrons, many of which interact with the nuclei in the formation. Elastic collisions allow a neutron porosity measurement to be derived, which has been available to the industry since 2005. Inelastic interactions are typically followed by the emission of a variety of high-energy gamma rays. Similar to the case of the GGD measurement, the transport and attenuation of these gamma rays is a strong function of the formation density. However, the gamma-ray source is now distributed over a volume within the formation, where gamma rays have been induced by neutron interactions and the source can no longer be considered to be a point as in the case of a radioisotopic source. In addition, the extent of the induced source region depends on the transport of the fast neutrons from the source to the point of gamma-ray production. Even though the physics is more complex, it is possible to measure the formation density if the fast neutron transport is taken into account when deriving the density answer. This paper briefly reviews the physics underlying the sourceless neutron porosity and recently introduced neutron-gamma density (SNGD) measurement, demonstrates how they can be used in traditional workflows and illustrates their

  8. Molecular dynamics of solutions of poly-3-octyl-thiophene and functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes studied by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Paniagua, Carlos [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Urbina, Antonio, E-mail: a.urbina@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Plaza del Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); García-Sakai, Victoria [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Seydel, Tilo [Institut Laue-Langevin, 39042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Abad, José; Padilla, Javier; García-Valverde, Rafael; Espinosa, Nieves [Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Plaza del Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Gómez-Escalonilla, Marí a-José; Langa, Fernando [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares (INAMOL), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Batallán, Francisco [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-12

    Highlights: • P3OT diffusion characteristic times in toluene solution at different temperatures have been obtained. • Gelation process for P3OT in solution has been demonstrated. • A methodology for elastic and quasielastic neutron scattering data analysis for liquids has been developed. - Abstract: Using both quasielastic and elastic window neutron spectroscopy, we study the molecular dynamics of poly-3-octyl-thiophene and of mixtures of carbon nanotube derivatives and poly-3-octyl-thiophene, both in deuterated toluene solutions. From the analysis of the experimental results of solutions for a broad range of concentrations, from very diluted to concentrated, different regimes of molecular motions are established, and a critical concentration between 2 and 3 wt% for the overlapping of macromolecules is obtained, including evidence of gelation processes for the higher concentrations driven by the entanglement of the macromolecules. Additionally, the temperature and momentum dependence of the characteristic times of the motions are obtained from the fit of the experimental data to stretched exponential models, delivering temperature dependent subnanosecond timescales for the diffusion of the macromolecule (0.02–0.5 ns)

  9. Nodal Green’s Function Method Singular Source Term and Burnable Poison Treatment in Hexagonal Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Bingham; R.M. Ferrer; A.M. ougouag

    2009-09-01

    An accurate and computationally efficient two or three-dimensional neutron diffusion model will be necessary for the development, safety parameters computation, and fuel cycle analysis of a prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design under Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP). For this purpose, an analytical nodal Green’s function solution for the transverse integrated neutron diffusion equation is developed in two and three-dimensional hexagonal geometry. This scheme is incorporated into HEXPEDITE, a code first developed by Fitzpatrick and Ougouag. HEXPEDITE neglects non-physical discontinuity terms that arise in the transverse leakage due to the transverse integration procedure application to hexagonal geometry and cannot account for the effects of burnable poisons across nodal boundaries. The test code being developed for this document accounts for these terms by maintaining an inventory of neutrons by using the nodal balance equation as a constraint of the neutron flux equation. The method developed in this report is intended to restore neutron conservation and increase the accuracy of the code by adding these terms to the transverse integrated flux solution and applying the nodal Green’s function solution to the resulting equation to derive a semi-analytical solution.

  10. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  11. Radiolysis of Boric Acid Solutions under Mixed Thermal and Fast Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Heejung; Choi, Ke Chon; Yeon, Jeiwon; Song, Kyuseok; Jung Hoansung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The thermal neutron irradiation of water samples containing neutron absorbers has not been published except for a paper reporting the experimental data obtained at high temperatures. However, irradiation or simulations of water and voluminous liquid samples with fast neutrons and gamma rays are frequently discussed in several published papers. Several water samples containing {sup 10}B-enriched boric acid, and natural and {sup 10}B-enriched mixed boric acids in the range of 0 to 2000 μg/mL for the function of {sup 10}B concentration, were irradiated to study the radiolysis of the cooling water containing boric acid. The concentration of natural boron in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is known to start at 1500 μg/mL, and boric acid is used for the purpose of nuclear reaction control.

  12. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  13. Octamer formation in lysozyme solutions at the initial crystallization stage detected by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikova, Anastasiia S; Dyakova, Yulia A; Ilina, Kseniia B; Konarev, Petr V; Kryukova, Alyona E; Kuklin, Alexandr I; Marchenkova, Margarita A; Nabatov, Boris V; Blagov, Alexandr E; Pisarevsky, Yurii V; Kovalchuk, Mikhail V

    2017-07-01

    Solutions of lysozyme in heavy water were studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at concentrations of 40, 20 and 10 mg ml(-1) with and without the addition of precipitant, and at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30°C. In addition to the expected protein monomers, dimeric and octameric species were identified in solutions at the maximum concentration and close to the optimal conditions for crystallization. An optimal temperature for octamer formation was identified and both deviation from this temperature and a reduction in protein concentration led to a significant decrease in the volume fractions of octamers detected. In the absence of precipitant, only monomers and a minor fraction of dimers are present in solution.

  14. Orientation and Relaxation of Polymer-clay Solutions Studied by Rheology and Small-angle Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malwitz, M. M. [Louisiana State University; Butler, Paul D [ORNL; Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Angelette, D. P. [Louisiana State University; Schmidt, G. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2004-01-01

    The influence of shear on viscoelastic solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and clay [montmorillonite, i.e., Cloisite NA+ (CNA)] was investigated with rheology and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The steady-state viscosity and SANS were used to measure the shear-induced orientation and relaxation of the polymer and clay platelets. Anisotropic scattering patterns developed at much lower shear rates than in pure clay solutions. The scattering anisotropy saturated at low shear rates, and the CNA clay platelets aligned with the flow, with the surface normal parallel to the gradient direction. The cessation of shear led to partial and slow randomization of the CNA platelets, whereas extremely fast relaxation was observed for laponite (LRD) platelets. These PEO-CNA networklike solutions were compared with previously reported PEO-LRD networks, and the differences and similarities, with respect to the shear orientation, relaxation, and polymer-clay interactions, were examined.

  15. Dosimetric and spectrometric neutron measurements around an annular vessel containing a plutonium nitrate fissile solution

    CERN Document Server

    Tournier, B; Medioni, R; Rich, C; Mussoni, F; Camus, L; Pichenot, G; Crovisier, P; Cutarella, D; Asselineau, B; Groetz, J E

    2002-01-01

    The new ICPR60 recommendations and the consideration of the ALARA principle have led the operators of nuclear facilities to evaluate with a higher care, the doses received by workers. The aim of this paper is to present a recent study concerning mixed field characterisation at a workplace located in a reprocessing laboratory. As a first step, neutron spectrum determination was achieved by two ways: simulation using MCNP code and experimental measurements with Bonner spheres and recoil proton counters. Neutron spectrum allowed the evaluation of dosimetric quantities. Measurements were then performed with different devices routinely used in radioprotection. The describe the measurement techniques, present the results obtained, and finally compare and discuss them.

  16. Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1222 immediately. Name State American Association of Poison Control Centers Address AAPCC Central Office NOT A POISON ... not for emergency use. Arkansas ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Address 1717 S. Philo Road, Suite 36 Urbana, ...

  17. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric oxide. ... Disinfectants Fungicides There have been reports of inorganic mercury poisoning from the use of skin-lightening creams. Note: ...

  18. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  19. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  20. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  1. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering study on water and polymer dynamics in thermo/pressure sensitive polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Noboru; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2009-10-01

    Dynamics of water and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) in concentrated aqueous solutions, where the majority of water molecules are attached to polymer chains, has been investigated with use of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements as functions of temperature, T, and hydrostatic pressure, P. It was observed by QENS that the self-diffusion coefficient, D(water), of water in PNIPA/H(2)O solutions increased by P at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPA aqueous solutions. However, above the LCST, D(water) decreased by P, as is often reported in non-hydrogen bonding solutions. In isobaric heating runs, therefore, the jump in D(water) at LCST decreased with increasing pressure. On the other hand, the mean-square displacement, , of the local vibrational motion of PNIPA in PNIPA/D(2)O solutions, where the incoherent scattering signal of PNIPA was predominantly observed, was reduced due to the aggregation behavior of PNIPA by pressurizing, which was also confirmed by using DLS. The jump in at the LCST became gradual by pressurizing, which was consistent with the changes of the dynamics of water obtained in PNIPA/H(2)O solutions.

  2. GLC analysis of poison ivy and poison oak urushiol components in vegetable oil preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, M A; Turner, C E

    1980-05-01

    A procedure is described for the analysis of urushiol content of pharmaceutical preparations containing extracts of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and poison oak (T. diversilobum) in vegetable oils. The procedure involves extraction of the urushiols from the oily solutions using 90% methanol in water followed by GLC analysis of the extracts. Recoveries of both poison ivy and poison oak urushiols from solutions in corn oil, olive oil, sesame seed oil, and cottonseed oil were calculated. Correlation coefficients (r2) ranged from 0.97 to 1.00, and the coefficients of variations ranged from 3.08 to 7.90%.

  3. Molecular association of cryptand 221D in NaCl-water solutions. A small-angle neutron scattering study

    OpenAIRE

    Caponetti, E.; Chillura Martino, D.; Floriano, M.; R TRIOLO

    1993-01-01

    Molecules of 5-Decyl-4,7,13,16,21-pentaoxa-1,10-diaza-bicyclo-[8.8.5.]tricosan (221D) and its sodium complex, with both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic portion, are expected to form aggregates in water solutions. This was confirmed by surface tension measurements. The aggregation behaviour was studied by small-angle neutron scattering at two different [NaCl]/[221D] molar ratios, such as to obtain, in one case, aggregates entirely made up of ionic monomers, and in the other, mixed micelles con...

  4. [Mortality by poisoning in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar, M; Blanco, J; Carrillo, C; Rascón, A

    1998-01-01

    To determine the standing of mortality by poisoning in children in the Mexican Republic, in the years from 1979-1994. Secondary sources were employed. Analyzed variables were: age, sex, year, external cause of trauma and poisoning according to the 9th International Classification of Diseases: E850-E858, E860-E869 and E905. Tendencies by specific causes were analyzed with a Poisson regression model and relative risk by age, sex and district were obtained. A total of 11,272 children under 15 years of age were recorded. The main causes were poisoning and toxic reactions caused by venomous plants or animals (E905); accidental poisoning by household gas or carbon monoxide (E868); and accidental poisoning by other drugs (E858). The relative risk was highest in age group Aguascalientes consistently presented the highest risk values and the state of Nuevo Leon, the lowest. Poisoning is an important cause of child mortality. Considering that most of these deaths can potentially be prevented since they occur at home it is recommended that responsible adults can build protection into their environment and into the way society operates. Prevention should involve a multidisciplinary approach since the phenomenon has multiple causes and possible solutions.

  5. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: The case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, A. V.; Panyukov, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. We show that the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  6. The mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels: the case of Fe-Cu model alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Subbotina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Mechanism of solute-enriched clusters formation in neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels is proposed and developed in case of Fe-Cu model alloys. We show that the obtained results are in a good agreement with available experimental data on the parameters of clusters enriched with the alloying elements. The suggested solute-drag mechanism is analogous to the well-known zone-refining process. Our model explains why the formation of solute-enriched clusters does not happen in austenitic stainless steels with fcc lattice structure. It also allows to quantify the method of evaluation of neutron irradiation dose for the process of RPV steels hardening.

  7. Interparticle interactions and structure in nonideal solutions of human serum albumin studied by small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Moderately or highly concentrated nonideal solutions of macromolecules are very important systems e.g. in biology and in many technical processes. In this work we have used the small-angle neutron scattering technique (SANS) to study the interactions and interparticle structure in solutions...

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering study of protein crowding in liquid and solid phases: lysozyme in aqueous solution, frozen solution, and carbohydrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E; Nanda, Hirsh; Khodadadi, Sheila; Cicerone, Marcus; Lee, Hyo Jin; McAuley, Arnold; Krueger, Susan

    2012-08-16

    The structure, interactions, and interprotein configurations of the protein lysozyme were studied in a variety of phases. These properties have been studied under a variety of solution conditions before, during, and after freezing and after freeze-drying in the presence of glucose and trehalose. Contrast variation experiments have also been performed to determine which features of the scattering in the frozen solutions are from the protein and which are from the ice structure. Data from lysozyme at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mg/mL in solution and water ice with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.4 mol/L are fit to model small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensity functions consisting of an ellipsoidal form factor and either a screened-Coulomb or hard-sphere structure factor. Parameters such as protein volume fraction and long dimension are followed as a function of temperature and salt concentration. The SANS results are compared to real space models of concentrated lysozyme solutions at the same volume fractions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. A cartoon representation of the frozen lysozyme solution in 0 mol/L NaCl is presented based on the SANS and Monte Carlo results, along with those obtained from other complementary methods.

  9. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poison oak, and poison sumac. Protectants such as baking soda or colloidal oatmeal relieve minor irritation and ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  10. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  11. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kathleen; Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna; Jacques, David A.; Duff, Anthony P.

    2015-10-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users.

  12. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Kathleen, E-mail: kw@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jacques, David A. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duff, Anthony P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2015-10-21

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users.

  13. Dosimetric and spectrometric neutron measurements around an annular vessel containing a plutonium nitrate fissile solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournier, B.; Itie, C.; Medioni, R. E-mail: roger.medioni@ipsn.fr; Rich, C.; Mussoni, F.; Camus, L.; Pichenot, G.; Crovisier, Ph.; Cutarella, D.; Asselineau, B.; Groetz, J.E

    2002-01-01

    The new ICPR60 recommendations and the consideration of the ALARA principle have led the operators of nuclear facilities to evaluate with a higher care, the doses received by workers. The aim of this paper is to present a recent study concerning mixed field characterisation at a workplace located in a reprocessing laboratory. As a first step, neutron spectrum determination was achieved by two ways: simulation using MCNP code and experimental measurements with Bonner spheres and recoil proton counters. Neutron spectrum allowed the evaluation of dosimetric quantities. Measurements were then performed with different devices routinely used in radioprotection. The authors describe the measurement techniques, present the results obtained, and finally compare and discuss them.

  14. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  15. [Mercury poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  16. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  17. Mania following organophosphate poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Satyakam Mohapatra; Neelmadhav Rath

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  18. Mania following organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is the most common poisoning in developing countries. Although the acute muscarinic and nicotinic side-effects of organophosphate poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 33-year-old female who developed manic episode following acute organophosphate poisoning.

  19. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  20. Dynamics of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes in solution studied by incoherent neutron scattering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbina, A; Miguel, C [Departamento Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Plaza Hospital 1, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Delgado, J L; Langa, F [Facultad de Ciencias del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071, Toledo (Spain); DIaz-Paniagua, C [Centro Espanol de MetrologIa, 28760 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, M [Institut Laue-Langevin, 39042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Batallan, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.urbina@upct.es

    2008-03-12

    We have studied, by incoherent neutron scattering experiments, the dynamics of a colloidal suspension of functionalized single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The nanotubes have been functionalized with pentyl ester groups attached at the ends and suspended in deuterated toluene with a concentration of 2.6 mg SWNT/1 ml of deuterated toluene. The experimental techniques were incoherent elastic neutron scattering (IENS) and incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (IQNS). In the temperature range between 4 K and 300 K, three phases were observed by IENS measurements: a solid phase for TT{sub m}. Furthermore, in the high temperature range of the undercooled liquid phase, hysteresis loops in the heating and cooling scans were observed. The lower limit of the hysteresis loop defines the critical crossover temperature T{sub c}. IQNS measurements in the liquid phase and a cooling scan of the undercooled liquid phase were performed. Three different quasielastic peaks were identified, two in the liquid phase and another one in the undercooled liquid phase. The widths of the quasielastic peaks are discussed as a generalized diffusion function which can be factorized as a temperature dependent diffusion function and a Q dependent structure function. From the comparison of the diffusion function with the viscosity of toluene, we conclude that two components are in the long-time range Brownian motion and the other one in the short-time range Brownian motion.

  1. Explaining the non-newtonian character of aggregating monoclonal antibody solutions using small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Pathak, Jai A; Leach, William; Bishop, Steven M; Colby, Ralph H

    2014-07-15

    A monoclonal antibody solution displays an increase in low shear rate viscosity upon aggregation after prolonged incubation at 40°C. The morphology and interactions leading to the formation of the aggregates responsible for this non-Newtonian character are resolved using small-angle neutron scattering. Our data show a weak repulsive barrier before proteins aggregate reversibly, unless a favorable contact with high binding energy occurs. Two types of aggregates were identified after incubation at 40°C: oligomers with radius of gyration ∼10 nm and fractal submicrometer particles formed by a slow reaction-limited aggregation process, consistent with monomers colliding many times before finding a favorable strong interaction site. Before incubation, these antibody solutions are Newtonian liquids with no increase in low shear rate viscosity and no upturn in scattering at low wavevector, whereas aggregated solutions under the same conditions have both of these features. These results demonstrate that fractal submicrometer particles are responsible for the increase in low shear rate viscosity and low wavevector upturn in scattered intensity of aggregated antibody solutions; both are removed from aggregated samples by filtering.

  2. Characterization of 'strong-fragile' behaviour of glass-forming aqueous solutions by neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Branca, C; Galli, G; Magazù, S; Maisano, G; Migliardo, F

    2002-01-01

    Neutron-scattering measurements have been performed on trehalose/H sub 2 O and sucrose/H sub 2 O mixtures by using the spectrometer MIBEMOL at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB, Saclay) as a function of temperature and concentration. In order to characterize the different rigidities of both the disaccharide/H sub 2 O mixtures, we have evaluated the R sub 1 (T sub g) parameter connected to the 'strong-fragile' classification of the systems according to Angell's nomenclature. (orig.)

  3. Fullerene-containing polymeric stars in bulk and solution by neutron spin-echo

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V T; Toeroek, G; Cser, L; Bershtein, V A; Zgonnik, V N; Melenevskaya, E Y; Vinogradova, L V

    2002-01-01

    Stars with C sub 6 sub 0 fullerene core and poly (styrene) (PS) arms have been studied in benzene and in the bulk by neutron spin echo (NSE). Behaviours of stars (six arms, each with a mass M=5.10 sup 3) at momentum transfer q=0.2-0.6 nm sup - sup 1 in the time range t=0.01-20 ns at temperatures T=20-60 C were compared with dynamics of free PS chains. Displaying depressed molecular mobility, the stars did not obey the usual dynamic Zimm or Rouse model. The fullerene polymer interaction at a specific molecular architecture results in oscillating dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Numerical solution of uncertain neutron diffusion equation for imprecisely defined homogeneous triangular bare reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Nayak; S Chakraverty

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, neutron diffusion equation of a triangular homogeneous bare reactor with uncertain parameters has been investigated. Here the involved parameters viz. geometry of the reactor, diffusion coefficient and absorption coefficient, etc. are uncertain and these are considered as fuzzy. Fuzzy values are handled through limit method which was defined for interval computations. The concept of fuzziness is hybridised with traditional finite element method to propose fuzzy finite element method. The proposed fuzzy finite element method has been used to obtain the uncertain eigenvalues of the said problem. Further these uncertain eigenvalues are compared with the traditional finite element method in special cases.

  5. Ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaibar, Kira C; Moore, Simon; Bain, Peter G

    2007-10-01

    Ciguatera is a form of poisoning that occurs after eating tropical and subtropical ciguatoxic fish. The ciguatoxins are a family of heat stable, lipid soluble cyclic polyether compounds that bind to and open voltage-sensitive Na(+) channels at resting membrane potential, resulting in neural hyperexcitability, as well as swelling of the nodes of Ranvier. The authors describe a 45-year-old man who developed acute gastrointestinal symptoms in Antigua soon after eating red snapper and grouper, potentially "ciguatoxic fish". This was followed by neurological symptoms 24-48 hours later, including temperature reversal (paradoxical dysaesthesia), intense pruritus and increased nociception as a result of a small fibre peripheral neuropathy. The patient's symptoms and small fibre neuropathy improved over a period of 10 months.

  6. The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-10-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reprint of The improvement of the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere using boric acid water solution moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y

    2015-12-01

    Bonner sphere is useful to evaluate the neutron spectrum in detail. We are improving the energy resolution in epi-thermal neutron region of Bonner sphere, using boric acid water solution as a moderator. Its response function peak is narrower than that for polyethylene moderator and the improvement of the resolution is expected. The resolutions between polyethylene moderator and boric acid water solution moderator were compared by simulation calculation. Also the influence in the uncertainty of Bonner sphere configuration to spectrum estimation was simulated.

  8. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  9. Carbide precipitates in solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel: A small-angle neutron scattering investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sen; A K Patra; S Mazumder; J Mittra; G K Dey; P K De

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation on solution-quenched PH13-8 Mo stainless steel. From the nature of the variation of the functionality of the profiles for varying specimen thickness and also from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it has been established that the small-angle scattering signal predominantly originates from the block-like metallic carbide precipitates in the specimen. The contribution due to double Bragg reflection is not significant in the present case. The single scattering profile has been extracted from the experimental profiles corresponding to different values of specimen thickness. In order to avoid complexity and non-uniqueness of the multi-parameter minimization for randomly oriented polydisperse block-like precipitate model, the data have been analyzed assuming randomly oriented polydisperse cylindrical particle model with a locked aspect ratio.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann solution of the transient Boltzmann transport equation in radiative and neutron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahui; Yan, Liming; Ma, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Applications of the transient Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have undergone much investigation, such as radiative heat transfer and neutron transport. This paper provides a lattice Boltzmann model to efficiently resolve the multidimensional transient BTE. For a higher angular resolution, enough transport directions are considered while the transient BTE in each direction is treated as a conservation law equation and solved independently. Both macroscopic equations recovered from a Chapman-Enskog expansion and simulated results of typical benchmark problems show not only the second-order accuracy but also the flexibility and applicability of the proposed lattice Boltzmann model. This approach may contribute a powerful technique for the parallel simulation of large-scale engineering and some alternative perspectives for solving the nonlinear transport problem further.

  11. Small angle neutron scattering study on short and long chain phosphatidylcholine mixture in trehalose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Trehalose protects cells and proteins against various stresses due to low temperatures or dryness. In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of cryoprotective function of trehalose, we have studied the interaction between trehalose and phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is a main lipid component of cell membranes. In this study, the structural change of a binary PC mixture by the presence of trehalose was investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering. The PC binary mixture studied contains dihexanoyl-PC (diC{sub 6}PC) and dihexadecy-PC (DHPC). The former has short hydrocarbon chains and the latter has long hydrocarbon chains. The scattering profiles from the DHPC/diC{sub 6}PC mixture were changed, depending on trehalose concentrations. This change can be interpreted as suggesting that the presence of trehalose reduces the interfacial area between water and PCs. (author)

  12. 硝酸装置铂网中毒事故原因分析及解决措施%Cause Analysis of Poisoning Accident of Platinum Net in Nitric Acid Plant and Its Solution Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利新

    2014-01-01

    In allusion to that a relatively serious poisoning accident of platinum net existed in the nitric acid section of ammonium nitrate plant in Hei-longjiang Chemical Engineering Group Corporation, the reason of accident was analyzed and the appropriate solution measure was briefly described.%针对黑化集团硝铵厂硝酸工段一次较为严重的铂网中毒事故,分析了事故原因,简述了相应的解决措施。

  13. Investigation of the structure of unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles in aqueous sucrose solutions by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, M. A., E-mail: elena@jinr.ru; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Zhabitskaya, E. I.; Aksenov, V. L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The structure of a polydispersed population of unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles in sucrose solutions has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calculations within the model of separated form factors (SFF) show that the structure of the vesicle system depends strongly on the sucrose concentration.

  14. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  15. Solvent Dynamics in Solutions of PNIPAM in Water/Methanol Mixtures-A Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Philipp, Martine; Silvi, Luca; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Petry, Winfried; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Papadakis, Christine M

    2016-05-26

    The solvent dynamics of concentrated solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM, 25 wt %) in water/methanol mixtures (85:15 v/v) are measured with the aim of shedding light onto the cononsolvency effect. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) with contrast variation has been carried out at temperatures below and above the cloud point by using in the first set of experiments the mixture H2O:d-MeOD (d-MeOD denotes fully deuterated methanol) as a solvent and in the second set of experiments the mixture D2O:MeOH (MeOH denotes methanol). As a reference, bulk H2O, bulk MeOH and the mixtures H2O:d-MeOD and D2O:MeOH (both 85:15 v/v) have been investigated as well. In the PNIPAM solution in H2O:d-MeOD, two water populations are identified, namely strongly and less strongly arrested water. At the cloud point, the former is partially released from PNIPAM. The diffusion coefficient of the latter one is similar to the one in the water/methanol mixture, and its residence time decreases at the cloud point. The PNIPAM solution in D2O:MeOH reveals similar dynamics to the one in H2O:d-MeOD which may reflect that the dynamics of MeOH near the PNIPAM chain is similar to the one of H2O. The similarity may, however, partially be due to H/D exchange between D2O and MeOH. In both PNIPAM solutions, the mean-square displacement of the PNIPAM chain decreases gradually above the cloud point.

  16. Analytical solution of neutron transport equation in an annular reactor with a rotating pulsed source; Resolucao analitica da equacao de transporte de neutrons em um reator anelar com fonte pulsada rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Paulo Cleber Mendonca

    2002-12-01

    In this study, an analytical solution of the neutron transport equation in an annular reactor is presented with a short and rotating neutron source of the type S(x) {delta} (x- Vt), where V is the speed of annular pulsed reactor. The study is an extension of a previous study by Williams [12] carried out with a pulsed source of the type S(x) {delta} (t). In the new concept of annular pulsed reactor designed to produce continuous high flux, the core consists of a subcritical annular geometry pulsed by a rotating modulator, producing local super prompt critical condition, thereby giving origin to a rotating neutron pulse. An analytical solution is obtained by opening up of the annular geometry and applying one energy group transport theory in one dimension using applied mathematical techniques of Laplace transform and Complex Variables. The general solution for the flux consists of a fundamental mode, a finite number of harmonics and a transient integral. A condition which limits the number of harmonics depending upon the circumference of the annular geometry has been obtained. Inverse Laplace transform technique is used to analyse instability condition in annular reactor core. A regenerator parameter in conjunction with perimeter of the ring and nuclear properties is used to obtain stable and unstable harmonics and to verify if these exist. It is found that the solution does not present instability in the conditions stated in the new concept of annular pulsed reactor. (author)

  17. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diarrhea. These symptoms are followed by short-term memory loss, and other less common nervous system symptoms. ... the summer months. If you are poisoned, your long-term outcome is usually quite good. Scombroid poisoning symptoms ...

  18. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  19. Hair straightener poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  20. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  1. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Poison Ivy Dermatitis Share | "Leaves of three - let it ... has a longer stem than the other two. Poison ivy clings to tree trunks and other vertical ...

  2. Early clinical experience utilizing scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector in clinical boron neutron capture therapy: its issues and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kato, Itsuro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kumada, Hiroaki; Shrestha, Shubhechha J.; ONO, KOJI

    2016-01-01

    Background Real-time measurement of thermal neutrons in the tumor region is essential for proper evaluation of the absorbed dose in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) treatment. The gold wire activation method has been routinely used to measure the neutron flux distribution in BNCT irradiation, but a real-time measurement using gold wire is not possible. To overcome this issue, the scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) detector has been developed. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate...

  3. Marijuana poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  4. Analytical Solution of the Point Reactor Kinetics Equations for One-Group of Delayed Neutrons for a Discontinuous Linear Reactivity Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yamoah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the time-dependent behaviour of the neutron population in a nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions is of great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. It is therefore important to understand the response of the neutron density and how it relates to the speed of lifting control rods. In this study, an analytical solution of point reactor kinetic equations for one-group of delayed neutrons is developed to calculate the change in neutron density when reactivity is linearly introduced discontinuously. The formulation presented in this study is validated with numerical solution using the Euler method. It is observed that for higher speed, r = 0.0005 the Euler method predicted higher values than the method presented in this study. However with r = 0.0001, the Euler method predicted lower values than the method presented in this study except for t = 1.0 s and 5.0 s. The results obtained have shown to be compatible with the numerical method.

  5. Molecular Visualization of Methane - Carbon Dioxide Solid Solution in Gas Hydrates by High Resolution Neutron Powder Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, M.; Rawn, C.; Huq, A.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Phelps, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    The exchange of CO2 for CH4 in natural gas hydrates could produce energy from untapped sources while at the same time sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental aspects the solid solution of (CH4)1-x(CO2)x 5.75H2O provides a framework inclusion structure that enables the scientific study of how two molecules that differ greatly in their bonding, shape, coordination and molecular weight can influence the structure and properties of the compound and interact with the framework that occludes the molecules. Samples synthesized by cooling liquid water pressurized with either pure CH4 or CO2 or mixtures of the two gases to temperatures where hydrate formation occurs have been studied using high-resolution neutron diffraction. Static images of the nuclear scattering density of the free moving gas molecules have been determined. Cage occupants and occupancies, the volume change of the unit cell and the individual cages based on composition have been determined.

  6. A quantitative PGNAA study for use in aqueous solution measurements using Am–Be neutron source and BGO scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghal-Eh, N., E-mail: ghal-eh@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, P.O. Box 36716-41167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, P. [School of Physics, Damghan University, P.O. Box 36716-41167, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doost-Mohammadi, V. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Center, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system including an Am–Be neutron source and BGO scintillation detector are used for quantitative analysis of bulk samples. Both Monte Carlo-simulated and experimental data are considered as input data libraries for two different procedures based on neural network and least squares methods. The results confirm the feasibility and precision of the proposed methods.

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and cesium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewska, A., E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland); Soloviov, D. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a nonionic surfactant, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary data on the behavior of the C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (with three concentrations, 0.17, 0.5, and 1%) mixed with a small amount of anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, are reported.

  8. MOBILIZATION, POISONING, AND FILTRATION OF F-CANYON TANK 804 SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-04

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the F-Canyon 800 series underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks) and requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to develop methods to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (i.e., Tanks 804, 808, and 809). Because of the high plutonium content in Tank 804 (estimated to be as much as 1500 g), SDD needs to add a neutron poison to the sludge. They considered manganese and boron as potential poisons. Because of the large amount of manganese needed and the very slow filtration rate of the sludge/manganese slurry, SDD requested that SRNL investigate the impact of using boron rather than manganese as the poison. SRNL performed a series of experiments to help determine the disposal pathway of the material currently located in Tank 804. The objectives of this work are: (1) Determine the mobility of Tank 804 sludge when mixed with 10-15 parts sodium hydroxide as a function of pH between 10 and 14. (2) Determine the solubility of boron in sodium hydroxide solution with a free hydroxide concentration between 1 x 10{sup -4} and 2.0 M. (3) Recommend a filter pore size for SDD such that the filtrate contains no visible solids. (4) Determine whether a precipitate forms when the filtrate pH is adjusted to 12, 7, or 2 with nitric acid.

  9. A small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of graphitized carbon black aggregates in Triton X-100/water solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garamus, V.M.; Pedersen, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of graphitized carbon black (CB) aggregates dispersed in water solutions with a non-ionic surfactant are studied by small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by heavy/light water mixing. The addition of CB to Triton X-100/water mixtures shifts the critical micelle...... particles is 8% and is constant with varying CB and surfactant concentration. The volume fraction of the voids does not exceed 1% of the CB; The micelle structure is found to be the same as in surfactant/water solutions. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  10. Hair dye poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  11. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jan; Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-01

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H2O (or D2O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0-90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  12. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Jan, E-mail: jan.swenson@chalmers.se; Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Lohstroh, Wiebke [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sakai, Victoria Garcia [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  13. Application of COMSOL in the solution of the neutron diffusion equations for fast nuclear reactors in stationary state; Aplicacion de COMSOL en la solucion de las ecuaciones de difusion de neutrones para reactores nucleares rapidos en estado estacionario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E., E-mail: evalle@ipn.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work shows an application of the program COMSOL Multi physics Ver. 4.2a in the solution of the neutron diffusion equations for several energy groups in nuclear reactors whose core is formed by assemblies of hexagonal transversal cut as is the cas of fast reactors. A reference problem of 4 energy groups is described of which takes the cross sections which are processed by means of a program that prepares the definition of the constants utilized in COMSOL for the generic partial differential equations that this uses. The considered solution domain is the sixth part of the core which is applied frontier conditions of reflection and incoming flux zero. The discretization mesh is elaborated in automatic way by COMSOL and the solution method is one of finite elements of Lagrange grade two. The reference problem is known as the Knk with and without control rod which led to propose the calculation of the effective multiplication factor in function of the control rod fraction from a value 0 (completely inserted control rod) until the value 1 (completely extracted control rod). Besides this the reactivity was determined as well as the change of this in function of control rod fraction. The neutrons scalar flux for each energy group with and without control rod is proportioned. The reported results show a behavior similar to the one reported in other works but using the discreet ordinates S{sub 2} approximation. (Author)

  14. An analytical representation for the solution of neutron kinetic transport equation in slab-geometry multigroup discrete ordinates formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaschewski, Fernanda K.; Segatto, Cynthia F., E-mail: fernandasls_89@hotmail.com, E-mail: cynthia.segatto@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Presented here is a decomposition method based on series representation of the group angular fluxes and delayed neutron precursors in smoothly continuous functions for energy multigroups, slab-geometry discrete ordinates kinetics equations supplemented with a prescribed number of delayed neutron precursors. Numerical results to a non-reflected sub-critical slab stabilized by steady-state sources are given to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the o offered method. (author)

  15. Cf-source-driven neutron-noise measurements of subcriticality for a 4. 95 wt% /sup 235/U-enriched uranyl fluoride solution cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Kryter, R.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    A method for determining the reactivity of subcritical systems of fissile material, using neutron-noise power spectral density measurements in conjunction with a /sup 252/Cf source, has been tested in experiments with an aqueous solution containing uranium fluoride (4.95 wt% /sup 235/U). The kappasub(eff)-values obtained from the ratio of spectral densities G*/sub 12/G/sub 13//G/sub 11/G/sub 23/ agreed with those from break-frequency noise analysis and with bias-corrected transport theory calculations within the statistical uncertainty of the measurements. Corrections for the effects of spatial modes and source-detector locations appear to be well-understood, since measurements for a variety of source-detector positions resulted in essentially the same kappasub(eff)-values. Modal correction factors were such that ignoring them would result in higher values of kappasub(eff) than actually occur. The measurements have demonstrated the applicability of the /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron-noise analysis method to the measurement of the subcritical neutron multiplication factor for a fuel solution system.

  16. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  17. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.

    HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae......HAB Publ. Ser. vol 1 is a supplement to Chapter 7 Mehtods for Domoic Acid, the Amnesic Shellfish Poisons in the IOC Manual of Harmful Marine Microalgae...

  18. DRUG POISONING IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2008-01-01

    Poisoning by drugs for the nervous system, particularly benzodiazepines, is the most commonform of poisoning by drugs in Slovenia. It would be necessary to report all acutelypoisoned patients to the Register of Intoxications, since we need data about all poisoningin Slovenia to improve their prophylaxis and treatment

  19. Cartap Hydrochloride Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyaniwala, Kimmin; Abhilash, Kpp; Victor, Peter John

    2016-08-01

    Cartap hydrochloride is a moderately hazardous nereistoxin insecticide that is increasingly used for deliberate self-harm in India. It can cause neuromuscular weakness resulting in respiratory failure. We report a patient with 4% Cartap hydrochloride poisoning who required mechanical ventilation for 36-hours. He recovered without any neurological deficits. We also review literature on Cartap hydrochloride poisoning.

  20. Neutron diffraction study of the Sr 1-xBi xF 2+x solid solution quenched from 700°C : Proposition of a clustering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubeyroux, J. L.; Réau, J. M.; Wahbi, M.; Sénégas, J.; Soo, Suh Kyung

    1992-07-01

    A neutron diffraction investigation of the fluorite-type Sr 1-xBi xF 2+x (0 ⩽ x ≲ 0.50) solid solution has revealed the existence of three F' F″ and F'″ interstitial flouride ions. The anionic distribution between normal and interstitial sites has been determined as a function of x. A clustering process has been proposed in Sr 1-xBi xF 2+x on the basis of neutron diffraction results and of the composition dependence of electrical properties. It consists in a progressive transformation with increasing x of 3:2:3:0 clusters into "1:0:3:0" clusters.

  1. Perfect absorber metamaterial for real time detection and recognition of micro-poisons in aqueous solutions and atmosphere using millimeter wavelength spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, A.; Rotshild, D.; Ochana, M.; Rozban, D.

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials not exist in the nature. They are also known as Left Handed Material (LHM) in which both the permeability and permittivity are negative. A perfect absorber metamaterial for millimeter wavelength can be artificially tailored and manufactured as two dimensional matrixes of metal shapes on a dielectric substrate. Those perfect absorbers metamaterial can be designed to be frequency selective with high Q property. In This study we present a new method that can provide real-time response by combining advanced spectroscopy methods in millimeter Wavelength (MMW) regime and perfect absorber metamaterial. This method is based on very inexpensive perfect absorber metamaterial, with a high Q factor. It was realized by printed metal shapes on FR4 substrate with ground plane on the bottom. The resonance frequency of the perfect absorber will be determined according to the geometrical metal shape dimensions and the dielectric constant of the substrate. The spectral measurements were carried out using high resolution coherence THz spectroscopy system. Due to the perfect absorber sensitivity and its high Q property, the perfect absorber metamaterial is very sensitive to environmental micro-poisons, which influence its resonance frequency. Using a high-resolution spectroscopy system it is possible to detect and quantify this influence. In this study we present very promising experimental results of Malathion detection using perfect absorber metamaterial. The manufacturing of such perfect absorber metamaterial was carried out using the well-known and very inexpensive PCB technology.

  2. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  3. A Low-Temperature Crossover in Water Dynamics in an Aqueous LiCl Solution: Diffusion Probed by Neutron Spin-Echo and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Faraone, Antonio [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Han, Kee Sung [ORNL; Fratini, E [University of Florence

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of lithium chloride are an excellent model system for studying the dynamics of water molecules down to low temperatures without freezing. The apparent dynamic crossover observed in an aqueous solution of LiCl at about 220 to 225 K [Mamontov, JPCB 2009, 113, 14073] is located practically at the same temperature as the crossover found for pure water confined in small hydrophilic pores. This finding suggests a strong similarity of water behavior in these two types of systems. At the same time, studies of solutions allow more effective explorations of the long-range diffusion dynamics, because the water molecules are not confined inside an impenetrable matrix. In contrast to the earlier incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering results obtained for the scattering momentum transfers of 0.3 {angstrom}{sup -1} {le} Q {le} 0.9 {angstrom}{sup -1}, our present incoherent neutron spin-echo measurements at a lower Q of 0.1 {angstrom}{sup -1} exhibit no apparent crossover in the relaxation times down to 200 K. At the same time, our present nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of the diffusion coefficients clearly show a deviation at the lower temperatures from the non-Arrhenius law obtained at the higher temperatures. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which more than one relaxational component may exist below the temperature of the dynamic crossover in water.

  4. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  5. Static properties of polystyrene in semidilute solutions: A comparison of Monte Carlo simulation and small-angle neutron scattering results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J.S.; Schurtenberger, P.

    1999-01-01

    determined for the simulations as well as experimentally for polystyrene in d-toluene by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and excellent agreement is found. Interpolations of the MC scattering functions fit the SANS data in the full measured range of scattering vectors, demonstrating agreement almost...

  6. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of

  7. Updated phase coherent timing solution of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 using recent XMM-Newton and Chandra observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hohle, M M; Vink, J; Turolla, R; Zane, S; de Vries, C P; Méndez, M

    2010-01-01

    Since the last phase coherent timing solution of the nearby radio-quiet isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125 six new XMM-Newton and three Chandra observations were carried out. The phase coherent timing solutions from previous authors were performed without restricting to a fixed energy band. However, we recently showed that the phase residuals are energy dependent, and thus phase coherent solutions must be computed referring always to the same energy band. We updated the phase coherent timing solution for RX J0720.4-3125 by including the recent XMM-Newton EPIC-pn, MOS1, MOS2 and Chandra ACIS data in the energy range 400-1000~eV. Altogether these observations cover a time span of almost 10~yrs. A further timing solution was obtained including the ROSAT pointed data. In this case, observations cover a time span of $\\approx$16~yrs. To illustrate the timing differences between the soft band (120-400~eV) and the hard band (400-1000~eV) a timing solution for the soft band is also presented and the results are ver...

  8. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  9. Bracken fern poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  10. Poison plants (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called ...

  11. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  12. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  13. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  15. Oximes in organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherian M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organic insecticide poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries, where organophosphates (OPs are the most common suicidal poisons with high morbidity and mortality and account for a large proportion of patients admitted to intensive care units. Other insecticides less commonly used are organocarbamates, organochlorides, and pyrethroids, which are less toxic and are associated with less morbidity and mortality. Patients with poisoning present with a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. A strong clinical suspicion is necessary to make an early diagnosis and to start appropriate therapy. Treatment is primarily supportive and includes decontamination, anticholinergics, protection of the airway, and cardiac and respiratory support. The use of oximes has been controversial and may be associated with higher mortality owing to a higher incidence of type-II paralysis. They may have other toxic side effects. This paper reviews the literature on OP poisoning.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  17. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  18. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  19. Hand lotion poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lotion or cream can be harmful if swallowed: Dimethicone Mineral oil Paraffins (waxes) Petrolatum Various alcohols Where ... Hand cream poisoning References Caraccio TR, McFee RB. Cosmetics and toilet articles. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  20. Pine oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ... Mosby; 2013:chap 147. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical ...

  1. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  2. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  3. Pyopneumothorax following kerosene poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Yathish, B E; Singh, Ambukeshwar; Kumar, Suresh; Parihar, Anit

    2014-01-01

    Kerosene poisoning is a common poisoning in India especially in childhood, and clinical spectrum can range from meager chemical pneumonitis to grave complications such as hypoxia, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and emphysema. Pyopneumothorax that may require aggressive management in the form of thoracotomy has not been reported in literature. We hereby report a 22-year young female who had developed series of respiratory complications including pyopneumothorax following ingestion of kerosene with suicidal intent and was treated successfully.

  4. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  5. Neutron resonance parameters of dysprosium isotopes using neutron capture yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. N. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Inst. Of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dysprosium is used in the field of nuclear reactor system because it has a very large thermal neutron absorption cross-section. The dysprosium alloyed with special stainless steels is attractive for control in nuclear reactor because of the ability to absorb neutrons readily without swelling or contracting over time and its high melting point. Dysprosium is also one of fission products from the thermal fission of {sup 234}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The fission products are accumulated in the reactor core by the burn-up of the nuclear fuel and the poison effect is increased. Therefore, it is required to understand how Dysprosium as both a poison and an absorbing material in the control rod has an effect on the neutron population in a nuclear reactor system over all energy regions. Neutron Capture experiments on Dy isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. Resonance parameters were extracted by fitting the neutron capture data using the SAMMY multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code.

  6. Single-crystal and powder neutron diffraction study of the Fe{sub X}Mn{sub 1−X}S solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramova, Galina, E-mail: agm@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Schefer, Juerg; Aliouane, Nadir [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Boehm, Martin [Institut Max von Laue – Paul Langevin, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Petrakovskiy, German; Vorotynov, Alexandr [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Gorev, Mikhail [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Institute of Engineering Physics and Radio Electronics, Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Bovina, Asya [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Vladimir [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Fe{sub X}Mn{sub 1−X}S (0 < x < 0.3) with the rock salt structure are synthesized. • Magnetic and structural properties are investigated by the neutron diffraction. • Neel temperature shift from 150 (x = 0) to 200 K (x = 0.29) are found. • The changing of the nuclear and magnetic lattice symmetry was found for Fe{sub X}Mn{sub 1−X}S (0.25 < x < 0.29). - Abstract: The α-MnS-based Fe{sub X}Mn{sub 1−X}S (0 < x < 0.3) solid solutions are synthesized and shown to be new Mott materials with the rock salt structure. Neutron diffraction data show that the chemical-pressure-induced Neel temperature shift from 150 (x = 0) to 200 K (x = 0.29) observed in these materials is accompanied by a decrease in the NaCl-type cubic lattice parameters. It is established that at the symmetry transformation in the compositions with x = 0.25 and 0.29 the structural transition occurs, which is followed by the magnetic transition. These features make the Fe{sub X}Mn{sub 1−X}S solid solutions interesting for both fundamental study of the interrelation between the magnetic, electrical, and structural properties in MnO-type strongly correlated electron systems and application.

  7. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible.

  8. Accidental dapsone poisoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M; Philip, E

    1984-12-01

    Accidental poisoning in children shows a trend towards poisoning with various newer drugs and chemicals used in the household. Sixty-one cases of accidental poisoning in children were seen in Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, (S.A.T.H.), Trivandrum, South India during the year 1982, constituting 0.61% of the total pediatric admissions. Dapsone poisoning constituted 9.8% of the total accidental poisonings, emphasising the need for safe storage of drugs out of the reach of young children. Dapsone poisoning with resultant methaemoglobinaemia responded well to intravenous ascorbic acid and other supportive measures.

  9. Moderator poison design and burn-up calculations at the SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Ferguson, P. D.; Iverson, E. B.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Popova, I.

    2008-06-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was commissioned in April 2006. At the nominal operating power (1.4 MW), it will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of ˜$2 million a piece. A replacement of the inner reflector plug presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are a lot of factors limiting the lifetime of the inner reflector plug, like radiation damage to the structural material and helium production of beryllium, the bottle-neck is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. Increasing the thickness of the poison sheet extends the lifetime but would sacrifice the neutronic performance of the moderators. A compromise is accepted at the current SNS target system which uses thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 6 MW-years of operation. The calculations in this paper reveal that Cd may be a better poison material from the perspective of lifetime and neutronic performance. In replacing Gd, the inner reflector plug could reach a lifetime of 8 MW-years with ˜5% higher peak neutron fluxes at almost no loss of energy resolution.

  10. Neutron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, James C., III; Richards, Wade J.; Shields, Kevin C.

    1995-07-01

    The McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's (MNRC) staff in conjunction with a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) with the U.C. Santa Barbara facility has developed a system that can be used for aircraft inspection of jet engine blades. The problem was to develop an inspection system that can detect very low concentrations of hydrogen (i.e., greater than 100 ppm) in metal matricies. Specifically in Titanium alloy jet engine blades. Entrapment and precipitation of hydrogen in metals is an undesirable phenomenon which occurs in many alloys of steel and titanium. In general, metals suffer a loss of mechanical properties after long exposures to hydrogen, especially at high temperatures and pressures, thereby becoming embrittled. Neutron radiography has been used as a nondestructive testing technique for many years. Neutrons, because of their unique interactions with materials, are especially useful in the detection of hydrogen. They have an extremely high interaction cross section for low atomic number nuclei (i.e., hydrogen). Thus hydrogen in a metal matrix can be visualized using neutrons. Traditional radiography is sensitive to the total attenuation integrated over the path of radiation through the material. Increased sensitivity and quantitative cross section resolution can be obtained using three-dimensional volumetric imaging techniques such as tomography. The solution used to solve the problem was to develop a neutron tomography system. The neutron source is the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's 1 MW TRIGA reactor. This paper describes the hardware used in the system as well as some of the preliminary results.

  11. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  12. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  13. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  14. Characterization of 'strong-fragile' behaviour of glass-forming aqueous solutions by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Galli, G.; Magazu' , S.; Maisano, G.; Migliardo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita' di Messina, PO Box 55, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Neutron-scattering measurements have been performed on trehalose/H{sub 2}O and sucrose/H{sub 2}O mixtures by using the spectrometer MIBEMOL at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB, Saclay) as a function of temperature and concentration. In order to characterize the different rigidities of both the disaccharide/H{sub 2}O mixtures, we have evaluated the R{sub 1}(T{sub g}) parameter connected to the 'strong-fragile' classification of the systems according to Angell's nomenclature. (orig.)

  15. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  16. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  17. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-01-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases...

  18. Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Nolin, Thomas D; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-01-01

    The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).......The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl)....

  19. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  20. Atom Probe Tomography Characterization of the Solute Distributions in a Neutron-Irradiated and Annealed Pressure Vessel Steel Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.K.

    2001-01-30

    A combined atom probe tomography and atom probe field ion microscopy study has been performed on a submerged arc weld irradiated to high fluence in the Heavy-Section Steel irradiation (HSSI) fifth irradiation series (Weld 73W). The composition of this weld is Fe - 0.27 at. % Cu, 1.58% Mn, 0.57% Ni, 0.34% MO, 0.27% Cr, 0.58% Si, 0.003% V, 0.45% C, 0.009% P, and 0.009% S. The material was examined after five conditions: after a typical stress relief treatment of 40 h at 607 C, after neutron irradiation to a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 23} n m{sup {minus}2} (E > 1 MeV), and after irradiation and isothermal anneals of 0.5, 1, and 168 h at 454 C. This report describes the matrix composition and the size, composition, and number density of the ultrafine copper-enriched precipitates that formed under neutron irradiation and the change in these parameters with post-irradiation annealing treatments.

  1. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) KidsHealth > For Parents > Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Print A A A What's in ... result of taking the drugs. This is called ototoxicity or " ear poisoning ." Ototoxicity damages the inner ear — ...

  2. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  3. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of spectrophotometric response of alanine gel solution for gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations; Avaliacao dosimetrica da resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para radiacao gama, de fotons, de eletrons e de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo

    2009-07-01

    Alanine Gel Dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on Alanine system developed by Costa. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to analyse the main dosimetric characteristics this new gel material for future application to measure dose distribution. The performance of Alanine gel solution was evaluated to gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations using the spectrophotometry technique. According to the obtained results for the different studied radiation types, the reproducibility intra-batches and inter-batches is better than 4% and 5%, respectively. The dose response presents a linear behavior in the studied dose range. The response dependence as a function of dose rate and incident energy is better 2% and 3%, respectively. The lower detectable dose is 0.1 Gy. The obtained results indicate that the Alanine gel dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as an alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area, using MRI technique for tridimensional dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  5. Analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry by the integral transform technique; Solucao analitica da equacao cinetica de difusao multigrupo de neutrons em geometria cartesiana unidimensional pela tecnica da transformada integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, Celina

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)

  6. Cow dung powder poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  7. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  8. Recursive solutions for multi-group neutron kinetics diffusion equations in homogeneous three-dimensional rectangular domains with time dependent perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Claudio Z. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2014-12-15

    In the present work we solve in analytical representation the three dimensional neutron kinetic diffusion problem in rectangular Cartesian geometry for homogeneous and bounded domains for any number of energy groups and precursor concentrations. The solution in analytical representation is constructed using a hierarchical procedure, i.e. the original problem is reduced to a problem previously solved by the authors making use of a combination of the spectral method and a recursive decomposition approach. Time dependent absorption cross sections of the thermal energy group are considered with step, ramp and Chebyshev polynomial variations. For these three cases, we present numerical results and discuss convergence properties and compare our results to those available in the literature.

  9. Temperature induced phase transformations and microstructural changes in nanostructured FeCu solid solutions using in situ neutron powder thermo-diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Blanco, D. [Unidad de Magnetometria, SCT' s, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Gorria, P., E-mail: pgorria@uniovi.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Smith, R.I. [ISIS facility, RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-26

    In situ neutron powder thermo-diffraction experiments in the temperature range from 300 K to 1170 K have been carried out in nanostructured and metastable Fe{sub 15}Cu{sub 85} and Fe{sub 85}Cu{sub 15} solid solutions, which were synthesized by means of a mechanical alloying technique. We report on the microstructural changes and the phase transformations that take place during controlled heating and cooling processes. The average crystalline grain size is similar for both samples in the as-milled state (approx16-20 nm) while the induced strain is 2.5 times higher in the Fe-rich powders, reaching 1%. Moreover, the alpha-gamma transformation for Fe{sub 15}Cu{sub 85} starts at temperatures lower (approx900 K) than that expected for pure Fe (1183 K) due likely to the existence of local inhomogeneities in the composition of the ball milled material.

  10. Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Haldar; V K Aswal; P S Goyal; S Bhattacharya

    2004-08-01

    The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number () continually decreases and the fractional charge () increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis () and semiminor axis ( = ) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

  11. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role of chelating agents against mercury poisoning, which provides a promising research direction for broader application of chelation therapy in prevention and treatment of mercury poisoning.

  12. Development of a 3D CFD model for velocity and concentration field of a jet flow in CANDU-6 moderator tank induced by high velocity injection of liquid neutron poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo Wook; Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hye Jeong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This report describes the development and validation work of developing a 3D CFD model for analyzing the liquid poison jet velocity and concentration which is necessary for the performance test of SDS2 of CANDU-6 among the forseeable problems expected in the CANDU-6 loaded with DUPIC fuel. As a boundary condition the liquid poison injection rate through each injection hole was given and the 3D CFD model for analyzing the downstream flow and concentration field is developed and validated. The injection rate is calculated by the ALITRIG code developed by AECL. As the ratio of the calandria tank and the injection hole drilled at the injection nozzle is as big as 2000, the grid generation for the calandria is very difficult as the number of the grid can easily exceed the computational load limit of the available work station. Thus to overcome this difficulty the inlet jet flow has been modeled as a source term of the mass, momentum and concentration at the grid near the real inlet. This modeling method enabled the analysis of the jet velocity and concentration possible within the computation limit of the available work station. And as the experimental data available for validating this model has only video taped pictures, and the jet height growth rate is estimated by the observer's subjective judgement, it was most difficult to convert the location of the jet front to the corresponding concentration value. Utilizing the experiment data from Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the jet growth rate was validated and the result was very much encouraging. Based on the results the 3D CFD model developed in this report shows physically reasonable results and will be used for the analysis of SDS2 performance test along with the reactor physics codes.

  13. Organophosphorus poisoning in two Rex rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J M

    1984-01-01

    A case of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in two Rex rabbits is described. Three animals were diagnosed as having dermatitis characterised by pruritus and alopecia due to infestation with Cheyletiella parasitivorax. Two of the animals were dipped in 2% malathion solution: one died within 15 hours post-dipping, the other was euthanased subsequent to the onset of convulsions. A procedure for the future dipping of rabbits is suggested, and a recommendation is made for a lower concentration of malathion to be used.

  14. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  15. Kerosene poisoning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, L.; Al-Rahim, K.

    1970-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical aspects of 100 cases of kerosene poisoning have been studied. The use of gastric lavage is discussed, and it is considered that this measure is probably valuable in treatment. The importance of preventive measures is stressed. PMID:5416507

  16. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  17. DepenDNS: Dependable Mechanism against DNS Cache Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Chang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Yue-Hsun

    DNS cache poisoning attacks have been proposed for a long time. In 2008, Kaminsky enhanced the attacks to be powerful based on nonce query method. By leveraging Kaminsky's attack, phishing becomes large-scale since victims are hard to detect attacks. Hence, DNS cache poisoning is a serious threat in the current DNS infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure, DepenDNS, to prevent from cache poisoning attacks. DepenDNS queries multiple resolvers concurrently to verify an trustworthy answer while users perform payment transactions, e.g., auction, banking. Without modifying any resolver or authority server, DepenDNS is conveniently deployed on client side. In the end of paper, we conduct several experiments on DepenDNS to show its efficiency. We believe DepenDNS is a comprehensive solution against cache poisoning attacks.

  18. Protein crowding in solution, frozen and freeze-dried states: small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering study of lysozyme/sorbitol/water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Susan; Khodadadi, Sheila; Clark, Nicholas; McAuley, Arnold; Cristiglio, Viviana; Theyencheri, Narayanan; Curtis, Joseph; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2015-03-01

    For effective preservation, proteins are often stored as frozen solutions or in glassy states using a freeze-drying process. However, aggregation is often observed after freeze-thaw or reconstitution of freeze-dried powder and the stability of the protein is no longer assured. In this study, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS) have been used to investigate changes in protein-protein interaction distances of a model protein/cryoprotectant system of lysozyme/sorbitol/water, under representative pharmaceutical processing conditions. The results demonstrate the utility of SAXS and SANS methods to monitor protein crowding at different stages of freezing and drying. The SANS measurements of solution samples showed at least one protein interaction peak corresponding to an interaction distance of ~ 90 Å. In the frozen state, two protein interaction peaks were observed by SANS with corresponding interaction distances at 40 Å as well as 90 Å. On the other hand, both SAXS and SANS data for freeze-dried samples showed three peaks, suggesting interaction distances ranging from ~ 15 Å to 170 Å. Possible interpretations of these interaction peaks will be discussed, as well as the role of sorbitol as a cryoprotectant during the freezing and drying process.

  19. Tsdc and Neutron-Scattering Measurements on Ba1-Xlaxf2+X and Ba1-Xuxf2+2x Solid-Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouwerkerk, M; Veldkamp, F. F.; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    1985-01-01

    the TSDC spectra showed four reorientation peaks to be present in Ba1−xLaxF2+x, and six in Ba1−xUxF2+2x, along with the relaxation of the macroscopic space charge. The position of a space charge peak shifted to lower temperatures with increasing solute content. The dipolar realaxations were concentration......A study was made of the dynamical behaviour of bound interstitial fluoride ions in disordered Ba1−xLaxF2+x and Ba1−xUxF2+2x solid solutions with Thermally Stimulated Depolarisation Current measurements and neutron scattering measurements, and a combination of both techniques. From 10 K to 400 K...... invariant. In Ba1−xLaxF2+x neutral associates, L-shaped- and (222)- clusters occur. The present study reveals (212)-clusters to be present in Ba1−xUxF2+2x. The relations between ion dynamics and defect structures are discussed....

  20. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  1. Arsenic poisoning in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bahri, L; Ben Romdane, S

    1991-06-01

    Arsenic is an important heavy metal intoxicant to livestock. Arsenical pesticides present significant hazards to animal health. The toxicity of arsenic varies with several factors--its chemical form, oxidation states, solubility. The phenylarsonic compounds are the least toxic and are used as feed additives in swine and poultry rations. However, roxarsone has a higher absolute toxicity than arsanilic acid. The mechanism of action is related to its reaction with sulfhydryl groups values to enzyme function and to its ability to uncouple oxydative phosphorylation. Most animals excrete arsenic quite readily. Toxicoses caused by inorganic and aliphatic organic arsenicals result in a different clinical syndrome than that from the phenylarsonic compounds. Arsenic poisoning may be confused with other types of intoxication. The specific antidote for inorganic arsenical poisoning is dimercaprol (BAL).

  2. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  3. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  4. Methaemoglobinemia in nitrobenzene poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongtham D

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A young girl with nitrobenzene induced methaemoglobinaemia was saved by the timely use of mechanical ventilator, administration of oral methylene blue and parenteral ascorbic acid. Though parenteral methylene blue is the antidote of choice, due to its non-availability, the laboratory preparation of methylene blue have been utilized orally. The rare occurrence of such cases, and the efficacy of oral methylene blue and other supportive measures in evading death due to Nitrobenzene poisoning have been highlighted.

  5. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  6. nsect poisons in museums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eirik Granqvist

    2015-01-01

    Since natural history museums existed, there have been problems concerning how to protect the collections from damages caused by insects. In 1740s', French Chemist Becoeur started to use arsenic-soap to protect his taxidermy specimens against insects. But in the years of 1770s', it was discovered the terrible strong arsenic poison which was dangerous to human beings. Finally taxidermy specimens leave the use of ar- senic and borax to history and use Eulan in their place.

  7. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  8. Organophosphate poisoning : A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod K. Sinha

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides are used extensively worldwide, and poisoning by these agents, particularly in developing nations is a public health problem. Organophosphorous nerve agents are still considered as potential threat in both military or terrorism situations. The mechanism of toxicity is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, resulting in accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and continued stimulation of acetylcholine receptors both in central and peripheral nervous systems. Beside acute cholinergic crisis, organophosphates are capable of producing several subacute or chronic neurological syndromes. The well described intermediate syndrome (IMS emerges 1-4 days after an apparently well treated cholinergic crisis. The standard treatment consists of reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase with an oxime antidote (pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6 and Hlo7 and reversal of the biochemical effects of acetylcholine with atropine. The newer oximes HI-6 and Hlo& are much more suitable and efficacious acetylcholinesterase reactivator for severe acute nerve agent induced poisoning than currently used pralidoxime or obidoxime. Patients who receive treatment promptly usually recover from acute toxicity but may suffer from neurologic sequelae. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 120-6 Keywords: poisoning, insecticide, organophosphate (OP, carbamates, acetylcholinesterase, oxime, pralidoxime, obidoxime, HI-6, HLo7

  9. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  10. Reduction in crystal symmetry of a solid solution: A neutron diffraction study at 15 K of the host/guest system asparagine/aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisinger-Lewin, Y.; Frolow, F.; Lahav, M.; Leiserowitz, L. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); McMullan, R.K.; Koetzle, T.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-02-01

    It has been demonstrated, for the first time by diffraction methods, that a solid solution composed of host and guest molecules can exhibit a crystal symmetry lower than that of the host. The study proves that the symmetry of a solid solution is dependent not only upon the host crystal structure and the guest molecular structure but also upon the surface structure and symmetry of the host crystal. The crystal structures of (S)-asparagine monohydrate (D{sub 2}NCOCH{sub 2}CH(ND{sub 3})CO{sub 2} {times} D{sub 2}O) and of the solid solution (0.848:0.152) (S)-asparagine/(S)-aspartic acid (DO{sub 2}CCD{sub 2}CD(ND{sub 3})CO{sub 2}) monohydrate were refined by using neutron diffraction data obtained at 15 K. The space group of the pure host crystal is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (Z = 4), whereas that of the host/guest crystal is monoclinic P12{sub 1}1 with two molecular sites per asymmetric unit. The ratios of guest/host occupancies of the two independent sites are 0.173:0.827 and 0.132:0.868. The reduction in symmetry is in accordance with the preferred adsorption of guest aspartic acid on the (010) crystal face at half of the orthorhombic, symmetry-related surface sites. Aspartic acid mimics, at the preferred (010) surface sites, molecular asparagine, participating in all hydrogen bonds. At the less-favored (010) surface sites a normal N-H{hor ellipsis}O(host) hydrogen bond is replaced by O(hydroxyl){hor ellipsis}O(host) repulsion between lone-pair electrons. 21 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Chelation Therapy for Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Guan; Han Dai

    2009-01-01

    Chelation therapy has been the major treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Various chelating agents have been developed and tested for treatment of heavy metal intoxications, including mercury poisoning. It has been clearly shown that chelating agents could rescue the toxicity caused by heavy metal intoxication, but the potential preventive role of chelating agents against heavy metal poisoning has not been explored much. Recent paper by Siddiqi and colleagues has suggested a protective role o...

  12. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Poison Data System Our Work Alerts Keep Up-to-Date on the Latest Poison News The AAPCC works ... the latest poison safety and prevention news! Sign Up! Save the Date! Medication Safety 101 Twitter Chat Medication Safety 101: ...

  13. ADVECTION AND DIFFUSION OF POISONOUS GAS CONTAMINANT RELEASED FROM BOTTOM SLUDGE IN OPEN CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhou-hu

    2004-01-01

    In some cases, poisonous contaminants may be released from bottom sludge in open channels. The equation of advection and diffusion for the related problem was analyzed in this paper. The conditions for the definite solution to the equation were given. The analytic solution of poisonous gas concentration distribution was worked out. The reasonableness of this solution was discussed. The result is also of significance for other similar problems.

  14. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  15. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  16. Analysis of the solution structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem I in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside using small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Rosemary K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Harris, Bradley J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bruce, Barry D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qian, Shuo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heller, William T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O’Neill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Frymier, Paul D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to investigate the structure of trimeric photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) stabilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent solution. Scattering curves of detergent and protein–detergent complexes were measured at 18% D2O, the contrast match point for the detergent, and 100% D2O, allowing observation of the structures of protein/detergent complexes. It was determined that the maximum dimension of the PSI–DDM complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer belt of detergent around the periphery of PSI. A dummy-atom reconstruction of the shape of the complex from the SANS data indicates that the detergent envelope has an irregular shape around the hydrophobic periphery of the PSI trimer rather than a uniform, toroidal belt around the complex. A 50 ns MD simulation model (a DDM ring surrounding the PSI complex with extra interstitial DDM) of the PSI–DDM complex was developed for comparison with the SANS data. The results suggest that DDM undergoes additional structuring around the membrane-spanning surface of the complex instead of a simple, relatively uniform belt, as is generally assumed for studies that use detergents to solubilize membrane proteins.

  17. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  18. Neurology of acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate (OP poisoning is one of the most common poisonings in emergency medicine and toxicological practice in some of the less-developed nations in South Asia. Traditionally, OP poisoning comes under the domain of emergency physicians, internists, intensivists, and toxicologists. However, some of the complications following OP poisoning are neurological and involve neurologists. The pathophysiological basis for the clinical manifestations of OP poisoning is inactivation of the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase at the peripheral nicotinic and muscarinic and central nervous system (CNS nerve terminals and junctions. Nicotinic manifestations occur in severe cases and late in the course; these comprise of fasciculations and neuromuscular paralysis. There is a good correlation between the electrophysiological abnormalities and the severity of the clinical manifestations. Neurophysiological abnormalities characteristic of nicotinic junctions (mainly neuromuscular junction dysfunction include: (1 single, supramaximal electrical-stimulus-induced repetitive response/s, (2 decrement-increment response to high frequency (30 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS, and (3 decremental response to high frequency (30 Hz RNS. Atropine ameliorates muscarinic manifestations. Therapeutic agents that can ameliorate nicotinic manifestations, mainly neuromuscular, are oximes. However, the evidence for this effect is inconclusive. This may be due to the fact that there are several factors that determine the therapeutic effect of oximes. These factors include: The OP compound responsible for poisoning, duration of poisoning, severity of poisoning, and route of exposure. There is also a need to study the effect of oximes on the neurophysiological abnormalities.

  19. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with ASP

  20. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    This review reports information on the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) syndrome and the ASP toxins causing this poisoning, of which domoic acid is the major component. Data includes chemical structures and detection methods of ASP toxins, sources of ASP toxins, marine organisms associated with

  1. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  2. Cow dung powder poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Khaja Mohideen Sherfudeen; Senthil Kumar Kaliannan; Pavan Kumar Dammalapati

    2015-01-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as “saani powder” in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of ...

  3. Suicide through doxylamine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholdt, B; Klug, E; Schneider, V

    2001-06-01

    Doxylamine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. It is used primarily as a sleep-inducing agent. Only a few reports can be found in the literature about lethal intoxications with doxylamine, but many with combined intoxications. Doxylamine is, aside from diphenhydramine, the only chemically defined active ingredient in some sleeping medications which is available without a prescription in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two cases of doxylamine poisoning are presented, in which high doxylamine concentrations were found in the blood and organs.

  4. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

    2000-11-01

    Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population.

  5. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  6. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  7. Neutron dosimetry: problems, solutions, prospects and the role of trace detectors; Dosimetria neutronica: problemas, soluciones, perspectivas y el papel de los detectores de traza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Justo Dorado 11, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    It is present in schematic way, the origin of the neutrons; their interaction with matter, until its application in the field of dosimetry. It describes some measuring instruments based on thermoluminescence dosimetry, some activation detectors and trace detectors. Finally, it summarizes the work in neutron dosimetry have been carried out at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. (Author)

  8. Folded-back solution structure of monomeric factor H of human complement by synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and constrained molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M; Perkins, S J

    2001-06-22

    Factor H (FH) is a regulatory cofactor for the protease factor I in the breakdown of C3b in the complement system of immune defence, and binds to heparin and other polyanionic substrates. FH is composed of 20 short consensus/complement repeat (SCR) domains, for which the overall arrangement in solution is unknown. As previous studies had shown that FH can form monomeric or dimeric structures, X-ray and neutron scattering was accordingly performed with FH in the concentration range between 0.7 and 14 mg ml(-1). The radius of gyration of FH was determined to be 11.1-11.3 nm by both methods, and the radii of gyration of the cross-section were 4.4 nm and 1.7 nm. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the overall length of FH was 38 nm. The neutron data showed that FH was monomeric with a molecular mass of 165,000(+/-17,000) Da. Analytical ultracentrifugation data confirmed this, where sedimentation equilibrium curve fits gave a mean molecular mass of 155,000(+/-3,000) Da. Sedimentation velocity experiments using the g*(s) derivative method showed that FH was monodisperse and had a sedimentation coefficient of 5.3(+/-0.1) S. In order to construct a full model of FH for scattering curve and sedimentation coefficient fits, homology models were constructed for 17 of the 20 SCR domains using knowledge of the NMR structures for FH SCR-5, SCR-15 and SCR-16, and vaccinia coat protein SCR-3 and SCR-4. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate a large conformational library for each of the 19 SCR-SCR linker peptides. Peptides from these libraries were combined with the 20 SCR structures in order to generate stereochemically complete models for the FH structure. Using an automated constrained fit procedure, the analysis of 16,752 possible FH models showed that only those models in which the 20 SCR domains were bent back upon themselves were able to account for the scattering and sedimentation data. The best-fit models showed that FH had an overall length

  9. CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute poisoning is an important medical emergency. Studies of this nature will be useful tool in planning, early diagnosis and management of acute poisoning cases. The objective of the study are to study the clinical features, diagnosis and management, morbidity and mortality of various acute poisoning. METHODOLOGY: This study comprises of 350 patients of acute poisoning admitted to Chigateri General Hospital and Bapuji Hospital attached to J. J. M. Medical College, Davangere, between 1st March 2011 to 31st October 2011. REUSLTS: Out of 350 cases of acute poisoning studied, there were 268 males and 82 females. Males comprised 76.57%and females 23.42% of the total, in this series, Organophosphorous compounds were the commonest (30%, majority of the patients hailed from rural area 70%. Mortality is 10.57%.

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for barbiturate poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mactier, Robert; Laliberté, Martin; Mardini, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    The EXTRIP (Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning) Workgroup conducted a systematic review of barbiturate poisoning using a standardized evidence-based process to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with barbiturate poisoning. The authors reviewed all......-acting barbiturates are dialyzable and short-acting barbiturates are moderately dialyzable. Four key recommendations were made. (1) The use of ECTR should be restricted to cases of severe long-acting barbiturate poisoning. (2) The indications for ECTR in this setting are the presence of prolonged coma, respiratory...... treatment should be continued during ECTR. (4) Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent. This report provides detailed descriptions of the rationale for all recommendations. In summary, patients with long-acting barbiturate poisoning should be treated with ECTR provided at least...

  11. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  12. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Chrispal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.

  13. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  14. Neutron Repulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch...

  15. Analytical representation for solution of the neutron point kinetics equation with time-dependent reactivity and free of the stiffness character; Representacao analitica da solucao da equacao de cinetica pontual para a reatividade variavel no tempo livre de rigidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Milena Wollmann da

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we report a genuine analytical representation for the solution of the neutron point kinetics equation free of the stiffness character, assuming that the reactivity is a continuous and sectionally continuous function of time. To this end, we initially cast the point kinetics equation in a first order linear differential equation. Next, we split the corresponding matrix as a sum of a diagonal matrix with a matrix, whose components contain the off-diagonal elements. Next, expanding the neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors concentrations in a truncated series, and replacing these expansions in the matrix equation, we come out with an equation, which allows to construct a recursive system, a first order matrix differential equation with source. The fundamental characteristic of this system relies on the fact that the corresponding matrix is diagonal, meanwhile the source term is written in terms of the matrix with the off-diagonal components. Further, the first equation of the recursive system has no source and satisfies the initial conditions. On the other hand, the remaining equations satisfy the null initial condition. Due to the diagonal feature of the matrix, we attain analytical solutions for these recursive equations. We also mention that we evaluate the results for any time value, without the analytical continuity because the purposed solution is free on the stiffness character. Finally, we present numerical simulations and comparisons against literature results, considering specific the applications for the following reactivity functions: constant, step, ramp, and sine. (author)

  16. Decoherence Free Neutron Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pushin, Dmitry A; Cory, David G

    2016-01-01

    Perfect single-crystal neutron interferometers are adversely sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly mechanical vibrations. The sensitivity to vibrations results from the slow velocity of thermal neutrons and the long measurement time that are encountered in a typical experiment. Consequently, to achieve a good interference solutions for reducing vibration other than those normally used in optical experiments must be explored. Here we introduce a geometry for a neutron interferometer that is less sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. This design may be compared with both dynamical decoupling methods and decoherence-free subspaces that are described in quantum information processing. By removing the need for bulky vibration isolation setups, this design will make it easier to adopt neutron interferometry to a wide range of applications and increase its sensitivity.

  17. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  18. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  19. Sns Moderator Poison Design and Experiment Validation of the Moderator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Iverson, E. B.; Ferguson, P. D.; Crabtree, J. A.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Remec, I.; Baxter, D. V.; Lavelle, C. M.

    2009-08-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reached 180 kW in August 2007, becoming the brightest pulsed neutron source in the world. At its full power of 1.4 MW, SNS will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of $2 million a piece. A replacement of the IRP presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are many factors limiting the lifetime of the IRP, such as radiation damage to the structural material and helium production in beryllium, the limiting factor is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The current operating target system of SNS was built with thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 3 years. A recent design based on the MCNPX calculation proposed to replace the Gd poison sheets with even thicker Cd poison sheets, aiming to extend the poison sheet lifetime from 3 to 4 years accompanied by an approximate 5% gain of the moderator performance. An experiment was carried out to verify the calculated moderator performance at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS), Indiana University, where the spectra of two polyethylene moderators were measured. The moderators are Cd-decoupled and are poisoned with 0.8 mm Gd and 1.2 mm Cd, respectively. The preliminary analysis of the experiment data shows that the characteristics of the measured spectra of the Gd- and Cd-poisoned moderators agree well with what the calculation predicted. A better moderator performance is observed in the Cd-poisoned moderator. The measured ratio of Cd over Gd on the moderator performance is in a reasonable agreement with the calculation. Further investigation is underway for a better understanding of the difference between the experiment and the

  20. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup; Metodos sinteticos analiticos de solucao da equacao de transporte de neutrons com aproximacoes da teoria da difusao multigrupo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: pgbmoraes@gmail.com, E-mail: chell_leite@hotmail.com, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2013-07-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation.

  1. Extracorporeal treatment for digoxin poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, we present our results for digoxin. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxicokinetic data were...... recommended against the use of ECTR in cases of severe digoxin poisoning when Fab was available (1D) and also suggested against the use of ECTR when Fab was unavailable (2D). CONCLUSION: ECTR, in any form, is not indicated for either suspected or proven digoxin toxicity, regardless of the clinical context...

  2. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  3. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  4. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  5. A synthetic holliday junction is sandwiched between two tetrameric Mycobacterium leprae RuvA structures in solution: new insights from neutron scattering contrast variation and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, D; Keeley, A; Aslam, M; Arenas-Licea, J; Brown, T; Tsaneva, I R; Perkins, S J

    1998-11-27

    The interaction between homologous DNA molecules in recombination and DNA repair leads to the formation of crossover intermediates known as Holliday junctions. Their enzymatic processing by the RuvABC system in bacteria involves the formation of a complex between RuvA and the Holliday junction. To study the solution structure of this complex, contrast variation by neutron scattering was applied to Mycobacterium leprae RuvA (MleRuvA), a synthetic analogue of a Holliday junction with 16 base-pairs in each arm, and their stable complex. Unbound MleRuvA was octameric in solution, and formed an octameric complex with the DNA junction. The radii of gyration at infinite contrast were determined to be 3.65 nm, 2.74 nm and 4.15 nm for MleRuvA, DNA junction and their complex, respectively, showing that the complex was structurally more extended than MleRuvA. No difference was observed in the presence or absence of Mg2+. The large difference in RG values for the free and complexed protein in 65% 2H2O, where the DNA component is "invisible", showed that a substantial structural change had occurred in complexed MleRuvA. The slopes of the Stuhrmann plots for MleRuvA and the complex were 19 and 15 or less (x10(-5)), respectively, indicating that DNA passed through the centre of the complex. Automated constrained molecular modelling based on the Escherichia coli RuvA crystal structure demonstrated that the scattering curve of octameric MleRuvA in 65% and 100% 2H2O is explained by a face-to-face association of two MleRuvA tetramers stabilised by salt-bridges. The corresponding modelling of the complex in 65% 2H2O showed that the two tetramers are separated by a void space of about 1-2 nm, which can accommodate the width of B-form DNA. Minor conformational changes between unbound and complexed MleRuvA may occur. These observations show that RuvA plays a more complex role in homologous recombination than previously thought.

  6. Extracorporeal Treatment for Salicylate Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juurlink, David N; Gosselin, Sophie; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Salicylate poisoning is a challenging clinical entity associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The indications for extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis are poorly defined. We present a systematic review of the literature along with evidence- and consensus......-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment in salicylate poisoning. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup is a multidisciplinary group with international representation whose aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments...... in poisoning. We conducted a systematic literature review followed by data extraction and summarized findings, following a predetermined format. The entire work group voted by a 2-round modified Delphi method to reach consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to quantify...

  7. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical...... deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal...

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosselin, S; Juurlink, D N; Kielstein, J T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning and the results are presented here for acetaminophen (APAP). METHODS: After a systematic review...... cases of APAP poisoning. However, given that APAP is dialyzable, the workgroup agreed that ECTR is suggested in patients with excessively large overdoses who display features of mitochondrial dysfunction. This is reflected by early development of altered mental status and severe metabolic acidosis prior...... and an APAP concentration over 900 mg/L (5960 mmol/L) if NAC is administered (1D). Intermittent hemodialysis (HD) is the preferred ECTR modality in APAP poisoning (1D). CONCLUSION: APAP is amenable to extracorporeal removal. Due to the efficacy of NAC, ECTR is reserved for rare situations when the efficacy...

  9. Extracorporeal Treatment in Phenytoin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Mowry, James B; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2016-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) Workgroup conducted a systematic literature review using a standardized process to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in patients with phenytoin poisoning. The authors reviewed all articles......) despite its high protein binding and made the following recommendations. ECTR would be reasonable in select cases of severe phenytoin poisoning (neutral recommendation, 3D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma is present or expected (graded 2D) and it would be reasonable if prolonged incapacitating ataxia...... is present or expected (graded 3D). If ECTR is used, it should be discontinued when clinical improvement is apparent (graded 1D). The preferred ECTR modality in phenytoin poisoning is intermittent hemodialysis (graded 1D), but hemoperfusion is an acceptable alternative if hemodialysis is not available...

  10. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais F

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was created to provide evidence and consensus-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and provide clinical recommendations for ECTR...... in carbamazepine poisoning. METHODS: After a systematic literature search, the subgroup extracted the data and summarized the findings following a pre-determined format. The entire workgroup voted via a two-round modified Delphi method to reach a consensus on voting statements, using a RAND/UCLA Appropriateness...... is suggested in severe carbamazepine poisoning (2D). ECTR is recommended if multiple seizures occur and are refractory to treatment (1D), or if life-threatening dysrhythmias occur (1D). ECTR is suggested if prolonged coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation are present (2D...

  11. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  12. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  13. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  14. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO

    2001-01-01

    This review contains information on the neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) syndrome and the provoking toxins called brevetoxins, produced by the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. Data on chemical structures and detection methods for brevetoxins, sources for brevetoxins, marine organisms associated

  15. Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  16. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  17. Formation mechanism of solute clusters under neutron irradiation in ferritic model alloys and in a reactor pressure vessel steel: clusters of defects; Mecanismes de fragilisation sous irradiation aux neutrons d'alliages modeles ferritiques et d'un acier de cuve: amas de defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin-Chiffon, E

    2007-11-15

    The embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under irradiation is partly due to the formation of point defects (PD) and solute clusters. The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the formation mechanisms of solute clusters in low copper ([Cu] = 0.1 wt%) FeCu and FeCuMnNi model alloys, in a copper free FeMnNi model alloy and in a low copper French RPV steel (16MND5). These materials were neutron-irradiated around 300 C in a test reactor. Solute clusters were characterized by tomographic atom probe whereas PD clusters were simulated with a rate theory numerical code calibrated under cascade damage conditions using transmission electron microscopy analysis. The confrontation between experiments and simulation reveals that a heterogeneous irradiation-induced solute precipitation/segregation probably occurs on PD clusters. (author)

  18. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    Burnable poisons are used in all modern nuclear reactors to permit higher loading of fuel without the necessity of an overly large control rod system. This not only permits a longer core life but can also be used to level the power distribution. Commercial nuclear reactors commonly use B{sub 4}C in separate non-fueled rods and more recently, zirconium boride coatings on the fuel pellets or gadolinium oxide mixed with the fuel. Although the advantages are great, there are problems with using these materials. Boron, which is an effective neutron absorber, transmutes to lithium and helium upon absorption of a neutron. Helium is insoluble and is eventually released to the interior of the fuel rod, where it produces an internal pressure. When sufficiently high, this pressure stress could cause separation of the cladding from the fuel, causing overly high centerline temperatures. Gadolinium has several very strongly absorbing isotopes, but not all have large cross sections and result in residual burnable poison reactivity worth at the end of the fuel life. Even if the amount of this residual absorber is small and the penalty in operation small, the cost of this penalty, even if only several days, can be very high. The objective of this investigation was to study the performance of single isotopes in order to reduce the residual negative reactivity left over at the end of the fuel cycle. Since the behavior of burnable poisons can be strongly influenced by their configuration, four forms for the absorbers were studied: homogeneously mixed with the fuel, mixed with only the outer one-third of the fuel pellet, coated on the perimeter of the fuel pellets, and alloyed with the cladding. In addition, the numbers of fuel rods containing burnable poison were chosen as 8, 16, 64, and 104. Other configurations were chosen for a few special cases. An enrichment of 4.5 wt% {sup 235}U was chosen for most cases for study in order to achieve a 4-year fuel cycle. A standard pressurized

  19. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  20. Properties of Neutron Star Critical Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mew-Bing

    2010-01-01

    Critical phenomena in gravitational collapse opened a new mathematical vista into the theory of general relativity and may ultimately entail fundamental physical implication in observations. However, at present, the dynamics of critical phenomena in gravitational collapse scenarios are still largely unknown. My thesis seeks to understand the properties of the threshold in the solution space of the Einstein field equations between the black hole and neutron star phases, understand the properties of the neutron star critical solution and clarify the implication of these results on realistic astrophysical scenarios. We develop a new set of neutron star-like initial data to establish the universality of the neutron star critical solution and analyze the structure of neutron star and neutron star-like critical collapses via the study of the phase spaces. We also study the different time scales involved in the neutron star critical solution and analyze the properties of the critical index via comparisons between neutron star and neutron star-like initial data. Finally, we explore the boundary of the attraction basin of the neutron star critical solution and its transition to a known set of non-critical fixed points.

  1. Neutron Albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatovich, V K

    2005-01-01

    A new, algebraic, method is applied to calculation of neutron albedo from substance to check the claim that use of ultradispersive fuel and moderator of an active core can help to gain in size and mass of the reactor. In a model of isotropic distribution of incident and reflected neutrons it is shown that coherent scattering on separate grains in the case of thermal neutrons increases transport cross section negligibly, however it decreases albedo from a wall of finite thickness because of decrease of substance density. A visible increase of albedo takes place only for neutrons with wave length of the order of the size of a single grain.

  2. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  3. Identification and treatment of poison ivy dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, D; Brouder, G

    1983-01-01

    Poison ivy dermatitis is an acute self-limiting problem of two or three weeks' duration that can cause significant discomfort. Poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac cause more cases of allergic contact dermatitis than all the other contact allergens combined. Treatment of poison ivy dermatitis depends on the severity of the reaction. The nurse practitioner can manage the majority of poison ivy cases. However, if there is systemic involvement, a physician consultation is necessary. The patient can best be assisted by assessing the severity of the dermatitis, prescribing an appropriate supportive therapy and teaching preventive measures.

  4. Solution of the neutron diffusion equation to study the 3D distribution of power, applied to nuclear reactors; Solucao da equacao de difusao de neutrons para o estudo da distribuicao de potencia em 3D, aplicado a reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Danilo Leite

    2013-07-01

    This work aims to present a study about the power distribution behavior in a PWR type reactor, considering both intensity and migration of power peaks due to insertion of control rods into the core. Employing the multidimensional steady-state neutron diffusion equation in order to simulate the neutron flux, and using the Finite Difference Method. Furthermore, based on the axial power distribution on the largest heat flux rod, is carried out thermal analysis of this rod and associated coolant channel. For this purpose is employed the FueLRod{sub 3}D code, it uses the Finite Element Method to model the fuel rod and the associated coolant channel, allowing the thermohydraulics simulation of a single rod discretized in three dimensions, considering the heat flux from the pellet, crossing the gap and the cladding until it reaches the coolant. (author)

  5. Unusual case of methanol poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, L.; Henderson, M. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Pathology); Madi, S.; Mellor, L. (St. James' s Univ. Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medicine, and Pharmacy)

    1993-01-09

    A 31-year-old man with a history of alcohol abuse presented to the accident and emergency department complaining of blurred vision. 4 h previously he had drunk 300 mL de-icer fluid. Electrolytes, urea, creatinine, glucose, and blood-gas analysis were normal. Measured osmolality, however, was 368 mosmol/kg with a calculated osmolality of 300 mosmol/kg, which indicated a greatly increased osmolar gap. He was therefore given 150 mL whisky and admitted. Methanol was later reported as 200 mg/dL. Ethylene glycol was not detected, but another glycol, propylene glycol, was present at 47 mg/dL. 10 h after ingestion an intravenous infusion of ethanol was started and he was hemodialysed for 7 h. After dialysis he was given a further 100 mL whisky and the rate of ethanol infusion was reduced to 11 g per h. Methanol and ethanol were measured twice daily until methanol was under 10/mg/dL: The recommendation is that blood ethanol be maintained between 100 and 200 mg/dL during treatment of methanol poisoning. This concentration was not achieved, presumably because of the high rate of ethanol metabolism often found in alcoholics. Antifreeze solutions commonly contain methanol and ethylene glycol. Sometimes propylene glycol is substituted because it has properties similar to those of ethylene glycol but is less toxic. The authors postulate that propylene glycol inhibited the metabolism of methanol in the patient, thus sparing him from the toxic effects of methanol.

  6. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Hammond

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented.

  7. Using MCNP in the design of neutron sources and neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergenreder, Daniel F.; Lecot, Carlos A.; Lovotti, Osvaldo P. [INVAP S.A., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Nuclear Projects Department. Nuclear Engineering Division

    2002-07-01

    The calculation methodology used to design cold, thermal and hot neutron sources and their associated neutron beam transport systems is presented. The design goal is to evaluate the performance of the neutron sources, their beam tubes and neutron guides at specific experimental locations in the reactor hall as well as in the neutron hall. The Monte Carlo method is a unique and powerful tool to transport neutrons. Its use in a bootstrap scheme appears to be an appropriate solution for this type of system. The proper use of MCNP as the main tool leads to a fast and reliable method to perform calculations in a relatively short time with low statistical errors. (author)

  8. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  9. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    films or films with magnetic properties. The reason is the peculiar property of neutron light since the mass of a neutron is close to the one of a proton, and since it bears a magnetic moment. The optical properties of matter, when interacting with neutrons, are described by a refractive index......Neutron (and X-ray) reflectometry constitute complementary interfacially sensitive techniques that open access to studying the structure within thin films of both soft and hard condensed matter. Film thickness starts oxide surfaces on bulk substrates, proceeding to (pauci-)molecular layers and up...... to hundreds of nanometers. Thickness resolution for flat surfaces is in the range of few Ǻngstrøm, and as a peculiar benefit, the presence and properties of buried interfaces are accessible. Focus here will be on neutron reflectometry, a technique that is unique in applications involving composite organic...

  10. The Pittsburgh Poison Center profile of an American poison information center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward P

    2005-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Poison Center (PPC), a department of Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, was established in 1971 to provide emergency poison information to the residents of western Pennsylvania, especially the children. The PPC provides comprehensive poison information center services to the lay public and to medical professionals, poison prevention education, professional education and specialized services to the business and industry sector and governmental agencies.

  11. Successful treatment of polymedicamentous poisoning with metoprolol, diltiazem and cilazapril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive effects is an urgent condition in medicine which is associated with high mortality rate regardless of modern therapeutic methods. Accidental or intentional poisoning whit these drugs produces heart activity depression and cardiovascular collapse as consequences. Current therapy for severe poisoning caused by beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers includes both unspecific and specific antidote therapy whit glucagon, as well as application of adrenergic drugs, calcium, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and hyperinsulinemia/euglycemia therapy. However, even whit the application of these drugs, prompt measures of unspecific detoxication therapy and cardiopulmonary reanimation are crucial for survival of patients with severe poisoning. Case report. A 28-year-old female patient was hospitalized for cardiogenic shock and altered state of conscioussnes (Glasgow coma score = 4, caused by acute poisoning with 2 g of metoprolol (Presolol®, 1.8 g of diltiazem (Cortiazem® and 50 mg of cilazapril (Zobox®. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation was applied during the first 16 hours of hospitalization, including administration of crystaline solutions (8 L, 17 mg of adrenaline, 4 mg of atropine, 4 mg of glucagone and 1.6 g of dopamine, with electro-stimulation by temporary pacemaker and mechanical ventilation. In a defined time period, normalized state of consciousness was registered, mechanical ventilation was stopped and normal heart activity and hemodynamic stability were accomplished. During hospitalization the patient was treated for mild pneumonia and after ten days, completely recovered, was released and sent to home treatment. Conclusion. Prompt measures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and multidisciplinary treatment in intensive care units significantly increase the chances of complete recovery of a patient with severe poisoning caused by drugs with cardiodepressive efects.

  12. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  13. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  14. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning Following Ayurvedic Medication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J. S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-01-01

    .... Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare.We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use...

  15. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu P Popov

    2001-08-01

    Neutron spectrometry provides many branches of science and technology with the necessary data. Usually the main part of the data is supplied by powerful neutron time-of-flight spectrometers. Nevertheless there are many other very effective but simpler and cheaper neutron spectroscopy methods on accelerators, suitable for solution of plenty of scientific and applied problems (for example, in astrophysics and radioactive waste transmutation). The methods of slowing-down spectrometry in lead and graphite, generating of neutron spectra, characteristic for nucleosynthesis in the stars, and neutron spectrometry by means of primary -transition shift are discussed in the report.

  16. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  17. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  18. Extracorporeal Treatment for Metformin Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calello, Diane P; Liu, Kathleen D; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metformin toxicity, a challenging clinical entity, is associated with a mortality of 30%. The role of extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis is poorly defined at present. Here, the Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning workgroup, comprising international experts representing...... diverse professions, presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations for extracorporeal treatment in metformin poisoning. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed, data extracted, findings summarized, and structured voting statements developed. A two-round modified Delphi method......) and made the following recommendations: extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe metformin poisoning (1D). Indications for extracorporeal treatment include lactate concentration greater than 20 mmol/L (1D), pH less than or equal to 7.0 (1D), shock (1D), failure of standard supportive measures (1D...

  19. The effects of hyperoxygen solution injected in vein on biochemical indexes of rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning%静脉输注高氧液对急性一氧化碳中毒大鼠生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐浩; 孟祥忠; 高巍; 宋博; 徐礼鲜; 张惠

    2011-01-01

    目的 本研究旨在探讨静脉输注高氧液(hyperoxygen solution,HOS)对急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒大鼠生化指标的影响.方法 采用随机数字表法将18只SD大鼠随机分为3组(每组6只):正常组(N组)、中毒组(C组)和中毒治疗组(H15组).在中毒后1h,C组输注平衡盐溶液15 ml/kg,H15组输注HOS 15 ml/kg.大鼠经腹腔注入CO 120 ml/kg建立中毒模型,N组给予同等剂量的空气.各组大鼠分别在输注不同剂量的液体后即刻抽取动脉血0.5 ml进行血气指标检测,染毒后1d抽取静脉血3ml进行脑、心、肝、肾敏感生化指标的测定.结果 CO 120 ml/kg腹腔注射1.5 h能引起严重的低氧血症动脉血氧分压(PaO2)由(96.6±2.4)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)降低到(43.0±4.1)mm Hg.中毒后1d能够引起神经元特异性烯纯化酶(neuron-specific enolase,NSE)、S-100β蛋白、肌酸激酶(creatine kinase,CK)、肌酸激酶同工酶(creatine kinase MB,CK-MB)、乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)、α-羟丁酸脱氢酶(α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase,α-HBDH)、总胆红素(total bilirubin,TBIL)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate aminotransferase,AST)、谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷氨酰转移酶(glutamyl transferase,GGT)、尿素氮(blood urea nitrogen,BUN)和肌酐(creatinine,Cr)的明显升高,CO中毒组与正常对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).静脉输注HOS后,血浆溶解氧的含量显著升高,PaO2由(43.0±4.1)mm Hg上升到(77.1±2.5)mm Hg.各种生化指标也均有不同程度的降低,虽然明显高于正常对照组,但与CO中毒组相比各种指标的升高均有所降低(P<0.0l).结论 经静脉输注HOS 15 ml/kg能明显降低急性CO中毒大鼠血浆各种生化指标的含量,对急性CO中毒引起的重要脏器损害具有很好的保护作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of hyperoxygen solution(HOS)injected in vein on biochemical indexes of rats with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods Eighteen SD

  20. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  3. Mercury poisoning: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, Hasan; Kaya, Aysenur; Kalkan, Gokhan; Erkocoglu, Mustafa; Ozturk, Kubra; Buyuktasli, Muge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical features of mercury poisoning are nonspecific, and a detailed history is very valuable. The silvery, shiny appearance of mercury makes it very exciting and attractive for children. The overall half-life of elemental mercury in the body averages approximately 2 months. Chelation therapy with dimercaptosuccinic acid is the treatment of choice if the urine or blood level of mercury is high or the symptoms are profound. Here, we describe a 14-year-old boy with fever, respiratory distress, and body rash. Investigation leading to a diagnosis of mercury poisoning was made only after his mother presented with the similar symptoms a few days later.

  4. Oral hyposensitization to poison ivy and poison oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, J G; Trautlein, J J; Epstein, W L; Laws, D M; Sicard, G R

    1987-04-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a 1:1 mixture of pentadecylcatechol (PDC) and heptadecylcatechol (HDC) diacetate in reducing hypersensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak. The study was double-blind, parallel, randomized, and placebo controlled. The 44 subjects receiving the active drug ingested a cumulative dose of 306.5 mg over a five-week period. Subsequently, 14 patients were continued on a maintenance phase, ingesting an additional 960 mg of drug. The PDC-HDC diacetate was well tolerated, with no significant side effects. Evaluation of efficacy compared poststudy and prestudy reactions to patch tests using urushiol in doses of 0.025, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 micrograms applied to the forearm. The results indicated that the induction phase as well as the maintenance phase did not induce a statistically significant hyposensitivity to urushiol, and we were thus unable to decrease sensitivity to poison ivy and poison oak in humans using orally ingested PDC-HDC diacetate.

  5. System of adjoint P1 equations for neutron moderation; Sistema de equacoes P1 adjuntas para a moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In some applications of perturbation theory, it is necessary know the adjoint neutron flux, which is obtained by the solution of adjoint neutron diffusion equation. However, the multigroup constants used for this are weighted in only the direct neutron flux, from the solution of direct P1 equations. In this work, this procedure is questioned and the adjoint P1 equations are derived by the neutron transport equation, the reversion operators rules and analogies between direct and adjoint parameters. (author)

  6. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  7. Solution structure of human plasma fibronectin using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering at physiological pH and ionic strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, B.P.; Pap, S.; Osterlund, E.; Osterlund, K.; Vuento, M.; Kjems, J.

    1987-06-01

    Human plasma fibronectin has been investigated at physiological pH and ionic strength, by using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. The results indicate that the molecule is disc shaped with an axial ratio of about 1:10. In fact, an ellipsoid of revolution with semiaxes a = 1.44 nm and b = c = 13.8 nm is in agreement with the experimental scattering data, and can also fully explain the rather extreme hydrodynamic parameters reported for fibronectin. The X-ray data gave a radius of gyration of 8.9 nm and a molecular weight of 510,000, whereas the neutron data gave slightly larger values, 9.5 nm and 530,000, respectively. From the volume of the best fitting ellipsoid we obtain a degree of hydration of 0.61 g H/sub 2/O/g protein (dry weight). Neutron data, recorded at different D/sub 2/O concentrations in the solvent, gave a match point of 43% D/sub 2/O, which indicates that approximately 80% of the hydrogens bound to oxygen and nitrogen are exchangeable.

  8. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide poisoning during a pallet cleaning demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Hyun; Park, Jungsun; You, Ki-Ho; Shin, Hae-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of an accidental death from acute poisoning resulting from exposure to a cleaner containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and to consider measures to prevent future cases. The authors examined the details and the reason for the accidental death from acute poisoning based on the autopsy report. The victim was a 39-year-old male researcher with 7 years of work experience employed by a surfactant production company. The accident occurred when he was conducting a field test of a newly developed cleaner, containing 8.75% TMAH solution. The researcher spilled the cleaner on his work clothes in the area of both the hands/arms and legs. He was unconscious when discovered. An autopsy found no damage or injury that could have resulted in death other than burns to 12% of his body, and the cause of death was found to be acute poisoning by TMAH. TMAH is widely used in the electronics industry as a developer or cleaner. It is a dangerous material, causing neurotoxicity leading to respiratory failure by ganglion block that occurs through skin absorption, and no antidote has been developed yet. For this reason, it is best to completely prevent exposure by wearing proper personal protective equipment. Despite this fatal toxicity of TMAH, it is not classified in Korea as a "chemical requiring legal control". For this reason, it is urgent to raise awareness of the toxic properties of TMAH to prevent additional cases of TMAH poisoning

  9. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  11. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  12. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) wordt veroorzaakt door consumptie van schelpdieren die PSP toxinen bevatten. Er zijn 18 verschillende PSP toxinen, waarvan saxitoxine de meest bekende en de meest toxische is. PSP toxinen kunnen worden aangetoond met de muis bioassay, waarbij de dood van het d

  13. Paralytic shellfish poisoning; A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons MP; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by ingestion of shellfish containing PSP toxins. The PSP toxins are a group of 18 closely related tetrahydropurines. The first PSP toxin chemically characterised was saxitoxin. The various PSP toxins significantly differ in toxicity, with saxitoxin being

  14. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources Tools for K-12 Educators You are here: Home | Public Resources | Pet ... of all phone calls to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) are about human medications. Your pet can easily ingest dropped pills ...

  15. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  16. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Arsenic poisoning: a special gastroenteritis...].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, F; Kuteifan, K; Mootien, Y; Harry, P; Guiot, P

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic (As) intoxication is nowadays extremely rare. Two cases of acute and chronic As criminal poisoning leading to death of a couple of retired people, are reported. Clinical presentation was simulating a gastro-enteritidis with fast evolution to refractory shock. Toxicological analysis confirmed this diagnostic, with respectively blood As concentrations at 579 and 21 765 microg/l for our two patients.

  18. Amnesic shellfish poisoning: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; ARO; CSR

    1999-01-01

    Deze literatuurstudie bevat informatie betreffende het 'amnesic shellfish poisoning' (ASP) syndroom en de veroorzakende ASP toxines, van welke "domoic acid" de belangrijkste component is. Chemische structuren en detectie-methodes van ASP toxines, de bronnen voor ASP toxines,

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to identify poison ivy, oak, and sumac. Teach children to identify them as soon as they are able to learn about these plants. Remove these plants if they grow near your home (but never burn them). Be aware of plant resins carried by ...

  20. Animal poisoning in Europe. Part 3: Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Sachana, Magda; Caloni, Francesca; Croubels, Siska; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    This review article is the third in a series on animal poisoning in Europe and represents a collation of published and non-published wildlife poisoning data from Belgium, France, Greece, Italy and Spain over the last 10 years. Birds, particularly waterfowl and raptors, were more commonly reported as victims of poisoning than wild mammals. In addition to specific but important toxicological disasters, deliberate primary or secondary poisonings are of concern to all countries. Metals (particularly lead arising from sporting/hunting activities) and pesticides (mainly anticholinesterases and anticoagulants) are frequent causes of poisoning, and often have fatal consequences. A more unified and consistent approach throughout European countries to improve the reporting and the analytical confirmation of wildlife poisoning would help to reduce the number of cases of malicious or negligent animal poisoning. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amitraz: a mimicker of organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-10-01

    Amitraz is used as an ectoparasiticide for dogs and cattle. Human poisoning due to amitraz may be misdiagnosed as organophosphate/carbamate (OPC) toxicity, since amitraz poisoning shares several clinical features (miosis, bradycardia and hypotension) encountered with OPC poisoning. A 19-year-old man with an alleged history of suicidal ingestion of a pesticide presented with drowsiness and was found to have constricted pupils, hypotension and bradycardia. He was diagnosed as a case of OPC poisoning and was treated with atropine and pralidoxime prior to presentation to our centre. Absence of a hypersecretory state, and the presence of hyperglycaemia and hypothermia along with a normal serum cholinesterase level suggested an alternate possibility. Retrieval of the poison container confirmed the diagnosis of amitraz poisoning. The patient made a rapid recovery with supportive management. Clinician awareness is key to successful management of this poisoning, which carries a good prognosis.

  2. Calculations of reactivity based in the solution of the Neutron transport equation in X Y geometry and Lineal perturbation theory; Calculos de reactividad basados en la solucion de la Ecuacion de transporte de neutrones en geometria XY y Teoria de perturbacion lineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle G, E. del; Mugica R, C.A. [IPN, ESFM, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmugica@ipn.mx

    2005-07-01

    In our country, in last congresses, Gomez et al carried out reactivity calculations based on the solution of the diffusion equation for an energy group using nodal methods in one dimension and the TPL approach (Lineal Perturbation Theory). Later on, Mugica extended the application to the case of multigroup so much so much in one as in two dimensions (X Y geometry) with excellent results. Presently work is carried out similar calculations but this time based on the solution of the neutron transport equation in X Y geometry using nodal methods and again the TPL approximation. The idea is to provide a calculation method that allows to obtain in quick form the reactivity solving the direct problem as well as the enclosed problem of the not perturbed problem. A test problem for the one that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described and its are offered some conclusions. (Author)

  3. Metal Poisoning: Threat and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJS Flora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic metals remains a wide spread occupational and environmental problems in world. Due to their widespread use in human activities such as industry, agriculture and even as medicine numerous health risks may be associated with exposure to these substances. Lead, arsenic and cadmium generally interferes with a number of body functions such as the haematopoietic system, central nervous system (CNS, liver and kidneys. Over the past few decades there have been growing awareness and concern that the toxic biochemical and functional effects are occurring at lower level of metal exposure than those that produce overt clinical and pathological signs and symptoms. Despite many years of research we are still far from an effective treatment of chronic heavy metal poisoning. The main therapeutic option for chronic metal poisoning relies in chelation therapy. Chelating agents are capable of linking together metal ions to form complex structures which can be easily excreted from the body. They have been used clinically as antidotes for acute and chronic poisoning. 2, 3-dimercaprol (BAL has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy of lead or arsenic poisoning. Meso 2, 3, -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA has been tried successfully in animals as well as in few cases of human lead or arsenic poisoning. However, one of the major disadvantages of chelation with DMSA has been its inability to remove heavy metal from the intracellular sites because of its lipophobic nature. Further, it does not provide protection in terms of clinical/ biochemical recovery. A new trend in chelation therapy has emerged to use combined treatment. This includes use of structurally different chelating agents or a combination of an antioxidant and a chelator to provide better clinical/biochemical recovery in addition to mobilization of heavy metal form intracellular sites. The present review article attempts to provide update information about the current strategies being

  4. POISONING PROFILE IN A TERTIARY MEDICAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute poisoning with various substances is a common medical emergency everywhere. WHO estimates poisoning as one of the common causes of increased mortality and morbidity. Acute ingestion of poisonous substance is associated with high mortality unless an effective intervention is done. METHODS In this study, in an attempt to understand the profile of poisoning cases admitted in Kanyakumari Government Medical College, we have enrolled all the poisoning cases admitted in the Intensive Medical Care Unit in the time period of January 2015 to December 2015. It is a retrospective study and the data was collected from the medical records department. RESULTS A total of 502 cases were admitted of which 79.48% were males and 20.52% were females. Among them, 93.40% were due to intentional poisoning and 6.60% were due to accidental poisoning. The observed mortality rate was 14.34%. The poisoning cases clustered in the age group of 20–39 years, accounting to 57.17% of the total cases. Intentional poisoning was observed more in males in the age group of 20–29 years (81.32%. Organophosphorus compounds (28.68% followed by oleander seed (21.91%, followed by rat killer (Zinc phosphide (17.53%, Aluminium phosphide (7.57%, Tablet poisoning (5.78%, Pyrethroid (1.6%, carbamate (1% were the commonly used poison agents. CONCLUSION Pesticides are the most commonly used poisoning agents in rural India. Lack of knowledge and easy availability of such compounds make them a common source of poison. Incidence of poisoning is more among males compared to females because of increased occupational stress faced by them.

  5. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01

    A reservoir engineering and geologic study concluded that approximate 7,852,000 bbls of target oil exits in Poison Spider. Field pore volume, OOIP, and initial oil saturation are defined. Potential injection water has a total dissolved solids content of 1,275 mg/L with no measurable divalent cations. If the Lakota water consistently has no measurable cations, the injection water does not require softening to dissolve alkali. Produced water total dissolved solids were 2,835 mg/L and less than 20 mg/L hardness as the sum of divalent cations. Produced water requires softening to dissolve chemicals. Softened produced water was used to dissolve chemicals in these evaluations. Crude oil API gravity varies across the field from 19.7 to 22.2 degrees with a dead oil viscosity of 95 to 280 cp at 75 F. Interfacial tension reductions of up to 21,025 fold (0.001 dyne/cm) were developed with fifteen alkaline-surfactant combinations at some alkali concentration. An additional three alkaline-surfactant combinations reduced the interfacial tension greater than 5,000 fold. NaOH generally produced the lowest interfacial tension values. Interfacial tension values of less than 0.021 dyne/cm were maintained when the solutions were diluted with produced water to about 60%. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} when mixed with surfactants did not reduce interfacial tension values to levels at which incremental oil can be expected. NaOH without surfactant interfacial tension reduction is at a level where some additional oil might be recovered. Most of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions producing ultra low interfacial tension gave type II- phase behavior. Only two solutions produced type III phase behavior. Produced water dilution resulted in maintenance of phase type for a number of solutions at produced water dilutions exceeding 80% dilution. The average loss of phase type occurred at 80% dilution. Linear corefloods were performed to determine relative permeability end points, chemical

  6. Solar Neutron Transport in the Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    1998-11-01

    We present results of a numerical simulation and analytical solution of small scale neutron multi-scattering and attenuation in the earth atmosphere. A range of initial zenith angles and different atmpspheric depths are considered. We show that the angular distribution of neutrons remains symetrycal only for vertical arrival. For inclined arrival the distribution becomes asymetrical; the asymmetry grows with increasing zenith angle. This effect is caused by the stronger attenuation of neutrons scattered to zenith angles larger than the arrival angle. Our analytical solution shows reasonable coincidence with the numerical simulation results. These solutions are able to reproduce the normalised observed counting rates of neutron monitors for the event of 24 may 1990, the largest Solar Neutron event observed on Earth.

  7. Neutron Repulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2011-01-01

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding...

  8. Solution of the Neutron transport equation in hexagonal geometry using strongly discontinuous nodal schemes; Solucion de la Ecuacion de transporte de neutrones en geometria hexagonal usando esquemas nodales fuertemente discontinuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica R, C.A.; Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: cmugica@ipn.mx

    2005-07-01

    In 2002, E. del Valle and Ernest H. Mund developed a technique to solve numerically the Neutron transport equations in discrete ordinates and hexagonal geometry using two nodal schemes type finite element weakly discontinuous denominated WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} (of their initials in english Weakly Discontinuous). The technique consists on representing each hexagon in the union of three rhombuses each one of which it is transformed in a square in the one that the methods WD{sub 5,3} and WD{sub 12,8} were applied. In this work they are solved the mentioned equations of transport using the same discretization technique by hexagon but using two nodal schemes type finite element strongly discontinuous denominated SD{sub 3} and SD{sub 8} (of their initials in english Strongly Discontinuous). The application in each case as well as a reference problem for those that results are provided for the effective multiplication factor is described. It is carried out a comparison with the obtained results by del Valle and Mund for different discretization meshes so much angular as spatial. (Author)

  9. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A

    2014-01-01

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) led to an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather obvious proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide an excellent description of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is several solar masses, the precise value...

  10. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  11. Hospital Performance Indicators and Their Associated Factors in Acute Child Poisoning at a Single Poison Center, Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Al-Jeriasy, Majed I; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Afesh, Lara Y; Alhammad, Fahad; Salam, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Admission rate and length of stay (LOS) are two hospital performance indicators that affect the quality of care, patients' satisfaction, bed turnover, and health cost expenditures. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with higher admission rates and extended average LOS among acutely poisoned children at a single poison center, central Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional, poison and medical chart review between 2009 and 2011. Exposures were child characteristics, that is, gender, age, body mass index (BMI), health history, and Canadian 5-level triage scale. Poison incident characteristics were, that is, type, exposure route, amount, form, home remedy, and arrival time to center. Admission status and LOS were obtained from records. Chronic poisoning, plant allergies, and venomous bites were excluded. Bivariate and regression analyses were applied. Significance at P Poison substances were pharmaceutical drugs (63%) versus chemical products (37%). Main exposure route was oral (98%). Home remedy was observed in (21.9%), which were fluids, solutes, and/or gag-induced vomiting. Almost (52%) arrived to center >1 h. Triage levels: non-urgent cases (58%), less urgent (11%), urgent (18%), emergency (12%), resuscitative (1%). Admission rate was (20.6%) whereas av. LOS was 13 ± 22 h. After adjusting and controlling for confounders, older children (adj.OR = 1.19) and more critical triage levels (adj.OR = 1.35) were significantly associated with higher admission rates compared to younger children and less critical triage levels (adj.P = 0.006) and (adj.P = 0.042) respectively. Home remedy prior arrival was significantly associated with higher av. LOS (Beta = 9.48, t = 2.99), compared to those who directly visited the center, adj.P = 0.003.Hospital administrators are cautioned that acutely poisoned children who received home remedies prior arrival are more likely to endure an extended LOS. This non-conventional practice

  12. Neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Inst. fuer Kristallographie, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  13. Alsike clover poisoning: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover) has been implicated as the cause of two diseases of the horse. One of these is photosensitivity, of which alsike clover is only one of a number of presumed causal agents. The other is a fatal syndrome which is known as “alsike clover poisoning” and which is manifest by progressive loss of condition, signs of hepatic failure, and varying degrees of neurological impairment. The underlying lesion of alsike clover poisoning is fibrosis and proliferation of the b...

  14. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  15. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  16. [Fatal poisonings with propoxur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordt, J; Magerl, H; Vock, R

    1987-01-01

    The insecticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) acts by blocking cholinesterase. This inhibition is fast and, unlike that brought about by organophosphorus compounds, reversible. The toxicity of propoxur to man is stated to be low compared with that of parathion. Only a small number of fatal intoxications have been published; at the Würzburg University Institute of Legal Medicine eight cases have been observed since 1978. In seven cases death occurred after deliberate oral ingestion of solutions of propoxur with suicidal intent, while in the other, intoxication was accidental, following inhalation of an aerosol containing propoxur. Organs and body fluids were investigated toxicologically and histologically. The results are presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the combination of propoxur and alcohol.

  17. Unilateral Antidotes to DNS Cache Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Amir; Shulman, Haya

    2012-01-01

    We investigate defenses against DNS cache poisoning focusing on mechanisms that can be readily deployed unilaterally by the resolving organisation, preferably in a single gateway or a proxy. DNS poisoning is (still) a major threat to Internet security; determined spoofing attackers are often able to circumvent currently deployed antidotes such as port randomisation. The adoption of DNSSEC, which would foil DNS poisoning, remains a long-term challenge. We discuss limitations of the prominent r...

  18. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  19. Application of the nodal method RTN-0 for the solution of the neutron diffusion equation dependent of time in hexagonal-Z geometry; Aplicacion del metodo nodal RTN-0 para la solucion de la ecuacion de difusion de neutrones dependiente del tiempo en geometria hexagonal-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The solution of the neutron diffusion equation either for reactors in steady state or time dependent, is obtained through approximations generated by implementing of nodal methods such as RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of zero index), which is used in this study. Since the nodal methods are applied in quadrangular geometries, in this paper a technique in which the hexagonal geometry through the transfinite interpolation of Gordon-Hall becomes the appropriate geometry to make use of the nodal method RTN-0 is presented. As a result, a computer program was developed, whereby is possible to obtain among other results the neutron multiplication effective factor (k{sub eff}), and the distribution of radial and/or axial power. To verify the operation of the code, was applied to three benchmark problems: in the first two reactors VVER and FBR, results k{sub eff} and power distribution are obtained, considering the steady state case of reactor; while the third problem a type VVER is analyzed, in its case dependent of time, which qualitative results are presented on the behavior of the reactor power. (Author)

  20. GENFIT: software for the analysis of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data of macro-molecules in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio; Ortore, Maria Grazia; De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Mariani, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Many research topics in the fields of condensed matter and the life sciences are based on small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. With the current rapid progress in source brilliance and detector technology, high data fluxes of ever-increasing quality are produced. In order to exploit such a huge quantity of data and richness of information, wider and more sophisticated approaches to data analysis are needed. Presented here is GENFIT, a new software tool able to fit small-angle scattering data of randomly oriented macromolecular or nanosized systems according to a wide list of models, including form and structure factors. Batches of curves can be analysed simultaneously in terms of common fitting parameters or by expressing the model parameters via physical or phenomenological link functions. The models can also be combined, enabling the user to describe complex heterogeneous systems.

  1. GENFIT: software for the analysis of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering data of macro­molecules in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Francesco; Ferrero, Claudio; Ortore, Maria Grazia; De Maria Antolinos, Alejandro; Mariani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Many research topics in the fields of condensed matter and the life sciences are based on small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques. With the current rapid progress in source brilliance and detector technology, high data fluxes of ever-increasing quality are produced. In order to exploit such a huge quantity of data and richness of information, wider and more sophisticated approaches to data analysis are needed. Presented here is GENFIT, a new software tool able to fit small-angle scattering data of randomly oriented macromolecular or nanosized systems according to a wide list of models, including form and structure factors. Batches of curves can be analysed simultaneously in terms of common fitting parameters or by expressing the model parameters via physical or phenomenological link functions. The models can also be combined, enabling the user to describe complex heterogeneous systems. PMID:24904247

  2. Water distributions in polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide)] block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation small angle neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Liu, Emily; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Smith, Gregory S.; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Guangzhao; Pispas, Stergios; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2010-10-01

    We develop an experimental approach to analyze the water distribution around a core-shell micelle formed by polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO)] block copolymers in aqueous media at a fixed polymeric concentration of 10 mg/ml through contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study. Through varying the D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q ). We have successfully quantified the intramicellar water distribution and found that the overall micellar hydration level increases with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. Our work presents a practical experimental means for evaluating the intramacromolecular solvent distributions of general soft matter systems.

  3. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak.

  4. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  5. Evolution of Neutron Stars and Observational Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and evolution of neutron stars is discussed with a view towards constraining the properties of high density matter through observations. The structure of neutron stars is illuminated through the use of several analytical solutions of Einstein’s equations which, together with the maximally compact equation of state, establish extreme limits for neutron stars and approximations for binding energies, moments of inertia and crustal properties as a function of compactness. The role of the nuclear symmetry energy is highlighted and constraints from laboratory experiments such as nuclear masses and heavy ion collisions are presented. Observed neutron star masses and radius limits from several techniques, such as thermal emissions, X-ray bursts, gammaray flares, pulsar spins and glitches, spin-orbit coupling in binary pulsars, and neutron star cooling, are discussed. The lectures conclude with a discusson of proto-neutron stars and their neutrino signatures.

  6. 碱液中L-抗坏血酸盐离子电氧化过程中Ag电催化剂的多硫化物中毒%Polysulfide Poisoning of Ag Electrocatalyst during L-Ascorbate Ion Electro-oxidation in Alkaline Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fereydoon GOBAL; Laleh MAJARI KASMAEE

    2012-01-01

    L-Ascorbate anion electro-oxidation on a silver electrode in hydroxide solution in the absence and presence of sodium polysulfide of concentrations from 1 × 10-5 to 4.5 × 10-4 mol/L was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Both hydroxide and polysulfide ions inhibited L-ascorbate ion oxidation,with the poisoning effect of polysulfide ion being more pronounced in the potential range of-0.3 to -0.2 V/SCE.The time constants for L-ascorbate ion oxidation in the absence and presence of polysulfide were,10-3 to 1 × 10 2 s and 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-2 S,respectively depending on the potential used for the impedance analysis.Based on the cyclic voltammetry findings,a mechanism for L-ascorbate oxidation in the presence of polysulfide ions was proposed.Impedance calculations based on the kinetic analysis can account for the occurrence of a negative impedance in a potential region around -0.2 WSCE in the Nyquist.

  7. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  8. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, B; Barriot, P; Rimailho, A; Baud, F J

    1988-01-07

    No therapy has been proved to be effective for patients with severe chloroquine poisoning, which is usually fatal. In a retrospective study of 51 cases, we found that ingestion of more than 5 g of chloroquine was an accurate predictor of a fatal outcome, and therefore chose this dose as the criterion for severe chloroquine poisoning. We selected as a control group 11 consecutive patients who had ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine between July 1983 and December 1985. We then undertook a prospective study to determine whether a better outcome could be obtained with immediate mechanical ventilation and the administration of diazepam and epinephrine. Eleven consecutive patients who ingested more than 5 g of chloroquine in 1986 received this combination therapy. Ten of these patients survived, whereas only one control had survived (P = 0.0003). There was no significant difference between the combination-therapy and control groups in age (29 +/- 3 vs. 27 +/- 2 years), amount of chloroquine ingested (7.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.5 +/- 0.8 g), systolic arterial pressure (74 +/- 2 vs. 74 +/- 3 mm Hg), or QRS duration (0.14 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.01 second). In our combination-therapy group, blood chloroquine levels ranged from 40 to 80 mumol per liter, whereas a literature search showed that no patient in whom blood levels were more than 25 mumol per liter had survived. These preliminary data suggest that combining early mechanical ventilation with the administration of diazepam and epinephrine may be effective in the treatment of severe chloroquine poisoning.

  10. Development and implementation of a finite element solution of the coupled neutron transport and thermoelastic equations governing the behavior of small nuclear assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen Christian

    Small, highly enriched reactors designed for weapons effects simulations undergo extreme thermal transients during pulsed operations. The primary shutdown mechanism of these reactors---thermal expansion of fuel material---experiences an inertial delay resulting in a different value for the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity during pulse operation as compared to the value appropriate for steady-state operation. The value appropriate for pulsed operation may further vary as a function of initial reactivity addition. Here we design and implement a finite element numerical method to predict the pulse operation behavior of Sandia Pulsed Reactor (SPR) II, SPR III, and a hypothetical spherical assembly with identical fuel properties without using operationally observed data in our model. These numerical results are compared to available SPR II and SPR III operational data. The numerical methods employed herein may be modified and expanded in functionality to provide both accurate characterization of the behavior of fast burst reactors of any common geometry or isotropic fuel material in the design phase, as well as a computational tool for general coupled thermomechanical-neutronics behavior in the solid state for any reactor type.

  11. Poisonings in the Nordic countries in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrew, Erik; Tellerup, Markus; Termälä, Anna-Mariia

    2012-01-01

    To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002.......To map mortality and morbidity of poisonings in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2007 and undertake a comparison with a corresponding study in 2002....

  12. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark in...

  13. Neuropsychiatric manifestations following acute organophosphate poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakam Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute muscarinic and nicotinic side effects of organophosphate (OP poisoning are well known and easily recognized, but neuropsychiatric changes are rarely reported. We are reporting a case of a 22-year-old male who developed psychotic features and motor neuropathy following acute OP poisoning.

  14. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  15. Neuromuscular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: There is no evoked potential studies performed in organophosphate poisoning althoung electroneurography repetitive and P300 studies exist in literature. More further studies are needed to evaluate the cardiac and neuromuscular effects of organophosphate poisoning. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 795-800

  16. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  17. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  18. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  19. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  20. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  1. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  2. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    to hundreds of nanometers. Thickness resolution for flat surfaces is in the range of few Ǻngstrøm, and as a peculiar benefit, the presence and properties of buried interfaces are accessible. Focus here will be on neutron reflectometry, a technique that is unique in applications involving composite organic...... of desired information. In the course, an introduction into the method and an overview on selected instruments at large scale facilities will be presented. Examples will be given that illustrate the potential of the method, mostly based on organic films. Results from the investigation of layered films...... and the detection on nanoscopic roughnesses will be shown. The potential of neutron reflectometry is not only of academic origin. It may turn out to be useful in the design and development of new functional materials even though it will never develop into a standard method to be applied in the product control...

  3. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  4. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  5. Accidental haloperidol poisoning in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona P Gajre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haloperidol, a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug, is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of adult schizophrenia and mania. It is used in children with neurological disorders like chorea and developmental disorders such as hyperactivity. With the advent of newer selective neuroleptics use of haloperidol is now on decline. However, in adults it is still the preferred drug especially in resource challenged settings. Extrapyramidal reactions occur frequently with haloperidol predominantly as parkinsonian symptoms. There are few case reports of accidental haloperidol poisoning in children and this one of them.

  6. Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, C; Nakamaru, E; Mita, M; Uesugi, I; Saito, J

    1988-02-01

    Egg yolk, aseptically prepared from fresh eggs, was partially dehydrated with a 40% high fructose corn syrup solution, and 10% salt was added. This salted yolk paste was added to mannitol salt agar for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, to NaCl-glycine Kim and Goepfert medium for detection of Bacillus cereus, to Clostridium welchii agar for detection of C. perfringens, and to Gifu anaerobic medium for detection of C. botulinum. These food poisoning bacteria showed the same lecithovitellin (LV) reaction on these media as on the same media prepared with fresh egg yolk. The yolk paste could be stored at -20 C without freezing and did not show any bacterial growth after holding at 25 C for 30 days. The increased salt content resulted from the addition of salted yolk paste to the media did not inhibit the growth of the food poisoning bacteria used in these experiments. For the identification of the food poisoning bacteria used in this work, and which give a LV reaction, salted yolk paste is more convenient to use than yolk separated from fresh shell eggs.

  7. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves.

  8. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A.; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms...... patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases...

  9. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  10. Optimum design and criticality safety of a beam-shaping assembly with an accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier for boron neutron capture therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, F

    2015-12-01

    The beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapies with a compact accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier was designed so that an epithermal neutron flux of 1.9×10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) at the treatment position was generated by 5 MeV protons in a beam current of 2 mA. Changes in the atomic density of (135)Xe in the nuclear fuel due to the operation of the beam-shaping assembly were estimated. The criticality safety of the beam-shaping assembly in terms of Xe poisoning is discussed.

  11. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  12. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  13. Discontinuous finite element and characteristics methods for neutrons transport equation solution in heterogeneous grids; Resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons par les methodes des elements finis discontinus et des caracteristiques structurees appliquees a des maillages heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, E

    2006-07-01

    The principal goal of this manuscript is devoted to the investigation of a new type of heterogeneous mesh adapted to the shape of the fuel pins (fuel-clad-moderator). The new heterogeneous mesh guarantees the spatial modelling of the pin-cell with a minimum of regions. Two methods are investigated for the spatial discretization of the transport equation: the discontinuous finite element method and the method of characteristics for structured cells. These methods together with the new representation of the pin-cell result in an appreciable reduction of calculation points. They allow an exact modelling of the fuel pin-cell without spatial homogenization. A new synthetic acceleration technique based on an angular multigrid is also presented for the speed up of the inner iterations. These methods are good candidates for transport calculations for a nuclear reactor core. A second objective of this work is the application of method of characteristics for non-structured geometries to the study of double heterogeneity problem. The letters is characterized by fuel material with a stochastic dispersion of heterogeneous grains, and until now was solved with a model based on collision probabilities. We propose a new statistical model based on renewal-Markovian theory, which makes possible to take into account the stochastic nature of the problem and to avoid the approximations of the collision probability model. The numerical solution of this model is guaranteed by the method of characteristics. (author)

  14. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  15. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  16. Arsenic – Poison or medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kulik-Kupka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine. Med Pr 2016;67(1:89–96

  17. Congenital abnormalities in methylmercury poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, S.H.

    1975-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the teratogenic potential of methylmercury on chick embryogenesis. Methylmercuric chloride was dissolved in sodium bicarbonate (0.2%) and administered to the chick embryos at doses ranging from 0.0009 to 0.010 mg per egg. The injections were made at days 2 and 3 on incubation (Groups A and B). All the embryos including controls were examined on the 7th day of incubation. Methylmercury poisoning was observed to be both embryolethal and teratogenic. Within the two groups, embryolethality was higher in Group A. The following congenital abnormalities were observed: exencephaly, shortened and twisted limbs, microphthalmia, shortened and twisted neck, beak abnormalities, everted viscera, reduced body size and hemorrhage all over the body. Exencephaly and limb abnormalities were very common. No differences in the incidence and types of gross abnormalities within both the groups (A and B) were noted. The incidence of malformations among the controls was low. The results of present investigation show that methylmercury poisoning is both embryolethal and teratogenic to early chick embryogenesis. (auth)

  18. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  19. Application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière des rayons x et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux. Deuxième partie : étude des différents systèmes : polymères en solution à l'état solide, solutions micellaires, systèmes fractals Application of Light, X-Ray and Neutron Diffusion Techniques to the Study of Colloidal Systems. Part Two: Research on Different Systems: Polymers in Solution in the Solid State, Micellar Solutions, Fractals Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinat D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait suite à la première partie (Revue Inst. Franç. du Pétrole, vol. 45, n°6, novembre-décembre 1990 concernant l'application des techniques de diffusion de la lumière, des rayons X et des neutrons à l'étude des systèmes colloïdaux et plus précisément à la présentation théorique des trois méthodes. L'objet de cette deuxième partie est la présentation non exhaustive de quelques domaines d'applications. Nous nous attacherons tout particulièrement à présenter les potentialités des méthodes pour la caractérisation de systèmes colloïdaux ou divisés rencontrés dans de nombreuses branches d'activité de l'industrie pétrolière. Nous aborderons dans une première partie les solutions polymériques et colloïdales. En particulier nous nous attarderons sur l'importance des techniques de diffusion pour la caractérisation des polymères en solution et des solutions micellaires. Nous verrons également quelles informations la diffusion centrale peut apporter sur la macrostructure des polymères cristallisés ou amorphes à l'état solide. De nombreux systèmes présentent une structure de type fractal ; après présentation de quelques exemples, nous montrerons que les méthodes de diffusion peuvent apporter certaines informations sur ces matériaux, notamment la dimension fractale. This article is the second one (the first one was published in Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole No. 6, NovemberDecember 1990 concerning the application of techniques of light scattering, X rays and neutrons to the analysis of colloidal systems and more specifically to the theoretical description of the three methods. The aim of this second part is to make a nonexhaustive description of several fields of applications. A special effort is made to describe the potential of these methods for characterizing colloidal or divided systems encountered in a great many activities involving the petroleum industry. The first part of this

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  1. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  2. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  3. 75 FR 13215 - National Poison Prevention Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8484 of March 15, 2010 National Poison... National Poison Prevention Week we alert American families about the dangers of accidental poisonings and... million poison exposures reported each year, we must take every precaution to guard against...

  4. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention...

  5. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  6. Cooling neutrons using non-dispersive magnetic excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed for cooling neutrons by inelastic magnetic scattering in weakly absorbing, cold paramagnetic systems. Kinetic neutron energy is removed in constant decrements determined by the Zeeman energy of paramagnetic atoms or ions in an external magnetic field, or by zero-field level splittings in magnetic molecules. Analytical solutions of the stationary neutron transport equation are given using inelastic neutron scattering cross sections derived in an appendix. They neglect any inelastic process except the paramagnetic scattering and hence still underestimate very-cold neutron densities. Molecular oxygen with its triplet ground state appears particularly promising, notably as a host in fully deuterated oxygen-clathrate hydrate, or more exotically, in dry oxygen-He4 van der Waals clusters. At a neutron temperature about 6 K, for which neutron conversion to ultra-cold neutrons by single-phonon emission in pure superfluid He4 works best, conversion rates due to paramagnetic scattering in the cl...

  7. Neutron scattering applications in structural biology: now and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Neutrons have an important role to play in structural biology. Neutron crystallography, small-angle neutron scattering and inelastic neutron scattering techniques all contribute unique information on biomolecular structures. In particular, solution scattering techniques give critical information on the conformations and dispositions of the components of complex assemblies under a wide variety of relevant conditions. The power of these methods is demonstrated here by studies of protein/DNA complexes, and Ca{sup 2+}-binding proteins complexed with their regulatory targets. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of a new structural approach using neutron resonance scattering. The impact of biological neutron scattering to date has been constrained principally by the available fluxes at neutron sources and the true potential of these approaches will only be realized with the development of new more powerful neutron sources. (author)

  8. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  9. The neutron within the deuteron as a surrogate for neutron-induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Hussein, M S; Shubhchintak,; Tran, Viet Nhan Hao

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of neutron poisons in reactions induced by radioactive beams as a test of theoretical models aiming to relate neutron capture in nuclei with neutron surrogate reactions such as (d,p) reactions. We exploit the approximations necessary to obtain a direct relation between the two reactions; surrogate vs. neutron capture. We also show how this is intimately related to the momentum distribution of the neutron within the deuteron. The models we use are based on the theory of inclusive breakup reactions commonly employed in the treatment of incomplete fusion and surrogate method. Such theories were developed in the 80's by Ichimura, Autern and Vincent [Phys. Rev. C 32, 431 (1985)], Udagawa and Tamura [Phys. Rev. C 24, 1348 (1981)] and Hussein and McVoy [Nucl. Phys. A 445, 124 (1985)]. We use these theories to derive an expression for the proton yield in the reaction A(d,p)B. The capture reaction $n + A \\rightarrow B$ is then extracted using reasonable approximations. By recalling an old method pro...

  10. Tropical fish poisoning in temperate climates: food poisoning from ciguatera toxin presenting in Avonmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Ruth; Eastcott, Howard; Sarangi, Joyshri

    2006-12-01

    Ciguatera toxin causes a range of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological symptoms that occur within 1-6 h of ingesting fish with the toxin and can last for days, months or years. It is a well-recognized problem in the tropics. Avon Health Protection Team investigated food poisoning on a ship at Avonmouth, which was thought by the crew to be related to a white snapper fish from the Caribbean. The symptoms were initially thought to be scombroid fish poisoning but were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. Cases of fish poisoning from fish imported from the Caribbean and Pacific or travellers returning from tropical countries may be ciguatera fish poisoning, but mistakenly diagnosed as scombroid fish poisoning.

  11. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  12. Carbon monoxide: An old poison with a new way of poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiu Chou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  13. Data reduction for time-of-flight small-angle neutron scattering with virtual neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rong; Tian, Haolai; Zuo, Taisen; Tang, Ming; Yan, Lili; Zhang, Junrong

    2017-09-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is an experimental technique to detect material structures in the nanometer to micrometer range. The solution of the structural model constructed from SANS strongly depends on the accuracy of the reduced data. The time-of-flight (TOF) SANS data are dependent on the wavelength of the pulsed neutron source. Therefore, data reduction must be handled very carefully to transform measured neutron events into neutron scattering intensity. In this study, reduction algorithms for TOF SANS data are developed and optimized using simulated data from a virtual neutron experiment. Each possible effect on the measured data is studied systematically, and suitable corrections are performed to obtain high-quality data. This work will facilitate scientific research and the instrument design at China Spallation Neutron Source.

  14. Neutronic characteristics of an OTTO refueling PBMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Hoai Nam, E-mail: nam@nephy.chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Division of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hoang, Van Khanh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology, 179 Hoang Quoc Viet str., Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutronic characteristics were analyzed for an OTTO refueling PBMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The core uses newly designed fuel pebbles with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as burnable poison. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The neutronic characteristics are comparable with a reference multi-pass scheme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average discharged burnup is 21% lower than that of the multi-pass scheme. - Abstract: Neutronic characteristics were investigated for a once-through-then-out (OTTO) refueling scheme based on the 400 MWt pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) and compared with that of a reference multi-pass scheme. The core was loaded with new fuel pebbles which were designed with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles to flatten the axial power profile. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} design was considered in a multi-parameter optimization to maximize the average discharged burnup while maintaining a limited power peak and ensuring core criticality. The results show that the OTTO scheme using the new fuel pebbles can achieve the maximum average discharged burnup of about 75 GWd/t, at which the core neutronic characteristics are comparable with that of the reference multi-pass scheme. This means that the efficiency of fuel utilization of the OTTO scheme is about 21% less than that of the multi-pass scheme (95 GWd/t).

  15. Intractable Seizures and Rehabilitation in Ciguatera Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derian, Armen; Khurana, Seema; Rothenberg, Joshua; Plumlee, Charles

    2016-08-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is the most frequently reported seafood toxin illness associated with the ingestion of contaminated tropical fish. Diagnosis relies on a history of recent tropical fish ingestion and subsequent development of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. Ciguatera poisoning usually has a self-limited time course, and its management involves symptomatic control and supportive care. This case report presents an uncommon case of ciguatera poisoning with prolonged intractable seizures refractory to standard antiseizure medications. The patient also had significant functional decline that responded to rigorous inpatient rehabilitation not previously described in literature.

  16. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  17. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  18. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Okur, Mesut; Geylani, Hadi; Caksen, Hüseyin; Tuncer, Oğuz; Ataş, Bülent

    2010-01-01

    Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl) are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  19. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  20. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  1. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.

  2. Chronic mercury poisoning: Report of two siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Cahide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exists as organic inorganic and elementary forms in nature and is one of the most toxic metals that are poisonous for human beings. Mercury is commonly used in many different sectors of industry such as in insects formulas, agriculture products, lamps, batteries, paper, dyes, electrical/electronic devices, jewelry, and in dentistry. In this study, two siblings (one a 7-year-old boy and the other a 13 years old girl are reported who developed chronic mercury poisoning as a result of long-term contact with batteries. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of mercury poisoning that is extremely rarely seen in childhood.

  3. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  4. A quasi-elastic neutron scattering and neutron spin-echo study of hydrogen bonded system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, C.; Faraone, A.; Magazu, S.; Maisano, G.; Mangione, A

    2004-07-15

    This work reports neutron spin echo results on aqueous solutions of trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide of glucose, showing an extraordinary bioprotective effectiveness against dehydration and freezing. We collected data using the SPAN spectrometer (BENSC, Berlin) on trehalose aqueous solutions at different temperature values. The obtained findings are compared with quasi-elastic neutron scattering results in order to furnish new results on the dynamics of the trehalose/water system on the nano and picoseconds scale.

  5. Liquid sample shuffler for gamma active solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, T.W.

    1987-02-01

    An instrument is proposed by Los Alamos National Laboratory for measuring low levels of fission-product-contaminated fissile solutions at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The proposed unit uses neutrons from a /sup 252/Cf neutron source to induce fissions, and delayed neutrons from the induced fissions are counted once the neutron source is withdrawn. Lead is used to shield the neutron detectors from the gamma-ray dose of the fission products found in the solutions at the INEL plant. The designed sensitivity is 5 mg/l of /sup 235/U in 100 s with a 4-standard-deviation confidence.

  6. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pesticide Poisoning of Honeybees: A Review of Symptoms, Incident Classification, and Causes of Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljanek Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000s, the problem of pesticide poisoning of honeybees seemed to be almost solved. The number of cases has decreased in comparison to the 1970s. The problem of acute honeybee poisoning, however, has not disappeared, but instead has transformed into a problem of poisoning from ‘traditional’ pesticides like organophosphorus pesticides or pyrethroids, to poisoning from additional sources of ‘modern’ systemic neonicotinoids and fipronil. In this article, the biological activity of pesticides was reviewed. The poisoning symptoms, incident definitions, and monitoring systems, as well as the interpretation of the analytical results, were also reviewed. The range of pesticides, and the detected concentrations of pesticides in poisoned honeybee samples, were reviewed. And, for the first time, cases of poisoning related to neonicotinoids were reviewed. The latter especially is of practical importance and could be helpful to analysts and investigators of honeybee poisoning incidents. It is assumed that secondary poisoning induced by plant collected materials contaminated with systemic pesticides occurs. Food stored in a hive and contaminated with systemic pesticides consumed continuously by the same generation of winter bees, may result in sub-lethal intoxication. This leads to abnormal behaviour identified during acute intoxication. The final result is that the bees discontinue their social role in the honeybee colony super organism, and colony collapse disorder (CCD takes place. The process described above refers primarily to robust and strong colonies that were able to collect plenty of food due to effective plant protection.

  8. Neutron scattering for the analysis of biological structures. Brookhaven symposia in biology. Number 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenborn, B P [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Sessions were included on neutron scattering and biological structure analysis, protein crystallography, neutron scattering from oriented systems, solution scattering, preparation of deuterated specimens, inelastic scattering, data analysis, experimental techniques, and instrumentation. Separate entries were made for the individual papers.

  9. Heat capacity and neutron diffraction studies on the frustrated magnetic Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} [0{<=}x{<=}1] solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, I. de, E-mail: depedrovm@unican.es [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rojo, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rodriguez Fernandez, J.; Sanchez Marcos, J. [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Fernandez-Diaz, M.T. [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156X, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Rojo, T. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} [0{<=}x{<=}1] solid solution exhibits a complex magnetic behaviour due to the bond-frustration in its magnetic structure. Heat capacity measurements of the (x=0.1-0.5) phases show a three-dimensional magnetic ordering ({lambda} anomaly) that shifts to lower temperatures and becomes broader as the AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-} content increases. For x=0.75, no significant feature was observed whereas for higher arsenate ion content, x=0.9 and 1, a small maximum was detected. The magnetic structures of solid solution are consistent with the existence of predominant antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions through the |OH| and |XO{sub 4}| (X=P and As) groups between the Co{sup +2} ions. The substitution of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} by AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-} anions by more than 90% substantially modifies the magnetic exchange pathways in the solid solution, leading to an incommensurate antiferromagnetic structure in Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} [x=0.9 and 1] phases. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic structures of Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} [0{<=}x{<=}1]. The ordering of the magnetic moments of Co{sup 2+} is in c direction for the two crystallographic positions (dimers and chains) in all compounds. The unit cell is surrounded by a red line. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of a new adamite-type compounds, Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9) phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co{sub 2}(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 1-x}(AsO{sub 4}){sub x} (0-1) solid solution; magnetic frustrated system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High resolution neutron powder diffraction to determine the crystal structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate magnetic structures at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetostructural correlations in cobalt-based Co{sub 2}(OH)XO{sub 4} (X=P and As) insulation compounds.

  10. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  11. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  12. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... situations, criminal prosecution. back to top Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  13. Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Mª Jesús; Martos, Nieves; Zilberschtein, José; Ruíz, Isidro; Motas, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Fatal brodifacoum poisoning in a pony is described; this condition has not previously been reported in ponies. Discussion of what factors in the pony’s history and treatment may have predisposed to the severity and ultimate death is provided.

  14. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  15. Extracorporeal treatment for tricyclic antidepressant poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, Christopher; Galvao, Tais; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTR) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its results for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). After an extensive literature search, using a predefined...... methodology, the subgroup responsible for this poison reviewed the articles, extracted the data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a predetermined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and RAND...... yielding a very low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 108 patients, including 12 fatalities, were abstracted. The workgroup concluded that TCAs are not dialyzable and made the following recommendation: ECTR is not recommended in severe TCA poisoning (1D). The workgroup considers...

  16. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature....... The workgroup concluded that VPA is moderately dialyzable (level of evidence = B) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe VPA poisoning (1D); recommendations for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 1300 mg/L (9000 μmol/L)(1D), the presence of cerebral edema (1D) or shock (1D...... 50 and 100 mg/L (350-700 μmol/L)(2D). Intermittent hemodialysis is the preferred ECTR in VPA poisoning (1D). If hemodialysis is not available, then intermittent hemoperfusion (1D) or continuous renal replacement therapy (2D) is an acceptable alternative. CONCLUSIONS: VPA is moderately dialyzable...

  17. Some Lead Poisoning Tests May Be Faulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165668.html Some Lead Poisoning Tests May Be Faulty But the majority ... 17, 2017 WEDNESDAY, May 17, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Lead tests made by Magellan Diagnostics may yield inaccurate ...

  18. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  19. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  20. Nicotiana glauca poisoning in ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Putative Nicotiana glauca (wild tobacco) poisoning was diagnosed in a flock of ostriches near Oudtshoorn, South Africa. Post mortem examinations (n = 7) were performed on ostriches (Struthio camelus) that had died. Suspicious leaf remnants (weighing...

  1. Colchicine Poisoning in Children: 7 Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karacan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is a drug that has been used primarily in several diseases. Colchicine poisoning is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening problem characterized by multiorgan involvement. We present seven children with colchicine poisoning. Their ages ranged between 1 and 9 years. In six children, the amount of colchicine consumed was between 0.16 and 0.39 mg/kg; the most frequent findings were diarrhea and vomiting. In one patient, the ingested amount was unknown. One of the patients died and all others recovered without sequelae. The severity of colchicine poisoning tends to be related to the dosage of ingested drug and the time of admission to hospital. Symptomatic treatment should be started as soon as possible in colchicine poisoning. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 96-100

  2. Causes of rhabdomyolysis in acute poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Snežana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Rhabdomyolysis (RM is potentially lethal syndrome, but there are no enough published data on its frequency and characteristics in acute poisonings. The aim of this study was to determine the causes and severity of RM in acute poisonings. Methods. Patients hospital charts were retrospectively screened during a one-year period in order to identify patients with RM among 656 patients treated due to acute poisonings with different agents. All the patients with RM were selected. Entrance criterion was the value of creatine kinase (CK over 250 U/L. The severity of RM was assessed according to the Poison Severity Score. The patients were divided into three groups: the first one with mild RM (CK from 250 to 1,500 U/L, the second with moderate RM (CK from 1,500 to 10,000 U/L and the third with severe RM (CK greater than 10,000 U/L. Results. RM occurred in 125 (19% of the patients with acute poisonings. It was mainly mild (61%, or moderate (36%, and only in 3% of the patients was severe RM. The incidence of RM was the highest in poisonings with opiates (41%, pesticides (38%, neuroleptics (26%, anticonvulsants (26%, ethyl alcohol (20%, and gases (19%. Psychotropic agents were the most common causes of poisoning, and consequently of RM. Fatal outcomes were registered in 32 (25.60% of all RM patients. The incidence of fatal outcomes in poisonings with mild, moderate and severe RM was 19.73%, 31.11% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. RM syndrome occurs at a relatively high rate in acute poisonings. Although agent’s toxicity is crucial for the outcome, severe RM and its complications may significantly influence the clinical course and prognosis of poisoning. Routine analysis of CK, as a relevant marker for RM may indicate the development of RM in acute poisoning and initiate prompt therapeutic measures in preventing acute renal failure as the most frequent consequence of extensive rhabdomyolysis.

  3. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  4. Hair dye poisoning and the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

  5. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-06-25

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks.

  6. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full...

  7. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  8. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  9. A CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients were studied to know the common poisons, age, sex, clinical manifestations, response to treatment, motive behind the consumption and prognostic factors. Out of 100 cases, most of them committed this with suicidal intention, 21 - 30 age group, males, insecticide poison consumed were affected. 70% of them had domestic problems as the main reason to commit this extreme step. Those who reached early to the hospital had recovered well with a mortality rate of 7%.

  10. Clinical Review: Emergency management of acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. van Hoving

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this commissioned review was to establish concise guidelines for the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient in the Emergency Centre. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists are the international leaders in the field of toxicology and the guidelines in their position papers were generally followed. Most of the dosage regimes are according to the South African Medicines Formulary.

  11. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  12. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Deepak Amalnath; T K Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  13. Cartap poisoning: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A S Praveen; Amalnath, Deepak; Dutta, T K

    2011-10-01

    Cartap is a pesticide commonly used to control weevil and caterpillars. It is an analogue of nereistoxin, a neurotoxic substance isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda. It causes neuromuscular blockade. Poisoning with cartap is very rare and not yet reported from India. We report a 35-year-old lady with cartap poisoning who presented with nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea. She improved with N-acetyl cysteine and symptomatic management.

  14. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  15. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: an unsolved riddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, R; Binukumar, B K; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used insecticide and rodenticide, is also infamous for the mortality and morbidity it causes in ALP-poisoned individuals. The toxicity of metal phosphides is due to phosphine liberated when ingested phosphides come into contact with gut fluids. ALP poisoning is lethal, having a mortality rate in excess of 70%. Circulatory failure and severe hypotension are common features of ALP poisoning and frequent cause of death. Severe poisoning also has the potential to induce multi-organ failure. The exact site or mechanism of its action has not been proved in humans. Rather than targeting a single organ to cause gross damage, ALP seems to work at the cellular level, resulting in widespread damage leading to multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) and death. There has been proof in vitro that phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase. However, it is unlikely that this interaction is the primary cause of its toxicity. Mitochondria could be the possible site of maximum damage in ALP poisoning, resulting in low ATP production followed by metabolic shutdown and MOD; also, owing to impairment in electron flow, there could be free radical generation and damage, again producing MOD. Evidence of reactive oxygen species-induced toxicity owing to ALP has been observed in insects and rats. A similar mechanism could also play a role in humans and contribute to the missing link in the pathogenesis of ALP toxicity. There is no specific antidote for ALP poisoning and supportive measures are all that are currently available.

  16. Chronic arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Benzeeta; Goyal, Palvi; Flora, S J S; Gill, K D; Singh, Surjit

    2014-12-01

    Ayurveda, Indian traditional system of medicine, is practiced commonly in South East Asia and in many parts of the world. Many ayurvedic drugs contain heavy metals and may lead to metal toxicity. Of these, chronic lead poisoning is the most common. Chronic arsenic poisoning following the use of ayurvedic medication, though reported, is rare. We describe three patients who presented with features of chronic arsenic poisoning following prolonged ayurvedic medication use. The diagnosis of chronic arsenic poisoning was confirmed by high arsenic levels in the blood, urine, hair, and nails in all the three patients and in ayurvedic drug in two patients. The ayurvedic medication was discontinued and treatment with D-penicillamine started. At 6 months after treatment, blood arsenic levels returned to normal with clinical recovery in all of them. Arsenic poisoning following ayurvedic medication is much less common than lead poisoning, though mineral ayurvedic medicines may lead to it. We used D-penicillamine as chelator and all of them recovered. Whether withdrawal of medication alone or D-penicillamine also played a role in recovery is unclear and needs to be assessed.

  17. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  18. Neutron noise computation using panda deterministic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbert, Ph. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2003-07-01

    PANDA is a general purpose discrete ordinates neutron transport code with deterministic and non deterministic applications. In this paper we consider the adaptation of PANDA to stochastic neutron counting problems. More specifically we consider the first two moments of the count number probability distribution. In a first part we will recall the equations for the single neutron and source induced count number moments with the corresponding expression for the excess of relative variance or Feynman function. In a second part we discuss the numerical solution of these inhomogeneous adjoint time dependent transport coupled equations with discrete ordinate methods. Finally, numerical applications are presented in the third part. (author)

  19. Prospects in MPGDs development for neutron detection

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Resnati, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this document is to summarise the discussion and the contributions from the 2nd Academia-Industry Matching Event on Detecting Neutrons with MPGDs which took place at CERN on the 16th and the 17th of March 2015. These events provide a platform for discussing the prospects of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) for thermal and fast neutron detection, commercial constraints and possible solutions. The aim is to foster the collaboration between the particle physics community, the neutron detector users, instrument scientists and fabricants.

  20. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  1. Neutron scattering applications in hydrocarbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min Y.; Peiffer, Dennis G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States); Zhang, Yimin; Rafailovich, Miriam [Dept. of Materials Sci. and Eng., State University of New York, NY (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Neutron scattering methods are a powerful probe to complex fluids, soft matters as well as solid materials of nano- and micro-structures and their related dynamic properties. They complement other microstructural probing tools, such as microscopes, x-ray and light scattering techniques. Because neutron does not carry charges, it interacts only with nuclei of the matter, therefore not only can it penetrate a longer length into matters, it can also see' many features other methods can't due to their lack of proper contrast or heavy absorption. One of the largest contrasts in neutron methods is from hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) difference. Therefore, hydrocarbons can be easily studied by neutrons when H/D isotope substitution is applied. Here at National Institute of Standards and Technology's Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, one of the USA's premier neutron scattering facilities, we have been using neutron scattering techniques to study microstructures of asphaltenes, waxes, gas hydrates, porous media, surfactant solutions, engine oils, polymers, nanocomposites, fuel cell element and other hydrocarbon materials. With the completion of a new Neutron Spin Echo instrument, we can also look at the dynamics of the above mentioned systems. (author)

  2. Neutron scattering instrumentation for biology at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that since biological entities are large, they must be studied with cold neutrons, a domain in which reactor sources of neutrons are often supposed to be pre-eminent. In fact, the current generation of pulsed spallation neutron sources, such as LANSCE at Los Alamos and ISIS in the United Kingdom, has demonstrated a capability for small angle scattering (SANS) - a typical cold- neutron application - that was not anticipated five years ago. Although no one has yet built a Laue diffractometer at a pulsed spallation source, calculations show that such an instrument would provide an exceptional capability for protein crystallography at one of the existing high-power spoliation sources. Even more exciting is the prospect of installing such spectrometers either at a next-generation, short-pulse spallation source or at a long-pulse spallation source. A recent Los Alamos study has shown that a one-megawatt, short-pulse source, which is an order of magnitude more powerful than LANSCE, could be built with today`s technology. In Europe, a preconceptual design study for a five-megawatt source is under way. Although such short-pulse sources are likely to be the wave of the future, they may not be necessary for some applications - such as Laue diffraction - which can be performed very well at a long-pulse spoliation source. Recently, it has been argued by Mezei that a facility that combines a short-pulse spallation source similar to LANSCE, with a one-megawatt, long-pulse spallation source would provide a cost-effective solution to the global shortage of neutrons for research. The basis for this assertion as well as the performance of some existing neutron spectrometers at short-pulse sources will be examined in this presentation.

  3. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  4. Structure and thermodynamics of nonideal solutions of colloidal particles. Investigation of salt-free solutions of human serum albumin by using small-angle neutron scattering and Monte Carlo simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, B.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Carlo simulation, to study salt-free solutions of human serum albumin (HSA) in the concentration range up to 0.26 g ml(-1). The model calculations of the theoretical SANS intensities are quite general, thus avoiding the approximation that the relative positions and orientations of the particles...... are independent of each other. The computation of the theoretical intensities also includes the calculation of a 'thermodynamic' intensity scattered at zero angle, which is obtained via the nonideal part of the chemical potential. The latter quantity is obtained by applying the test particle method during...... the Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the SANS data can be explained by a model where the HSA molecules behave as hard ellipsoids of revolution with semiaxes a = 6.8 nm, b = c = 1.9 nm. In addition to the hard core interaction, the particles are also surrounded by a soft, repulsive rectangular...

  5. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  6. Rapid Detection of Drugs and Poisons in Forensic Samples

    OpenAIRE

    李, 華

    2007-01-01

    There have been many accidents and crimes suspected drugs and poisons in our life. It becomes very important to elucidate a participation of the drugs and poisons. Blood and urine are usually used for detection of these drugs and poisons. However, it is not easy to identify the source of the poisoning from a huge number of drugs and poisons. Therefore, simple and accurate detection methods are requested for search of drugs and poisons in biological materials. In this study, the simple and fas...

  7. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  8. ARE THE SO-CALLED POISONOUS FOOD-COMBINATIONS REALLY POISONOUS?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libin T CHENG

    2009-01-01

    @@ The idea that to eat certain two foods simultaneously is to get poisoned has been entertained by柄Chinese people for many years. There are about 184 pairs of the so-called poisonous food-combinations, and 180 of them are mentioned in Chinese Ancient Materia Medica, Ben-Tsao-Gung-Mu (本草纲目) or other books. (1a,2a) This belief was based upon some personal sketch, old-fashioned doctors' notes, stories and other false facts. Although these statements were originated without any experimental ground, yet many of the Chinese, even at present time, still believe them firmly. Whenever any poisoning outbreak occurs accidentally after having taken the so-called poisonous food-combination, they always attribute the cause of the poisoning to the two foods served simultaneously.

  9. Poisoning in Israel: annual report of the Israel Poison Information Center, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentur, Yedidia; Lurie, Yael; Cahana, Alfred; Kovler, Nona; Bloom-Krasik, Anna; Gurevych, Bella; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    The Israel National Poison Information Center (IPIC), Rambam Health Care Campus, provides 24 hour telephone consultations in clinical toxicology as well as drug and teratogen information. It participates in research, teaching and regulatory activities, and also provides laboratory services. To report data on the epidemiology of poisonings and poison exposures in Israel. We made computerized queries and descriptive analyses of the medical records database of the IPIC during 2012. A total of 31,519 poison exposure cases were recorded, a 157.6% increase compared with 1995. Children Israel. The IPIC database is a valuable national resource for the collection and monitoring of poisoning exposure cases. It can be used as a real-time surveillance system for the benefit of public health. It is recommended that reporting to the IPIC become mandatory and its activities be adequately supported by national resources.

  10. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  11. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  12. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  13. Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as ′chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders′ (COPIND. Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.

  14. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  15. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Mohebbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50 are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as

  16. [Accreditation criteria and quality standards for Poisons centres: development of a quality management system within the Milan Poisons centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Tiziana; Manfrè, Sergio; Grezzi, Marinella

    2006-01-01

    Poisons centres throughout Italy and Europe vary considerably in terms of their institutions and organisation. The European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) has laid down the activities that a poisons centre must carry out, specifying minimum and maximum standards required. These directions allow an evaluation of the service provided. In 2002 Milan Poisons Centre began a project aiming to introduce concepts and methodology proper of the quality systems within poisons centres' institutional activity. Concluded, the project resulted in the centre's certification and the documentation of its procedures: this may now contribute to help define the status and activity of poisons centres in Italy.

  17. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  18. Superheated drop neutron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    Superheated drops are known to detect neutrons through the nucleation caused by the recoil nuclei produced by the interactions of neutrons with the atoms constituting the superheated liquid molecule. A novel method of finding the neutron energy from the temperature dependence response of SDD has been developed. From the equivalence between the dependence of threshold energy for nucleation on temperature of SDD and the dependence of dE/dx of the recoil ions with the energy of the neutron, a new method of finding the neutron energy spectrum of a polychromatic as well as monochromatic neutron source has been developed.

  19. Neutron streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1983-09-13

    Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

  20. Does organophosphate poisoning cause cardiac injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Mostafazadeh, Babak; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Morteza, Afsaneh

    2013-11-01

    Organophosphates are insecticides which are widely used as a suicidal agent in Iran. They are associated with different types of cardiac complications including cardiac arrest and arrhythmia, however their role in cardiac injury is not known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of myocardial damage in patients with cholinesterase poisoning.It was a prospective study conducted from January 2008 to March 2010. Cohorts of patients with cholinesterase poisoning due to suicidal attempt who have been referred to Loghman hospital were selected. Patients who have taken more than one poison or were used concomitant drugs were excluded. Physical examination was performed on admission to discover warning sign. Peripheral arterial blood gases, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, troponin-T measurements were performed in all cases. There were 24 patients, 7 of them women, with the mean age of 41.2±15.05 who were included in this study. Non-survivors had significantly higher levels of systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate Glasgow Coma Scale scoring and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. Our findings showed that cardiac injury is an important cause of death in organophosphate poisoning. It could be hypothesized that cardiac injury is a strong predictor of death in patients with organophosphate poisoning.

  1. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  2. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  3. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  4. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the county level by selected demographic characteristics and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug poisoning...

  5. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  6. ONE CASE REPORT OF ACUTE POISONING BY BARIUM CARBONATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Qin-min; BIAN Fan; WANG Shu-yun; SHEN Sheng-hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Most barium poisoning cases were caused by oral intake by mistake. Recent years, barium carbonate poisoning has been rare to be reported. Here we reported a case of acute barium carbonate toxication taken orally on purpose.

  7. Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164157.html Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child These pastries and candies pose serious ... to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. ...

  8. Poison Center Data for Public Health Surveillance: Poison Center and Public Health Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Royal K.; Schier, Josh; Schauben, Jay; Wheeler, Katherine; Mulay, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of poison center data for public health surveillance from the poison center, local, state, and federal public health perspectives and to generate meaningful discussion on how to address the challenges to collaboration. Introduction Since 2008, poisoning has become the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States (US); since 1980, the poisoning-related fatality rate in the US has almost tripled.1 Many poison-related injuries and deaths are reported to regional poison centers (PCs) which receive about 2.4 million reports of human chemical and poison exposures annually.2 Federal, state, and local public health (PH) agencies often collaborate with poison centers and use PC data for public health surveillance of poisoning-related health issues. Many state and local PH agencies have partnerships with regional PCs for direct access to local PC data which help them perform this function. At the national level, CDC conducts public health surveillance for exposures and illnesses of public health significance using the National Poison Data System (NPDS), the national PC reporting database. Though most PC and PH officials agree that PC data play an important role in PH practice and surveillance, collaboration between PH agencies and PCs has been hindered by numerous challenges. To address these challenges and bolster collaboration, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations Community of Practice (CoP) was created in 2010 by CDC as a means to share experiences, identify best practices, and facilitate relationships among federal, state and local public health agencies and PCs. To date, the Poison Center and Public Health Collaborations CoP includes over 200 members from state and local public health, regional PCs, CDC, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A leadership team was created with representatives of the many stakeholders of the community to drive its

  9. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  10. [Poisonous plants: An ongoing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Monseny, A; Martínez Sánchez, L; Margarit Soler, A; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, V; Luaces Cubells, C

    2015-05-01

    A medical visit for plant ingestion is rare in the pediatric emergency services but may involve a high toxicity. The botanical toxicology training of health staff is often very limited, and it can be difficult to make a diagnosis or decide on the appropriate treatment. To study the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of poisoning due to plant ingestion in order to increase the knowledge of the health professional. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on patients seen in a pediatric emergency department after the ingestion of plant substances from January 2008 to December 2012. During the period of study, 18 patients had ingested possible toxic plants. In 14 cases, it was considered to be potentially toxic: broom, oleander, mistletoe, butcher's-broom, and vulgar bean (2), Jerusalem tomato, castor (2), Jimson weed, potus, marijuana, and mushrooms with digestive toxicity (2). Among the potentially toxic cases, the ingestion was accidental in 10 patients, 2 cases were classed as infantile mistreatment, 1 case had recreational intention, and another one suicidal intentions. The ingestion of oleander, castor and Jimson weed had major toxicity. The potential gravity of the ingestion of plant substances and the variety of the exposure mechanism requires the pediatrician to bear in mind this possibility, and to be prepared for its diagnosis and management. Specific preventive information measures need to be designed for the families and for the regulation of toxic plants in playgrounds. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  12. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  13. Poison prevention practices and medically attended poisoning in young children: multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Timblin, Clare; Hayes, Mike; Goodenough, Trudy; Hawkins, Adrian; Reading, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Childhood poisonings are common, placing a substantial burden on health services. Case-control studies have found inconsistent evidence about modifiable risk factors for poisonings among children aged 0-4 years. This study quantifies associations between poison prevention practices and medically attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. Multicentre case-control study conducted at hospitals, minor injury units and family practices from four study centres in England between 2010 and 2013. Participants comprised 567 children presenting with unintentional poisoning occurring at home and 2320 community control participants matched on age, sex, date of event and study centre. Parents/caregivers provided data on safety practices, safety equipment use, home hazards and potential confounders by means of self-completion questionnaires. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Compared with community controls, parents of poisoned children were significantly more likely not to store medicines out of reach (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.59; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.09; population attributable fraction (PAF) 15%), not to store medicines safely (locked or out of reach (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.42; PAF 16%) and not to have put all medicines (AOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.90; PAF 20%) or household products (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.48; PAF 11%) away immediately after use. Not storing medicines out of reach or locked away and not putting medicines and household products away immediately after use increased the odds of secondary care attended poisonings in children aged 0-4 years. If associations are causal, implementing these poison prevention practices could each prevent between 11% and 20% of poisonings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Animal model and pharmacokinetic interpretation of nicotine poisoning in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M E; Ritschel, W A; Saelinger, D A; Cacini, W; Patterson, A J

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find an animal model and possible pharmacolokinetic interpretation of the fact that a patient survived an accidental sc poisoning with a nicotine-containing animal tranquilizing dart. The same dose size of 3.58 mg/kg causing poisoning in man was administered to rabbits iv and sc. Blood samples were obtained for nicotine analysis by cardiac punctures; and blood pressure, respiration rate, and saliva flow were measured. Analysis of the original solution used in the dart excluded the possibility of sub-potency. The extent of unchanged drug reaching systemic circulation (extent of bioavailability) upon sc administration was 83%. Hence, the possibility of survival in man due to rapid tissue metabolism was ruled out. The pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a significant reduction in sc plasma levels during the first half hour which is reported as the most critical period for patients experiencing nicotine intoxication. The disposition of nicotine in the rabbit, i.e. distribution and elimination, are identical upon iv and sc administration. The reduced toxicity, i.e. blood pressure and saliva flow rate, upon sc dosing may be explained by the difference in plasma level peaks between sc and iv administration.

  15. Toxicological criterion of the heroin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeev, S

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents toxicological characteristics of 198 cases of acute parenteral heroin intoxication, analyzes the clinically encountered range of blood and urinary concentrations of its metabolites. The principal causes of death are elucidated in victims of heroin poisoning at the hospital stage. Where there is a relationship of death probability to the detection of morphine in the victims' biological fluids is considered; its blood and urinary concentrations are determined, which undoubtedly suggests the occurrence of poisoning-related death. It has been established that death from poisoning by heroin may occur in the whole range of its detectable concentrations. There is no doubt that the blood morphine concentrations of at least 2.0 microg/ml should be considered to be fatal.

  16. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  17. The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, Valéry; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from nephro...... of recommendation. This approach will permit the production of the first important practice guidelines on this topic....... nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed...... to retrieve all original publications regardless of language. Data were extracted on a standardized instrument. Quality of the evidence was assessed by GRADE as: High = A, Moderate = B, Low = C, Very Low = D. For every poison, dialyzability was assessed and clinical effect of ECTR summarized. All pertinent...

  18. Imaging with Scattered Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Gaehler, R.; Trapp, M.; Van Overberghe, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-re...

  19. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  20. Edge localized modes of cold neutrons in periodic condensed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyakov, V. A.

    2017-06-01

    It is found that for certain energies of discreet cold neutrons, quasi-stationary eigen solutions of the corresponding Schrodinger equation, which are localized in the layer of a periodic medium, exist. The localization time of these solutions is strongly dependent on the layer thickness, being finite for a finite layer thickness and increasing indefinitely upon a infinite growth of the layer thickness as the third power of the layer thickness. The problem has been solved in the two-wave approximation of the dynamic diffraction theory for the neutron propagation direction coinciding with the periodicity axes (normal incidence of the neutron beam on the layer). The expressions for neutron eigenwave functions in a periodic medium, the reflection and transmission coefficients, and the neutron wavefunction in the layer as a function of the neutron energy incident on the layer have been determined. It turns out that for the certain discrete neutron energies, the amplitudes of the neutron wavefunction in the layer reach sharp maxima. The corresponding energies are just outside of the neutron stop band (energies forbidden for neutron propagation in the layer) and determine the energies of neutron edge modes (NEMs) localized in the layer, which are direct analogs of the optical edge modes for photonic crystals. The dispersion equation for the localized neutron edge modes has been obtained and analytically solved for the case of thick layers. A rough estimate for the localization length L is L ( db N)-1, where b is the neutron scattering length, d is the crystal period, and N is the density of nuclei in the crystal. The estimates of the localized thermal neutron lifetime show that acheaving of a lifetime close to the free neutron lifetime seems nonrealistic due to absorption of thermal neutrons and requires a perfect large size crystal. Nevertheless, acheaving the localized neutron lifetime exceeding by 104 times the neutron time of flight through the layer appears as