WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutral licensing requirements

  1. Technology neutral licensing requirements: have we been successful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is Canada's nuclear regulator. In preparation for the licensing of the next generation of nuclear reactors in Canada, the CNSC has made major changes in its processes and procedures associated with all aspects of the licensing life cycle. These include: development of key regulatory documents outlining the CNSC expectations for the design and siting of new reactors; creation of applicant guidelines for completing licensing applications; creation of a comprehensive set of review guides, specifying how topics in applications are to be reviewed; performing pre-project design reviews for proposed new reactor technologies; and streamlining processes wherever possible, such as performing the environmental assessment and license to prepare site activities in parallel. The predicted workload associated with the nuclear renaissance in Canada is real. The CNSC is currently performing: 4 pre-project design reviews (for AECL's ACR-1000 and EC-6, Areva's EPR and Westinghouse's AP-1000), has received applications for 4 new builds (at Darlington, Bruce, Nanticoke and in Alberta) and is in the midst of performing the combined environmental assessment and license to prepare site phases for these sites. This is in addition to the work associated with: the licensing of new uranium mines; oversight of the existing reactor fleet; refurbishments at Bruce/Gentilly/Point Lepreau; license renewal for the NRU reactor; and oversight of our general client base of over 5000 licensees. In this presentation, experience to date with these new processes and procedures will be discussed, including: status of the current new build projects; anticipated new activities; lessons learned, especially the technology neutral approach; application to our other licensed activities, including non-power reactors; and work underway to further develop CNSC methods. Qualifications Needed to Design, Construct and Manufacture Nuclear Systems and Equipment, C. Voutsinos

  2. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, W.J.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with 3 H, 85 Kr, or 147 Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process

  3. 7 CFR 46.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... considered to result in separate firms and, therefore, do not require separate licenses. ...

  4. A review of tritium licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, A.B.

    1982-12-01

    Present Canadian regulations and anticipated changes to these regulations relevant to the utilization of tritium in fusion facilities and in commercial applications have been reviewed. It is concluded that there are no serious licensing obstacles, but there are a number of requirements which must be met. A license will be required from Atomic Energy Control Board if Ontario Hydro tritium is to be applied by other users. A license is required from the Federal Government to export or import tritium. A licensed container will be required for the storage and shipping of tritium. The containers being designed by AECL and Ontario Hydro and which are currently being tested will adequately store and ship all of the Ontario Hydro tritium but are unnecessarily large for the small quantities required by the commercial tritium users. Also, some users may prefer to receive tritium in gaseous form. An additional, smaller container should be considered. The licensing of overseas fusion facilities for the use of tritium is seen as a major undertaking offering opportunities to Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project to undertake health, safety and environmental analysis on behalf of these facilities

  5. Licensing procedure and requirements in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1981-01-01

    The investigations of the different dynamic stresses of pressure suppression systems after the Wuergassen incident in 1972 and their theoretical and experimental solutions required an extraordinary effort from all participants of the licensing procedures. As a consequence of these new problems a lot of mathematical models and computer codes had been developed and a lot of experimental work had been performed. Numerous highly qualified scientists and engineers had been involved for a long time in the licensing procedures and innumerable discussions had been necessary. These investigations and discussions had a great influence on the licensing procedures and on the project running. Too pessimistic assumptions and wrong interpretations of experiments led to fictitious problems and a lot of time and money was necessary to overcome these difficulties. Finally at 1977 it could be proved that the construction was able to control stresses so that additional investigations were not necessary. (orig./HP)

  6. Possible neutral beam requirements for TFTR upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.; Little, R.; Post, D.E.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is provided of possible neutral beam requirements and constraints for a TFTR upgrade. The time scale is the early 80s and beams of 250 keV D 0 , probably using 65 ampere negative ion sources, existing power supplies and vacuum enclosures would be required

  7. 24 CFR 3286.203 - Installation license required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performance of the installation work in compliance with the requirements of this part. (3) A license is not required for individuals working as direct employees of a licensed installer or for the company that... and competent performance of all employees working under the licensed installer's supervision and for...

  8. 22 CFR 129.6 - Requirement for license/approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LICENSING OF BROKERS § 129.6 Requirement for license/approval. (a) No person may engage in the business of... member country of that Organization, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, or South Korea, except in the case of...

  9. Stability in licensing requirements: a technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The serious difficulties encountered in the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants in the United States have resulted in the elaboration of a Bill on the siting and licensing of nuclear installations for the purpose of reforming the present system. The author fears, however, that this Bill will not reduce the complexity of present regulations and will be unable to reach the object sought which is to reduce the length of the procedure; he analyses the technical and political reasons underlying this situation, and in particular the role of the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (NEA) [fr

  10. TMI-related requirements for new operating licenses. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    There are four types of TMI-related requirements and actions approved by the Commission for new operating licenses: (1) those required to be completed by a license applicant prior to receiving a fuel-loading and low-power testing license, (2) those required to be completed by a license applicant prior to receiving a license to operate at appreciable power levels up to full power, (3) those the NRC will take prior to issuing a fuel-loading and low-power testing or a full-power operating license, and (4) those required to be completed by a licensee prior to a specified date. In this report, only those dated requirements that have already been issued are of interest. Other dated requirements are expected to be issued in the future as work progresses in accordance with the TMI Action Plan. This report summarizes the several parts of the list of TMI-related requirements approved by the Commission for new operating licenses

  11. 75 FR 52456 - Customs Broker License Examination Individual Eligibility Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 111 [USCBP-2008-0059; CBP Dec. 10-28] RIN 1651-AA74 Customs Broker License Examination Individual Eligibility Requirements AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Final rule...

  12. HTR-PM Safety requirement and Licensing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Zhang Zuoyi; Dong Yujie; Wu Zongxin; Sun Yuliang

    2014-01-01

    HTR-PM is a 200MWe modular pebble bed high temperature reactor demonstration plant which is being built in Shidao Bay, Weihai, Shandong, China. The main design parameters of HTR-PM were fixed in 2006, the basic design was completed in 2008. The review of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) of HTR-PM was started in April 2008, completed in September 2009. In general, HTR- PM design complies with the current safety requirement for nuclear power plant in China, no special standards are developed for modular HTR. Anyway, Chinese Nuclear Safety Authority, together with the designers, developed some dedicated design criteria for key systems and components and published the guideline for the review of safety analysis report of HTR-PM, based on the experiences from licensing of HTR-10 and new development of nuclear safety. The probabilistic safety goal for HTR-PM was also defined by the safety authority. The review of HTR-PM PSAR lasted for one and a half years, with 3 dialogues meetings and 8 topics meetings, with more than 2000 worksheets and answer sheets. The heavily discussed topics during the PSAR review process included: the requirement for the sub-atmospheric ventilation system, the utilization of PSA in design process, the scope of beyond design basis accidents, the requirement for the qualification of TRISO coating particle fuel, and etc. Because of the characteristics of first of a kind for the demonstration plant, the safety authority emphasized the requirement for the experiment and validation, the PSAR was licensed with certain licensing conditions. The whole licensing process was under control, and was re-evaluated again after Fukushima accident to be shown that the design of HTR-PM complies with current safety requirement. This is a good example for how to license a new reactor. (author)

  13. Nuclear safety requirements for operation licensing of Egyptian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    From the view of responsibility for health and nuclear safety, this work creates a framework for the application of nuclear regulatory rules to ensure safe operation for the sake of obtaining or maintaining operation licensing for nuclear research reactors. It has been performed according to the recommendations of the IAEA for research reactor safety regulations which clearly states that the scope of the application should include all research reactors being designed, constructed, commissioned, operated, modified or decommissioned. From that concept, the present work establishes a model structure and a computer logic program for a regulatory licensing system (RLS code). It applies both the regulatory inspection and enforcement regulatory rules on the different licensing process stages. The present established RLS code is then applied to the Egyptian Research Reactors, namely; the first ET-RR-1, which was constructed and still operating since 1961, and the second MPR research reactor (ET-RR-2) which is now in the preliminary operation stage. The results showed that for the ET-RR-1 reactor, all operational activities, including maintenance, in-service inspection, renewal, modification and experiments should meet the appropriate regulatory compliance action program. Also, the results showed that for the new MPR research reactor (ET-RR-2), all commissioning and operational stages should also meet the regulatory inspection and enforcement action program of the operational licensing safety requirements. (author)

  14. Compliance with NRC subsystem requirements in the repository licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minwalla, H.

    1994-01-01

    Section 121 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Commission) to issue technical requirements and criteria, for the use of a system of multiple barriers in the design of the repository, that are not inconsistent with any comparable standard promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Administrator of the EPA is required to promulgate generally applicable standards for protection of the general environment from offsite releases from radioactive material in repositories. The Commission's regulations pertaining to geologic repositories are provided in 10 CFR part 60. The Commission has provided in 10 CFR 60.112 the overall post-closure system performance objective which is used to demonstrate compliance with the EPA high-level waste (HLW) disposal standard. In addition, the Commission has provided, in 10 CFR 60.113, subsystem performance requirements for substantially complete containment, fractional release rate, and groundwater travel time; however, none of these subsystem performance requirements have a causal technical nexus with the EPA HLW disposal standard. This paper examines the issue of compliance with the conflicting dual regulatory role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process and recommends several approaches that would appropriately define the role of subsystem performance requirements in the repository licensing process

  15. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State...

  16. 47 CFR 97.5 - Station license required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (3) A military recreation station license grant. A military recreation station license grant may be... States military recreational premises where the station is situated. The person must not be a... the balance of the license term and the suspension is still in effect, suspended for the balance of...

  17. 21 CFR 558.4 - Requirement of a medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement of a medicated feed mill license. 558... Provisions § 558.4 Requirement of a medicated feed mill license. (a) A feed manufacturing facility must possess a medicated feed mill license in order to manufacture a Type B or Type C medicated feed from a...

  18. Application and licensing requirements of the Framatome ANP RLBLOCA methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.P.; Dunn, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Framatome ANP Realistic Large-Break LOCA methodology (FANP RLBLOCA) is an analysis approach approved by the US NRC for supporting the licensing basis of 3- and 4-loop Westinghouse PWRs and CE 2x4 PWRs. It was developed consistent with the NRC's Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology for performing best-estimate large-break LOCAs. The CSAU methodology consists of three key elements with the second and third element addressing uncertainty identification and application. Unique to the CSAU methodology is the use of engineering judgment and the Process Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) defined in the first element to lay the groundwork for achieving the ultimate goal of quantifying the total uncertainty in predicted measures of interest associated with the large-break LOCA. It is the PIRT that not only directs the methodology development, but also directs the methodology review. While the FANP RLBLOCA methodology was generically approved, a plant-specific application is customized in two ways addressing how the unique plant characterization 1) is translated to code input and 2) relates to the unique methodology licensing requirements. Related to the former, plants are required by 10 CFR 50.36 to define a technical specification limiting condition for operation based on the following criteria: 1. Installed instrumentation that is used in the control room to detect, and indicate, a significant abnormal degradation of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. 2. A process variable, design feature, or operating restriction that is an initial condition of a design basis accident or transient analysis that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a fission product barrier. 3. A structure, system, or component that is part of the primary success path and which functions or actuates to mitigate a design basis accident or transient that either assumes the failure of or presents a challenge to the integrity of a

  19. U.S. regulatory requirements for nuclear plant license renewal: The B and W Owners Group License Renewal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, Deborah K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the current U.S. Regulatory Requirements for License Renewal and describes the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group (B and WOG) Generic License Renewal Program (GLRP). The B and W owners, recognizing the need to obtain the maximum life for their nuclear generating units, embarked on a program to renew the licenses of the seven reactors in accordance with the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and further defined by Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 54 (10 CFR 54). These reactors, owned by five separate utilities, are Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) ranging in net rated capacity from approximately 800 to 900 MW. The plants, predominately constructed in the 70s, have USNRC Operating Licenses that expire between 2013 to 2017. (author)

  20. 47 CFR 80.13 - Station license required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signals using a marine radio operating in the 156-162 MHz band, any type of AIS, any type of EPIRB, and any type of radar installation. All other transmissions must be authorized under a ship station... paragraph (c) of this section, stations in the maritime service must be licensed by the FCC either...

  1. Safety and licensing requirements in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, D.M.; Langford, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    The principles for licensing of nuclear installations in South Africa are based on the control of mortality risk to the operators of an installation and the population resident in the vicinity of the site. This paper describes the development of this safety philosophy, and the nuclear licensing process used in this country. The structure of the nuclear regulatory function is briefly described, including the respective roles of the Atomic Energy Corporation, Licencing Branch and the Council for Nuclear Safety. The development of risk criteria and quantitative release magnitude-probability criteria for radioactive material is outlined. Tasks that have to be undertaken by a potential waste disposal site licensee before a site licence is issued are described. Once the facility is commissioned periodic monitoring procedures will have to be adopted throughout the lifetime of the facility. The scope of typical monitoring activities is outlined and the ongoing analyses to be performed and the records to be kept are discussed

  2. Nuclear fuel licensing requirements: present status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, T.; Vitkova, M.; Gorinov, I.; Datcheva, D.; Rashkova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear fuel licensing process must be directed to establishing of criteria for licensing (fuel safety criteria) and relationship between safety limits, technical specifications and operational conditions. This paper discusses the fuel safety criteria as used by NRC and Russian vendor. A survey on the available fuel behavior, modeling and related computer codes is given with respect to help the licensing process including new safety features of general changes in fuel design and operational conditions. Several types of computer codes that are used in safety analysis are sensitive to fuel-related parameters. The need for further code development and verification has been stated on many occasions: new design elements, such as different cladding materials, higher burnup, different fuel microstructure and use of MOX fuel can affect the performance of these codes. Regulatory inspection practices during operation and refueling in different countries are also shown. Future trends are discussed in particular with regard to the coming high burnup and to new core management schemes

  3. Licensing requirements for nuclear merchant ships in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure of approval in the Federal Republic of Germany will be discussed, referring to the participated authorities and organizations. Rules and guidelines relevant for licensing are mentioned in the frame of legal positions. After presentation of general aspects of basic licensing requirements more detailed information is given relative to their accomplishment demonstrated on the German Nuclear Contained Ship NCS-80-Project

  4. Adaptive evolutionary walks require neutral intermediates in RNA fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    In RNA fitness landscapes with interconnected networks of neutral mutations, neutral precursor mutations can play an important role in facilitating the accessibility of epistatic adaptive mutant combinations. I use an exhaustively surveyed fitness landscape model based on short sequence RNA genotypes (and their secondary structure phenotypes) to calculate the minimum rate at which mutants initially appearing as neutral are incorporated into an adaptive evolutionary walk. I show first, that incorporating neutral mutations significantly increases the number of point mutations in a given evolutionary walk when compared to estimates from previous adaptive walk models. Second, that incorporating neutral mutants into such a walk significantly increases the final fitness encountered on that walk - indeed evolutionary walks including neutral steps often reach the global optimum in this model. Third, and perhaps most importantly, evolutionary paths of this kind are often extremely winding in their nature and have the potential to undergo multiple mutations at a given sequence position within a single walk; the potential of these winding paths to mislead phylogenetic reconstruction is briefly considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 10 CFR 32.26 - Gas and aerosol detectors containing byproduct material: Requirements for license to manufacture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer. 32.26 Section 32.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS... byproduct material: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer. An...

  6. New Jersey's license plate decal requirement for graduated driver licenses: attitudes of parents and teenagers, observed decal use, and citations for teenage driving violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Oesch, Nathan J; Williams, Allan F; Powell, Tara Casanova

    2013-01-01

    On May 1, 2010, New Jersey implemented a law requiring teenagers with learner's permits or probationary licenses to display reflective decals on the front and rear license plates when they drive. The current study examined attitudes of parents and teenagers toward this requirement, use of decals, and reported violations and police enforcement of the graduated driver license law. Statewide telephone surveys of representative samples of parents and teenagers were conducted in February to April 2010 and March to June 2011. Use of decals among probationary license holders was observed at 4 high schools in fall 2010 and in spring 2011 and hand-out surveys were distributed. Data on citations issued for violations of the graduated driver license law were obtained. When interviewed in spring 2011, a large majority of parents of probationary license holders, parents of learner's permit holders, and teenagers with probationary licenses disapproved of decals for probationary licenses. About two thirds of both sets of parents and about half of teenagers disapproved of decals for learner's permits. Support for decals for both license types declined significantly from 2010 to 2011. For parents and teenagers alike, opposition was mainly attributed to concern about identifying and/or targeting teenage drivers by other drivers, predators, or police. In 2011, 77 percent of parents of probationary license holders said that their teenagers had decals for the vehicles driven most often; 46 percent said their teenagers always used decals. Fifty-six percent of parents of learner's permit holders said that their teenagers had decals for the vehicles driven most often; 37 percent said that their teenagers always used decals. Teenagers' reported violations of license restrictions either increased or were similar in 2011 compared to 2010. Observed rates of decal use by probationary license holders at high schools in spring 2011 ranged from 24 to 64 percent. The number of statewide citations

  7. 10 CFR 32.61 - Ice detection devices containing strontium-90; requirements for license to manufacture or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.61 Section 32.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL... manufacture or initially transfer. An application for a specific license to manufacture or initially transfer...

  8. Licensing requirements for initial commissioning programs in Spain: Application to different PWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munuera, A.; Conde, J.M.; Martinez, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the overall licensing process in Spain, focusing on the initial commissioning requirements. The significance of this part of the regulatory work is evident both from the licensing and the licensee's points of view. Licensing in Spain is ruled by different laws which determine the general requirements and fix the licensing frame. Being a nuclear technology importer country, the base of the regulatory work lies on the rules and regulations of the country of origin of the planet, with the addition of case specific requirements. The application of this methodology to plants designed in different countries produces licensing processes which are similar to the overall, but very different in its development. It also means a special technical effort on the part of the regulatory body to cope with the problems arising from the use of different technologies and safety standards. The start-up programs from fuel loading to full power of a Westinghouse plant (Vandellos 2) and a Siemens-KWU plant (Trillo 1) are compared from the technical point of view, enhancing the differences that can be relevant for the regulatory work. The difficulties arising from the application of both the German and US concepts are discussed. (orig.)

  9. 12 CFR 14.60 - Qualification and licensing requirements for insurance sales personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification and licensing requirements for insurance sales personnel. 14.60 Section 14.60 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... insurance product or annuity in any part of its office or on its behalf, unless the person is at all times...

  10. Origin Licensing Requires ATP Binding and Hydrolysis by the MCM Replicative Helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Gideon; Frigola, Jordi; Beuron, Fabienne; Morris, Edward P.; Diffley, John F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loading of the six related Minichromosome Maintenance (MCM) proteins as head-to-head double hexamers during DNA replication origin licensing is crucial for ensuring once-per-cell-cycle DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Assembly of these prereplicative complexes (pre-RCs) requires the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), Cdc6, and Cdt1. ORC, Cdc6, and MCM are members of the AAA+ family of ATPases, and pre-RC assembly requires ATP hydrolysis. Here we show that ORC and Cdc6 mutants defective in ATP hydrolysis are competent for origin licensing. However, ATP hydrolysis by Cdc6 is required to release nonproductive licensing intermediates. We show that ATP binding stabilizes the wild-type MCM hexamer. Moreover, by analyzing MCM containing mutant subunits, we show that ATP binding and hydrolysis by MCM are required for Cdt1 release and double hexamer formation. This work alters our view of how ATP is used by licensing factors to assemble pre-RCs. PMID:25087873

  11. 77 FR 3386 - Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and Millimeter Wave Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' power amplifiers that meet certain criteria with respect to... packaged microwave ``monolithic integrated circuits'' (MMIC) power amplifiers that meet certain criteria.... 110825537-2038-02] RIN 0694-AF38 Export and Reexport License Requirements for Certain Microwave and...

  12. 15 CFR 738.4 - Determining whether a license is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining whether a license is required. 738.4 Section 738.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  13. Impact of New Radiation Safety Standards on Licensing Requirements of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.; Subasic, D.; Valcic, I.

    1996-01-01

    As the outcomes of the newly introduced safety philosophies, new and more strict safety design requirements for nuclear installation are expected to be introduced. New in-depth defence measures should be incorporated into the design and operation procedure for a nuclear installation, to compensate for potential failures in protection or safety measures. The new requirements will also apply to licensing of NPP's operation as well as to licensing of nuclear sites, especially for radioactive waste disposal sites. This paper intends to give an overview of possible impacts of new internationally agreed basic safety standards with respect to NPP and related technologies. Recently issued new basic safety standards for radiation protection are introducing some new safety principles which may have essential impact on future licensing requirements regarding nuclear power plants and radioactive waste installations. These new standards recognize exposures under normal conditions ('practices') and intervention conditions. The term interventions describes the human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure or existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice. The other new development in safety standards is the introduction of so called potential exposure based on the experience gained from a number of radiation accidents. This exposure is not expected to be delivered with certainty but it may result from an accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors. (author)

  14. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  15. Meeting United States re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection using innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P.; Winchell, F.C.; Cook, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    Procedure for meeting re-licensing requirements related to environmental protection and an overview of several new and emerging technologies regarding the development of ways to prevent fish passage through hydraulic turbines at hydroelectric power dams is described. Fish mortality and injury has long been a concern in the hydroelectric industry and research and development efforts have been ongoing since the 1970s to prevent fish passage through turbines. Several new and emerging technologies are examined that have the potential for wide-spread cost-effective applications

  16. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Kugel; H. Neilson; W. Reiersen; M. Zarnstorff

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M[Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  17. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Neilson, H.; Reiersen, W.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  18. Licensing evaluation of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants relative to U.S. regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1978-01-01

    Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. U.S. regulatory requirements are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to current Regulatory Requirements and Guides. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S. These modifications are proposed solely for the purpose of maintaining consistency within the current U.S. regulatory system and not out of a need to improve the safety of current-design CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants. A number of issues are identified which still require resolution. Most of these issues are concerned with design areas not (yet) covered by the ASME code. (author)

  19. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J D

    1976-04-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria.

  20. Survey of extreme load design regulatory agency licensing requirements for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1965, when extreme load requirements began to be considered explicitly in nuclear power plant design, there has been a gradual divergence in requirements imposed by national regulatory agencies. However, nuclear plant safety is an international problem because of the potential international effects of any postulated plant failure. For this reason this paper has been prepared in an attempt to highlight the differences in national criteria currently used in the extreme load design of nuclear plant facilities. No attempt has been made to evaluate the relative merit of the criteria established by the various national regulatory agencies. This paper presents the results of a recent survey made of national atomic energy regulatory agencies and major nuclear steam supply design agencies, which requested a summary of current licensing criteria associated with earthquake, extreme wind (tornado), flood, airplane crash and accident (pipe break) loads applicable within the various national jurisdictions. Also presented are a number of comparisons which are meant to illustrate the differences in national regulatory criteria. (Auth.)

  1. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New entrant registration driver's license and drug...

  2. Main features of licensing requirements for nuclear installations in several OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper contains a brief description of the main features of the above-mentioned six countries' licensing systems, namely the legal regime applicable, the appropriate licensing bodies, the general frame and scope of the respective national regimes, the involvement of the public and technical safety bodies as well as the inspection procedures. This description is supplemented by some introductory remarks. (orig.) [de

  3. Main features of licensing requirements for nuclear installations in several OECD member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper contains a brief description of the main features of the above-mentioned six countries' licensing systems, namely the legal regime applicable, the appropriate licensing bodies, the general frame and scope of the respective national regimes, the involvement of the public and technical safety bodies as well as the inspection procedures. This description is supplemented by some introductory remarks. (orig.) [de

  4. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  5. Neutral beam energy and power requirements for expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1979-09-01

    Natural beam power and energy requirements are compared for full density full bore and expanding radius startup scenarios in an elongated plasma, The Next Step (TNS), as a function of beam pulse time and plasma density. Because of the similarity of parameters, the results should also be applicable to Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) studies. A transport model consisting of neoclassical ion conduction and anomalous electron conduction and diffusion based on ALCATOR scaling leads to average densities in the range approx. 0.8 to 1.2 x 10 14 cm -3 being sufficient for ignition. Neutral deuterium beam energies in the range 120 to 180 keV are adequate for penetration, with the required power injected into the plasma decreasing with increasing beam energy. The neutral beam power decreases strongly with increasing beam pulse length b/sub b/ until t/sub b/ exceeds a few total energy confinement times, yielding b/sub b/ approx. = 4 to 6 s for the TNS plasma

  6. Neutral-beam requirements for compression-boosted ignited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L.; Kreischer, K.

    1977-12-01

    Neutral-beam energies of 200 to 500-keV D 0 may be required to insure adequate penetration into the center of ignition-sized tokamak plasmas. However, the beam energy requirement can be reduced by using a start-up scenario in which the final plasma is formed by major-radius compression of a beam-heated plasma whose density-radius product, na, is determined by satisfactory neutral-beam penetration. ''Compression boosting'' is attractive only for plasmas in which ntau/sub E/ increases with na, because a major-radius compression C increases na by C 3 / 2 . The dependence on C of beam energy and beam power for plasmas which obey ''empirical scaling laws'' of the type ntau/sub E/ varies as (na) 2 is analyzed. The dependences on C of stored magnetic energy and TF-coil power dissipation are also determined. It is found that a compression ratio of 1.5 to attain the ignited plasma permits adequate penetration by 150-keV D 0 beams

  7. [Radiation protection in medical research : Licensing requirement for the use of radiation and advice for the application procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, V; Klammer, H; Brix, G

    2017-07-01

    In Germany, persons who are to be exposed to radiation for medical research purposes are protected by a licensing requirement. However, there are considerable uncertainties on the part of the applicants as to whether licensing by the competent Federal Office for Radiation Protection is necessary, and regarding the choice of application procedure. The article provides explanatory notes and practical assistance for applicants and an outlook on the forthcoming new regulations concerning the law on radiation protection of persons in the field of medical research. Questions and typical mistakes in the application process were identified and evaluated. The qualified physicians involved in a study are responsible for deciding whether a license is required for the intended application of radiation. The decision can be guided by answering the key question whether the study participants would undergo the same exposures regarding type and extent if they had not taken part in the study. When physicians are still unsure about their decision, they can seek the advisory service provided by the professional medical societies. Certain groups of people are particularly protected through the prohibition or restriction of radiation exposure. A simplified licensing procedure is used for a proportion of diagnostic procedures involving radiation when all related requirements are met; otherwise, the regular licensing procedure should be used. The new radiation protection law, which will enter into force on the 31st of december 2018, provides a notification procedure in addition to deadlines for both the notification and the licensing procedures. In the article, the authors consider how eligible studies involving applications of radiation that are legally not admissible at present may be feasible in the future, while still ensuring a high protection level for study participants.

  8. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for... Union. (d) Earth station applicants requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S.-licensed space... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  9. 47 CFR 25.262 - Licensing and domestic coordination requirements for 17/24 GHz BSS space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing and domestic coordination requirements for 17/24 GHz BSS space stations. 25.262 Section 25.262 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.262...

  10. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer such...

  11. The Atomic Energy Control Board requirements for the radioisotope licensing of a radiopharmaceutical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.

    1980-01-01

    Items that must be addressed by an applicant for a radioisotope license in Canada are described. Site, design and operating conditions, safety assessment, organization, emergency procedures and operating policies and procedures must be described to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), in support of any license application. All information submitted in support of the application is subject to AECB's policy on public access to that information. (OT)

  12. Shutdown requirements in licensing of research reactors and consequences for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Stein, J.

    1983-01-01

    Most countries start their nuclear life with the setup of a research reactor. Most countries have at this time no licensing authority established which can act on existing laws, rules and regulations. Thus, most countries have during this starting phase to rely on the regulations fixed by international institutions such as the IAEA (or by national institutions as the former NRC in US, which happens to take place more often from reasons below). This implies a specific responsibility for international regulations since they have to be very clear and unique. Moreover they have to be applicable to all plants they are set forth for and they have to give no unavoidable restrictions on the use of the plant. Additionally some recheck of the rules based on national rules in forth will be of help. The enrichment reduction for research reactors gave frequent cause to look at the existing IAEA-publications for research reactors. They are laid down in the safety series no. 35 edited 1971. I will only discuss here specific parts of these considerations or requirements. Since the authors' personal impressions are that the published considerations are neither that clear nor that less restrictive as necessary the subsequent discussion is carried out. One of the confusing points of the existing IAEA-regulations is the lengthy discussion of reactivity considerations for critical assemblies first, no similar separate discussion for research reactors and a second discussion titled 'control-rod considerations' under the main title 'considerations applying to critical assemblies and research reactor'. This discussion will be restricted to the latter since the critical assemblies with their timely Constance of maximum excess reactivity do not present any problem for all shut-down conditions

  13. 10 CFR 40.34 - Special requirements for issuance of specific licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... license to manufacture industrial products and devices containing depleted uranium, or to initially....32; (2) The applicant submits sufficient information relating to the design, manufacture, prototype... industrial product or device to provide reasonable assurance that possession, use, or transfer of the...

  14. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Driver's license or identification card number. This cannot be the individual's SSN, and must be unique... University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7, e-mail: [email protected] You may inspect a copy of the...

  15. International vision requirements for driver licensing and disability pensions: using a milestone approach in characterization of progressive eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain M Bron

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alain M Bron1, Ananth C Viswanathan2, Ulrich Thelen3, Renato de Natale4, Antonio Ferreras5, Jens Gundgaard6, Gail Schwartz7, Patricia Buchholz81Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Glaucoma Research Unit, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Department of Genetics, University College of London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 3Private Practice, Munster, Germany; 4Ospedale Civile di Monselice, Monselice, Italy; 5Ophthalmology, Miguel Servet University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain; 6COWI, Kolding, Denmark; 7Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Glaucoma Consultants, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Patricia Buchholz Consulting, Karlsruhe, GermanyObjective: Low vision that causes forfeiture of driver’s licenses and collection of disability pension benefits can lead to negative psychosocial and economic consequences. The purpose of this study was to review the requirements for holding a driver’s license and rules for obtaining a disability pension due to low vision. Results highlight the possibility of using a milestone approach to describe progressive eye disease.Methods: Government and research reports, websites, and journal articles were evaluated to review rules and requirements in Germany, Spain, Italy, France, the UK, and the US.Results: Visual acuity limits are present in all driver’s license regulations. In most countries, the visual acuity limit is 0.5. Visual field limits are included in some driver’s license regulations. In Europe, binocular visual field requirements typically follow the European Union standard of ≥120°. In the US, the visual field requirements are typically between 110° and 140°. Some countries distinguish between being partially sighted and blind in the definition of legal blindness, and in others there is only one limit.Conclusions: Loss of driving privileges could be used as a milestone to monitor progressive eye disease. Forfeiture could be standardized as a

  16. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented

  17. Testing, licensing, and code requirements for seismic isolation systems (for nuclear power plants)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of seismic isolation as an earthquake hazard mitigation strategy for nuclear reactor power plants is rapidly receiving interest throughout the world. Seismic isolation has already been used on at least two French PWR plants, was to have been used for plants to be built in Iran, and is under serious consideration for advanced LMR plants (in the US, UK, France, and Japan). In addition, there is a growing use of seismic isolation throughout the world for other critical facilities such as hospitals, emergency facilities, buildings with very high-cost equipment (e.g., computers) and as a strategy to reduce loss of life and expensive equipment in earthquakes. Such a design approach is in complete contrast to the conventional seismic design strategy in which the structure and components are provided with sufficient strength and ductility to resist the earthquake forces and to prevent structural collapses or failure. The use of seismic isolation for nuclear plants can, therefore, be expected to be a significant licensing issue. For isolation, the licensing process must shift away in large measure from the superstructure and concentrate on the behavior of the seismic isolation system. This paper is not intended to promote the advantages of seismic isolation system, but to explore in some detail those technical issues which must be satisfactorily addressed to achieve full licensability of the use of seismic isolation as a viable, attractive and economical alternative to current traditional design approaches. Special problems and topics associated with testing and codes and standards development are addressed. A positive program for approach or strategy to secure licensing is presented.

  18. Compliance of the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility to a frequency-magnitude release criterion as required for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.W.W.; Gerber, H.H.; Kruger, J.; Weygand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Accidental releases of radioactivity from the Vaalputs nuclear waste repository have been quantified and release frequencies have been attached to a number of accident scenarios of human or natural origin. These have then been compared to a frequency-magnitude release criterion according to South African licensing requirements. It was shown that the criterion was applicable in three release bands. In two of these the criterion was met by some orders of magnitude. In the third band the permitted release frequency was a factor 55 below the limit in spite of pessimistic release assumptions

  19. Guidelines to implement the license renewal technical requirements of 10CFR54 for integrated plant assessments and time-limited aging analyses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, G.; Philpot, L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the initial results of the Nuclear Energy Institute License Renewal Implementation Guideline Task Force over the period August 1994 to July 1995 to develop guidance for complying with technical requirements of 10CFR54. The report also provided a starting point for the development of NEI 95-10, ''Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10CCR54-The License Renewal Rule''. Information in this document can be used by utilities to prepare the technical material needed in an application for license renewal (LR) of a nuclear power unit. This guideline provides methods for identifying systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and their intended functions within the scope of license renewal. It identifies structures and components (SCs) requiring aging management review and methods for performing the aging management review. The guideline provides a process for identifying and evaluating time-limited aging analyses

  20. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  1. Welding for fusion grade neutral beam components - requirements, challenges, experiences and learnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Jaydeep; Patel, Hitesh; Yadav, Ashish; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Negative ion based Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are the integral part of large size fusion devices where Neutral Beams of Hydrogen/Deuterium atoms are injected into the fusion reactor to heat the plasma, drive a plasma current, provide fuel to the plasma and also help to diagnose the plasma through spectroscopic measurements. The presentation shares the experiences of handling, some of special welding activities applicable for fusion prototypes developments, experiments, methodology developed for the inspection/tests, criteria considered with the appropriate justifications. This also shares the view point of authors code should further be supplement and incorporate the fusion specific applications considering future needs. In addition, explorations to meet our future needs of welding with specific attention to indigenous developments have been described

  2. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  3. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Federal Register. A copy of the material is available for inspection at the NRC Library, 11545... vital area shall be alarmed. (e) Communication requirements. (1) Each guard or watchman on duty shall be capable of maintaining continuous communication with an individual in a continuously manned central alarm...

  4. Licensing requirements regarding the qualification of operating personnel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The legal requirements regarding the qualifications of operating personnel in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are outlined as in article 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. For the responsible operating personnel the requisite competence and reliability are legally required; for subordinate personnel the law requires only the necessary knowledge. The requisite competence and the necessary knowledge have been further specified in a set of guidelines by the authorities; work on specification of reliability requirements is under way. Essential elements of the requisite competence of responsible operating personnel are their professional qualification, their safety-related knowledge, their abilities, their practical experience, and - for the responsible shift personnel - their nuclear, plant-related training as well as a written and oral examination. Requalification is indispensible for keeping the requisite competence on a level in accordance with the current state of science and technology. Facts concerning the personal reliability of the responsible operating personnel are assessed by the competent authorities on the basis of information available at other state institutions. For the responsible shift personnel, physical and psychological fitness are important factors contributing to their reliability. The necessary knowledge subordinate operating personnel must possess with respect to plant safety and safety of the personnel is assured via instruction on safety and via special briefings at the working place. Lack of safety-related knowledge has to be compensated for by assigning an experienced permanent supervisor for each activity in question. Current work on qualification of operating personnel concentrates on training, including simulator training, of responsible shift personnel. (author)

  5. Complement-mediated neutralization of dengue virus requires mannose-binding lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avirutnan, Panisadee; Hauhart, Richard E; Marovich, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    -dependent activation of the complement cascade neutralized insect cell-derived West Nile virus (WNV) in cell culture and restricted pathogenesis in mice. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of MBL in infection by dengue virus (DENV), a related flavivirus. Using a panel of naïve sera from mouse strains...... with lower levels. Our studies suggest that allelic variation of MBL in humans may impact complement-dependent control of DENV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus that causes a spectrum of clinical disease in humans ranging from subclinical infection to dengue...... hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Four serotypes of DENV exist, and severe illness is usually associated with secondary infection by a different serotype. Here, we show that mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition molecule that initiates the lectin pathway of complement activation...

  6. Working group report on the required atomic database for neutral hydrogen beam penetration in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.; Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the required atomic database for the physical processes involved in the beam attenuation kinetics, when multistep processes are included, i.e., electron and proton impact processes, impurity-ion impact processes, radiative processes, as well as Lorentz field ionization. It also discusses the required accuracies of different parts of the data base in order to achieve the overall accuracy of about 10 percent that is required for the total beam stopping power cross section. 3 refs

  7. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  8. Nuclear reactor operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which was amended in 1974 by the Energy Reorganization Act, established the requirement that individuals who had the responsibility of operating the reactors in nuclear power plants must be licensed. Section 107 of the act states ''the Commission shall (1) prescribe uniform conditions for licensing individuals; (2) determine the qualifications of such individuals; and (3) issue licenses to such individuals in such form as the Commission may prescribe.'' The article discusses the types of licenses, the selection and training of individuals, and the administration of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing examinations

  9. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  10. ITER licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    ITER was fortunate to have four countries interested in ITER siting to the point where licensing discussions were initiated. This experience uncovered the challenges of licensing a first of a kind, fusion machine under different licensing regimes and helped prepare the way for the site specific licensing process. These initial steps in licensing ITER have allowed for refining the safety case and provide confidence that the design and safety approach will be licensable. With site-specific licensing underway, the necessary regulatory submissions have been defined and are well on the way to being completed. Of course, there is still work to be done and details to be sorted out. However, the informal international discussions to bring both the proponent and regulatory authority up to a common level of understanding have laid the foundation for a licensing process that should proceed smoothly. This paper provides observations from the perspective of the International Team. (author)

  11. 18 CFR 16.10 - Information to be provided by an applicant for new license: Filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL POWER ACT PROCEDURES RELATING TO TAKEOVER AND RELICENSING OF LICENSED PROJECTS Applications for... redistribution of power flows on line loading (with respect to applicable thermal, voltage, or stability limits... governmental agencies and subdivisions likely to be interested in or affected by the proposed expansion. (11...

  12. Review of the first partial licence for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor on the basis of the licensing requirements under nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.; Wimmer, J.

    1990-11-01

    The expert opinion is restricted in the main to the licensing requirements in connection with the latest state-of-the-art precautionary measures against damage, i.e. subsection 3 of paragraph 7 section 2 Atomic Energy Act. Subject of the evaluations regarding the required new scope of licensing were the cancelled first partial licence, subsequent partial licences, the TUEV (Technical Control Board) expert opinion, the safety report with its continuations as well as the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court in Koblenz and the Federal Administrative Court. For determining the state-of-the-art, the expert opinion refers to the valid body of regulations, the latest concepts for PWRs in particular in the Federal Republic of Germany, and more recent results in reactor safety research. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  14. Site Specific Vendor's License

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains information of a site-specific vendor's license which is required if an individual sells or offers to sell goods or services from a stationary...

  15. The SLOWPOKE licensing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, V. G.; Takats, F.; Szivos, K.

    1989-08-15

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System (SES-10) is a 10 MW heating reactor that has been developed in Canada. It will be capable of running without a licensed operator in continuous attendance, and will be sited in urban areas. It has forgiving safety characteristics, including transient time-scales of the order of hours. A process called `up-front` licensing has been evolved in Canada to identify, and resolve, regulatory concerns early in the process. Because of the potential market in Hungary for nuclear district heating, a licensing plan has been developed that incorporates Canadian licensing experience, identifies specific Hungarian requirements, and reduces the risk of licensing delays by seeking agreement of all parties at an early stage in the program.

  16. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  17. Contestable Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zvika Neeman; Gerhard O. Orosel

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a model of repeated franchise bidding for natural monopoly with contestable licensing - a franchisee halds an (exclusive) license to operate a franchise until another rm offers to pay more for it. In a world where quality is observable but not veri able, the simple regulatory scheme we describe combines market-like incentives with regulatory oversight to generate efficient outcomes.

  18. Radiopharmaceutical licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent health service legislation, and especially the loss of crown immunity has once again focussed attention on the arrangements for licensing of radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of the article is to describe in general terms the UK licensing system and in particular to provide guidance to those responsible for the supply of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. (author)

  19. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  20. Final environmental statement concerning rule making. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60. Docket No. PRM 30-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts and adverse environmental effects from distribution, use only in commercial-sized oil burners, and disposal of 6000 spark-gap irradiators per year that contain 60 Co are summarized. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this statement and after weighing the environmental, economic, technical, and other benefits against environmental costs and after considering available alternatives, it is concluded that the action called for under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 is the issuance of an exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain 60 Co, subject to the following conditions for the protection of the environment: persons who apply 60 Co to, or persons who incorporate 60 Co into, spark-gap irradiators or persons who import for sale or distribution spark-gap irradiators containing 60 Co are not exempt from the requirements for a license; each spark-gap irradiator shall contain no more than 1 μCi of 60 Co; and the 60 Co shall be applied to the spark-gap irradiators for use in electrically ignited fuel-oil burners having a firing rate of at least 3 gal/h

  1. 22 CFR 96.30 - State licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.30 State licensing. (a) The agency or person is properly licensed or... person follows applicable State licensing and regulatory requirements in all jurisdictions in which it provides adoption services. (c) If it provides adoption services in a State in which it is not itself...

  2. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs), Generic Safety Issues(GSIs), and other Multiplant Actions (MPAs) that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  3. License to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Boccardelli, Paolo; Reichstein, Toke

    2016-01-01

    the technology. Drawing on a sample of 133 licensees and an equal number of matched nonlicensees, we present empirical evidence that thick contracts propel the licensees' likelihood of introducing new inventions. It is also found that thick contracts act as a substitute for licensees' absorptive capacity....... Licensees that are more familiar with the licensed technology are in less need of assistance from the licensors to assimilate and integrate the knowledge. However, this substitution effect is neutralized once the hurdle of invention has been overcome, meaning that the licensees have succeeded to ignite...... the invention process, suggesting the exploitation of the learning curve, triggered by their mutual understanding....

  4. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  5. Status of the U.S. nuclear option, conditions leading to its resurgence, and current licensing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidi, J.

    2007-01-01

    The projected increase in electricity demand, increased concern over emissions along with more stringent emission requirements, volatility of the gas and oil supplies and prices, and the convergence of favourable conditions and legislation make nuclear power a practical option for meeting future electricity base-load demands. (author)

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  7. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  8. Teacher License Reciprocity. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This policy report defines and provides a 50-state review of teacher license reciprocity, explores how state-specific licensing requirements impact the teacher labor market, and includes examples of national and state efforts to facilitate reciprocity.

  9. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  11. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  12. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  13. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  14. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  15. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  16. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  17. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  18. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues, other multiplant action issues. Supplement 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. Supplement 3 gives status as of September 30, 1993. This annual report, Supplement 4, presents updated information as of September 30, 1994. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  19. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  20. Software licenses: Stay honest!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you recall our article about copyright violation in the last issue of the CERN Bulletin, “Music, videos and the risk for CERN”? Now let’s be more precise. “Violating copyright” not only means the illegal download of music and videos, it also applies to software packages and applications.   Users must respect proprietary rights in compliance with the CERN Computing Rules (OC5). Not having legitimately obtained a program or the required licenses to run that software is not a minor offense. It violates CERN rules and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. Therefore, make sure that you have the right to use their software. In other words, you have bought the software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “Shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “Freeware” is complete...

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR is required to neutralize the cellular immune response in a Drosophila melanogaster oral infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefanie; Haller, Samantha; Drenkard, Eliana; Lee, Janice; Yu, Shen; Kocks, Christine; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of microbial infection necessitates a molecular dissection of host–pathogen relationships. Both Drosophila melanogaster and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been intensively studied. Here, we analyze the infection of D. melanogaster by P. aeruginosa by using mutants in both host and pathogen. We show that orally ingested P. aeruginosa crosses the intestinal barrier and then proliferates in the hemolymph, thereby causing the infected flies to die of bacteremia. Host defenses against ingested P. aeruginosa included an immune deficiency (IMD) response in the intestinal epithelium, systemic Toll and IMD pathway responses, and a cellular immune response controlling bacteria in the hemocoel. Although the observed cellular and intestinal immune responses appeared to act throughout the course of the infection, there was a late onset of the systemic IMD and Toll responses. In this oral infection model, P. aeruginosa PA14 did not require its type III secretion system or other well-studied virulence factors such as the two-component response regulator GacA or the protease AprA for virulence. In contrast, the quorum-sensing transcription factor RhlR, but surprisingly not LasR, played a key role in counteracting the cellular immune response against PA14, possibly at an early stage when only a few bacteria are present in the hemocoel. These results illustrate the power of studying infection from the dual perspective of host and pathogen by revealing that RhlR plays a more complex role during pathogenesis than previously appreciated. PMID:21987808

  2. Molecular cloning of the large subunit of the high-Ca2+-requiring form of human Ca2+-activated neutral protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imajoh, Shinobu; Aoki, Kazumasa; Ohno, Shigeo; Emori, Yasufumi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Hidemitsu; Suzuki, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    A nearly full-length cDNA clone for the large subunit of high-Ca 2+ -requiring Ca 2+ -activated neutral protease (mCANP) from human tissues has been isolated. The deduced protein, determined for the first time as an mCANP, has essentially the same structural features as those revealed previously for the large subunits of the low-Ca 2+ -requiring form (μCANP). Namely, the protein, comprising 700 amino acid residues, is characterized by four domains, containing a cysteine protease like domain and a Ca 2+ -binding domain. The overall amino acid sequence similarities of the mCANP large subunit with those of human μCANP and chicken CANP are 62% and 66%, respectively. These values are slightly lower than that observed between μCANP and chicken CANP (70%). Local sequence similarities vary with the domain, 73-78% in the cysteine protease like domain and 48-65% in the Ca 2+ -binding domain. These results suggest that CANPs with different Ca 2+ sensitivities share a common evolutionary origin and that their regulatory mechanisms are similar except for the Ca 2+ concentrations required for activation

  3. Licensing and supervision of nuclear facilities in Finland; Genehmigung und Aufsicht von nuklearen Anlagen in Finnland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksonen, J. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-01-01

    In Finland, the licensing process of all nuclear facilities is specified in the Nuclear Energy Act. The licensing procedure comprises three steps, each of which requires a decision by the government: basic decision, construction permit, and operating license. All licensing decisions are taken upon application to the Ministry of Trade and Industry. The Ministry invites comments and opinions on a broad basis and drafts a statement for the government. The basic decision by the government is political, pre-supposing a positive statement by the Central Office for Nuclear Safety (STUK) and a positive decision by the local government of the planned plant location. The construction permit and the operating license are mainly based on points of nuclear safety. STUK is the independent nuclear supervisory agency with administrative powers; its staff has the technical and scientific competence required for safety assessments and for supervision. STUK operates under the supervision of the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health which, to demonstrate its independence, has no duties in the energy sector and, in addition, supervises STUK in administrative matters, not in scientific and technical decisions. Internal rules of STUK ensure neutrality also of its staff in matters of energy policy. The activities of STUK as a supervisory and licensing authority in Finland are described in detail for the management of spent nuclear fuel and the new Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant currently under construction. (orig.)

  4. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  5. Department of Energy licensing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is authorized by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act) to site, design, construct, and operate mined geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes and is required to obtain licenses from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to achieve that mandate. To this end the DOE has developed a licensing approach which defines program strategies and which will facilitate and ease the licensing process. This paper will discuss the regulatory framework within which the repository program is conducted, the DOE licensing strategy, and the interactions between DOE and NRC in implementing the strategy. A licensing strategy is made necessary by the unique technical nature of the repository. Such a facility has never before been licensed; furthermore, the duration of isolation of waste demanded by the proposed EPA standard will require a degree of reliance on probabilistic performance assessment as proof of compliance that is a first of a kind for any industry. The licensing strategy is also made necessary by the complex interrelationships among the many involved governmental agencies and even within DOE itself, and because these relationships will change with time. Program activities which recognize these relationships are essential for implementing the Act. The guiding principle in this strategy is an overriding commitment to safeguarding public health and safety and to protecting the environment

  6. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that over the past few years considerable progress has been made in the field of weak interactions. The existence of neutral currents involving leptons and hadrons has been established and some of the questions concerning their detailed structure have been answered. This imposes constraints on the gauge theories and has eliminated large classes of models. New questions have also been raised, one of which concerns the conservation laws obeyed by neutral currents. The wide range of investigations is impressive and is expected to continue with new results from particle, nuclear, and atomic physics. Headings include - various aspects of a gauge theory (choice of group, the symmetry breaking scheme, representation assignments for fermion fields); space-time structure; isospin structure; leptonic neutral currents; and atomic experiments. (U.K.)

  7. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  8. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  9. License - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Gclust Server License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2009/09/14 You may use this database...scribed below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the r...equirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specif...icense. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Com...mons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, plea

  10. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  11. 2015 Business Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data displays all business license information for the year of 2015. This information details license classifications and status. This information will updated...

  12. Licensing and advanced fuel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, S.L.; Novendstern, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Westinghouse has been actively involved in the development and licensing of fuel designs that contain major advanced features. These designs include the optimized fuel assembly, The VANTAGE 5 fuel assembly, the VANTAGE 5H, and most recently the VANTAGE+ fuel assembly. Each of these designs was supported by extensive experimental data, safety evaluations, and design efforts and required intensive interaction with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the review and approval process. This paper presents a description of the licensing approach and how it was utilized by the utilities to facilitate the licensing applications of the advanced fuel designs for their plants. The licensing approach described in this paper has been successfully applied to four major advanced fuel design changes ∼40 plant-specific applications, and >350 cycle-specific reloads in the past 15 years

  13. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC's acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information

  14. Proposal for a technology-neutral safety approach for new reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    Many states are considering an expansion of their nuclear power generation programmes. Many of the technologies and concepts are new and innovative. The current design and licensing rules are applicable to mostly large water reactors and there are no accepted rules in place for design, safety assessment and licensing for new innovative nuclear power plants. This TECDOC proposes a (new) safety approach and a methodology to generate technology-neutral (i.e. independent of reactor technology) safety requirements and a 'safe design' for advanced and innovative reactors. The experience gained in decades of design and licensing, combined with the development of risk-based concepts, has provided insights that will form the basis for new safety rules and requirements. Many lessons learned acknowledge the importance of such concepts as safety goals and defence in depth and the benefits of integrating risk insights early in an iterative design process. A new safety approach will incorporate many of the new developments in these concepts. For example, the probabilistic elements of defence in depth will help define the cumulative provisions to compensate for uncertainty and incompleteness of our knowledge of accident initiation and progression. This TECDOC also identifies areas of work, which will require further definition, research and development and guidance on application. This publication is to be used as a guide to developing a new technology-neutral safety approach, and as a guide in the application of methodologies to define the safety requirements for an innovative reactor designs. The method proposes an integration of deterministic and probabilistic considerations with established principles and concepts such as safety goals and defence in depth. The TECDOC recommends that the structure of the new technology-neutral main pillars for the design and licensing of innovative nuclear reactors be developed following a top-down approach to reflect a newer risk-informed and

  15. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Di Pietro, E.; Bayetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  16. The role the safety analysis report and other documents in the licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Ballhaus, S.

    1975-01-01

    Legal requirements for the licensing procedure, requirements for and preparation of licensing documents, authorities and experts participating in the licensing procedure, course of the atomic licensing procedure e.g. application for construction and operation, public hearing, site and concept license, partial licenses. (HP) [de

  17. NUMARC view of license renewal criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and the implementing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) permit the renewal of nuclear plant operating licenses upon expiration of their 40-year license term. However, the regulatory process by which license renewal may be accomplished and the requirements for the scope and content of renewal applications are yet to be established. On August 29, 1988, the NRC published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding the subject of license renewal. This Advanced Notice and the NUREG which it references, NUREG-1317, Regulatory Options for Nuclear Plant License Renewal, provide the most recent regulatory thought on this issue. The basic issue addressed by NUREG-1317 is the definition of an adequate licensing basis for the renewal of a plant license. The report contemplates three alternatives in this regard. This paper discusses each of these three proposals. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working Group endorses a license renewal process based on a plant's current licensing basis along with an evaluation of the pertinent components, systems, and structures affected by age-related degradation. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working group believes that an appropriate scope for NRC review of the license renewal application should focus on those safety-significant structures systems, and components subject to significant age-related degradation that are not subject to existing recognized effective replacement, refurbishment, or inspection programs. The paper also briefly discusses NUMARC's view of the role of the Backfit Rule in the license renewal process

  18. Validation, acceptance and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The licensing process requires communication of complex scientific and technical information. In this paper transfer of such information is discussed using concepts and ideas from systems analysis, cybernetics and argumentation theory. A simple model for the decision process is developed. The analysis stresses the need for careful design of the communication channels between the three systems involved: the political system, the judicial-regulatory system and the scientific-technical community. The Dialogue - Scenario project initiated by the Swedish nuclear Inspectorate is briefly presented

  19. Regulatory systems-based licensing guidance documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delligatti, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a series of licensing guidance documents based on the regulatory requirements in Part 60 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 60). This regulatory systems-based approach to licensing guidance documentation relies on the definition of the high-level waste repository in 10 CFR Part 60. A document which is important for the frame-work it gives to other programmatic licensing guidance is the Draft Regulatory Guide open-quotes Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repositoryclose quotes (FCRG). The FCRG describes a format and content acceptable to NRC for a high-level waste repository license application pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. Other licensing guidance documents will be compatible with the FCRG

  20. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  1. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  2. Dose limits and licensing requirements for the limitation of the emission of radioactive materials from nuclear power stations in the FRG and the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwibach, J; Huber, O

    1975-08-01

    In licensing the operation of nuclear power plants in the FRG and USA, particular limitations of the release of radioactive materials in the air and water are layed down to correspond to the protective laws of radiation and environmental protection. The first limiting recommendations for the removal of radioactive waste waters were worked out in 1965 in the FRG and in 1968/69 for the removal of radioactive exhaust air of nuclear power plants. Based on this, in 1975 these relevant regulations were included in the draft of the new radiation protection specification. In 1971, these type of guidelines were put to discussion in the USA and were dismissed in 1975 in a licensing regulation of the NRC. These regulations or guidelines differ in their various dose limits. For example, the German dose limits of 30 mrem/a whole body dose for radioactive materials in the exhaust air of nuclear power plants and of 90 mrem/a for the thyroid dose through radioiodine via the exposure exhaust air-pasture-cow-milk-infant are often compared to the American dose limits of 5 mrem/a whole body dose and 15 mrem/a skin dose as well as 15 mrem/a thyroid dose. Such a numerical comparison is, howewer, wrong. The dose limits used in the FRG are, e.g., not to be exceeded. Furthermore, in the FRG, all contributions to be calculated on one site are to be considered. In the USA, the corresponding values are only valid for actual exposure paths due to the emission of a power reactor. They can be multiply exceeded. Thus the German licensing practise is clearly more restrictive.

  3. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  4. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  5. IAEA news: • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollar, Lenka; Dyck, Elisabeth; Dixit, Aabha; Gaspar, Miklos; Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    • Newcomer countries face common challenges in nuclear infrastructure development: Countries embarking on a nuclear power programme need to make sure that the development of their legal, regulatory and support infrastructure keeps pace with the construction of the power plant itself. This is the only way to ensure that the programme proceeds in a safe, secure and sustainable way, concluded participants of a workshop on nuclear power infrastructure development hosted at the IAEA last February. • Safety and licensing requirements for small modular reactors: IAEA hosts first workshop for regulators: A new generation of advanced, prefab nuclear power reactors called small modular reactors (SMRs) could be licensed and hit the market as early as 2020, and the IAEA is helping regulators prepare for their debut. In a series of workshops that began earlier this year, the IAEA is working closely with regulators on approaches to safety and licensing ahead of potential SMR deployment worldwide. • IAEA reaches milestone in disposal of radioactive sources: Successful tests of a promising technology for moving and storing low level radioactive sealed sources are paving the way for a new disposal method for dealing with small volumes of radioactive waste around the world. The method, which involves placing and covering sealed sources in a narrow hole a few hundred metres deep, would allow countries to safely and securely take charge of their own disused radioactive sources. The proof of concept for the technology was tested in Croatia late last year — without the use of actual radioactive material.

  6. Licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    1987-01-01

    In Peru, the Regulation for Ionizing Radiation Sources is applied, which establishes the norms and procedures to follow in the nuclear and radioactive installations of the country in order to assure their correct operation as concerns to the nuclear safety and radiological protection, allowing the emission of the respective licenses. As for the nuclear facilities, this authorization includes the Previous License, the Construction License and the Operation License (provisional and definitive) and for radioactive facilities and equipment generating ionizing radiations: the Construction License and the Operation License. The personnel also require a license that can be an operator license (as for nuclear reactors) or a supervisor license (for nuclear and radioactive facilities). In spite of the above mentioned regulation and its long enforcement period, less than 10% of radioactive facilities in this country are licensed, due to different problems which will be solved in the medium term. (Author)

  7. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysen, A.; Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  8. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Some requirements and practices commonly shared in the European Community Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pele, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    At the end of the fifties a treaty was signed instituting between six countries of the European Community for Atomic Energy, or in brief, Euratom. This treaty, in addition to the Common Market Treaty and the Coal and Steel one, constitutes the legal frame of the European Community which, at present, comprises 12 Member States. A commission, the so-called Commission of the European Communities (or in brief CEC) has to implement the provisions laid down in the treaties. Qualification, training, licensing and re-training of operating personnel have been the subjects of an in-depth exchange of views and information in the frame of the work conducted by the Commission. The evaluation of the regulations and practices in countries of the EC and some other countries having a large nuclear energy program, has led to the identification of some generally valid concepts. This synthesis, made with the assistance of a consultant, is now published under the form of an EUR report (EUR 10981). The main topics addressed within this report are the following: shift staffing and staffing of the control room, personnel selection, qualifications necessary for recruitment, training and retraining, and licensing/authorization

  9. Groundfish/Crab License Limitation Program (LLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As of January 1, 2000 a Federal License Limitation Program (LLP) license is required for vessels participating in directed fishing for LLP groundfish species in the...

  10. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process

  11. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...... Chinese entities, and most transactions have been local within provinces; and finally, Chinese firms have gradually in-licensed newer and newer technologies, but the technologies in-licensed from foreign sources are by no means state-of-the-art. We make several suggestions for innovation policy...

  12. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  13. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  14. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  15. H.R. 4895: a bill to establish a requirement that no person may offer any high-level radioactive waste for transportation in interstate commerce unless licensed for such offering by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 22, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Transportation Act requires that anyone offering high-level radioactive waste for transportation in interstate commerce must be licensed. The bill describes the qualifications and requirements for obtaining a license either to offer the wastes or to transport it, the procedures for issuance, notification to political subdivisions and Indian tribes, and routing. It also includes time restrictions and enforcement authority. High-level radioactive materials include spent nuclear fuel and reprocessing materials

  16. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  17. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  18. Licensing of simple digital devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    The inability to guarantee error-free software gave rise to the potential for common-cause failure of digital safety systems in nuclear power plants. To address this vulnerability, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) required a quality software development process and a defense-in-depth and diversity analysis for digital safety systems. As a result of recent interim [NRC] staff guidance in the digital instrumentation and control (I and C) area, licensing of simple digital devices decreases some regulatory burden with respect to demonstrating a quality software development process and defense-in-depth and diversity analysis. This paper defines simple digital devices and addresses the interim staff guidance that applies to such devices. The paper also highlights the technical aspects that affect the licensing of such devices and incorporates licensing experience in the U.S. to date. (authors)

  19. To License or Not to License: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lonardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner licensing. The authors conclude that states must differentiate between Private Investigator and Digital Examiner licensing requirements and oversight.

  20. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  1. Radiation protection in medical research. Licensing requirement for the use of radiation and advice for the application procedure; Strahlenschutz in der medizinischen Forschung. Genehmigungsbeduerftigkeit von Strahlenanwendungen und Hinweise zum Antragsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Klammer, H.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    In Germany, persons who are to be exposed to radiation for medical research purposes are protected by a licensing requirement. However, there are considerable uncertainties on the part of the applicants as to whether licensing by the competent Federal Office for Radiation Protection is necessary, and regarding the choice of application procedure. The article provides explanatory notes and practical assistance for applicants and an outlook on the forthcoming new regulations concerning the law on radiation protection of persons in the field of medical research. Questions and typical mistakes in the application process were identified and evaluated. The qualified physicians involved in a study are responsible for deciding whether a license is required for the intended application of radiation. The decision can be guided by answering the key question whether the study participants would undergo the same exposures regarding type and extent if they had not taken part in the study. When physicians are still unsure about their decision, they can seek the advisory service provided by the professional medical societies. Certain groups of people are particularly protected through the prohibition or restriction of radiation exposure. A simplified licensing procedure is used for a proportion of diagnostic procedures involving radiation when all related requirements are met; otherwise, the regular licensing procedure should be used. The new radiation protection law, which will enter into force on the 31st of december 2018, provides a notification procedure in addition to deadlines for both the notification and the licensing procedures. In the article, the authors consider how eligible studies involving applications of radiation that are legally not admissible at present may be feasible in the future, while still ensuring a high protection level for study participants. (orig.) [German] Personen, bei denen Strahlenanwendungen zum Zweck der medizinischen Forschung durchgefuehrt

  2. Neutrality in mediation: an ambiguous ethical value

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Mediator neutrality would appear, by definition, to be a necessary and required ethical principle for all mediators to practice. But what is meant by neutrality in mediation? Is it practically possible to be completely neutral between parties in mediation while at the same time being fair to both of them? This paper attempts to answer these two questions.

  3. NUPLEX Licensing Subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.W.; Allen, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The NUPLEX Licensing Subcommittee was organized to seek a formal license renewal mechanism that institutionalizes the current licensing basis and consequent level of safety of a plant as the legitimate standard for acceptance and approval of an application for extended operation. Along with defining the most workable approach to and scope of review for license renewal, this paper explains the reasons why a regulatory framework is needed by the early 1990s. The initial results of development work on two key issues, licensing criteria and hearing process, are also presented. at this point six potential license renewal criteria have emerged: evaluation of existing monitoring/maintenance programs, revalidation of current licensing basis, conformance to special regulations, evaluation to a safety goal, plant performance history, and environmental assessment. The work on a hearing process has led to the development of two models for future consideration: hybrid legislative and hybrid adjudicatory

  4. Licensing, supervision, retrofitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkemper, H.

    1991-01-01

    The following proposals for the amendment to the Atomic Energy Act are made: the term of provisions against damage and the content and scope of the principle of commensurability should be defined by law. Their concretization should be left to the level of the statutory instruments and technical codes. In usage the scope of application of the subsequent obligation should be approximated to the category of element relevant to licensing. Lability to indemnification for subsequent obligations should be abolished. The need for a backfitting licence in the case of 'substantial' alterations requires a closer definition. A legal obligation should be placed on operators of nuclear reactors to carry out periodical safety checks. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Licensing of ''grandfather's'' facilities: Ukrainian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Bogdan, L.; Steinberg, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the former USSR, unlike most countries, radioactive waste management activities including waste disposal needed no license. But after the USSR breakdown the Ukrainian Parliament -- Verkhovna Rada -- invoked the revised Law on Business activities. According to Article 4 of the Law, in order to treat or to dispose radioactive waste every enterprise has to get a special permission or license. In compliance with the Law, the Cabinet of Ministers by its Ordinance of January 13, 1993, authorized the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (UkrSCNRS) to issue special permissions or licenses for waste treatment and disposal. And that requirement was valid not only for future activities but also for existing facilities in operation. Taking into account the undergoing legislative process, SCNRS began to develop its licensing process without waiting for the special nuclear laws to be passed. On the basis of the legislation already in effect, first of all the Law on Enterprises (full responsibility of enterprises for their activities) and Law on Business activities (requirement to have a license for special types of activities), the newly formed national regulatory body had to identify all the enterprises that needed to be licensed, to establish relevant procedures, to develop related regulatory documents, to implement these procedures and documents at operating enterprises, and for each case to make a decision concerning feasibility of issuing a license, period of validity and license conditions

  6. Licensing process in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiippana, Petteri

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act, the use of nuclear energy constitutes operations subject to license. The licensing process and conditions for granting a license is defined in the legislation. The licenses are applied from and granted by the Government. This paper discusses briefly the licensing process in Finland and also the roles and responsibilities of main stakeholders in licensing. Licensing of a nuclear power plant in Finland has three steps. The first step is the Decision in Principle (DiP). Goal of DiP is to decide whether using nuclear power is for the overall good for the Finnish society. The second step is Construction License (CL) and the goal of CL phase is to determine whether the design of the proposed plant is safe and that the participating organisations are capable of constructing the plant to meet safety goals. The third step is the Operating License (OL) and the goal of the OL phase is to determine whether the plant operates safely and licensee is capable to operate the plant safely. Main stakeholders in the licensing process in Finland are the utility (licensee) interested in using nuclear power in Finland, Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE), Government, Parliament, STUK, the municipality siting the plant and the general public. Government grants all licenses, and Parliament has to ratify Government's Decision in Principle. STUK has to assess the safety of the license applications in each step and give statement to the Ministry. Municipality has to agree to site the plant. Both STUK and the municipality have a veto right in the licensing process

  7. The exemption from the requirement of registration and/or licensing of some sources. machines and devices emitting ionizing and /or on ionizing radiation: a proposed draft for Israeli regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, T; Margaliot, M [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1997-11-16

    The licensing and authorization of the import, purchase, distribution, transportation and application of radioactive materials and devices emitting ionizing and/or non-ionizing radiation are carried out in Israel by the Ministries of the Environment and of Health. The legal basis for file authority of these Ministries in radiation protection matters is file {sup P}harmacists Regulation- Radioactive Elements and Products Thereof, 1981 (revision 1994) (PRREPT). Licenses are issued by the Chief Radiation Executive (CUE) appointed by the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health. The Regulations include a clause which enables the CUE to exempt certain amounts of radioactive materials from file requirements laid down in the PRREPT. The exemption clause is general and does not indicate the types and amounts of radioactive material may be exempted. The proposed draft Israeli regulations are related to exemption of some sources, machines and devices emitting ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, wife a suggestion to extend file above mentioned exemption clause to include some machines and devices and to provide an explicit and detailed list of materials, sources and devices to be exempted. Among these are the following: (authors)

  8. The exemption from the requirement of registration and/or licensing of some sources. machines and devices emitting ionizing and /or on ionizing radiation: a proposed draft for Israeli regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Margaliot, M.

    1997-01-01

    The licensing and authorization of the import, purchase, distribution, transportation and application of radioactive materials and devices emitting ionizing and/or non-ionizing radiation are carried out in Israel by the Ministries of the Environment and of Health. The legal basis for file authority of these Ministries in radiation protection matters is file P harmacists Regulation- Radioactive Elements and Products Thereof, 1981 (revision 1994) (PRREPT). Licenses are issued by the Chief Radiation Executive (CUE) appointed by the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health. The Regulations include a clause which enables the CUE to exempt certain amounts of radioactive materials from file requirements laid down in the PRREPT. The exemption clause is general and does not indicate the types and amounts of radioactive material may be exempted. The proposed draft Israeli regulations are related to exemption of some sources, machines and devices emitting ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, wife a suggestion to extend file above mentioned exemption clause to include some machines and devices and to provide an explicit and detailed list of materials, sources and devices to be exempted. Among these are the following: (authors)

  9. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV; Especificacion de los requerimientos para tramitar una licencia de una instalacion independiente de almacenamiento temporal en seco de combustible gastado (ISFSI) en el sitio de la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano R, M. L., E-mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  10. ITER Safety and Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J-.P; Taylor, N.; Garin, P.; Uzan-Elbez, J.; GULDEN, W.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2006-01-01

    The site for the construction of ITER has been chosen in June 2005. The facility will be implemented in Europe, south of France close to Marseille. The generic safety scheme is now under revision to adapt the design to the host country regulation. Even though ITER will be an international organization, it will have to comply with the French requirements in the fields of public and occupational health and safety, nuclear safety, radiation protection, licensing, nuclear substances and environmental protection. The organization of the central team together with its partners organized in domestic agencies for the in-kind procurement of components is a key issue for the success of the experimentation. ITER is the first facility that will achieve sustained nuclear fusion. It is both important for the experimental one-of-a-kind device, ITER itself, and for the future of fusion power plants to well understand the key safety issues of this potential new source of energy production. The main safety concern is confinement of the tritium, activated dust in the vacuum vessel and activated corrosion products in the coolant of the plasma-facing components. This is achieved in the design through multiple confinement barriers to implement the defence in depth approach. It will be demonstrated in documents submitted to the French regulator that these barriers maintain their function in all postulated incident and accident conditions. The licensing process started by examination of the safety options. This step has been performed by Europe during the candidature phase in 2002. In parallel to the final design, and taking into account the local regulations, the Preliminary Safety Report (RPrS) will be drafted with support of the European partner and others in the framework of ITER Task Agreements. Together with the license application, the RPrS will be forwarded to the regulatory bodies, which will launch public hearings and a safety review. Both processes must succeed in order to

  11. Trends in nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  12. Trends in nuclear licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, N W [Council for Nuclear Safety, Hennopsmeer, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  13. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  14. Libraries and licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Žumer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.

  15. IRIS Licensing Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Charles L.; Carelli, Mario D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant is well into the pre-application review process with the US NRC and has accomplished its first near term goal of obtaining US NRC feedback on the long term testing program. To date, the IRIS team has submitted to the US NRC a number of documents patterned after the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) outlined in Regulatory Guide 1,203. They have covered a detailed description of IRIS, initial safety analysis results, PIRT development for limiting transients, scaling analysis and a description of the test program. The IRIS Safety-by-Desing TM intrinsically eliminates and/or significantly reduces the consequences of traditional LWR accidents. In addition, the fewer passive safety systems are similar in principle to those of the US NRC approved AP1000 design. For these reasons, the IRIS testing program only needs to include those features unique to the IRIS design. NRC feedback was that the planned test program appeared to be complete and could generate sufficient information to support a Design Certification (DC) submittal. The US NRC has also stated that a DC application must include complete information regarding the test program. On this basis the IRIS team has initiated an aggressive program to conduct IRIS testing to support a DC submittal by the end of 2008. Subsequent US NRC review should be expeditious because of the AP1000 precedent, allowing IRIS to obtain its Final Design Approval (FDA) in 2012; thereby, maintaining its goal of deployment in the 2015-2017 time frame. The next steps in the pre-application review process will be to provide the US NRC with a road map of the anticipated IRIS licensing process, a review of current licensing requirements showing that IRIS meets or exceeds all current criteria and information to support the long term goal of redefining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ)

  16. Impact on future licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasedag, W.F.; Postma, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The TMI-2 accident has had a dramatic impact on the assessment of severe accidents, particularly on accident source term assumptions. TMI not only demonstrated that regulatory interest in severe accidents is appropriate, but also illustrated our limited understanding of fission product behaviour under degraded core conditions. The resulting reassessment of accident source terms has resulted in a concerted, world-wide research effort, which has produced a new source term estimation methodology. In order to assess the potential impact of the application of this methodology on regulatory requirements, a comparison with the approach used in licensing analyses is necessary. Such a comparison performed for the TMI-2 accident sequence, shows that differences in assumptions concerning accident progression far outweigh the differences in the methodology per se. In particular, the degree of conservatism incorporated into assumptions concerning operator action and containment response has over-riding influence on source term estimates. A major contribution to the impact of the new source term methodology on regulatory requirements, therefore, is its capability to provide the improved level of understanding necessary for reassessment of regulatory assumptions in this area

  17. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  18. License - Open TG-GATEs | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Open TG-GATEs License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/05/24 You may use this database...scribed below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the r...equirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specif...icense. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Com...mons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, plea

  19. License - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project License to Use This Database Last updated : 2010/02/15 You may use this databas...ional License described below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database... and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The Additiona...n the Standard License. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in ...the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database

  20. License - Yeast Interacting Proteins Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Yeast Interacting Proteins Database License to Use This Database Last updated : 2010/02/15 You may use this database...nal License described below. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database... and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The Additional ...the Standard License. Standard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in th...e Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database

  1. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  2. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement on 10 CFR Part 61 licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. Summary and main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The three-volume final environmental impact statement (FEIS) is prepared to guide and support publication of a final regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The FEIS is prepared in response to public comments received on the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) on the proposed Part 61 regulation. The DEIS was published in September 1981 as NUREG-0782. Public comments received on the proposed Part 61 regulation separate from the DEIS are also considered in the FEIS. The FEIS is not a rewritten version of the DEIS, which contains an exhaustive and detailed analysis of alternatives, but rather references the DEIS and presents the final decision bases and conclusions (costs and impacts) which are reflected in the Part 61 requirements. Four cases are specifically considered in the FEIS representing the following: past disposal practice, existing disposal practice, Part 61 requirements, and an upper bound example. The Summary and Main Report are contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of Appendices A - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61, and Appendices B - Staff Analysis of Public Comments on Proposed 10 CFR Part 61 Rulemaking. Volume 3 contains Appendices C-F, entitled as follows: Appendix C - Revisions to Impact Analysis Methodology, Appendix D - Computer Codes Used for FEIS Calculations, Appendix E - Errata for the DEIS for 10 CFR Part 61 and last, Appendix F - Final Rule and Supplementary Information

  4. License - CREATE portal | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us CREATE portal License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2016/03/16 You may use this database... the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribu...tion-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...hare Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely acces

  5. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  6. License - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Society Catalog License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/01/17 You may use this database...es the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attri...bution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as...is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database

  7. License - TMFunction | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us TMFunction License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/01/23 You may use this database...e license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attributio...n-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...ion-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely

  8. Why operators fail licensing examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.R.; Zerbo, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was conducted among nuclear utility operators who have taken NRC licensing examinations to determine which factors they considered important in their success or failure. The operators also compared the actual NRC examination with their expectations prior to taking the examination. The results of the survey supplement NRC statistics with regard to failure rates. Over 350 operators and 20 utilities participated in the survey and a good cross section of the nuclear community is represented. Reactor theory and emergency procedures are important areas in which operators found NRC emphasis to be different than expected. Observation Training and Design Lecture Series are two training segments which appear to require improvement. Recommendations are made for the use of data collected through this survey and for continuation of the effort to give operators a mechanism of supplying feedback to the training and licensing process

  9. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  10. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome......, firms in competitive product markets, and firms that have incurred substantial sunk cost are associated with lower rates of technology out-licensing. We also posit that sunk costs negatively moderate the relationship between competition in the licensor?s product market, and licensing rate. We test our...

  11. Seismic risk evaluation within the technology neutral framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.C.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine seismic risk within the Technology Neutral Framework (TNF). ► We find that the risk goals in the TNF to be stringent compared with current goals. ► We note that the current fleet reactors would not meet the TNF goals. ► We recommend that an initiating frequency cutoff of 10 −5 per year be use in evaluating seismic risk. - Abstract: The NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has proposed a risk-informed and performance-based licensing process that is referred to as the technology neutral framework (TNF). In the TNF, licensing basis events (LBEs), determined using probabilistic risk assessment methods, take the place of design basis accidents. These LBEs are constructed by grouping together accident sequences with similar phenomenology. All event sequences with a mean frequency greater than 10 −7 per reactor year are to be considered as part of the licensing basis. Imposing such a limit would require that earthquakes with a mean return period of ten million years be considered as part of the licensing basis. It is difficult to get seismic hazards (i.e., ground accelerations) from expert seismologists at such low frequencies. This is because it is difficult or impossible to confidently say what the seismic hazard might be at these extremely low frequencies. A linear extrapolation in log-log space of hazard curves at the Clinton site down to 10 −7 per year leads to a peak ground acceleration of about 4.5 g. A Weibull distribution is also used to fit the curve leading to a peak ground acceleration of about 2.6 g. These extrapolations demonstrate the extreme nature of rare earthquakes. Even when seismic isolation is implemented, the TNF goal is not met. The problem appears to be that there is no limit on initiating event frequency in the TNF. Demonstrating that a design meets the goals of the TNF would be nearly impossible. A frequency limit for earthquakes could be imposed at a frequency of about 10 −5 per year to focus on

  12. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60: (Docket No. PRM 30-54): Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    This Draft Statement on environmental considerations associated with the proposed exemption of cobalt-60 in spark-gap irradiators was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Standards Development (the staff), in accordance with the Commission's regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). The NEPA states, among other things, that the federal government has the continuing responsibility to use all practicable means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, to improve and to coordinate federal plans, functions, programs, and resources to the end that the nation may: fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee of the environment for succeeding generations; assure for all Americans safe, healthful, productive, and esthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings; attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation, risk to health or safety, or other undesirable and unintended consequences; preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage, and maintain, wherever possible, an environment which supports diversity and variety of individual choice; achieve a balance between population and resource use which will permit high standards of living and a wide sharing of life's amenities; and enhance the quality of renewable resources and approach the maximum attainable recycling of depletable resources. 42 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  14. Credentialing, Licensing, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Credentialing, Licensing, and Education Share: On This Page The Bottom Line Credentials, ... and practices that chiropractors are allowed to perform. Education and Training Professional organizations in some complementary health ...

  15. License to build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntelaar, Mark; Vos, Renate de; Roobol, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A new license under the nuclear power act is applied for at the Dutch Government for the building of a High Active Repackaging Unit (HAVA-VU in Dutch) at NRG in Petten, The Netherlands. This new building is necessary to comply with our nuclear license to dispose of high active nuclear waste at Petten to the intermediate storage facility (COVRA). In the first part of this paper attention is given to the formal procedure followed by the Government, what type of documents are to be submitted, what time frames are followed, how citizen participation is organized, and as final result a new license. In the second part more detailed information is given about the present license renewal needed for the High Active Repackaging Unit

  16. Licensing of away-from-reactor (AFR) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of spent fuel at Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations will allow reactors to continue to operate until reprocessing or other fuel disposal means are available. AFR installations must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although wide experience in licensing reactors exists, the licensing of an AFR installation is a relatively new activity. Only one has been licensed to date. This paper delineates the requirements for licensing an AFR installation and projects a licensing schedule. Because the NRC is developing specific AFR requirements, this schedule is based primarily on draft NRC documents. The major documents needed for an AFR license application are similar to those for a reactor. They include: a Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and Environmental Report (ER), safeguards and security plans, decommissioning plans, proposed technical specifications, and others. However, the licensing effort has one major difference in that for AFR installations it will be a one-step effort, with follow-up, rather than the two-step process used for reactors. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention

  17. Nuclear facilities licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.J.M. de.

    1978-01-01

    The need for the adoption of a legal and normative system, defining objectives, pescriptions and the process of nuclear licensing and building of nuclear power plants in Brazil is enphasized. General rules for the development of this system are presented. The Brazilian rules on the matter are discussed. A general view of the German legal system for nuclear power plant licensing and the IAEA recommendations on the subject are finally presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  18. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  19. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  20. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C. R.; Orvis, D. D. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented.

  1. Spectroscopy of neutral radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Aran; De, Subhadeep; Jungmann, Klaus; Wilschut, Hans; Willmann, Lorenz [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    The heavy alkaline earth atoms radium is uniquely sensitive towards parity and time reversal symmetry violations due to a large enhancement of an intrinsic permanent electric dipole moment of the nucleous or the electron. Furthermore, radium is sensitive to atomic parity violation and the nuclear anapole moment. To prepare such experiments spectroscopy of relevant atomic states need to be done. At a later stage we will build a neutral atom trap for radium. We have built an atomic beam of the short lived isotope {sup 225}Ra with a flux of several 10{sup 4} atoms/sec. We are preparing the laser spectroscopy using this beam setup. In the preparation for efficient laser cooling and trapping we have successfully trapped barium, which is similar in it's requirements for laser cooling. The techniques which we have developed with barium can be used to trap rare radium isotopes. We report on the progress of the experiments.

  2. Study of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Eisner, A.

    1975-01-01

    The range of physics problems for which a detector emphasizing neutrals is most suitable is discussed. The primary goals are the all neutrals cross section, sigma/sub o/ (e + e - → neutrals), the characterization of the neutral energy in multi-hadronic events, the search for monoenergetic photons, and good sensitivity in the difficult region of low energy photons. Those features of multi-hadronic events which are most relevant to a neutral detector were calculated using a jet model with parameters extrapolated from SPEAR energies. These distributions are presented and discussed

  3. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  4. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  5. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  6. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  7. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''

  8. Electromagnetic trapping of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is a new branch of applied physics that has potential for application in many areas. The authors present an introduction to laser cooling and magnetic trapping. Some basic ideas and fundamental limitations are discussed, and the first successful experiments are reviewed. Trapping a neutral object depends on the interaction between an inhomogeneous electromagnetic field and a multiple moment that results in the exchange of kinetic for potential energy. In neutral atom traps, the potential energy must be stored as internal atomic energy, resulting in two immediate and extremely important consequences. First, the atomic energy levels will necessarily shift as the atoms move in the trap, and, second, practical traps for ground state neutral atoms atr necessarily very shallow compared to thermal energy. This small depth also dictates stringent vacuum requirements because a trapped atom cannot survive a single collision with a thermal energy background gas molecule. Neutral trapping, therefore, depends on substantial cooling of a thermal atomic sample and is inextricably connected with the cooling process

  9. Initiatives in transport cask licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, John

    1998-01-01

    The variations in research reactor fuel form, configuration, irradiation characteristics, and transport cask have required a substantial number of transport cask licensing actions associated with foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation. When compounded by limited time for shipment preparations, due to contract timing or delayed receipt of technical data, the number and timing of certifications has adversely impacted the ability of regulatory agencies to support intended shipping schedules. This issue was brought into focus at a april, 1998 meeting among DOE, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE's spent fuel transportation contractors. (author)

  10. Algeria schedules onshore licensing round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Algeria's Sonatrach will conduct its first international onshore exploration licensing round in a move designed to triple drilling activity in the country. A second round will follow next April. Sonatrach plans to drill 200 wells during 1991-95, which will require the current level of 37/year to be almost trebled toward the end of the period. To this end foreign operators are being courted in an open exploration bidding round. Deadline for bid submittal in Nov. 30. Companies may enter singly or in groups to form partnerships with Sonatrach. Foreign licensees will be able to take a maximum 49% of production under Algerian law

  11. License - AcEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us AcEST License to Use This Database Last updated : 2010/02/15 You may use this database in co...he Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you ...must follow in using this database. The Additional License specifies those items ... License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Commons Attribution...-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database

  12. License - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Dicty_cDB License to Use This Database Last updated : 2010/02/15 You may use this database i...w. The Standard License specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements ...you must follow in using this database. The Additional License specifies those it...dard License The Standard License for this database is the license specified in the Creative Commons Attribu...tion-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database

  13. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  14. Nuclear licensing in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Spiler, J.; Vojnovic, D.; Pristavec, M.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents the approach to nuclear licensing in Slovenia. The paper describes, the initialization, internal authorization and review process in the Krsko NPP. The overall process includes preparation, internal independent evaluation, the Krsko Operating Committee and the Krsko Safety Committee review and internal approval. In addition, the continuation of the licensing process is discussed which includes independent evaluation by an authorized institution and a regulatory body approval process. This regulatory body approval process includes official hearing of the licensee, communication with the licensee, and final issuance of a license amendment. The internal evaluation, which follows the methodology of US NRC (defined in 10 CFR 50.59 and NUMARC 125) is described. This concept is partially implemented in domestic legislation.(author)

  15. Integration of MGDS design into the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of how the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) design for a potential repository is integrated into the licensing process. The integration process employs a two-told approach: (1) ensure that the MGDS design complies with applicable Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements, and (2) ensure that the MGDS design is appropriately reflected in a license application that is acceptable to the NRC for performing acceptance and compliance reviews

  16. Methodology and findings of the NRC's materials licensing process redesign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, P.A.; Brown, K.D.; Madera, J.R.; Moriarty, M.; Pelchat, J.M.; Usilton, W.K.; Whitten, J.E.; Vacca, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the work and vision of the team chartered to redesign the process for licensing users of nuclear materials. The Business Process Redesign team was chartered to improve the speed of the existing licensing process while maintaining or improving public safety and to achieve required resource levels. The report describes the team's methods for acquiring and analyzing information about the existing materials licensing process and the steps necessary to radically change this process to the envisioned future process

  17. Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In Fiscal Year 1990, The Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (Panel) handled 40 proceedings involving the construction, operation, and maintenance of commercial nuclear power reactors or other activities requiring a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes, highlights, and analyzes how the judges and licensing boards of the Panel addressed the wide-ranging issues raised in these proceedings during the year

  18. Licensing safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.; Brown, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Licensing difficulties with the shutdown system software at the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station contributed to delays in starting up the station. Even though the station has now been given approval by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to operate, the software issue has not disappeared - Ontario Hydro has been instructed by the AECB to redesign the software. This article attempts to explain why software based shutdown systems were chosen for Darlington, why there was so much difficulty licensing them, and what the implications are for other safety related software based applications

  19. 19 CFR 147.24 - Merchandise subject to licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the U.S. Government, may be entered for a fair only upon the presentation of the required license, or... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Requirements of Other Laws § 147.24 Merchandise subject to...

  20. Licensing in an international triopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2011-12-01

    We study the effects of entry of two foreign firms on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the incumbent is technologically superior to the entrants. We consider two different situations: (i) the cost-reducing innovation is licensed to both entrants; (ii) the cost-reducing innovation is licensed to just one of the entrants. We analyse three kind of license: (lump-sum) fixed-fee; (per-unit) royalty; and two-part tariff, that is a combination of a fixed-fee and a royalty. We prove that a two part tariff is never an optimal licensing scheme for the incumbent. Moreover, (i) when the technology is licensed to the two entrants, the optimal contract consists of a licensing with only output royalty; and (ii) when the technology is licensed to just one of the entrants, the optimal contract consists of a licensing with only a fixed-fee.

  1. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  2. Neutral beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral beam generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange partially neutralizes the high energy beam, is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are identified. (U.K.)

  3. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  4. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  5. Trends in CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Grant, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Modern utilities view nuclear power more and more as a commodity - it must compete 'today' with current alternatives to attract their investment. With its long construction times and large capital investment, nuclear plants are vulnerable to delays once they have been committed. There are two related issues. Where the purchaser and the regulator are experienced in CANDU, the thrust is a very practical one: to identify and resolve major licensing risks at a very early stage in the project. Thus for a Canadian project, the designer (AECL) and the prospective purchaser would deal directly with the AECB. However CANDU has also been successfully licensed in other countries, including Korea, Romania, Argentina, India and Pakistan. Each of these countries has its own regulatory agency responsible for licensing the plant. In addition, however, the foreign customer and regulator may seek input from the AECB, up to and including a statement of licensability in Canada; this is not normally needed for a ''repeat'' plant and/or if the customer is experienced in CANDU, but can be requested if the plant configuration has been modified significantly from an already-operating CANDU. It is thus the responsibility of the designer to initiate early discussions with the AECB so the foreign CANDU meets the expectations of its customers

  6. Future of nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are outlined: Comparison of US and best foreign experience in nuclear power plant construction and operation; Status of licensing and construction; Observed attributes; Reduced construction time; Fewer reactor trips; Higher capacity factor; Diesel generator reliability; Steam generator tube leakage; and US regulatory initiatives: NRC efforts and industry efforts

  7. Search for neutral leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references

  8. ISO and software quality assurance - licensing and certification of software professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, J.; Rodin, L.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on licensing and certifing of software professionals. Discussed in this report are: certification programs; licensing programs; why became certified; certification as a condition of empolyment; certification requirements; and examination structures.

  9. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published for internal NRC use in managing the Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  10. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Taxonomy Icon License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/3/21 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Taxon...ative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database,

  11. License - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PLACE License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2014/07/17 You may use this database...ense terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this datab...re Alike 2.1 Japan. If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: ... ...re . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and ac...quire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this database; and freely create and distribute database

  12. License - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP caps License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/05/12 You may use this database...license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database...Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follow...ommons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: ...freely access part or whole of this database, and acquire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this database

  13. License - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RMG License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/08/07 You may use this database...se terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this databas... Alike 2.1 Japan. If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Ric...Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database..., and acquire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this database; and freely create and distribute datab

  14. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 3, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  15. License - Metabolonote | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Metabolonote License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2016/06/22 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...e Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database

  16. License - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP physicalmap License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/07/07 You may use this database...es the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attri...bution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as...ry of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, y

  17. A meta-analytic review of moral licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Irene; van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Moral licensing refers to the effect that when people initially behave in a moral way, they are later more likely to display behaviors that are immoral, unethical, or otherwise problematic. We provide a state-of-the-art overview of moral licensing by conducting a meta-analysis of 91 studies (7,397 participants) that compare a licensing condition with a control condition. Based on this analysis, the magnitude of the moral licensing effect is estimated to be a Cohen's d of 0.31. We tested potential moderators and found that published studies tend to have larger moral licensing effects than unpublished studies. We found no empirical evidence for other moderators that were theorized to be of importance. The effect size estimate implies that studies require many more participants to draw solid conclusions about moral licensing and its possible moderators. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. ACR: Licensing and design readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text The Canadian nuclear technology has a long history dating back to the 1940s. In this regard, Canada is in a unique situation, shared only by a very few countries, where original nuclear power technology has been invented and further developed. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), then called AECB, was established in 1946. CNSC focuses on nuclear security, nuclear safety, establishing health and safety regulations, and has also played an instrumental role in the formation of the IAEA. CNSC has provided assistance to the establishment of regulatory authorities in AECL's client countries such as Korea, Argentina, China and Romania. AECL has developed the Gen III+ ACR 1000 as evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. ACR-1000 has evolved from AECL's in depth experience with CANDU systems, components, and materials, as well as the feedback received from owners and operators of CANDU plants. The ACR-1000 design retains the proven strengths and features of CANDU reactors, while incorporating innovations and state-of-the-art technology. It also features major improvements in economics, inherent safety characteristics, and performance. ACR-1000 has completed its Basic Engineering, has advanced in the licensing process in Canada, and is ready for deployment in Canadian and world markets. EC6 is an evolution of CANDU 6 and is a Gen III natural uranium fuelled reactor. Its medium size and potential for fuel localization and advanced fuel cycles is an optimal strategic solution in many markets.AECL's reactor products are shown to be compliant with a variety of licensing and regulatory requirements. These include the new CNSC DRD-337, IAEA NS-R1, and EUR. This allows the countries interested in CANDU reactor products to be confident of its licensing in their own regulatory regimes.

  19. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  20. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  1. Effective Continuing Education for Licensed Real Estate Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Wendy A.

    2004-01-01

    Mandatory real estate education has been intensely debated for many years. New Jersey is the only state in the nation that does not require licensed real estate agents to attend an ongoing educational event after securing a license to practice. A bill was proposed to the legislature to mandate real estate education in June of 2001. (It was…

  2. 48 CFR 1852.225-70 - Export Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... writing, that the Contracting Officer authorizes it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining export licenses, if...

  3. 47 CFR 25.113 - Station licenses and launch authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station licenses and launch authority. 25.113 Section 25.113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.113 Station...

  4. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of station license. 25.117 Section 25.117 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25.117...

  5. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  6. 45 CFR 1321.75 - Licenses and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licenses and safety. 1321.75 Section 1321.75... AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.75 Licenses and safety. The State shall... that the facility complies with all applicable State and local health, fire, safety, building, zoning...

  7. 23 CFR 635.110 - Licensing and qualification of contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensing contractors, who may bid for, be awarded, or perform Federal-aid highway contracts, shall be... competition, to prevent submission of a bid by, or to prohibit the consideration of a bid submitted by, any...) No contractor shall be required by law, regulation, or practice to obtain a license before submission...

  8. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, that the Agreement Officer authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Recipient shall be responsible for obtaining...

  10. Partner Selection in Technological Licensing Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Trombini, Giulia

    This paper investigates the matching of seller and buyer firms in the market for technology licensing. By combining organizational learning theory with the industrial organization approach, we propose a matching model in which technological similarities in terms of relatedness and familiarity work...... that is technologically unrelated, ex ante familiarity with the licensors’ technology is required. We contend also that there is interdependence between technological learning and market competition: if partners are in the same product markets, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnerships decreases...

  11. Licensing in an International Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2008-09-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically superior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for sufficiently large technological differences between the firms under both fixed-fee licensing and royalty licensing.

  12. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  13. Cask development, testing, and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Haelsig, R.T.; Warrant, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask was developed to provide a safe means of transporting the damaged core of Three Mile Island Unit 2 from the TMI site at Middletown, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering laboratory (INEL) at Idaho Falls, ID. The development of the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask posed two engineering and technical management challenges; Licensing Strategy - The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask represented the first irradiated fuel rail cask developed within the United States in the past decade, a decade characterized by changing nuclear regulations, and Accelerated Schedule - The TMI-2 defueling schedule demanded a cask development schedule one-third as long as normally required. These challenges governed the overall development and licensing process for the cask. First, a high degree of conservation was incorporated into the design to allow quick, simplified demonstrations of adequacy to regulatory staff. Second, redundant design techniques were employed in all areas of uncertainty. The testing program eliminated performance uncertainties and validated predictions and predictive models. Drop tests of a quarter-scale model of the cask were conducted, and results were correlated with analytic predictions to verify structural and mechanical performance of the cask. Full-scale tests of the canisters were conducted to verify structural behavior of canister internals which provide criticality control. This paper describes the testing program for the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask, presents results therefrom, and correlates findings with Regulation 10 CFR 71 of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  14. Neutral-beam-heating applications and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The technique of heating the plasma in magnetically confined fusion devices by the injection of intense beams of neutral atoms is described. The basic principles governing the physics of neutral beam heating and considerations involved in determining the injection energy, power, and pulse length required for a fusion reactor are discussed. The pertinent experimental results from various fusion devices are surveyed to illustrate the efficacy of this technique. The second part of the paper is devoted to the technology of producing the neutral beams. A state-of-the-art account o the development of neutral injectors is presented, and the prospects for utilizing neutral injection to heat the plasma in a fusion reactor are examined

  15. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  16. The nuclear licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1976-01-01

    To begin with, the present nuclear licensing procedure is illustrated by a diagram. The relationship between the state and the Laender, the various experts (GRS - IRS + LRA -, TUEV, DWD, university institutes, firms of consulting engineers, etc), participation of the public, e.g. publication of the relevant documents, questions, objections (made by individuals or by groups such as citizens' initiatives), public discussion, official notice, appeals against the decision, the right of immediate execution of the decision are shortly dealt with. Finally, ways to improve the licensing procedure are discussed, from the evaluation of the documents to be submitted, published, and examined by the authorities (and their experts) up to an improvement of the administrative procedure. An improved licensing procedure should satisfy the well-founded claims of the public for more transparency as well as the equally justifiable claims of industry and utilities in order to ensure that the citizens' legal right to have safe and adequate electric power is guaranteed. The updated energy programme established by the Federal Government is mentioned along with the effectiveness of dealing with nuclear problems on the various levels of a Land government. (orig.) [de

  17. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  18. Nuclear power plant licensing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, J.S.C.; Waddington, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Canadian nuclear power plant licensing practice which has evolved over three decades provides a regulatory framework that promotes safe design and operation of CANDU power plants. From the very outset, it recognizes the need for simple and reliable safety systems which are separate from the systems that are normally used to produce electricity. Further, it requires the reliability of safety systems be demonstrated by routine tests during plant operation. Over the three decades, the analysis requirements to demonstrate the performance and reliability of plant systems that have a role in the detection and mitigating of accidents have also evolved. Today's requirements are defined in consultative documents C-6 and C-98. One recurring theme throughout the evolution of the licensing practice is the maxim of prescribing only basic safety requirements and rules so that designers and operators have the freedom to devise the best possible design features and operating practices

  19. Neutralized transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental details on providing active neutralization of high brightness ion beam have been demonstrated for Heavy Ion Fusion program. A K + beam was extracted from a variable-perveance injector and transported through 2.4 m long quadrupole lattice for final focusing. Neutralization was provided by a localized cathode arc plasma plug and a RF volume plasma system. Effects of beam perveance, emittance, convergence focusing angle, and axial focusing position on neutralization have been investigated. Good agreement has been observed with theory and experiment throughout the study

  20. Advanced neutral-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.

    1980-09-01

    Extensive development will be required to achieve the 50- to 75-MW, 175- to 200-keV, 5- to 10-sec pulses of deuterium atoms envisioned for ETF and INTOR. Multi-megawatt injector systems are large (and expansive); they consist of large vacuum tanks with many square meters of cryogenic pumping panels, beam dumps capable of dissipating several megawatts of un-neutralized beam, bending magnets, electrical power systems capable of fast turnoff with low (capacity) stored energy, and, of course, the injector modules (ion sources and accelerators). The technology requirements associated with these components are described

  1. Are "Market Neutral" Hedge Funds Really Market Neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Using a variety of different definitions of "neutrality," this study presents significant evidence against the neutrality to market risk of hedge funds in a range of style categories. I generalize standard definitions of "market neutrality," and propose five different neutrality concepts. I suggest statistical tests for each neutrality concept, and apply these tests to a database of monthly returns on 1423 hedge funds from five style categories. For the "market neutral" style, approximately o...

  2. The United States nuclear regulatory commission license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license renewal process establishes the technical and administrative requirements for the renewal of operating power plant licenses. Reactor ope-rating licenses were originally issued for 40 years and are allowed to be renewed. The review process for license renewal applications (L.R.A.) provides continued assurance that the level of safety provided by an applicant's current licensing basis is maintained for the period of extended operation. The license renewal review focuses on passive, long-lived structures and components of the plant that are subject to the effects of aging. The applicant must demonstrate that programs are in place to manage those aging effects. The review also verifies that analyses based on the current operating term have been evaluated and shown to be valid for the period of extended operation. The NRC has renewed the licenses for 52 reactors at 30 plant sites. Each applicant requested, and was granted, an extension of 20 years. Applications to renew the licenses of 20 additional reactors at 13 plant sites are under review. As license renewal is voluntary, the decision to seek license renewal and the timing of the application is made by the licensee. However, the NRC expects that, over time, essentially all U.S. operating reactors will request license renewal. In 2009, the U.S. has 4 plants that enter their 41. year of ope-ration. The U.S. Nuclear Industry has expressed interest in 'life beyond 60', that is, requesting approval of a second renewal period. U.S. regulations allow for subsequent license renewals. The NRC is working with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on research related to light water reactor sustainability. (author)

  3. Westinghouse AP1000 licensing maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Vijuk, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 35 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) in September 2004. The AP1000 meets the US utility requirements. The AP1000 and its sister plant the AP600 have gone through a very through and complete licensing review. This paper describes the U.S. NRC review efforts of both the AP600 and the AP1000. The detail of the review and the independent calculations, evaluations and testing is discussed. The AP600 licensing documentation was submitted in 1992. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in 1999. During the intervening 7 years, the U.S. NRC asked thousands of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. For the AP1000 Westinghouse first engaged the U.S. NRC in pre-certification discussions to define the extent of the review required, since the design is so similar to the AP600. The AP1000 licensing documentation was submitted in March 2002. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in September 2004. During the intervening 2 1/2 years, the U.S. NRC asked hundreds of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. The implications of this review and approval on AP1000 applications in

  4. Bunched beam neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammel, G.M.; Maschke, A.W.; Mobley, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the steps involved in producing an intense ion beam from conventional accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is beam bunching. To maintain space charge neutralized transport, neutralization must occur more quickly as the beam bunches. It has been demonstrated at BNL that a 60 mA proton beam from a 750 kV Cockcroft--Walton can be neutralized within a microsecond. The special problem in HIF is that the neutralization must occur in a time scale of nanoseconds. To study neutralization on a faster time scale, a 40 mA, 450 kV proton beam was bunched at 16 MHz. A biased Faraday cup sampled the bunched beam at the position where maximum bunching was nominally expected, about 2.5 meters from the buncher. Part of the drift region, about 1.8 meters, was occupied by a series of Gabor lenses. In addition to enhancing beam transport by transverse focussing, the background cloud of electrons in the lenses provided an extra degree of neutralization. With no lens, the best bunch factor was at least 20. Bunch factor is defined here as the ratio of the distance between bunches to the FWHM bunch length. With the lens, it was hoped that the increased plasma frequency would decrease the neutralization time and cause an increase in the bunch factor. In fact, with the lens, the instantaneous current increased about three times, but the bunch factor dropped to about 10. Even with the lens, the FWHM of the bunches at the position of maximum bunching was still comparable to or less than the oscillation period of the surrounding electron plasma. Thus, the electron density in the lens must increase before neutralization could be effective in this case, or bunching should be done at a lower frequency

  5. The licensing procedure under Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1983-01-01

    This post-doctoral thesis of 1981 has been updated to include developments in this field up to the year 1983. The author discusses in detail all questions relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany, predominantly from the point of view of administrative law. He investigates nuclear energy and its contribution to electricity supplies with a view to other energy sources, renewable energy sources, alternative energy policies, nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, development of the nuclear industry, nuclear power stations in operation, under construction, or in development. Following a survey of the nuclear controversy, both on the national and the international level, the author reviews the legal system and arising controversies in the Federal Republic of Germany, defining the purpose of this thesis to be the systematic analysis of the available legal instruments, in order to show structural deficiencies in the planning law relating to nuclear power stations, and thus reasons of ambiguities within the licensing procedure. The author studies the following terms and requirements: licensing requirements and licensability, the licensing method and scenario, the legal character of licences, their contents and effects within the stepwise procedure, and due publication. (HSCH) [de

  6. Applications of neutral beam and rf technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, H.H.

    1987-04-01

    This presentation provides an update on the applications of neutral beams and radiofrequency (rf) power in the fusion program; highlights of the ion cyclotron heating (ICH) experiments now in progress, as well as the neutral beam experiments; and heating requirements of future devices and some of the available options. Some remarks on current drive are presented because this area of technology is one that is being considered for future devices

  7. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus is described for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H - ), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (lambda = 8000 A for H - ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (approx. 85%) of neutralization

  8. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units is provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the errata page

  9. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  10. License agreement, employee work

    OpenAIRE

    Poncová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    The rigorous thesis is focused on license agreement and employee work. The aim of the thesis is not only an analysis of the use of a copyrighted work by a person different from the author of the work, but also an analysis of the performance of copyright by a person different from the author of the work. The thesis consists of five chapters. The opening chapter provides a summary of the notion of copyright, its sources at the national and international levels, but also the European Union legis...

  11. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnurer, H.

    1975-01-01

    Legal basis; licensing requirements by the Atomic Energy Act, national law, international law and recommendations, and by technical rules and standards; licensing process: types of licences, responsibilities, sequence of the procedure; role of technical advisory bodies, enforcement of licensing actions. (HP) [de

  12. 48 CFR 227.7009 - Patent releases, license agreements, and assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent releases, license... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7009 Patent releases, license agreements, and...

  13. Licensing and supervision of nuclear facilities in Finland; Genehmigung und Aufsicht von nuklearen Anlagen in Finnland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksonen, J. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    STUK is the independent nuclear supervisory agency in Finland with administrative powers; its staff has the technical and scientific competence required for safety assessments and for supervision. STUK operates under the supervision of the Ministry for Social Affairs and Health which, to demonstrate its independence, has no duties in the energy sector and, in addition, supervises STUK in administrative matters, not in scientific and technical decisions. Internal rules of STUK ensure neutrality also of its staff in matters of energy policy. The activities of STUK as a supervisory and licensing authority in Finland are described in detail for the management of spent nuclear fuel and the new Olkiluoto 3 nuclear power plant currently under construction. (orig./GL)

  14. Exporting the Canadian licensing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, D.J.

    1981-06-01

    This paper deals with the problems of an overseas regulatory agency in licensing a Canadian-supplied nuclear plant which is referenced to a plant in Canada. Firstly, the general problems associated with the use of a reference plant are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of specific problems which arise from the licensing practices in Canada. The paper concludes with recommendations to simplify the task of demonstrating the licensability of an overseas CANDU plant

  15. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV Neutralization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Hosie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env, a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3 of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.

  16. The Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, C.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction dealing with the nuclear Renaissance in Europe and the specific situation of Germany and of Italy, the article focuses on the question of licensing processes for new reactors. New nuclear power plant projects involve a substantial investment and electric utilities will only take this decision if the licensing and regulatory risk can be adequately managed. Licensing processes should be predictable and efficient in order to give sufficient assurance to applicants. The article discusses best practice in licensing by giving some examples of suitable licensing processes of other countries. It also highlights international initiatives aimed at harmonizing safety requirements for new reactors and a multinational cooperation in reactor design review. These issues should be carefully considered by any country wanting to get new nuclear started. [it

  17. Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....

  18. 77 FR 70837 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... intervene shall be filed in accordance with the Commission's ``Rules of Practice for Domestic Licensing... request: The proposed change will delete Function 14, SG [Steam Generator] Water Level--Low, Coincident... capability to shut down the reactor when required on Low--Low Steam Generator water level. The ability to...

  19. 77 FR 73684 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... in accordance with the Commission's ``Rules of Practice for Domestic Licensing Proceedings'' in 10... emergency diesel generator, and the stored lube oil inventory will also continue to require that a 7-day supply be available for each diesel generator. The changes are consistent with NRC-approved Technical...

  20. 77 FR 67679 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... diesel generator surveillance requirements. Margin of safety is related to the ability of the fission... evaluated; or (3) involve a significant reduction in a margin of safety. The basis for this proposed... accordance with the Commission's ``Rules of Practice for Domestic Licensing Proceedings'' in 10 CFR Part 2...

  1. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  2. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A conceptual design of a neutral beam line based on the neutralization of negative deuterium ions is presented. This work is a detailed design of a complete neutral beam line based on using negative ions from a direct extraction source. Anticipating major technological advancements, beam line components have been scaled including the negative ion sources and components for the direct energy recovery of charged beams and high speed cryogenic pumping. With application to the next step in experimental fusion reactors (TNS), the neutral beam injector system that has been designed provides 10 MW of 200 keV neutral deuterium atoms. Several arms are required for plasma ignition

  3. Licensing of the proposed PBMR-SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapisson, G.A.; Henderson, N.R.; Hill, T.F.; Keenan, N.H.; Metcalf, P.E.; Mysenkov, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary criteria, which are intended to be used by the South African regulatory authority (CNS), for licensing of the ESKOM proposed - South African high temperature gas-cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-SA). The CNS intends to apply the existing CNS licensing approach together with some international design criteria used for advanced reactors as well as international experience gained from the safety evaluation of the MHTGR, THTR, etc. A major requirement to this type of reactor is that it should comply with the current CNS risk criteria and provide, as a minimum, the same degree of protection to the operator, public and environment that is required for the current generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  4. ISO 14000 and the nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Nadia Soido Falcao

    1999-01-01

    As concern grows for maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and protecting human health, all the world is turning its attention to the potential environmental in pact of their industrial activities. One of the most important contribution in that way is the International Standard ISO 14000 series. In the utilization of nuclear energy, right from the inception, the safety of personnel, environment and the population has been the basic consideration. Over the years well established licenses criteria have been proposed to limit and control the environmental impact of the plant operation and emergencies situation. In this paper are discussed some specific requirements for implementation of the environmental management system specified by ISO 14000 compared to the environmental requirements for nuclear licensing. (author)

  5. Charge neutralization of small ion beam clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D R [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olson, C L; Hanson, D L [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The mega-ampere currents associated with light ion fusion (LIF) require excellent charge neutralization to prevent divergence growth. As the size and space-charge potential of a beam clump or `beamlet` become small (submillimeter size and kilovolt potentials), the neutralization becomes increasingly difficult. Linear theory predicts that plasma electrons cannot neutralize potentials < {phi}{sub crit} = (1/2)m{sub e}v{sub i}{sup 2}/e, where m{sub e} is the electron mass and v{sub i} is the ion beam velocity. A non-uniform beam would, therefore, have regions with potentials sufficient to add divergence to beam clumps. The neutralization of small beamlets produced on the SABLE accelerator and in numerical simulation has supported the theory, showing a plateau in divergence growths as the potential in the beamlet exceeds {phi}{sub crit}. (author). 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  6. Neutral beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staten, H.S.

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer

  7. Neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the beam injection program for the Doublet-3 device is discussed. The design considerations for the beam line and design parameters for the Doublet-3 ion souce are given. Major components of the neutral beam injector system are discussed in detail. These include the neutralizer, magnetic shielding, reflecting magnets, vacuum system, calorimeter and beam dumps, and drift duct. The planned location of the two-injector system for Doublet-3 is illustrated and site preparation is considered. The status of beamline units 1 and 2 and the future program schedule are discussed

  8. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar 1990) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  9. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commissions annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar year 1993) and cumulative data, usually for the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  10. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  11. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  12. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1990-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  13. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  14. Decommissioning licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

  15. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderholm, K., E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of high level Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing processes in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their different licensing processes and recent actions in new NPP construction. After discussing their similarities and differences, suitable features for Small Modular Reactor licensing can be emphasized and suggested. Some of the studied licensing processes have elements that are already quite well suited for application to SMRs, but all of these different national processes can benefit from studying and implementing lessons learned from SMR specific licensing needs. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are standardization of the design, modularity, mass production and serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single unit facility constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g., construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second is a facility structure composed of many reactor modules where modules are manufactured in factories and installed into the facility as needed (e.g., NuScale Power SMR design). Short construction schedules will not be fully benefited from if the long licensing process prolongs the commissioning and approach to full-power operation. The focus area of this study is to better understand the possibility of SMR deployment in small nuclear countries, such as Finland, which currently has four operating NPPs. The licensing process needs to be simple and clear to make SMR deployment feasible from an economical point of view. This paper uses public information and interviews with experts to establish the overview of the different licensing processes and their main steps. A high-level comparison of the licensing steps has been carried out. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and certain

  16. Waste management and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1980-01-01

    It is the Court's consideration of the repercussions the regulation on waste management of Sect. 9a of the Atomic Energy Law will have, relating to the licensing of a plant according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law which is noteworthy. Overruling its former legal conception, the Administrative Court Schleswig now assumes, together with the public opinion, that the problem of waste management being brought to a point only with the initial operation of a nuclear power station is accordingly to be taken into account in line with the discretion of licensing according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. In addition, the Administrative Court expressed its opinion on the extent to the right of a neighbour to a nuclear power station to file suit. According to the Sections 114 and 42 (2) of the rules of Administrative Courts it is true that a plaintiff cannot take action to set aside the licence because public interests have not been taken into account sufficiently, but he may do so because his own interests have not been included in the discretionary decision. The Administrative Court is reserved when qualifying the regulation on waste management with regard to the intensity of legal control. The Court is not supposed to replace controversial issues of technology and natural sciences on the part of the executive and its experts by its own assessment. According to the proceedings, the judicial review refers to the finding as to whether decisions made by authorities are suited - according to the way in which they were made - to guarantee the safety standard prescribed in Subdivision 3 of Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  17. Brand management of licensed innovation X

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    European start-up company has patented a packaging innovation concept for a certain the food product. The manufacturing and productization of the innovation will be licensed internationally for several participants. The Case Company is therefore interested to know what kind of opportunities and requirements potentially simultaneous strategic partnerships with licensees would mean for the brand of the innovation in theory and practice. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the current...

  18. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  19. Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent-fuel-storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.D.

    1982-11-01

    A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly

  20. Licensing Surrogate Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2017-06-01

    As medical technology continues to improve, more people will live longer lives with multiple chronic illnesses with increasing cumulative debilitation, including cognitive dysfunction. Combined with the aging of society in most developed countries, an ever-growing number of patients will require surrogate decision-makers. While advance care planning by patients still capable of expressing their preferences about medical interventions and end-of-life care can improve the quality and accuracy of surrogate decisions, this is often not the case, not infrequently leading to demands for ineffective, inappropriate and prolonged interventions. In 1980 LaFollette called for the licensing of prospective parents, basing his argument on the harm they can do to vulnerable people (children). In this paper, I apply his arguments to surrogate decision-makers for cognitively incapacitated patients, rhetorically suggesting that we require potential surrogates to qualify for this position by demonstrating their ability to make reasonable and rational decisions for others. I employ this theoretical approach to argue that the loose criteria by which we authorize surrogates' generally unchallenged power should be reconsidered.

  1. International assistance. Licensing assistance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.

    1999-01-01

    Description of licensing assistance project for VATESI is presented. In licensing of unit No.1 of INPP VATESI is supported by many western countries. Experts from regulatory bodies or scientific organizations of those countries assist VATESI staff in reviewing documentation presented by INPP. Among bilateral cooperation support is provided by European Commission through Phare programme

  2. Neutral-point current modeling and control for Neutral-Point Clamped three-level converter drive with small DC-link capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    A Neutral-Point-Clamped (NPC) three-level inverter with small DC-link capacitors is presented in this paper. This inverter requires zero average neutral-point current for stable neutral-point potential. A simple carrier based modulation strategy is proposed for achieving zero average neutral...... drive with only 14 μF DC-link capacitors. A fast and stable performance of the neutral-point voltage controller is achieved and verified by experiments....

  3. Practical issues in structuring seismic licensing and acquisition agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Some issues facing the geophysical industry in the area of licensing and acquisition agreements are discussed, focusing on a very large business segment of the industry called 'non-exclusive' seismic data (commonly referred to as SPEC data). A historical perspective of the industry in the Gulf of Mexico is presented, highlighting some important aspects of data licenses. The benefits of licensing three-dimensional data to the exploration industry include: (1) economy of scale, (2) 3-D is more affordable, (3) reduced barriers to entry by independents, and (4) improved success rates and reduced risk. A list of 'SPEC' companies in the Gulf of Mexico is provided and the data licensing process is outlined. There are two basic types of seismic data use licenses. The first is for a single, one-time transaction, and the other (which is more prevalent), covers multiple use licenses contemplated over a period of time. This paper briefly outlined the meaning of some important terms usually found in a license agreement, among them ownership, rights of licensee, term, disclosure to third parties, and transfer. International 'SPEC' programs and the requirements for a successful 'SPEC' program are described. The requirements include: a stable host government, reliable, competitive system of concession offerings, long term scheduled offerings, clear, consistent, and acceptable concession terms to oil and gas companies, and consistent, fair and timely method of evaluating bids and awarding concessions. 001CA9901758

  4. Mod en neutral seksualitet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    Towards a Neutral Sexuality! or Roland Barthes as a Queer Thinker? This article argues that the work of Roland Barthes has interesting perspectives in common with the queer theory. This argument will be put forward by using his concept of ‘the neutral’ that Barthes defines as “that which outplays...

  5. Issues in neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental results on low energy confirming the structure of the effective Lagrangian of the weak neutral current processes as predicted by the Salam-Weinberg model are reviewed. Some possible modifications of the effective Lagrangian and the feasibility of their experimental verification are also considered. (P.L.)

  6. Optimal neutral beam heating scenario for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal neutral beam heating scenarios are determined for FED based on a 1/one-half/-D transport analysis. Tradeoffs are examined between neutral beam energy, power, and species mix for positive ion systems. A ramped density startup is found to provide the most economical heating. The resulting plasma power requirements are reduced by 10-30% from a constant density startup. For beam energies between 100 and 200 keV, the power needed to heat the plasma does not decrease significantly as beam energy is increased. This is due to reduced ion heating, more power in the fractional energy components, and rising power supply requirements as beam energy increases

  7. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  8. The Monticello license renewal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, J.M.; Harrison, D.L.; Pickens, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 111 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States. The operating license of the oldest operating plant will expire in 2003, one-third of the existing operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the newest plant's operating license will expire in 2033. The National Energy Strategy (NES) prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) assumes that 70 percent of the current operating plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration. Power from current operating plants can assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth and improved U.S. competitiveness. In order to preserve this energy resource, three major tasks must be successfully completed: (1) establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of License Renewal Applications (LRAs); (2) development of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing or replacing plant equipment; and (3) demonstration of the regulatory process by a plant obtaining a renewed license. Since 1986, the DOE has been working with the nuclear industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of a nuclear power plant by renewing the operating license. The Monticello Lead Plant demonstration project was initiated in September 1988, following the Pilot Plant studies. This paper is primarily focused on the status and insights gained from the Northern States Power Company (NSP) Monticello Lead Plant demonstration project. The following information is included: (1) Current Status - Monticello License Renewal Application; (2) Economic Analysis; (3) License Renewal Regulatory Uncertainty Issues; (4) Key Decisions; (5) Management Structure; (6) Technical and Licensing Perspective; (7) NRC Interactions; (8) Summary

  9. License application approach for the California LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology, Inc. is the State of California's license designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility to serve member states of the Southwestern Compact. US Ecology identified a proposed site in the Ward Valley of southeastern California in March 1988. Following proposed site selection, US Ecology undertook studies required to prepare a license application. US Ecology's license application for this desert site was deemed complete for detailed regulatory review by the California Department of Health Services (DHS) in December 1989. By mutual agreement, disposal of mixed waste is not proposed pending the State of California's decision on appropriate management of this small LLRW subset

  10. Looking at the licensability of System 80+ in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    There are today no internationally-sanctioned nuclear power plant design or licensing guidelines, or acceptance criteria, available for a standard plant design that would have multi-national regulatory acceptability. On the contrary, a diversity of national regulations govern the design and licensing of nuclear power stations around the world. When licensing a nuclear facility in this environment, it is important for all parties (utility, designer and regulator) to recognise consciously that there are numerous solutions available to satisfy varying safety requirements. There is no one right-way - there are only trade-offs justified on safety, performance benefit and cost, which, taken together, fashion designs that conform to national licensing requirements. (Author)

  11. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    a special standing or facilitated access to operating licenses due to their experimental character, the move of wave energy projects towards commercial applications implies complex procedures for obtaining licenses both with respect to the construction and deployment and operation phases, as well......The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... as concerning ocean space use and environmental concerns. Despite recent efforts to streamline European EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in general, potential project developers are far from having a clear view of present and future requirements concerning these barriers on a trans-national level...

  12. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  13. 31 CFR 596.306 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.306 License. Except as otherwise specified, the term license means any license or...

  14. 31 CFR 596.305 - General license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.305 General license. The term general license means any license or authorization...

  15. Role of fission gas release in reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    The release of fission gases from oxide pellets to the fuel rod internal voidage (gap) is reviewed with regard to the required safety analysis in reactor licensing. Significant analyzed effects are described, prominent gas release models are reviewed, and various methods used in the licensing process are summarized. The report thus serves as a guide to a large body of literature including company reports and government documents. A discussion of the state of the art of gas release analysis is presented

  16. Presentation of reports for licensing of industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NE.6.02. 'Licensing of Radioactive Facilities', expressed in the section 6 related to the information for Previous Approval, in the subsection 7.2 related to the information for the Construction Licensing and in the subsection 9.2, related to the information for the Authorization for operation, for the specific case of industrial irradiators

  17. Systems engineering and the licensing of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesa, T., E-mail: tkulesa@us.ibm.com [IBM, Philidelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Soderholm, K., E-mail: Kristiina.Soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Fechtelkotter, P., E-mail: pfech@us.ibm.com [IBM, Boston, Massacheusets (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Both global warming and the need for dependable sources of energy continue to make nuclear power generation an appealing option. But a history of cost overruns, project delays, and environmental disaster has pushed the industry to innovate and design a more flexible, scalable, and safe source of nuclear energy - the small modular reactor. Innovation in generation technology creates disruption in already complex licensing and regulatory processes. This paper discusses how the application of systems engineering and requirements management can help combat confusion, rework, and efficiency problems across the engineering and compliance life cycle. The paper is based on the PhD Dissertation 'Licensing Model Development for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) - Focusing on Finnish Regulatory Framework', approved in 2013. The result of the study gives recommendations and tools to develop and optimize the licensing process for SMRs. The most important SMR-specific feature, in terms of licensing, is the modularity of the design. Here the modularity indicates multi-module SMR designs, which creates new challenges in the licensing process. Another feature impacting licensing feasibility is the plan to build many standardized power plants in series and use factory-fabricated modules to optimize the construction costs. SMR licensing challenges are under discussion in many international forums, such as World Nuclear Association Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing Small Modular Reactor group (WNA CORDEL SMR) group and IAEA INPRO regulators' forum. This paper also presents an application of the new licensing process using Systems Engineering, Requirements Management, and Project Management practices and tools. (author)

  18. Systems engineering and the licensing of Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesa, T.; Soderholm, K.; Fechtelkotter, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both global warming and the need for dependable sources of energy continue to make nuclear power generation an appealing option. But a history of cost overruns, project delays, and environmental disaster has pushed the industry to innovate and design a more flexible, scalable, and safe source of nuclear energy - the small modular reactor. Innovation in generation technology creates disruption in already complex licensing and regulatory processes. This paper discusses how the application of systems engineering and requirements management can help combat confusion, rework, and efficiency problems across the engineering and compliance life cycle. The paper is based on the PhD Dissertation 'Licensing Model Development for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) - Focusing on Finnish Regulatory Framework', approved in 2013. The result of the study gives recommendations and tools to develop and optimize the licensing process for SMRs. The most important SMR-specific feature, in terms of licensing, is the modularity of the design. Here the modularity indicates multi-module SMR designs, which creates new challenges in the licensing process. Another feature impacting licensing feasibility is the plan to build many standardized power plants in series and use factory-fabricated modules to optimize the construction costs. SMR licensing challenges are under discussion in many international forums, such as World Nuclear Association Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing Small Modular Reactor group (WNA CORDEL SMR) group and IAEA INPRO regulators' forum. This paper also presents an application of the new licensing process using Systems Engineering, Requirements Management, and Project Management practices and tools. (author)

  19. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units is provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the ERRATA page. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  20. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  1. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units are provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the ERRATA page. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  2. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus

  3. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  4. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Hutton, Olivia; Galloway, James; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Stephen Tenywa, John; Mudiope, Joseph; Cordovil, Claudia M d S; Bekunda, Mateete

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US$ 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates. (paper)

  5. Advanced CANDU reactor pre-licensing progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.K.; West, J.; Snell, V.G.; Ion, R.; Archinoff, G.; Xu, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) is an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor, aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) staff are currently reviewing the ACR design to determine whether, in their opinion, there are any fundamental barriers that would prevent the licensing of the design in Canada. This CNSC licensability review will not constitute a licence, but is expected to reduce regulatory risk. The CNSC pre-licensing review started in September 2003, and was focused on identifying topics and issues for ACR-700 that will require a more detailed review. CNSC staff reviewed about 120 reports, and issued to AECL 65 packages of questions and comments. Currently CNSC staff is reviewing AECL responses to all packages of comments. AECL has recently refocused the design efforts to the ACR-1000, which is a larger version of the ACR design. During the remainder of the pre-licensing review, the CNSC review will be focused on the ACR-1000. AECL Technologies Inc. (AECLT), a wholly-owned US subsidiary of AECL, is engaged in a pre-application process for the ACR-700 with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and resolve major issues prior to entering a formal process to obtain standard design certification. To date, the USNRC has produced a Pre-Application Safety Assessment Report (PASAR), which contains their reviews of key focus topics. During the remainder of the pre-application phase, AECLT will address the issues identified in the PASAR. Pursuant to the bilateral agreement between AECL and the Chinese nuclear regulator, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and its Nuclear Safety Center (NSC), NNSA/NSC are reviewing the ACR in seven focus areas. The review started in September 2004, and will take three years. The main objective of the review is to determine how the ACR complies

  6. Licensing of ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.W.; Garea, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general description of the licensing of the 20 MW Pool-type Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) currently being built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at their Lucas Heights site. The following aspects will be addressed: 1) The influence of ARPANSA's (the Australian regulator) Regulatory Assessment Principles and Design Criteria on the design of the RRR. 2) The Site Licence Application, including the EIS and the supporting siting documentation. 3) The Construction Licence Application, including the PSAR and associated documentation. 4) The review process, including the IAEA Peer Review and the Public Submissions as well as ARPANSA's own review. 5) The interface between ANSTO, INVAP and ARPANSA in relation to the ongoing compliance with ARPANS Regulation 51 and 54. 6) The future Operating Licence Application, including the draft FSAR and associated documentation. These aspects are all addressed from the point of view of the licensee ANSTO and the RRR Project. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and how the licensing and regulatory regime within Australia influenced the design of the RRR. In particular, the safety design features that have been incorporated as a result of the specific requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator will be briefly described. The paper will close with a description of how the RRR meets, and in many aspects exceeds the requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator. (author)

  7. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Rønde, Thomas; Fosfuri, Andrea

    the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend upon product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...... licensing opportunities since the rewards for licensing are (optimally) weaker than those for product market profits. This distortion is stronger when production-based incentives are more powerful, making centralization more attractive. Growth of technology markets favors centralization and drives higher...

  8. FOSS License Selection and Code Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vescuso, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With nearly 2,000 free and open source software (FLOSS) licenses, software license proliferation¿ can be a major headache for software development organizations trying to speed development through software component reuse, as well as companies redistributing software packages as components of their products. Scope is one problem: from the Free Beer license to the GPL family of licenses to platform-specific licenses such as Apache and Eclipse, the number and variety of licenses make it difficu...

  9. License - RGP gmap98 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap98 License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/02/12 You may use this database...e license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attributio...n-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as foll...on-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this datab

  10. License - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us ChIP-Atlas License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2016/06/24 You may use this database...e license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attributio...n-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...national is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database

  11. Licensing schedule for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has authority to issue licenses for Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations for the storage of spent nuclear fuel. This report presents a detailed estimate of the time required to prosecute a licensing action. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention

  12. License - Nikkaji-InChI Mapping Table | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Nikkaji-InChI Mapping Table License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/05/22 You may use this database...ense specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative C...ommons Attribution 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as... . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and acqu

  13. License - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us BodyParts3D License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2011/08/25 You may use this database...he license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attributi...on-Share Alike 2.1 Japan. If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as foll...here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and

  14. License - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj - Ortholog DB License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/03/07 You may use this database...cifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons A...ttribution-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...hare Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely acces

  15. Reactor licensing process: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in its review of applications for licenses to construct and operate nuclear power plants, is required to consider those measures necessary to ensure the protection of the health and safety of the public and the environment. The article discusses the NRC staff procedures and policies for conducting the detailed safety, environmental, and antitrust reviews that provide the basis for these assurances. Included is a discussion of the improvements to the licensing process currently being proposed or implemented to enhance its stability and predictability for the benefit of all involved with the regulation of nuclear power. The views and opinions expressed in the article are those of the author alone and do not represent positions of the NRC

  16. Software licenses: Good fences make good neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, J.G.; Woodyard, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basis for a good contract is that it is beneficial to both parties. A good foundation will cement the responsibilities and obligations of the parties after areas of agreement have been negotiated. Unfortunately, software licenses do not always reflect what is best for all. Some clauses are definitely for the benefit of the vendor, while others are required by a prudent client. The resulting contract is then a matter of reasonable compromise to achieve a good business relationship. Major issues of warranty, liability, training, support, and payment may be in conflict. Such topics as maintenance, testing, patents, extent of use, and return of software are often overlooked or addressed unevenly. This paper addresses these subjects and provides guidelines for software licenses. An understanding of legal phrases is of value. A better understanding of the viewpoints of both the vendor and the client results in a better working relationship

  17. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  18. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  19. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  20. To License or Not to License Revisited: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Lonardo; Doug White; Alan Rea

    2009-01-01

    In this update to the previous year's study, the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner lice...

  1. Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions | Climate Neutral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuses | NREL Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions Climate Neutral Campus Key Terms and Definitions The term climate neutral evolved along with net zero and a number of other "green" and accuracy in these areas lets research campuses know exactly how close they are to climate

  2. Licensing decisions and safety research related to LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise, R.P.; Speis, T.P.; Kelber, C.N.; Curtis, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    The licensing approach which ensures adequate protection of the public health and safety against serious accidents is described. This paper describes the role of core melt and core disruptive accidents in the design, safety research, and licensing processes, using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) as a focal point. Major design attention is placed on the prevention of these accidents so that the probability of core melt accidents is reduced to a sufficiently low level that they are not treated as design basis accidents. Additional requirements are placed upon the design to further reduce residual risk. This licensing process is supported by a confirmatory research program designed to provide an independent basis for licensing judgements. It has as a goal the resolution of generic safety issues prior to the establishment of a commercial LMFBR industry. The program includes accident analysis, experiments in materials interactions, aerosol transport and system integrity and planning for new safety test facilities. The problems are approached in a multi-disciplinary functional manner that identifies key safety issues and centralizes efforts to resolve them. The near term objectives of the program support the licensing of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) and the proposed Prototype Large Breeder Reactor (PLBR). The long term objectives of the program support the licensing of commercial LMFBRs during the late 1980's and beyond. This safety research is designed to provide an independent basis for the licensing judgements which must be made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. Reassessing Occupational Licensing Of Tour Guides (Opinion Piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir SHANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is conventionally held that to protect tourists from incompetent and/or unscrupulous tour guides, governments should require guides to be licensed in order to legally practice their profession. Despite the implementation of such regulatory statutes in many countries, it is argued in this opinion paper that the severe drawbacks of licensing demands should be re-evaluated by both policy-makers and tourism scholars. The licensing of guides is not only an ineffective means of quality assurance, with negative consequences for many of those involved, but it also undermines the ethical foundations of a free society. Furthermore, licensing is an archaic practice for ensuring standardization among the members of a profession in a way that is no longer suitable for addressing the challenges of the tourism industry in the 21st century, in which a wide variety of specialized and innovative guided tours are offered to tourists. Although this commentary presents a firm stand against the compulsory licensing of tour guides, it should be seen as an invitation for open discussion among tourism researchers regarding the necessity of licensing tour guides in particular, and of government tourism regulation in general. Moreover, further research is needed to clarify key points on the issue of the professional licensing of tour guides.

  4. Environmental licensing issues for cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, G.S.; Bibbo, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    The siting and licensing of cogeneration and independent power production (IPP) facilities is a complex process involving a number of interrelated engineering, economic, and environmental impact considerations. Important considerations for the siting and licensing of such facilities include air quality control and air quality impacts, water supply and wastewater disposal, and applicable noise criteria and noise impact considerations. Air quality control and air quality impact considerations for power generation facilities are commonly reviewed in the public forum, and most project developers are generally aware of the key air quality licensing issues. These issues include Best Available Control Technology (BACT) demonstration requirements, and air quality modeling requirements. BACT is a case-by-case determination, which causes uncertainty, in that developers have difficulty in projecting the cost of required control systems. Continuing developments in control technology may cause this problem to continue in the 1990's. Air quality modeling can be a problem in hilly terrain or within or near an urban environment, which could delay or preclude permitting of a new cogeneration or IPP facility in such locations. This paper discusses several environmental issues which are less frequently addressed than air quality issues, namely water/wastewater and noise. The design features of typical cogeneration and IPP facilities that affect water supply requirements, wastewater volumes, and noise emissions are discussed. Then, the site selection and impact review process are examined to identify typical constraints and trade-offs that can develop relative to water, wastewater, and noise issues. Trends in permit review requirements for water, wastewater, and noise are examined. Finally, innovative approaches that can be used to resolve potential development constraints for water, wastewater, and noise issues are discussed

  5. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  6. Licensing of nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Recommendations are presented for the licensing of nuclear reactor operators in units licensed according to the legislation in effect. They apply to all physical persons designated by the Operating Organization of the nuclear reactor or reactors to execute any of the following functional activities: a) to manipulate the controls of a definite reactor b) to direct the authorized activities of the reactor operators licesed according to the present recommendations. (F.E.) [pt

  7. DOE Patents Available for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuber, C.

    1981-01-01

    DOE Patents Available for Licensing (DOE PAL) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the DOE patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any apsect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The citations are arranged by subject category. DOE is prepared to grant exclusive or nonexclusive, revocable licenses under DOE-owned US patents and patent applications in accordance with the provisions of 10CFR781

  8. The USNCR license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Pao-Tsin

    2002-01-01

    The US Congress promulgated a law in 1954, entitled 'Atomic Energy Act'. This Act states that operating licenses for commercial nuclear power plants are limited to a fixed term of 40 years, but they may be renewed for a period not to exceed 20 years. The terms were established mainly for economic considerations, not based on technical limitations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the license renewal rule, Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), in December, 1991. The rule has since been amended in May, 1995. The underlying principle of the rule is that the regulatory process is adequate for ensuring safety of operating plants. The regulatory process includes NRC's issuance of Orders, Bulletins, Generic Letters, and Information Notices, as well as a number of special inspections in addition to the continuous oversight and routine inspection activities performed by on-site inspectors. Because of this comprehensive regulatory process, compilation of the current license basis or re-verification of the current licensing basis is not considered necessary for a license renewal review. The USNRC also determined on the basis of the findings of its research programs that active structures and components are well maintained by the existing programs. Therefore, the focus of the license renewal review is on passive, long-lived structures and components and on time-limited ageing analyses. The time-limited ageing analyses are for those structures and components which were originally designed to a 40 year service life

  9. The strategy of experimental power reactor licensing in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch Djoko Birmano

    2015-01-01

    Currently, BATAN has being planned to develop Experimental Power Reactor (EPR), that is the research nuclear reactor that can generate power (electricity or heat). The EPR is planned will be built in the National Center for Research of Science and Technology (Puspiptek) area at Serpong, South Tangerang, Banten Province, with the choice of reactor types is HTGR with the power size of 10 MWth. As stated in the Act No. 10 year 1997 on Nuclear Power, that every construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other nuclear installations and decommissioning of nuclear reactors required to have a permit. Furthermore, the its implementation arrangements is regulated in Government Regulation (GR) No. 2 year 2014 on Licensing of Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Material Utilization, which contains the requirements and procedures for the licensing process since site, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning, it means licensing is implemented during the activity of construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs.While, for the more detailed licensing arrangements available in the guidelines of BAPETEN Chairman Regulation (BCR). This study was conducted to understand the legal and institutional aspects, types and stages, and the licensing process of RDE, and identify licensing strategy so that timely as planned. Methodologies used include the literature study, consultation with experts in BAPETEN, discussions in the national seminar including FGD. (author)

  10. Neutral beam injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Integrated into the operation of the 2XIIB controlled fusion experiment is a 600-A, 20-keV neutral injection system: the highest neutral-beam current capacity of any existing fusion machine. This paper outlines the requirements of the injection system and the design features to which they led. Both mechanical and electrical aspects are discussed. Also included is a brief description of some operational aspects of the system and some of the things we have learned along the way, as well as a short history of the most significant developments

  11. 76 FR 51376 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Computed Tomography Description of Technology: Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis result in loss of... humanization required. Highly potent neutralizing antibodies. Biological materials available. Development Stage...; [email protected] . Methods of Treating Giardiasis Using FDA-Approved Compounds Description of...

  12. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  13. Decay power evaluation for licensing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Schrock, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ANSI/ANS 5.1-1979 Standard on Decay Power in shutdown reactors has been available as the basis for accident analysis for the past 7 yr. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has made a commitment to use this standard in new licensing approaches and has approved a licensing model for boiling water. More sweeping changes in the licensing rules are currently under review that will involve the use of best-estimate models and a statistical evaluation of the uncertainty (95% confidence level) in the key results. The structure of the decay power standard is well suited for such applications because it provides a statistically meaningful uncertainty in the decay power from fission products. The normalized decay power is a function specific to each point in the reactor volume due to the fact that the fuel composition develops a spatial dependence as burnup proceeds and decay power depends on the mix of fissioning nuclides. For reactor safety calculations it is desirable to employ a single temporal decay power function for the whole core inasmuch as many variations of accident parameters are required. This is the usual approach in large system thermal-hydraulics codes. Such a single representative or generic curve for a specified total operating power history can be acceptable but at the expense of some increase in the uncertainty. In this paper, the author present a method of evaluating the additional uncertainty in the decay power associated with use of a generic curve

  14. Bremsstrahlung and neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the bremsstrahlung process in detecting parity violations from V-A weak neutral current interference is analysed in two ways. Firstly, bremsstrahlung from polarized lepton-nucleus scattering has an asymmetry with respect to the polarization of the incident leptons, and secondly, bremsstrahlung from unpolarized lepton nucleus scattering has a small circular polarization. The magnitude of each effect is calculated. The ratio of the parity violating contribution and the parity conserving contribution to the cross section is shown to be a misleading measure of the utility of these experiments. A parameter, the figure of merit, is introduced and used to discuss the feasibility of possible experiments

  15. TFTR neutral beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Murray, H.; Winje, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR NB System will be composed of four beam lines, each containing three ion sources presently being developed for TFTR by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) will provide the necessary power required to operate these Ion Sources in both an experimental or operational mode as well as test mode. This paper describes the technical as well as the administrative/management aspects involved in the development and building of this system. The NBPS will combine the aspects of HV pulse (120 kV) and long pulse width (0.5 sec) together to produce a high power system that is unique in the Electrical Engineering field

  16. Plasma neutralizer for H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutralization of H - beams by a hydrogen plasma is discussed. Optimum target thickness and maximum neutralization efficiency as a function of the fraction of the hydrogen target gas ionized is calculated for different H - beam energies. Also, the variation of neutralization efficiency with respect to target thickness for different H - beam energies is computed. The dispersion of the neutralized beam by a magnetic field for different energies and different values of B . z is found. Finally, a type of plasma jet is proposed, which may be suitable for a compact H - neutralizer

  17. Modeling of the lithium based neutralizer for ITER neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dure, F., E-mail: franck.dure@u-psud.fr [LPGP, Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Lifschitz, A.; Bretagne, J.; Maynard, G. [LPGP, Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Simonin, A. [IRFM, Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion Magnetique, CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Minea, T. [LPGP, Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Orsay (France)

    2012-04-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare different lithium based neutraliser configurations to the deuterium one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study characteristics of the secondary plasma and the propagation of the 1 MeV beam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using lithium increases the neutralisation effiency keeping correct beam focusing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using lithium also reduces the backstreaming effect in direction of the ion source. - Abstract: To achieve thermonuclear temperatures necessary to produce fusion reactions in the ITER Tokamak, additional heating systems are required. One of the main method to heat the plasma ions in ITER will be the injection of energetic neutrals (NBI). In the neutral beam injector, negative ions (D{sup -}) are electrostatically accelerated to 1 MeV, and then stripped of their extra electron via collisions with a target gas, in a structure known as neutralizer. In the current ITER specification, the target gas is deuterium. It has been recently proposed to use lithium vapor instead of deuterium as target gas in the neutralizer. This would allow to reduce the gas load in the NBI vessel and to improve the neutralization efficiency. A Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo code has been developed to study the transport of the beams and the plasma formation in the neutralizer. A comparison between Li and D{sub 2} based neutralizers made with this code is presented here, as well as a parametric study on the geometry of the Li based neutralizer. Results demonstrate the feasibility of a Li based neutralizer, and its advantages with respect to the deuterium based one.

  18. NRC licensing of uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing a rule making that establishes the licensing requirements for low-enriched uranium enrichment plants. Although implementation of this rule making is timed to correspond with receipt of a license application for the Louisiana Energy Services centrifuge enrichment plant, the rule making is applicable to all uranium enrichment technologies. If ownership of the US gaseous diffusion plants and/or atomic vapor laser isotope separation is transferred to a private or government corporation, these plants also would be licensable under the new rule making. The Safeguards Studies Department was tasked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in support of the rule making and guidance preparation process. The initial and primary effort of this task involved the characterization of the potential safeguards concerns associated with a commercial enrichment plant, and the licensing issues associated with these concerns. The primary safeguards considerations were identified as detection of the loss of special nuclear material, detection of unauthorized production of material of low strategic significance, and detection of production of uranium enriched to >10% 235 U. The primary safeguards concerns identified were (1) large absolute limit of error associated with the material balance closing, (2) the inability to shutdown some technologies to perform a cleanout inventory of the process system, and (3) the flexibility of some technologies to produce higher enrichments. Unauthorized production scenarios were identified for some technologies that could prevent conventional material control and accounting programs from detecting the production and removal of 5 kg 235 U as highly enriched uranium. Safeguards techniques were identified to mitigate these concerns

  19. PLT neutral injection ignitron accelerating supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashcroft, D.L.; Murray, J.G.; Newman, R.A.; Peterson, F.L.

    1975-11-01

    A phase-controlled rectifier was designed for the accelerating supply on the PLT Neutral Beam Injection system at PPPL. The rectifier must furnish 70 amperes at up to 50 KV for 300 milliseconds, with a duty cycle of up to 10 percent. Protection of the injectors requires the supply to withstand repeated crowbarring. The rectifying element selected to satisfy these requirements was a commercially-available ignitron, installed in a supporting frame and using firing circuits and controls designed by PPPL

  20. PLT neutral injection ignitron accelerating supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashcroft, D.L.; Murray, J.G.; Newman, R.A.; Peterson, F.L.

    1976-03-01

    A phase-controlled rectifier has been designed for the accelerating supply on the PLT Neutral Beam Injection system at PPPL. The rectifier must furnish 70 amperes at up to 50 KV for 300 milliseconds, with a duty cycle of up to 10 percent. Protection of the injectors requires the supply to withstand repeated crowbarring. The rectifying element selected to satisfy these requirements was a commercially-available ignitron, installed in a supporting frame and using firing circuits and controls designed by PPPL

  1. To License or Not to License Remanufacturing Business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Jun Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs face the choice of whether to license an independent remanufacturer (IR to remanufacture their used products. In this paper, we develop closed-loop supply chain models with licensed and unlicensed remanufacturing operations to analyze the competition and cooperation between an OEM and an IR. The OEM sells new products and collects used products through trade-ins, while the IR intercepts the OEM’s cores to produce remanufactured products and sell them in the same market. We derive optimal decisions for each of the two types of firms in licensed and unlicensed remanufacturing scenarios and identify conditions under which the OEM and the IR would be most likely to cooperate with each other in implementing remanufacturing. The results show although it is beneficial for an OEM to license an IR to remanufacture its cores, it is not always necessary for an IR to accept OEM’s authorization. Moreover, we contrast the result for licensed remanufacturing scenario in the decentralized system with that in the centrally coordinated system to quantify potential inefficiency resulting from decentralization of decision making.

  2. 24 CFR 3286.207 - Process for obtaining installation license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... installation license must submit verification of the experience required in § 3286.205(a). This verification may be in the form of statements by past or present employers or a self-certification that the applicant meets those experience requirements, but HUD may contact the applicant for additional verification...

  3. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the components of the Neutral Beam Lines of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will be enclosed in a 50 cubic meter box-shaped vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented

  4. Neutral pumping rates for a next step tokamak ignition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Neutral pumping rates are calculated for pump-limiter and divertor options of a next step tokamak ignition device using a method that accounts for the coupled effects of neutral transport and plasma transport. For both pump limiters and divertors the plasma flow into the channel surrounding the neutralizer plate is greatly reduced by the neutral recycling. The fraction of this flow that is pumped can be large (>50%) but in general is dependent on the particular geometry and plasma conditions. It is estimated that pumping speeds greater than or approximately 10 5 L/s are adequate for the exhaust requirements in the pump-limiter and the divertor cases

  5. Serbia's Military Neutrality: Origins, effects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejdus Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serbia is the only state in the Western Balkans that is not seeking NATO membership. In December 2007, Serbia declared military neutrality and in spite of its EU membership aspirations, developed very close relations with Moscow. The objective of this paper is threefold. First, I argue that in order to understand why Serbia declared military neutrality, one has to look both at the discursive terrain and domestic power struggles. The key narrative that was strategically used by mnemonic entrepreneurs, most importantly by the former Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica, to legitimize military neutrality was the trauma of NATO intervention in 1999 and the ensuing secession of Kosovo. In the second part of the paper, I discuss the operational consequences of the military neutrality policy for Serbia's relations with NATO and Russia, as well as for military reform and EU accession. Finally, I spell out the challenges ahead in Serbia's neutrality policy and argue that its decision makers will increasingly be caught between pragmatic foreign policy requirements on the one hand and deeply entrenched traumatic memories on the other.

  6. Neutral helium beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rezwanul

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses the development of a code where diagnostic neutral helium beam can be used as a probe. The code solves numerically the evolution of the population densities of helium atoms at their several different energy levels as the beam propagates through the plasma. The collisional radiative model has been utilized in this numerical calculation. The spatial dependence of the metastable states of neutral helium atom, as obtained in this numerical analysis, offers a possible diagnostic tool for tokamak plasma. The spatial evolution for several hypothetical plasma conditions was tested. Simulation routines were also run with the plasma parameters (density and temperature profiles) similar to a shot in the Princeton beta experiment modified (PBX-M) tokamak and a shot in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor tokamak. A comparison between the simulation result and the experimentally obtained data (for each of these two shots) is presented. A good correlation in such comparisons for a number of such shots can establish the accurateness and usefulness of this probe. The result can possibly be extended for other plasma machines and for various plasma conditions in those machines.

  7. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.M.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  8. Licensing process characteristics of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Söderholm, Kristiina, E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Tuunanen, Jari, E-mail: jari.tuunanen@fortum.com [Fortum Power (Finland); Amaba, Ben, E-mail: baamaba@us.ibm.com [IBM Complex Systems (United States); Bergqvist, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.bergqvist@se.ibm.com [IBM Rational Software (Sweden); Lusardi, Paul, E-mail: plusardi@nuscalepower.com [NuScale Power (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We examine the licensing process challenges of modular nuclear facilities. • We compare the features of Small Modular Reactors and spent nuclear fuel repository. • We present the need of nuclear licensing simplification. • Part of the licensing is proposed to be internationally applicable. • Systems engineering and requirements engineering benefits are presented. - Abstract: This paper aims to increase the understanding of the licensing processes characteristics of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) compared with licensing of spent nuclear fuel repository. The basis of the SMR licensing process development lies in licensing processes used in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their various licensing processes and recent actions in the new NPP construction. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and selected practices have been investigated as possibly suitable for use in nuclear licensing. Suitable features for SMR licensing are emphasized and suggested. The licensing features of the spent nuclear fuel deep repository along with similar features of SMR licensing are discussed. Since there are similar types of challenges of lengthy licensing time frames, as well as modular features to be taken into account in licensing, these two different nuclear industry fields can be compared. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are: • Standardization of the design. • Modularity. • Mass production. • Serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single power plant unit constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g. construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second one a power plant composed of many reactor modules, which are manufactured in factories and installed as needed (e.g. NuScale Power SMR design). The deep underground repository

  9. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  10. Procedural Aspects of Compulsory Licensing Under TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    and discussion addressed the framework and context for CL provided by the TRIPS convention. Both the specific requirements enshrined in TRIPS art 31 and the broader objectives and principles enshrined in TRIPS, e.g. transfer and dissemination of technology (art 7), protection of public health (art 8......In 2013, Indian authorities granted a compulsory license to NATCO Pharmaceuticals for a patented pharmaceutical product sold by Bayer. This decision raised several complex issues regarding the grant a CL and their consistency with the principles and objectives of TRIPS. Furthermore, in January 2017...

  11. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez P, R.; Mamani A, Y.R.; Salgado G, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  12. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  13. Licensing of New Nuclear Power Plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Garry; Miller, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The regulatory process for new power plant licensing in Canada, from receipt of the initial application to commercial operation, can be divided into three phases: - Environmental Assessment (EA) and License to Prepare Site; - License to Construct; and - License to Operate. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) does not have provisions for combined licenses for site preparation, construction, or operation. Separate licenses must, therefore, be granted for each phase, and would be issued in sequence. However, applications to prepare a site, to construct and to operate a new nuclear power plant could be assessed in parallel. The total duration from the application for the License to Prepare Site to the issuance of the License to Operate (which is a prerequisite for first fuel load) has been established as 9 years subject to certain factors. To help facilitate this timeline, the CNSC has undertaken an aggressive program of documenting regulatory practices, requirements and guidance to assist applicants in submitting complete applications. Working level procedures to assist CNSC staff in their review of submissions are also under development. Extensive program and project management has been introduced to ensure that timelines will be achieved. In parallel with the above activities, regulatory oversight measures to be employed during site preparation activities and plant construction and commissioning are also being developed. On the international front, the CNSC is participating in the MDEP program to leverage the resources and knowledge of other national regulatory authorities in reviews the CNSC is undertaking. The CNSC also participates in IAEA and other international activities to utilize/adapt international practices as appropriate in Canada. (authors)

  14. Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel annual report, fiscal year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, B.P. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    In Fiscal Year 1989, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (ASLBP) handled 40 proceedings involving the construction, operation and maintenance of commercial nuclear power reactors or other activities requiring a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This report summarizes, highlights and analyzes how the wide-ranging issues raised in these proceedings were addressed by the Judges and Licensing Boards of the ASLBP during the year. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Improvement suggestions on license extension management for civil nuclear safety equipment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingjian; Liu Hongji; Han Guoli; Jia Fengcai

    2013-01-01

    Based on the concepts of Clear Requirements, Comprehensive Review, Objective Assessment, Dynamic Management, this paper gives improvement suggestions on license extension management for civil nuclear safety equipment design, manufacture, installation and non-destructive examination activities, which include establishing a relatively unified license extension review standard, combining multi-views and close linking license review and supervision, full utilizing the daily supervision and inspection results, as well as further improving motivation and elimination mechanism. (authors)

  16. Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel annual report, Fiscal year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    In Fiscal Year 1992, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (''the Panel'') handled 38 proceedings. The cases addressed issues in the construction, operation, and maintenance of commercial nuclear power reactors and other activities requiring a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This reports sets out the Panel's caseload during the year and summarizes, highlights, and analyzes how the wide-ranging issues raised in those proceedings were addressed by the Panel's judges and licensing boards

  17. Methodology and findings of the NRC`s materials licensing process redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, P.A.; Brown, K.D.; Madera, J.R.; Moriarty, M.; Pelchat, J.M.; Usilton, W.K.; Whitten, J.E.; Vacca, P.C.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the work and vision of the team chartered to redesign the process for licensing users of nuclear materials. The Business Process Redesign team was chartered to improve the speed of the existing licensing process while maintaining or improving public safety and to achieve required resource levels. The report describes the team`s methods for acquiring and analyzing information about the existing materials licensing process and the steps necessary to radically change this process to the envisioned future process.

  18. Licensing management system prototype system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immerman, W.H.; Arcuni, A.A.; Elliott, J.M.; Chapman, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a design document for a prototype implementation of a licensing management system (LMS) as defined in SAND83-7080. It describes the concept of operations for full implementation of an LMS in accordance with the previously defined functional requirements. It defines a subset of a full LMS suitable for meeting prototype implementation goals, and proposes a system design for this subset. The report describes overall system design considerations consistent with, but more explicit than the general characteristics required by the LMS functional definition. A high level design is presented for just those functions selected for prototype implementation. The report also provides a data element dictionary describing the structured logical data elements required to implement the selected functions

  19. Licensing of MAPLE reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Labrie, J.P.; Langman, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Operating Licence for a MAPLE reactor (i.e., a 10 MW(th), pool-type reactor), has been approved by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on August 16th, 1999. This Operating Licence has been obtained within three years of the initiation of the MDS Nordion Medical Isotopes Reactor (MMIR) project, which entails the design, construction and commissioning of two 10 MW MAPLE reactors at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. The scope and nature of the information required by the AECB, the licensing process and highlights of the events which led to successfully obtaining the Operating Licence for the MAPLE reactor are discussed. These discussions address all phases of the licensing process (i.e., the environmental assessment in support of siting, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, PSAR, in support of design, procurement and construction, the Final Safety Analysis Report, FSAR, in support of commissioning and operations, and the development of suitable quality assurance subprograms for each phase). An overview of some of the unique technical aspects associated with the MAPLE reactors, and how they have been addressed during the licensing process are also provided (e.g., applying CSA N285.0, General Requirements for Pressure-Retaining Systems and Components in CANDU Nuclear Power Plants, to a small, low pressure, low temperature research reactor, confirmation of the performance of the driver fuel via laboratory and/or in-reactor testing, validation of the computer codes used to perform the safety analyses, critical parameter uncertainty assessment, full scale hydraulic testing of the performance of the design, fuel handling, human factors validation, operator training and certification). (author)

  20. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    OpenAIRE

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication networks: the control over the distribution of audiovisual services constitutes a vital part of the problem. In this contribution, the phenomenon of net neutrality is described first. Next, the European a...

  1. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  2. Phenomenology of neutral current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral-current interactions are discussed within a rather general phenomenological framework without commitment to any particular theoretical model. Three points are kept in mind: what various experiments really measure; the performing of complete experiments to determine the neutral-current couplings; and the testing of models in an objective, emotionally uninvolved manner. The following topics are considered: neutrino-electron scattering, hadronic currents and models, neutrino-induced inclusive hadronic reactions, neutrino-induced exclusive hadronic reactions, and neutral-current phenomena without neutrinos. In conclusion, what has actually been learned about neutral-current interactions is summarized. 9 figures, 2 tables

  3. Development regulation regarding with licensing of nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Riyono; Yudi Pramono; Dahlia Cakrawati Sinaga

    2011-01-01

    Provisions of Article 17 paragraph (3) of Law Number 10 Year 1997 on Nuclear cleary mandates for the establishment of government regulations (GR) on Nuclear licensing containing the requirements and procedure, both from the standpoint of their utilization and installation. To use has been rising GR No.29 Year 2008 on the Use of Ionizing Radiation Sources and Nuclear Materials, while for the installation has been published PP No.43 Year 2006 on Nuclear Reactor Licensing, and BAPETEN Chairman Decree No.3 Year 2006 on Non-reactor Nuclear Installation Licensing. Based on the background of the preparation of both the aforementioned are just regulate the reactor and utilization, not yet fully meet the mandate of Article 17 paragraph (3) of Law No.10 of 1997 on Nuclear, including other nuclear installations. For these reasons, it initiated the need for a separate regulation containing provisions concerning licensing of non-reactor nuclear installations. On the other side from the understanding the legal aspects and interpretations of the Law No.10 of 2004 on the Establishment Regulation Legislation, should be in single mandate of Article 17 paragraph (3) of Law No.10 of 1997 on Nuclear would only produce one of the requirements and procedure for the use or installation, or a maximum of two (2) GR related licensing the use and installation. This is encourages conducted the assessing or studies related to how possible it is according to the legal aspect is justified to combine in one Nuclear licensing regulations regarding both the use and installation, by looking at the complexity of installation and wide scope of utilization of nuclear energy in Indonesia. The results of this paper is expected to provide input in the preparation of GR on licensing of nuclear installations. (author)

  4. On becoming neutral: effects of experimental neutralizing reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, M; van Pol, M; Peters, M

    2001-12-01

    Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 found that writing out a negative thought produced anxiety and an urge to neutralize the thought, that instructing participants to neutralize the thought reduced anxiety/neutralization urge in the short run (i.e. within 2 min), but that in the control group 20 min without instruction was attended by the same reduction in anxiety/urge to neutralize ("natural decay"). The observations were made with pariticipants who scored high on "thought action fusion" and the experiment was set up as exerimental model of obsessions. We repeated the study with participants that were not selected on thought action fusion. All the findings reported by Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 were replicated. Correlational analysis indicated that the strength of the effect was not related to scores on scales measuring "thought action fusion". Behaviour Research and Therapy 34 (1996) 889-898 did not assess whether non-neutralizing was followed by immediate reductions in distress. We did assess this and found that the larger part of the immediate reduction of distress after neutralization also occurs when no neutralization instruction is given. The effects of neutralization instructions in the present type of experiment are considerably less powerful than suggested earlier.

  5. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  6. Licensed fuel facility status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    NRC is committed to the periodic publication of licensed fuel facilities inventory difference data, following agency review of the information and completion of any related NRC investigations. Information in this report includes inventory difference data for active fuel fabrication facilities possessing more than one effective kilogram of high enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, plutonium, or uranium-233

  7. Licensed fuel facility status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.; Brown, C.

    1993-04-01

    NRC is committed to the periodic publication of licensed fuel facilities inventory difference data, following agency review of the information and completion of any related NRC investigations. Information in this report includes inventory difference data for active fuel fabrication facilities possessing more than one effective kilogram of high enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, plutonium, or uranium-233

  8. IRIS pre-application licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Kling, Charles L.; Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to pre-application licensing by the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), and advanced, integral reactor design with a thermal power of 1000 MW. The rationale for the pre-application licensing is discussed. Since IRIS technology is based on proven LWR experience, the project will rely on AP600/AP1000 precedent and will focus during the pre-application on long lead and novel items. A discussion of the evolution of the project to significantly reduce licensing issues is provided, followed by a summary of the IRIS safety-by-design which provides a formidable first step in the Defense in Depth approach. The effects of the safety-by-design, as well as of passive systems, on the IRIS safety will be investigated in a proposed testing program that will be reviewed by NRC during the pre-application. Documentation to be provided to NRC is discussed. Early design analyses indicate that the benefits of the IRIS safety-by-design approach are so significant that the basic premise of current emergency planning regulations (i.e., likelihood of core damage) will be reduced to the extent that special emergency response planning beyond the exclusion area boundary may not be needed. How this very significant outcome can be effected through a highly risk-informed licensing is discussed. (author)

  9. Two Approaches to Reactor Decommissioning: 10 CFR Part 50 License Termination and License Amendment, Lessons Learned from the Regulatory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, B.A.; Buckley, J.T.; Craig, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trojan Nuclear Plant (Trojan) and Maine Yankee Nuclear Plant (Maine Yankee) were the first two power reactors to complete decommissioning under the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) License Termination Rule (LTR), 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E. The respective owners' decisions to decommission the sites resulted in different approaches to both the physical aspects of the decommissioning, and the approach for obtaining approval for completing the decommissioning in accordance with regulations. Being in different States, the two single-unit pressurized water reactor sites had different State requirements and levels of public interest that impacted the decommissioning approaches. This resulted in significant differences in decommissioning planning, conduct of decommissioning operations, volumes of low- level radioactive waste disposed, and the final status survey (FSS) program. While both licensees have Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs), Trojan obtained a separate license for the ISFSI in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR Part 72 and terminated their 10 CFR Part 50 license. Maine Yankee elected to obtain a general license under 10 CFR Part 50 for the ISFSI and reduce the physical site footprint to the ISFSI through a series of license amendments. While the NRC regulations are flexible and allow different approaches to ISFSI licensing there are separate licensing requirements that must be addressed. In 10 CFR 50.82, the NRC mandates public participation in the decommissioning process. For Maine Yankee, public input resulted in the licensee entering into an agreement with a concerned citizen group and resulted in State legislation that significantly lowered the dose limit below the NRC radiological criteria of 25 mrem (0.25 mSv) per year (yr) in 10 CFR 20.1402 for unrestricted use. The lowering of the radiological criteria resulted in a significant dose modeling effort using site-specific Derived Concentrations Guideline Levels (DCGLs

  10. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  11. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically

  13. Current status of construction license of PEFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Cho, J. S.; Min, Y. S.; Nam, J. M.; Jeon, G. P.; Park, S. S.; Jo, J. H.; Song, I. T. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Since 2010 August, PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project)'s Proton Accelerator Research Center has been under construction so far. Generally, in advance of construction startup, many kinds of licenses should be acquired along with the types of construction works. To acquire a license in time, each item should meet the standard by the related regulation, including not only procedural but also content aspect. In the advent of internet era, electronic government system has been adopted in many governmental functions: So is the national construction license acquisition system. Owing to the system, both approval and documentation functions in licensing are integrated in online computer network which provide us simplification in process and easy accessibility to license data. However, aside from these construction licenses, other types of licenses still remain separately managed: Machinery, electric facilities, and so on. Moreover, all the licenses have the priority order and take legal term in processing. So, to avoid any time delay in license acquisition, we organized license hierarchy and found out the priority among them. Thereafter, according to their legal term in approval and acquisition, whole license acquisition schedule was arranged and we completed all the necessary licenses acquisition in time In this study, we summarize the current status of license acquisition on Proton Accelerator Research Center Construction, and manifest how they have been and will be managed systematically.

  14. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  15. Neutral evolution of mutational robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, Erik van; Crutchfield, James P.; Huynen, Martijn

    1999-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a general model of a population evolving over a network of selectively neutral genotypes. We show that the population s limit distribution on the neutral network is solely determined by the network topology and given by the principal eigenvector of the network

  16. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  17. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  18. ICAN: High power neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustaizis, S.D.; Lalousis, P.; Perrakis, K.; Auvray, P.; Larour, J.; Ducret, J.E.; Balcou, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years there is an increasing interest on the development of alternative high power new negative ion source for Tokamak applications. The proposed new neutral beam device presents a number of advantages with respect to: the density current, the acceleration voltage, the relative compact dimension of the negative ion source, and the coupling of a high power laser beam for photo-neutralization of the negative ion beam. Here we numerically investigate, using a multi- fluid 1-D code, the acceleration and the extraction of high power ion beam from a Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID). The diode configuration will be coupled to a high power device capable of extracting a current up to a few kA with an accelerating voltage up to MeV. An efficiency of up to 92% of the coupling of the laser beam, is required in order to obtain a high power, up to GW, neutral beam. The new high energy, high average power, high efficiency (up to 30%) ICAN fiber laser is proposed for both the plasma generation and the photo-neutralizer configuration. (authors)

  19. License - MicrobeDB.jp | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us MicrobeDB.jp License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/06/29 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database... Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, yo

  20. Licensing of spent fuel storage facility including its physical protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajman, V.; Sedlacek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The current spent fuel management policies as practised in the Czech Republic are described, and the conception of the fuel cycle back end is outlined. The general principles and the legislative framework are explained of the licensing process concerning spent fuel interim storage facilities, including the environmental impact assessment component. The history is outlined of the licensing process for the spent fuel storage facility at the Dukovany NPP site, including the licensing of the transport and storage cask. The basic requirements placed on the physical safeguarding of the facility and on the licensing process are given. (J.B.). 13 refs

  1. License - TMBETA-GENOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us TMBETA-GENOME License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/03/09 You may use this database... the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribu...tion-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as f....1 Japan . The summary of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database

  2. License - NBDC NikkajiRDF | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us NBDC NikkajiRDF License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/05/29 You may use this database...es the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attri...bution 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: NB... the Creative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database

  3. License - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us KAIKOcDNA License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2014/10/08 You may use this database... license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database...-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follo...e Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database..., and acquire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this database; a

  4. License - D-HaploDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us D-HaploDB License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2011/08/25 You may use this database... license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database...-Share Alike 2.1 Japan. If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follow...ry of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database..., you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and acquire dat

  5. License - TogoTV | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us TogoTV License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/05/12 You may use this database...cense terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this data...0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Tog...on 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licens...ed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and acquire data; freely redistribute part or whole of the data from this databa

  6. Management of the licensing of users of radioactive materials should be improved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive material licenses are required for manufacturing nuclear fuel for reactors and for industrial, commercial, medical, and educational uses of radioactive materials. This type of license is not for constructing or operating nuclear power reactors and facilities for processing used nuclear fuels. This report discusses the need for better management improvements in the NRC's program for licensing the users. As of December 31, 1974, there were 8,253 active NRC-issued material licenses held by 6,310 licensees. The study reviewed NRC's policies, procedures, and practices, and examined recent evaluations of state programs to identify problems encountered by the states

  7. License - DB-SPIRE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DB-SPIRE License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/02/16 You may use this database...license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database...Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database a...eative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you a...re licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database, and acquire data; freely redistribute part or

  8. License - RED II INAHO | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RED II INAHO License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2016/01/14 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database

  9. License - SKIP Stemcell Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us SKIP Stemcell Database License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/03/13 You may use this database...specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Common...s Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...al ... . The summary of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database

  10. License - RGP gmap2000 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP gmap2000 License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/03/10 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as fo...y of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, yo

  11. License - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Arabidopsis Phenome Database License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/02/27 You may use this database...cense specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative ...Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...ative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you ar

  12. License - Togo Picture Gallery | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Togo Picture Gallery License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/05/16 You may use this database...ecifies the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons ...Attribution 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database a...e Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database

  13. License - RGP estmap2001 | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP estmap2001 License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/04/02 You may use this database...s the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attrib...ution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as ... the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you ar

  14. Aging management review for license renewal and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinckel, M.A.; Young, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: United States nuclear power plants are initially licensed for a period of 40-years. The 40-year term, which was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s, is believed to be based on engineering judgement and is consistent with the typical amortization schedule for purchasing fossil power plants. Under 10 CFR Part 54, the license renewal rule, additional terms of 20-years may be obtained through the preparation of a license renewal application that must be reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The license renewal rule requires that applicants perform ageing management reviews on passive long-lived structures and components to demonstrate that ageing will be managed during the period of extended operation (i.e., additional 20 years of operation). ageing of active components, which are excluded from 10 CFR Part 54, is accomplished through the Maintenance Rule, 10 CFR Part 65, using performance-based monitoring. The license renewal rule, 10 CFR Part 54, was initially published in 1991. After significant interaction with the nuclear industry from 1991 through 1994, the NRC revised the rule in 1995 to focus on passive long-lived structures and components. In 1998, the first two applications for license renewal were submitted to the NRC by Baltimore Gas and Electric for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant and by Duke Energy for the three-unit Oconee nuclear power plant. In March 2000, the NRC approved the application for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant for an additional 20 years. Two months later, the NRC approved the renewal of the operating licenses for the three-unit Oconee nuclear station. The NRC completed these reviews in a timely, predictable, and stable manner. As of February 2002, the NRC has approved renewal of operating licenses for eight nuclear units and has applications under review for 15 more units. Twelve additional companies have notified the NRC of their intention to seek

  15. Licensing the First Nuclear Power Plant. INSAG-26. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear power plant that is already licensed by an experienced regulator. Consequently, an option is to start development of national regulations by adopting or adapting regulations from a country that has licensed the same type of nuclear power plant. However, if the intention is to have an open technology selection process, care should be taken to establish a set of technology neutral regulations, such as by using the IAEA safety standards as the foundation. This set of technology neutral regulations can then be complemented by more design specific regulations after the technology is chosen. Since the development of technical competences requires considerable time, the regulatory body needs to plan for human resources development at a very early stage. As a first step, the essential competences required for the different phases of the nuclear power programme should be identified. Thereafter, formal training arrangements should be established between the regulatory body and one or more experienced regulators that have licensed a similar facility. This should include early interaction between senior managers of the two regulators followed by detailed training of selected staff who will form the technical core of the regulatory body. The regulatory body should also identify outside organizations that will act as its technical support organizations (TSOs) and should provide for conduct of nuclear safety R and D by these TSOs, including the appropriate research facilities and expertise. If additional nuclear power plants will be constructed in the new entrant country in the future, the new nuclear power plant units may not be of the same design as the first plant. This aspect should be kept in mind when developing both the licensing methodologies and staff. Regulatory staff can also obtain significant benefit from participation in international cooperation activities such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety, technical cooperation forums of regulatory bodies of countries

  16. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  17. Licensing Support System: Preliminary data scope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the content and scope of the Licensing Support System (LSS) data base. Both user needs and currently available data bases that, at least in part, address those needs have been analyzed. This analysis, together with the Preliminary Needs Analysis (DOE, 1988d) is a first effort under the LSS Design and Implementation Contract toward developing a sound requirements foundation for subsequent design work. These reports are preliminary. Further refinements must be made before requirements can be specified in sufficient detail to provide a basis for suitably specific system specifications. This document provides a baseline for what is known at this time. Additional analyses, currently being conducted, will provide more precise information on the content and scope of the LSS data base. 23 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Guide to request license for teletherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this work the steps to request license for teletherapy practice are described , among these steps they it continued it plows to request the qualified personnel's yams, the operation authorization, application purpose, license type

  19. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  20. 10 CFR 51.22 - Criterion for categorical exclusion; identification of licensing and regulatory actions eligible...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. (11) Issuance of amendments to licenses for fuel cycle plants and radioactive waste disposal.... (xii) Acceptance of packaged radioactive wastes from others for transfer to licensed land burial... the following types of activities: (i) Distribution of radioactive material and devices or products...

  1. 75 FR 6301 - Revisions to License Exception GOV To Provide Authorization for Exports and Reexports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... of the United States, Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe and Italy. (The Italian Space Agency has separate... subject to a license requirement when exported or reexported to Russia. However, even when BIS license... unexpected delays in a launch schedule, such as for mechanical failures in a launch vehicle or weather...

  2. 76 FR 45695 - Notice and Recordkeeping for Use of Sound Recordings Under Statutory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... operating under these licenses are required to, among other things, pay royalty fees and report to copyright... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Parts 370 and 382 [Docket No. RM 2011-5] Notice and Recordkeeping for Use of Sound Recordings Under Statutory License AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board...

  3. Aspects of the licensing procedures for enrichment reduction in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment reduction for research reactors requires a licensing procedure. For this purpose the qualification of the new fuel has to be demonstrated and changes in reactor safety have to be investigated like reactivity values, form-factors, Pu- and fission product inventory, safety margins and accidents. Calculations should be partly experimentally verified. The possible extent of the licensing procedure is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear... nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions of the rule is required by June 20, 2014. This... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to...

  5. Methodology for LOCA analysis and its qualification procedures for PWR reload licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, M.A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The methodology for LOCA analysis developed by FURNAS and its qualification procedure for PWR reload licensing are presented. Digital computer codes developed by NRC and published collectively as the WREM package were modified to get versions that comply to each requirement of Brazilian Licensing Criteria. This metodology is applied to Angra-1 basic case to conclude the qualification process. (Author) [pt

  6. 37 CFR 370.2 - Notice of use of sound recordings under statutory license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS NOTICE AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES NOTICE AND... gain access to the online Web site or homepage of the Service, or where information may be posted under... obtained from the Copyright Office or to: Library of Congress, Copyright Office, Licensing Division, 101...

  7. 6 CFR 37.19 - Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Machine readable technology on the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.19 Machine readable technology on the driver's license or identification card. For the machine readable portion of the REAL ID driver's license or identification card...

  8. 76 FR 59410 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...: Licensing information and copies of the U.S. patent applications listed below may be obtained by writing to...-402-0220. A signed Confidential Disclosure Agreement will be required to receive copies of the patent... to menopause, birth control, menstrual cycle/amenorrhea, fertility or endometriosis. Competitive...

  9. 75 FR 51823 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...: Licensing information and copies of the U.S. patent applications listed below may be obtained by writing to.../402-0220. A signed Confidential Disclosure Agreement will be required to receive copies of the patent... infertility and irregular menstrual periods than in healthy women. The discovery of MATER as an important...

  10. 32 CFR 746.7 - Limited exclusive license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the market and recoup his reasonable costs in so doing. (4) The license shall require the licensee to... within a longer period as approved by the Chief of Naval Research, and to continue to make the benefits... expend a specified minimum amount of money and/or take other specified actions, within a specified period...

  11. 75 FR 61116 - Refunds Under the Cable Statutory License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Copyright Act, before it was amended to allow a cable system to calculate its royalty fees on a community-by... statutory license set forth in Section 111 are required to pay royalty fees to the Copyright Office... the methodology for a cable operator to calculate royalty fees. Cable operators now pay royalty fees...

  12. Licensing of uranium mine and mill waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamney, L.G.

    1986-09-01

    Systems for the management of wastes arising from uranium mining facilities are subject to regulatory control by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). This paper describes the primary objectives, principles, requirements and guidelines which the AECB uses in the regulation of waste management activities at uranium mining facilities, and provides an understanding of the licensing process used by the AECB

  13. Application of up-front licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S.D.; Snell, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    AECL has been pioneering 'up-front' licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Licensing Teachers: Lessons from Other Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Martin

    1986-01-01

    The licensing of teachers should be modeled against professions similar to teaching rather than professions like medicine and architecture that are vastly different. Applying similar licensing practices can raise the status of teaching. Ignoring these licensing practices will prevent teachers from functioning as professionals. (MD)

  15. 22 CFR 120.20 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License. 120.20 Section 120.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.20 License. License means a document bearing the word “license” issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade...

  16. 10 CFR 781.51 - Nonexclusive licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporate structure of which licensee is a part, if any. However, the license shall not be assignable or... license upon the policies of the United States Government; (3) The effect of the license upon domestic and... extent of U.S. Government contribution to the development of the invention; (iv) The degree of...

  17. Application of up-front licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, S D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Snell, V G [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    AECL has been pioneering `up-front` licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. 42 CFR 431.710 - Provisional licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.710 Provisional licenses. To fill a position of nursing home... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisional licenses. 431.710 Section 431.710 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. 7 CFR 6.33 - License fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certified mail, return receipt requested, advising the licensee that if payment is not mailed in accordance.... Where the license at issue is a historical license, this will result, pursuant to § 6.23(b), in the person's loss of historical eligibility for such license. (d) Licensees may elect not to accept certain...

  20. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...

  1. 14 CFR 431.73 - Continuing accuracy of license application; application for modification of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing accuracy of license application; application for modification of license. 431.73 Section 431.73 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE... Conditions § 431.73 Continuing accuracy of license application; application for modification of license. (a...

  2. Licensing of new fuel for Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicharek, M.; Mikulas, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the hope of achieving a six year fuel cycle and to allow for further power uprates a new type of fuel was licensed for NPP Mochovce Unit 1 (EMO1). Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. introduced the idea for the new fuel type to the regulatory authority in the middle of 2010. That's when the first draft of EMO safety report was made. This was the actual start of the licensing process. In case of new fuel regulator has several requirements like extended start up and power test; introducing a fuel behavior monitoring plan; using two independent methods to determine coolant flow though the active zone. In this paper the following issues have been discussed: 1) Engineering and safety reserve factors; 2)Fuel limits; 3) Uncertainties decrease in measurement of coolant flow through the reactor; 4) Determination of heating on fuel assembly; 5) Storage pool issues; 6) Emergency planning; 7) Monitoring of several fuel parameters (K qmax , K rmax , K v .K k and bypass)monitored during campaign

  3. Licensing Support Network: An Electronic Discovery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A. V.; Jensen, D.; McKinnon, B.

    2002-01-01

    The necessary authorization for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to submit a License Application (LA) is contingent upon the policy process defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended (NWPA), with some steps yet to occur. In spite of this uncertainty, the DOE must take prudent and appropriate action now, and over the next several years, to prepare for submittal of an application and to facilitate the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review of this application, if the Yucca Mountain site is recommended and approved for repository development. One of these steps the DOE has taken involves working with the NRC's Advisory Review Panel to develop Licensing Support Network (LSN) requirements and guidelines. The NRC has made a prototype of the LSN web page available at www.LSNNET.gov. The OCRWM part of the LSN currently has an indefinite life cycle and may need to remain in existence until the repository is closed, which could be as long as 325 years

  4. Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.

    1986-06-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This report describes the development, contant, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation was designed by Harvard University's Program on Negotiation; it can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions. In the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site for a facility is chosen from three candidate sites. The project sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation was conducted for persons involved in planning for LLW. It is concluded that the siting simulation can be useful in three ways: (1) as a tool for information dissemination, (2) as a vehicle that can foste communication among parties in conflict, and (3) as a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  5. The changing shape of U.S. licensing philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remick, F.J.

    1992-01-01

    The shape of U.S. nuclear licensing and regulatory philosophy and process has already changed. The new process requires NRC review and approval of the vendor designs before a prospective utility license applicant purchases the design and begins construction. The new philosophy has resulted from the lessons learned from extensive operating experience accumulated in the United States. New criteria established for judging reactor designs include the capability of future designs to be more tolerant of accidents beyond the traditional design basis events. Qualitative and quantitative goals have been chosen as a guide for allocating resources for regulation of the currently operating plants. The changing shape of nuclear licensing and regulatory philosophy is also a result of economic circumstances in the United States. All will have a better opportunity to take part in the process which is most likely to encourage further development of safe nuclear energy in the United States. (author)

  6. Operator licensing examination standards for power reactors. Interim revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    These examination standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the processes associated with initial and requalification examinations. The standards also ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations for all applicants. These standards are for guidance purposes and are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations (i.e., 10 CFR Part 55), and they are subject to revision or other changes in internal operator licensing policy. This interim revision permits facility licensees to prepare their initial operator licensing examinations on a voluntary basis pending an amendment to 10 CFR Part 55 that will require facility participation. The NRC intends to solicit comments on this revision during the rulemaking process and to issue a final Revision 8 in conjunction with the final rule

  7. Foundation for the adequacy of the licensing bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the regulatory processes that assures that any plant-specific licensing bases will provide reasonable assurance that the operation of nuclear power plants will not be inimical to the public health and safety to the end of the renewal period. It is on the adequacy of this process that the Commission has determined that a formal renewal licensing review against the full range of current safety requirements would not add significantly to safety and is not needed to assure that continued operation throughout the renewal term is not inimical to the public health and safety or common defense and security. This document illustrates in general terms how the regulatory process has evolved in major safety issue areas. It also provides examples illustrating why it is unnecessary to re-review an operating plant's basis, except for age-related degradation unique to license renewal, at the time of license renewal. The report is a supplement to the Statement of Considerations for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rule (10 CFR Part 54) that established the criteria and standards governing nuclear power plant license renewal

  8. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  9. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  10. Cytomegalovirus neutralization by hyperimmune and standard intravenous immunoglobulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planitzer, Christina B; Saemann, Marcus D; Gajek, Hartwig; Farcet, Maria R; Kreil, Thomas R

    2011-08-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains one of the most important pathogens after transplantation, potentially leading to CMV disease, allograft dysfunction, acute, and chronic rejection and opportunistic infections. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations with high antibody titers against CMV are a valuable adjunctive prevention and treatment option for clinicians and apart from standard intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), CMV hyperimmune preparations are available. The CMV antibody titer of these preparations is typically determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), also used for the selection of high titer plasma donors for the production of the CMV Hyperimmune product. However, CMV ELISA titers do not necessarily correlate with CMV antibody function which is determined by virus neutralization tests. CMV antibody titers were determined by both ELISA and virus neutralization assay and the IgG subclass distribution was compared between a CMV hyperimmune licensed in Europe and standard IVIG preparations. Although the expected high CMV IgG ELISA antibody titers were confirmed for three lots of a CMV hyperimmune preparation, the functionally more relevant CMV neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher for 31 lots of standard IVIG preparations. Moreover, considerably lower IgG3 levels were found for the CMV hyperimmune preparation compared with standard IVIG preparations. The higher functional CMV neutralization titers of standard IVIG preparations and the better availability of these preparations, suggest that these products could be a valuable alternative to the CMV hyperimmune preparation.

  11. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  12. Licensing of the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) has regulated Ignalina NPP operation by issuing annual operating permits. Those have been issued following submission of specified documents by the Ignalina NPP that have been reviewed by VATESI. However, according to to the procedures that are now established in the Law on Nuclear Energy and subordinate regulations the use of nuclear energy in the Republic of Lithuania is subject to strict licensing. Therefore a decision about the licence for continued operation of unit 1 should be taken. Licence would be granted by VATESI in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment and the institutions of local authorities. Ignalina NPP presented to the VATESI safety analysis report (SAR) with other documents. SAR was made mainly by foreign experts and financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). VATESI in this process is supported by western regulators. A special project LAP - Licensing Assistance Project was launched to help VATESI perform licensing according western practices

  13. License renewal demonstration program: NRC observations and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, R.J.; Kuo, P.T.; Newberry, S.F.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's observations and lessons learned from the five License Renewal Demonstration Program (LRDP) site visits performed by the staff from March 25, 1996, through August 16, 1996. The LRDP was a Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) program intended to assess the effectiveness of the guidance provided by NEI 95-10, Revision 0, open-quotes Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule,close quotes to implement the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), open-quotes Requirements for Renewal of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Power Plants.close quotes In general, NEI 95-10 appeared to contain the basic guidance needed for scoping, screening, identifying aging effects, developing aging management programs, and performing time-limited aging analyses. However, inconsistent implementation of this guidance in some areas was an indication that clarification of existing guidance and/or the inclusion-of some new guidance may be needed for applicants to develop a license renewal program that is consistent with the intent of the rule

  14. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  15. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period

  16. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea; Rønde, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we find that interdependency across business units may result in more, not less, decentralization. Furthermore, even though centralization results in less information, centralized licensing deals are larger. Our model conforms to the existing evidence that reports heterogeneity across firms in both......Technology licensing is an important means for companies to extract more value from their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations. More specifically, we compare decentralization—where the business unit using...... the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend on product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...

  17. The need for legislative framework (licensing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krech, H.

    1977-01-01

    For reasons of public acceptance the basis of a licensing system should be laid down in a law, details can be fixed in regulations below the law-level. The competence for licensing nuclear installations should be attributed to one body, which is not a the same time charged with the promotion of nuclear energy. The licensing authority has to be provided with sufficient technical advice, given by experts organized in advisory bodies. Normally a licensing procedure is split into several steps (site approval, construction permit, operation licence), each step can be subdivided. Some general aspects of licensing conditions (personal, technical and financial) as well as of the licensing procedure are outlined. The participation of the public is of particular importance but also involves most intricate problems. The paper concludes with some critical remarks on the role of administrative courts with respect to the licensing of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  18. Neutrality Versus Materiality: A Thermodynamic Theory of Neutral Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Tailleux

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for constructing quasi-neutral density variables γ directly in thermodynamic space is formulated, which is based on minimising the absolute value of a purely thermodynamic quantity J n . Physically, J n has a dual dynamic/thermodynamic interpretation as the quantity controlling the energy cost of adiabatic and isohaline parcel exchanges on material surfaces, as well as the dependence of in-situ density on spiciness, in a description of water masses based on γ, spiciness and pressure. Mathematically, minimising | J n | in thermodynamic space is showed to be equivalent to maximising neutrality in physical space. The physics of epineutral dispersion is also reviewed and discussed. It is argued, in particular, that epineutral dispersion is best understood as the aggregate effect of many individual non-neutral stirring events (being understood here as adiabatic and isohaline events with non-zero buoyancy, so that it is only the net displacement aggregated over many events that is approximately neutral. This new view resolves an apparent paradox between the focus in neutral density theory on zero-buoyancy motions and the overwhelming evidence that lateral dispersion in the ocean is primarily caused by non-zero buoyancy processes such as tides, residual currents and sheared internal waves. The efficiency by which a physical process contributes to lateral dispersion can be characterised by its energy signature, with those processes releasing available potential energy (negative energy cost being more efficient than purely neutral processes with zero energy cost. The latter mechanism occurs in the wedge of instability, and its source of energy is the coupling between baroclinicity, thermobaricity, and density compensated temperature/salinity anomalies. Such a mechanism, which can only exist in a salty ocean, is speculated to be important for dissipating spiciness anomalies and neutral helicity. The paper also discusses potential

  19. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O'Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements

  20. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  1. Neutral beam systems for the magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Staten, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The attainment of economic, safe fusion power has been described as the most sophisticated scientific problem ever attacked by mankind. The presently established goal of the magnetic fusion program is to develop and demonstrate pure fusion central electric power stations for commercial applications. Neutral beam heating systems are a basic component of the tokamak and mirror experimental fusion plasma confinement devices. The requirements placed upon neutral beam heating systems are reviewed. The neutral beam systems in use or being developed are presented. Finally, the needs of the future are discussed

  2. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  3. Cost and risk reduction using upfront licensing in Canada. Annex 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the use of 'up-front' licensing in Canada - how licensing requirements are defined, and met - in advance of a project commitment. The approach to licensing in Canada has allowed flexibility in development of new designs. Since licensing was originally risk-based, and current regulatory policy allows cost-benefit considerations as part of the decision making, risk can be and should be used in novel circumstances as a licensing tool. Since the licensing framework is non-prescriptive, innovative approaches to design can be introduced and dispositioned without changing the legal structure. This flexibility has been used in several up-front licensing reviews: a small urban heating reactor, repeat CANDU 6 generating station units, and the single unit CANDU 9 generating station. In the future we expect to apply it to advanced designs, as an essential part of risk reduction and customer confidence in the product. The important lessons learned in Canada include: Up-front licensing is essential to reduce the risk of licensing-related delays once a project has been committed. It requires a significant investment in time and effort from both the designer and the regulator; The most effective scope for up-front licensing is for the regulator to thoroughly assess novel concepts, test the design against changed domestic requirements, and follow-up on known difficult areas; and for the designer to ensure foreign requirements are incorporated. There is little benefit in certifying the design in detail; Although it would be satisfying to have legally-binding certification, in the end there can be no legal obligation on the regulator, and agreement is pursued on the basis of good faith that the regulator will not make arbitrary decisions and that the designer will meet agreed targets or requirements; In almost all circumstances, issues will arise that are beyond the current 'rules', however expressed. Rather than rushing to create new rules, one reaches a

  4. Pyramidal approach to license plate segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Alexandru; Trecat, Jacques C.

    1996-07-01

    Car identification is a goal in traffic control, transport planning, travel time measurement, managing parking lot traffic and so on. Most car identification algorithms contain a standalone plate segmentation process followed by a plate contents reading. A pyramidal algorithm for license plate segmentation, looking for textured regions, has been developed on a PC based system running Unix. It can be used directly in applications not requiring real time. When input images are relatively small, real-time performance is in fact accomplished by the algorithm. When using large images, porting the algorithm to special digital signal processors can easily lead to preserving real-time performance. Experimental results, for stationary and moving cars in outdoor scenes, showed high accuracy and high scores in detecting the plate. The algorithm also deals with cases where many character strings are present in the image, and not only the one corresponding to the plate. This is done by the means of a constrained texture regions classification.

  5. LTO License Application Project NPP Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, A.E. de; Blom, F.J.; Leilich, J.

    2012-01-01

    Borssele NPP plans to extend its operating life with 20 years until 2034. Borssele has started the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' (LTO 'Justification') in order to meet the requirements of the Dutch regulator. The outline of the project is based on IAEA safety guide 57 'Safe Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants'. This paper describes the contents and coherence of the different parts in the project and how these respond to the IAEA guidelines on LTO. The goal of the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' is to ensure that safety and safety relevant systems, structures and components continue to perform their intended functions during long term operation. The outcome of the project LTO 'bewijsvoering' will be used for a license change application and this will be submitted to the Dutch regulator KFD for approval of prolonged operation of Borssele NPP after 2013. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel licensing procedures in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Komitet za Mirno Izpolzuvane na Atomnata Energiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Komysia za Biologichni i Selskostopanski Nauki

    1994-12-31

    A brief description of the structure and role of the Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes (BG) as a main governmental institution responsible for safety atomic energy management is presented. The main documentation and licensing procedures adopted for import, export, operation, storage and transportation of nuclear material including nuclear fuel for NPP are outlined. The corresponding institutions are facing now the urgent need for changing some regulations to meet the requirements of the international treaties and conventions recently signed by Bulgarian authorities. A new version of Atomic Law disposed at the Parliament for adoption is essential for updating the management of NPP in Bulgaria where four WWER-440 and two WWER-1000 are under operation.

  7. Enforced Electrical Neutrality of the Color-Flavor Locked Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Krishna; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that quark matter in the color-flavor locked phase of QCD is rigorously electrically neutral, despite the unequal quark masses, and even in the presence of an electron chemical potential. As long as the strange quark mass and the electron chemical potential do not preclude the color-flavor locked phase, quark matter is automatically neutral. No electrons are required and none are admitted

  8. Development of the ion source for PDX neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Gardner, W.L.; Barber, G.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the ion source for neutral beam injection heating of PDX plasma. After a brief description of the plasma generator, the performance characteristics of the source, with different types of grids, are described. Based on test stand results it is concluded that at least two different versions of the source should be able to meet and even exceed the neutral power and energy requirements expected out of PDX injectors

  9. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated

  10. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's antitrust review of nuclear power plants: the conditioning of licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, D.W.; Delaney, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.C.

    1976-04-01

    The 1970 amendments to Section 105 of the Atomic Energy Act require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to conduct a prelicensing antitrust review of applications for licenses to construct and operate nuclear power plants. The Commission must make a finding as to whether the granting of a license 'would create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the antitrust laws,' and it has the authority to issue or continue a license, to refuse to issue a license, to rescind or amend a license, and to issue a license with conditions that it deems appropriate. This report provides information about the antitrust license conditions that have resulted from the NRC's antitrust review process. The process itself is described and a catalog of the applications requiring antitrust license conditions is presented. For each application, the license conditions are put into the general categories of unit access, transmission services, coordination, and contractual provisions. For completeness, the report also catalogs applications requiring no antitrust license conditions, and lists applications that were exempted from the 1970 amendments, are the subject of litigation, or have been withdrawn

  11. IRIS. Progress in licensing and toward deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.D.; Kling, C.L.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled, pressurized reactor of smaller generating capacity (1000 MWt, or 335 MWe). It is being developed through a strong international partnership by a team lead by Westinghouse and including organizations from 10 countries. The main objective of the project is to offer a simple nuclear power plant with outstanding safety, attractive economics and enhanced proliferation resistance characteristics ready for deployment within the next decade. IRIS embodies the requirements set forth by the recently announced US DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program for worldwide deployment of a smaller-scale reactors and provides a viable bridge to Generation IV reactors. IRIS is designed to address the needs of both developed and emerging markets. Its smaller power level provides deployment flexibility in larger developed markets, and makes it in particular well suited for markets with limited grids or where the annual energy demand growth is moderate. Due to its short construction time and the staggered build option, IRIS significantly reduces the required financing, improves cash flow, and provides a viable solution for economies with limited resources. While based on proven and worldwide accepted LWR technology, IRIS introduces a number of innovative solutions to simplify its design and improve safety and operational characteristics, including the integral primary system and its components, as well as the safety-by-design approach. These features will be tested and demonstrated in a testing program that has been initiated. As its centerpiece, the program will include the integral test facility. Results of this program will support licensing with the US NRC. A multinational licensing is considered to facilitate worldwide deployment. (author)

  12. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  13. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Conceptual frameworks of the notification, registration and licensing system applied in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez Verqueria, Pablo; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Betancourt Hernadez, Luisa A.

    1996-01-01

    In our country, a safety regulations has been established whose objective is to establish the authorization system to apply and the requirements to fulfill by the license applications. The present work describes how such system has been conceptually conceived

  15. Criteria for selection of fuel cycle and major materials licenses needing radiological contingency plans. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, F.D.

    1981-07-01

    Quantities of NRC-licensed radioisotopes requiring the licensee to develop and submit radiological contingency planning information to the NRC for review and approval are developed and presented as limiting possession limits and conditions of possession

  16. 76 FR 77565 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... intervene shall be filed in accordance with the Commission's ''Rules of Practice for Domestic Licensing...- conservative emergency diesel generator fuel oil supply volumes, incorporate portions of Technical... of the associated Technical Specifications to require an adequate emergency diesel generator and...

  17. CHOOSING THE RIGHT FORM OF LICENSING A BUSINESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROIBAN Roxana Nadina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the most appropriate form of licensing a business is an important decision not easy to be made by an entrepreneur and it should be taken only after he has the required skills and abilities to do so. The business idea should harmonize with the business environment and its future trends, with the existing opportunities and the future products or services that the company will provide and not least the entrepreneur has to make sure that he has sufficient resources to get started. We consider that every business has a number of features that make certain forms of licensing to be more suitable than others. This paper aims to present a multitude of items to be reviewed by an entrepreneur at the start-up in order to choose the most appropriate licensing type for his business. Given that our country's law allows entrepreneurs to license their businesses in several forms, the decision to choose between many existing possibilities is a very important one for the future good of the business. Currently in our country there are two major laws governing the licensing of a business. The first one is the republished and subsequently amended Company Law number 31/1990 and the second, the Government Emergency Ordinance number 44/2008 regarding the economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises. The Company Law number 31/1990 allows companies to choose between one of the five types of business entities that can operate in Romania: General partnership (in Romanian SNC, Limited partnership (in Romanian SCS, Limited partnerships by shares (in Romanian SCA, Joint stock company (in Romanian S.A. and Limited liability company (in Romanian S.R.L.. GEO number 44/2008 on economic activities of the Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises regulates the licensing and the activity of a Sole traders, Individual enterprises and Family enterprises.

  18. SAFSTOR and License Renewal: Making Them Coexist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henries, William PE

    2008-01-01

    proximity of Unit 1 to the operating units and the fact that a number of Unit 1 systems are shared with Unit 2. Over the past few decades, additional Unit 1 space (primarily within the turbine building) has been cleaned out and is being used to support the operating Units. The original plan to maintain Unit 1 in a SAFSTOR condition until it could be safely dismantled along with Unit 2 at the end of the Unit 2 operating license in 2012, requires some level of re-thinking now that Units 2 and 3 are applying for renewal of their licenses with the desire to continue operation until the 2033 time frame. The remainder of this paper summarizes the inspections and assessments undertaken by Entergy to investigate and document the condition of Indian Point Unit 1 and the resulting steps taken to assure that it would not pose a threat to the license extension efforts being under taken by Units 2 and 3. In conclusion: the Entergy Indian Point management team has systematically undertaken an effort to ensure the Unit 1 SAFSTOR condition and has implemented programs and procedural controls which will assure that it will continue to be safely maintained and will not impact the continued safe operation of Units 2 and 3 during their license renewal period

  19. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-μs accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance

  20. Neutral beam current drive with balanced injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhartt, D.

    1990-01-01

    Current drive with fast ions has proved its capability to sustain a tokamak plasma free of externally induced electric fields in a stationary state. The suprathermal ion population within the toroidal plasma was created by quasi-tangential and uni-directional injection of high-energy neutral atoms, their ionisation and subsequent deceleration by collisions with the background plasma particles. In future large tokamaks of the NET/INTER-type, with reactor-relevant values of plasma density and temperature, this current drive scheme is expected to maintain the toroidal current at the plasma centre, as current drive by lower hybrid waves will be restricted to the outer plasma regions owing to strong wave damping. Adequate penetration of the neutral atoms through the dense plasma requires particle energies of several hundred kilovolts per nucleon since beam absorption scales roughly with the ratio beam energy over density. The realisation of such high-energy high-power neutral beams, based on negative ion technology, is now under study. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs

  1. Report of the Task Force on bonding and perpetual care of nuclear licensed activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellings, D.D. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The primary concern was to consider the bonding and perpetual care requirements of state-licensed shallow land burial sites used for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The specific charge of the task force was to examine in detail the requirements for establishing bonding and perpetual care programs for all types of licensed nuclear activities and to report the findings of the task force as guidance to assist states in program development. Goals and recommendations of the task force are discussed

  2. What is a truly neutral particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2004-01-01

    An electrically charged particle is necessarily different from its antiparticle while an electrically neutral particle is either identical with or different from its antiparticle. A truly neutral particle is a particle identical to its antiparticle, which means that all its algebraic intrinsic properties are equal to zero since particle and antiparticle have all their algebraic intrinsic properties opposite. We propose two complementary methods to recognize the true nature of any electrically neutral particle. On the one hand, any non-null algebraic intrinsic property of a particle (properties such as Q, magnetic moment already known from classical physics, or quantum numbers such as baryonic number A, lepton number L or flavors, which are meaningful only in the quantum world) reveals that it is distinct from its antiparticle. On the other hand, any particle decaying through a self-conjugate channel or/and through both two conjugate channels is a truly neutral particle implying then that all algebraic intrinsic properties, known or yet unknown, of this particle are null. According to these methods, the neutrino, like any fermion, cannot be its own antiparticle, so neutrinoless double beta decay cannot take place in nature. We point out the internal contradiction required by the existence of hypothetical neutrinoless double beta decay. We suggest that persistent failure to find experimental evidence for this decay mechanism despite huge efforts dedicated to this aim is consistent with the physics of this process. The immediate consequence would be that limits of neutrino mass deduced from neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be used as constraints in contrast with mass limits deduced from the behavior of the end-point in simple beta spectra. (author)

  3. Reproductive 'surrogacy' and parental licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Christine

    2015-06-01

    A serious moral weakness of reproductive 'surrogacy' is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial 'surrogacy' operates only in the interests of the adults involved (the gestator and the commissioning individuals who employ her), not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether 'surrogacy' is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same significant flaws. They endorse the transfer, for a fee, of the infant from the woman who gestated it to those who commissioned it, but without justifying such a transfer; they fail to demonstrate that the commissioners have any entitlement to the infant, or, for that matter, suitability to be the infant's parents; and they fail to take any notice of the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing. A mere genetic connection is not enough to establish that the commissioners are entitled to receive the baby or that they are competent to raise it. Their good intentions, however caring, are not enough. Therefore, just as in the practice of adoption, there should be a formal institutionalized system for screening and licensing the prospective social parents, which would make the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing paramount. I reply to several potential objections to this proposal, including the objection that genetic parents who raise their own child are not screened and licensed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades

  5. Optimal Licensing Strategy: Royalty or Fixed Fee?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Fosfuri; Esther Roca

    2004-01-01

    Licensing a cost-reducing innovation through a royalty has been shown to be superior to licensing by means of a fixed fee for an incumbent licensor. This note shows that this result relies crucially on the assumption that the incumbent licensor can sell its cost-reducing inno-vation to all industry players. If, for any reason, only some competitors could be reached through a licensing contract, then a fixed fee might be optimally chosen.

  6. Empirical Study of Car License Plates Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dina, Nasa Zata; Dailey, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms ...

  7. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    . Many of the methods and tools needed in the licensing process are still under development and further research is needed to establish a flexible and cost effective process. Also the database for the assessment methods is still inadequate. Other recently published reports in OHA-report series handle the statistical reliability assessment (STUK-YTO-TR 119), usage models (STUK-YTO-TR 128), handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies (STUK-YTO-TR 129)and diversity requirements (STUK-YTO-TR 142).(orig.)

  8. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2000-12-01

    methods and tools needed in the licensing process are still under development and further research is needed to establish a flexible and cost effective process. Also the database for the assessment methods is still inadequate. Other recently published reports in OHA-report series handle the statistical reliability assessment (STUK-YTO-TR 119), usage models (STUK-YTO-TR 128), handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies (STUK-YTO-TR 129)and diversity requirements (STUK-YTO-TR 142).(orig.)

  9. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  10. TFTR neutral-beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winje, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) consists of the accelerator grid power supply and the auxiliary power supplies required to operate the TFTR 120-keV ion sources. The current configuration of the NBPS including the 11-MVA accelerator grid power supply and the Arc and Filament power supplies isolated for operation at accelerator grid voltages up to 120 kV, is described. The prototype NBPS has been assembled at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has been operated. The results of the initial operation and the description and resolution of some of the technical problems encountered during the commissioning tests are presented

  11. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  12. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  13. The licensing processes influence on nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro; Sainati, Tristano; Sallinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the licensing nuclear power plants; it focuses primarily on the licensing process implications into the international nuclear market. Nowadays there are twenty-six countries that are planning to build new nuclear facilities, and thirty-seven where nuclear reactors are proposed; on the other hand, there are mainly ten international reactor vendors. At international level, there are few vendors that have sufficient resources, capabilities and experience to carry out the design and delivering of a nuclear power plant in the international market; On the other hand, the licensing processes are strictly dependent on national law frameworks, and on the nuclear policies. The paper proposes a comparison of six licensing processes (the ones established in Finland, France, Italy, South Korea, USA and UK), and analyzes its main features and implications; the IAEA licensing process is taken as reference point. The objective of the paper is to propose a systemic approach for considering the licensing procedures. The framework proposed enables facilitating the licensing management and inferring the main features of licensing contexts. The paper concludes with a forecast of the nuclear licensing context, especially with respect to the fourth generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  14. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994......This paper investigates the matching of firms on the market for technology. The paper forwards two dimensions along which license formation occurs: technology and product-market. Both sides of the market search for a partner representing potential for high technology synergies to maximize licensing...

  15. The comparison of license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zusheng

    2006-01-01

    'Tow steps' license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed bas- ted on the requirement of 10CFR Part50-DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES in United States since last century fifties. In order to ulterior reduce the risk of investment and technical for new construction nuclear power plants, new regulations 'One step' license management procedure-10CFR Part52-EARLY SITE PERMITS; STANDARD DESIGN CERTIFICATIONS; AND COMBINED LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS issued in 1989. The new regulations has been adopted by new design of nuclear power plant, for example AP1000. ‘The similar tow steps’ license management procedure for nuclear power plant has been performed basted on the requirement of HAFO01/01 Rules for the Implementation of Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Installations of the People's Re- public of China Part One: Application and Issuance of Safety License for Nuclear Power Plant (December 1993) in China since last century nineties. This article introduces and compares the requirements and characteristics of above license management procedure for nuclear power plant in China and United States. (author)

  16. The BWR VIP role in license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyle, R.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. The Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP) was started in response to an increase in the occurrence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internal components. The BWRVIP first evaluated the internals to determine which components were necessary to assure safe operation. An assessment of the relative significance of the internals was then performed to establish the priority in which components would be evaluated. Once this was determined, each safety-related component was evaluated to determine what, if any, inspections or tests were necessary to assure component integrity. Although IGSCC was the initial degradation mechanism of concern for RPV internals, the individual component evaluations considered all known modes of failure (fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, neutron embrittlement, etc). The component evaluations also considered all potential failure locations and the susceptibility to degradation. Once the potential failure locations and mechanisms were identified, the BWRVIP developed inspection criteria to assess component condition. The BWRVIP also developed flaw evaluation methodologies that could be used to determine the integrity and remaining life of each component. All of this information was consolidated into a document called an Inspection and Flaw Evaluation (IE) Guideline for each component. At the same time the BWRVIP was developing its program to assure internals integrity, utilities began to seriously consider measures necessary to extend the life of the plants. In the United States, the USNRC promulgated rules to allow the renewal of a license to allow plant operation for an additional 20 years. One aspect of the rule was that management of age-related degradation in the renewal period must be performed. The timing of this ''license renewal rule'' was advantageous in that it allowed the BWRVIP to address the requirements of the rule in the development

  17. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H - , H 0 and H + projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically

  18. Calculation of neutral beam deposition accounting for excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Large-scale neutral-beam auxillary heating of plasmas has led to new plasma operational regimes which are often dominated by fast ions injected via the absorption of an energetic beam of hydrogen neutrals. An accurate simulation of the slowing down and transport of these fast ions requires an intimate knowledge of the hydrogenic neutral deposition on each flux surface of the plasma. As a refinement to the present generation of transport codes, which base their beam deposition on ground-state reaction rates, a new set of routines, based on the excited states of hydrogen, is presented as mechanism for computing the attenuation and deposition of a beam of energetic neutrals. Additionally, the numerical formulations for the underlying atomic physics for hydrogen impacting on the constiuent plasma species is developed and compiled as a numerical database. Sample results based on this excited state model are compared with the ground-state model for simple plasma configurations

  19. Neutral currents in semileptonic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1975-05-01

    The evidence for weak neutral currents is analyzed in semileptonic reactions with special emphasis on their Lorentz and internal symmetry structure. It is found that present observations are consistent with the expectations of gauge theories, but other possibilities can not be ruled out. Of particular interest in this respect is the presence of a large isoscalar component. The excitation of the Δ-resonance by neutral currents is analyzed, and pion-nucleon mass distributions are presented. Charge asymmetries sensitive to isoscalar-isovector interferences are discussed. (U.S.)

  20. Characterization of human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple poliovirus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puligedda, Rama Devudu; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Kattala, Chandana Devi; Nabi, Usman; Yaqoob, Hamid; Bhagavathula, V Sandeep; Sharma, Rashmi; Chumakov, Konstantin; Dessain, Scott K

    2017-10-04

    Following the eradication of wild poliovirus (PV), achieving and maintaining a polio-free status will require eliminating potentially pathogenic PV strains derived from the oral attenuated vaccine. For this purpose, a combination of non-cross-resistant drugs, such as small molecules and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), may be ideal. We previously isolated chimpanzee and human mAbs capable of neutralizing multiple PV types (cross-neutralization). Here, we describe three additional human mAbs that neutralize types 1 and 2 PV and one mAb that neutralizes all three types. Most bind conformational epitopes and have unusually long heavy chain complementarity determining 3 domains (HC CDR3). We assessed the ability of the mAbs to neutralize A12 escape mutant PV strains, and found that the neutralizing activities of the mAbs were disrupted by different amino acid substitutions. Competitive binding studies further suggested that the specific mAb:PV interactions that enable cross-neutralization differ among mAbs and serotypes. All of the cloned mAbs bind PV in the vicinity of the "canyon", a circular depression around the 5-fold axis of symmetry through which PV recognizes its cellular receptor. We were unable to generate escape mutants to two of the mAbs, suggesting that their epitopes are important for the PV life cycle. These data indicate that PV cross-neutralization involves binding to highly conserved structures within the canyon that binds to the cellular receptor. These may be facilitated by the long HC CDR3 domains, which may adopt alternative binding configurations. We propose that the human and chimpanzee mAbs described here could have potential as anti-PV therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 10 CFR 50.10 - License required; limited work authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retaining walls within an excavation, installation of foundations, or in-place assembly, erection..., subsurface preparation, placement of backfill, concrete, or permanent retaining walls within an excavation... plant emergency operating procedures; (iii) SSCs whose failure could prevent safety-related SSCs from...

  2. 77 FR 50956 - Exclusion of Tethered Launches From Licensing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... standards, DoD 6055.9-STD, October 5, 2004, Table C9.T2. The hazardous fragment distance and NEW...] Had a liquid or hybrid engine. IV. Regulatory Notices and Analyses A. Regulatory Evaluation Changes to... cost impact is so minimal that a proposed rule does not warrant a full evaluation, this order permits a...

  3. Research and development tasks of the basalt waste isolation program, and their relationship to the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.P.

    1978-06-01

    This document presents a preliminary licensing program and outlines the research and development strategy by which a license will be obtained for the repository. It addresses the base data covering the major areas of investigation and technology which will provide input to the licensing process. Basically, each facet of the program, as described in the plan, will be used as part of the documentation required for the Preliminary and Final Safety Analysis Report (PSAR and FSAR), as well as the Environmental Report

  4. Recent changes in UK legislation and the licensing of radiopharmacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monger, P N [Medicines Inspectorate, London (United Kingdom). Medicine Control Agency

    1992-06-01

    The implications of the recent loss of Crown Immunity to radiopharmacy in the NHS are reviewed. The options available are that the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals within a hospital will either be under the control of a pharmacist or be an activity licensed as 'Specials' manufacture. In the latter case requirements for inspection by the Medicines Control Agency, fees payable and the need for involvement of a pharmacist are reviewed. Requirements for the grant of a Specials Manufacturing Licence are presented in some detail. Reference is made to established and published sources of guidance, official and otherwise. Consideration is given to: staffing and personnel, open and closed procedures, environmental standards, handling of blood products, use of isolators, quality control and quality assurance, licensed and unlicensed materials, sterility testing, broth transfer tests, environmental monitoring and documentation. (author).

  5. Fire safety regulations and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Experience of the past tow decades of nuclear power plant operation and results obtained from modern analytical techniques confirm that fires may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the design phase throughout the life of the plant. Fire events, in particular influence significantly plant safety due to the fact that fires have the potential to simultaneously damage components of redundant safety-related equipment. Hence, the importance of fire protection for the overall safety of a nuclear power plant has to be reflected by the fire safety regulations and to be checked during the licensing process of a plant as well as during the continuous supervision of the operating plant

  6. Environmental assessment for final rule on nuclear power plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations provide for the renewal of nuclear power plant operating licenses beyond their initial 40-year term. The Act and NRC regulations, however, do not specify the procedures, criteria, and standards that must be satisfied in order to renew a license. The NRC is promulgating a rule (10 CFR Part 54) to codify such requirements prior to the receipt of applications for license renewal. The NRC has assessed the possible environmental effects of promulgating requirements in 10 CFR Part 54 now rather than employing such requirements in an ad hoc manner in individual licensing actions. The final part 54 rule requires the development of information and analyses to identify aging problems of systems, structures, and components unique to license renewal that will be of concern during the period of extended operation and will not be controlled by existing effective programs. In general, licensee activities for license renewal may involve replacement, refurbishment, inspection, testing, or monitoring. Such actions will be generally be within the range of similar actions taken for plants during the initial operating term. These actions would be primarily confined within the plants with potential for only minor disruption to the environment. It is unlikely that these actions would change the operating conditions of plants in ways that would change the environmental effects already being experienced. Relicensing under existing regulations would also be primarily focused on aging degradation and would likely result in requirements similar to those that will result from relicensing under the final rule

  7. Laser cooling of neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A qualitative description of laser cooling of neutral atoms is given. Two of the most important mechanisms utilized in laser cooling, the so-called Doppler Cooling and Sisyphus Cooling, are reviewed. The minimum temperature reached by the atoms is derived using simple arguments. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    the background. Set an example for climate neutrality. Use NREL's climate action planning process and more. Climate Action Planning Process Identify the best technology options for a climate action plan . Climate Action Planning Tool Identify the best technology options for a climate action plan. Technology

  9. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  10. Neutral Models with Generalised Speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Hubbell's neutral theory claims that ecological patterns such as species abundance distributions can be explained by a stochastic model based on simple assumptions. One of these assumptions, the point mutation assumption, states that every individual has the same probability to speciate. Etienne et

  11. Multimegawatt neutral beams for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1979-03-01

    Most of the large magnetic confinement experiments today and in the near future use high-power neutral-beam injectors to heat the plasma. This review briefly describes this remarkable technique and summarizes recent results as well as near term expectations. Progress has been so encouraging that it seems probable that tokamaks will achieve scientific breakeven before 1990

  12. Heavy neutral leptons at FASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Felix; Trojanowski, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    We study the prospects for discovering heavy neutral leptons at Forward Search Experiment (FASER), the newly proposed detector at the LHC. Previous studies showed that a relatively small detector with ˜10 m length and ≲1 m2 cross sectional area can probe large unconstrained parts of parameter space for dark photons and dark Higgs bosons. In this work, we show that FASER will also be sensitive to heavy neutral leptons that have mixing angles with the active neutrinos that are up to an order of magnitude lower than current bounds. In particular, this is true for heavy neutral leptons produced dominantly in B -meson decays, in which case FASER's discovery potential is comparable to the proposed SHiP detector. We also illustrate how the search for heavy neutral leptons at FASER will be complementary to ongoing searches in high-pT experiments at the LHC and can shed light on the nature of dark matter and the process of baryogenesis in the early Universe.

  13. Money neutrality: Rethinking the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaoui Fakhri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered as an axiomatic basis of classical, neoclassical, and monetarist theories, the long-run money neutrality assumption does not always seem to be verified. Indeed, in our view, the money, in the sense of M2, can constitute a long-run channel of growth transmission. Thus, this paper examines the long-term relationship among money supply (M2, income (GDP, and prices (CPI. The subprime crisis in 2007 has shown that the demand for money does not only meet motives of transaction, precaution, and speculation but also of fictional or quasi-fictional future demands due to the fact that they are created without real counterparts. The capacity of production systems in developed countries to respond to increases in money supply by creating more wealth, involves the assumption of money neutrality in the long-run. However, in developing countries, the excess of money supply may lead to inflation trends. The present study has confirmed the long-term non-neutrality of money supply in the USA, and its neutrality in Gabon and Morocco.

  14. The manipulation of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The author's personal contribution to the discovery of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is described, and applications of this phenomenon in atomic physics are highlighted. The article is completed by Mr. Steven Chu's autobiography

  15. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  16. Quality assurance for nuclear power plants licensing aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoy, W.F.G.

    1976-02-01

    For the nuclear industry, specific criteria must be implemented to provide sufficient assurance that nuclear plants will be constructed and operated to conform with design, regulatory and code requirements. In Israel the inspections or audits are performed by the IAEC Licensing Division. Local position on ANSI QA standards as well as the eighteen criteria are shown. Lists of American standards are presented. The responsibility for quality assurance is not shared, but reinforced by each responsible unit in the supply chain. (B.G.)

  17. Regulatory licensing, status summary report; Systematic evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document is part of a management information system presenting a logical flow of events that represent the evaluation of 11 of the older operating nuclear reactors. Information collected will be used to determine the degree to which the 11 plants meet current licensing requirements and to develop an overall balanced position concerning any needed backfitting of the facilities and the documentation of the results of such evaluations

  18. Safety features and licensing of CNNC-ACP100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, F., E-mail: Zhongfj2000@163.com [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, National Key Lab. of Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology (China)

    2014-07-01

    ACP100 is an innovatory modular pressurized water reactor, the engineering safety systems fully adopt passive safety design technology. Its inherent safety and passive features/systems are verified via testing facilities and are highlighted at certain levels of defence in depth. The licensing of ACP 100 is within current LWR framework and meets up-to-date codes and requirements in nuclear safety. (author)

  19. The development of reactor operator license examination question bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hwan; Woo, S. M.; Kam, S. C.; Nam, K. J.; Lim, H. P.

    2001-12-01

    The number of NPP keeps increasing therefore there is more need of reactor operators. This trend requires the more efficiency in managing the license examination. Question bank system will help us to develop good quality examination materials and keep them in it. The ultimate purpose of the bank system is for selecting qualified reactor operators who are primarily responsible for the safety of reactor operation in NPP

  20. The licensing of nuclear plants as an example of conflicts of authority in parallel licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henseler, P.

    1982-01-01

    Although the results obtained cannot be translated into installation licences related to the clean air act or to building codes without reservations, they can be generalized as follows: If several authorities have to assess one and the same project in independent procedures, they do not only have to use the metric used for subject-specific licensing prerequisites, but also the one used for the common weal. Then the spheres of responsibility require division. Oriented towards the purpose of the relevant laws, it has to be settled first for the sake of which public interest the authorities involved substantiate of a licensing reservation at all. All the decisions which fall within the sphere of responsibility of a certain authority are reserved and may not be prejudged by other authorities involved by issuing acts of regulation with externally binding effects. Insofar as similar or related public interests are to be considered in several licencing procedures (to be conducted) and insofar as there is no possibility of assigning the safeguarding of these interests to a special field of activity of one of the authorities involved, diverging results have to be accepted. (orig./HP) [de